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  • 1.
    Allander, Klas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Temporal variation and reliability of blood parasite levels in captive Yellowhammer males Emberiza citrinella1997In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 325-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal variation of blood parasites in captive Yellowhammer males was studied in order to investigate possible costs of parasites. Birds were caught in the wild in early April and kept in aviaries during the study period. Blood samples were taken, body mass measured, and moult was scored twelve times for the same individuals from April to October. Blood parasites were detectable in smears during the whole study period with an intensity peak coinciding with breeding in the wild. Young birds had more parasites and a consistently higher body mass than older birds. There was no relationship between parasite intensity and mass in older birds but possibly one in young birds. Parasites did not seem to affect moult in either age class. Repeatability of parasite counts of smears from the same individual was very high and smears are therefore a reliable method for estimating parasite intensity. We conclude that blood parasites are probably most severe during, but occur in their hosts long after, the breeding season. Possible costs of parasites outside the breeding season require further study.

  • 2.
    Björklund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Microgeographic variation in the song of the Scarlet rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus1989In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 20, p. 255-264Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Westman, Björn
    Mate guarding in the great tit - tactics of a territrial forest-living species1986In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 17, p. 99-105Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Briedis, Martins
    et al.
    Palacky Univ, Dept Zool, Olomouc, Czech Republic..
    Hahn, Steffen
    Swiss Ornithol Inst, Dept Bird Migrat, Sempach, Switzerland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Henshaw, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Traff, Johan
    Kral, Miroslav
    Palacky Univ, Dept Zool, Olomouc, Czech Republic..
    Adamik, Peter
    Palacky Univ, Dept Zool, Olomouc, Czech Republic..
    Breeding latitude leads to different temporal but not spatial organization of the annual cycle in a long-distance migrant2016In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 743-748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal and spatial organization of the annual cycle according to local conditions is of crucial importance for individuals' fitness. Moreover, which sites and when particular sites are used can have profound consequences especially for migratory animals, because the two factors shape interactions within and between populations, as well as between animal and the environment. Here, we compare spatial and temporal patterns of two latitudinally separated breeding populations of a trans-Equatorial passerine migrant, the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis, throughout the annual cycle. We found that migration routes and non-breeding residency areas of the two populations largely overlapped. Due to climatic constraints, however, the onset of breeding in the northern population was approximately two weeks later than that of the southern population. We demonstrate that this temporal offset between the populations carries-over from breeding to the entire annual cycle. The northern population was consistently later in timing of all subsequent annual events - autumn migration, non-breeding residence period, spring migration and the following breeding. Such year-round spatiotemporal patterns suggest that annual schedules are endogenously controlled with breeding latitude as the decisive element pre-determining the timing of annual events in our study populations.

  • 5.
    Cauchard, Laure
    et al.
    Univ Montreal, Dept Sci Biol, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Doucet, Stephanie M.
    Univ Windsor, Dept Biol Sci, Windsor, ON, Canada..
    Boogert, Neeltje J.
    Univ St Andrews, Sch Psychol & Neurosci, St Andrews, Fife, Scotland..
    Angers, Bernard
    Univ Montreal, Dept Sci Biol, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Doligez, Blandine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Lyon, CNRS, Dept Biometry & Evolutionary Biol, UMR 5558, Villeurbanne, France..
    The relationship between plumage colouration, problem-solving and learning performance in great tits Parus major2017In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 48, no 9, p. 1246-1253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies suggest that individuals with better problem-solving and/or learning performance have greater reproductive success, and that individuals may thus benefit from choosing mates based on these performances. However, directly assessing these performances in candidate mates could be difficult. Instead, the use of indirect cues related to problem-solving and/or learning performance, such as condition-dependent phenotypic traits, might be favored. We investigated whether problem-solving and learning performance on a novel non-foraging task correlated with sexually selected plumage colouration in a natural population of great tits Parus major. We found that males successful in solving the task had darker blue-black crowns than non-solvers, and that males solving the task more rapidly over multiple attempts (i.e. learners) exhibited blue-black crowns with higher UV chroma and shorter-wavelength hues than non-learners. In contrast, we found no link between behavioural performance on the task and the yellow breast colouration in either sex. Our findings suggest that blue-black crown colouration could serve as a signal of problem-solving and learning performance in wild great tit males. Further research remains necessary to determine whether different sexually selected traits are used to signal cognitive performance for mate choice, either directly (i.e. cognitive performance influencing individual's health and ornamentation through diet for example) or indirectly (i.e. due to a correlation with a third factor such as individual quality or condition).

  • 6.
    Edelaar, Pim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Assortative mating also indicates that common crossbill Loxia curvirostra vocal types are species2008In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to most other birds, the taxonomy of crossbills (Loxia) is still highly unsettled. However, much progress seemsto be achievable when data on vocalisations is included. In a recent paper, Summers et al. (2007) argued that strongassortative mating indicated that parrot crossbill Loxia pytyopsittacus, Scottish crossbill Loxia scotica and common crossbill Loxia curvirostra behave as good species when breeding in sympatry. Here I argue that their data, when placed in thecontext of other studies, also indicate that three vocally differentiated European populations within the common crossbillare species (following the biological species concept of Mayr (1963): species are groups of interbreeding naturalpopulations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups). If this tentative conclusion remains to be upheld, itmight have large repercussions for our understanding of the speciation process as well as for a number of more appliedissues such as the discovery and description of biodiversity and the conversation of mobile, cryptic species.

  • 7.
    Edelaar, Pim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    van Eerde, Kees
    Terpstra, Kees
    Is the nominate subspecies of the common crossbill Loxia c. curvirostra polytypic? II. Differentiation among vocal types in functional traits2008In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 108-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocally differentiated common crossbill Loxia curvirostra populations ('vocal types') in North America show a high degree of morphological and ecological specialization coupled with significant genetic differentiation and appreciable levels of assortative mating in sympatry. Similar vocally differentiated common crossbill vocal types have recently also been uncovered in Europe. These vