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  • 1.
    Arnetz, Judith
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Rofa, Yoasif
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Ventimiglia, Matthew
    Jamil, Hikmet
    Resilience as a Protective Factor Against the Development of Psychopathology Among Refugees2013In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 201, no 3, p. 167-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Refugee research, to date, has predominantly focused on factors that make refugees more vulnerable for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or psychological distress. Few articles have studied potential protective factors such as resilience. A targeted nonrandom sample of Iraqi refugees (n = 75) and a control group of non-Iraqi Arab immigrants (n = 53) were recruited from a number of Iraqi/Arab community institutions in Michigan to complete a questionnaire that included measures for psychological distress, PTSD symptoms, exposure to trauma, and resilience. The refugees reported significantly more PTSD symptoms (t-test, p < 0.01) and psychological distress (p < 0.05) compared with the immigrants. There was no difference in resilience between the two groups. In linear regression, premigration exposure to violence was a significant predictor of psychological distress (p < 0.01) and PTSD symptoms (p < 0.01). After controlling for migrant status and violence exposure, resilience was a significant inverse predictor of psychological distress (p < 0.001) but not of PTSD. Resilience is associated with less trauma-related psychological distress and should be considered in assessing risk and protective factors among victims of war-related violence.

  • 2.
    Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Lundin, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Fröjd, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Hultman, Christina M
    Michel, Per-Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Tsunami-exposed tourist survivors: Signs of recovery in an 3-year perspective2011In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 199, no 3, p. 162-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term follow-up after disaster exposure indicates increased rates of psychological distress. However, trajectories and rates of recovery in large samples of disaster-exposed survivors are largely lacking. A group of 3457 Swedish survivors temporarily on vacation in Southeast Asia during the 2004 tsunami were assessed by postal questionnaire at 14 months and 3 years after the tsunami regarding post-traumatic stress reactions (IES-R) and general mental health (GHQ-12). There was a general pattern of resilience and recovery 3 years postdisaster. Severe exposure and traumatic bereavement were associated with increased post-traumatic stress reactions and heightened risk for impaired mental health. The rate of recovery was lower among respondents exposed to life threat and among bereaved. Severe trauma exposure and bereavement seem to have considerable long-term impact on psychological distress and appear to slow down the recovery process. Readiness among health agencies for identification of symptoms and provision of interventions might facilitate optimal recovery.

  • 3.
    Bergh Johannesson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Michel, Per-Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Hultman, Christina M
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindam, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Arnberg, Filip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital.
    Lundin, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Ulleråker, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry.
    Impact of Exposure to Trauma on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology in Swedish Tourist Tsunami Survivors2009In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 197, no 5, p. 316-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to examine long-term mental health and posttraumatic stress symptomatology in a Swedish tourist population after exposure to the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami. Data from 4822 returned questionnaires 14 months after the disaster were analyzed. Respondents were categorized into 3 subgroups: (1) danger-to-life exposure group (having been caught or chased by the waves), (2) nondanger-to-life exposure group (exposed to other disaster-related stressors), and (3) low exposure group. Main outcome measures were General Health Questionnaire-12 and Impact of Event Scale-22-Revised. Danger-to-life exposure was an important factor in causing more severe posttraumatic stress symptoms and in affecting mental health. Female gender, single status, and former trauma experiences were associated with greater distress. Other factors related to more severe symptoms were loss of relatives, physical injuries, viewing many dead bodies, experiencing life threat, and showing signs of cognitive confusion. Disaster exposure has a substantial impact on survivors, which stresses the need for long-lasting support.

  • 4.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Scott, Berit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Coping in dieting and eating disorders: A population-based study2000In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 188, no 5, p. 273-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of different coping strategies, measured by the Ways of Coping Questionnaire was investigated among 1157 women (18 to 30 years), randomly selected from the general population of Sweden as part of a longitudinal study. Subjects were clustered into five groups: subjects with past or current eating disorders (ED), and subjects with no ED but with past, current, or no history of dieting. Subjects with past or current ED reported significantly higher levels of escape avoidance and lower levels of seeking social support and purposeful problem solving compared with subjects with neither ED nor dieting. These group comparisons were then reanalyzed with sum of depressive symptoms as a covariate in covariate analyses. The only significant difference between the groups concerned the use of escape avoidance. The significant differences in the use of escape-avoidance strategies may motivate more extensive training in coping in the context of prevention and treatment of ED and maladaptive dieting.

  • 5. Koposov, Roman A
    et al.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Eisemann, Martin
    Sense of coherence: a mediator between violence exposure and psychopathology in Russian juvenile delinquents.2003In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 191, no 10, p. 638-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to community violence tends to have a hazardous impact on the health and well being of youth. In this context, sense of coherence is related to indicators of well being and mental health and is considered crucial for human information processing in resolving conflicts and coping with enduring stress. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of sense of coherence as a potential mediator in the relationships between community violence exposure and psychopathology, controlling for involvement in severe problem behavior. The study was conducted with a group of Russian juvenile delinquents (N = 159; a highly traumatized population with a history of frequent exposure to violence), who completed a set of questionnaires assessing their exposure to community violence, psychopathology, involvement in severe problem behaviors, and sense of coherence. The relationships among the variables of interest were explored using a structural equation modeling approach. Sense of coherence partially mediated the link between victimization and psychopathology. The direct relationships between victimization and psychopathology decreased in size, suggesting that higher levels of sense of coherence can potentially reduce the levels of psychopathology. These results have an important theoretical value and are meaningful for clinical work, suggesting that preventive and therapeutic interventions should aim at increasing sense of coherence, which might be especially valuable in populations at risk.

  • 6.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    et al.
    Yale University.
    Sukhodolsky, Denis G
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Koposov, Roman A
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Depressive symptoms and associated psychopathology in urban adolescents: a cross-cultural study of three countries.2006In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 194, no 2, p. 106-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to compare cross-cultural trends of comorbid internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, prosocial beliefs, and perceptions of risk in adolescents with and without clinical levels of self-reported depressive symptoms. The Social and Health Assessment, a self-report survey, was conducted in a representative sample of 3309 adolescents 14 to 17 years old from urban communities in the United States (N = 1343), Belgium (N = 946), and Russia (N = 1009). In all three countries, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptoms than boys. The findings also demonstrate that in both genders, depressive symptoms were associated with increased levels of internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as lower levels of prosocial beliefs and low perceptions of harm from risk-taking behavior. Depressed boys had relatively higher levels of externalizing problems than depressed girls. Greater levels of internalizing problems observed in depressed youth, as compared with their nondepressed counterparts, were not gender-specific. Current findings suggest that the relationships between depression and comorbid psychopathology are not culture-specific and have similar patterns in different populations.

  • 7.
    Sveen, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Dyster-Aas, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Willebrand, Mimmie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Attentional bias and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder one year after burn injury2009In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 197, no 11, p. 850-855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trauma-related attentional bias is suggested to play a role in maintaining posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although being burn injured is a traumatic event for many patients, there are no prospective studies investigating attentional bias. The aims were to assess burn-specific attentional bias 1 year after burn, and its associations with risk factors for PTSD and symptoms of PTSD. A total of 38 adult patients with burns were assessed with a structured clinical interview and a Swedish version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised up to 1-year after burn. The Emotional Stroop Task was used to assess attentional bias 1 year after burn. In total 29 participants displayed burn-specific attentional bias. This group had more previous life events, perceived life threat, larger burns, and higher PTSD symptom severity. In conclusion, the majority of the patients had burn-specific attentional bias 1 year after burn and this was related to symptoms of PTSD.

  • 8.
    Willebrand, Mimmie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Kildal, Morten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Long-term assessment of personality after burn trauma in adults2002In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 190, no 1, p. 53-56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Willebrand, Mimmie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Wikehult, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Plastic Surgery.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Social desirability, psychological symptoms and perceived health in burn injured patients2005In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 193, no 12, p. 820-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social desirability was previously seen as a nuisance in assessment, but today it is regarded as a personality trait with an influence on health. The aim was to explore relations between social desirability and health in former burn patients. Eighty-four burn patients injured on average 3.8 years ago responded to a questionnaire booklet. Social desirability was assessed with the social desirability subscale of the Swedish universities Scales of Personality, which is standardized in a normative sample. The results showed that a subgroup with high degree of social desirability displayed significantly poorer perceived health on the burn-specific health subscales heat sensitivity, work, and body image than normal responders did. There were no differences regarding age, education, injury-related variables, sick leave, or symptoms of anxiety and depression. In conclusion, participants with high social desirability were characterized by postburn problems in outdoor and work-related situations, and more self-consciousness about appearance.

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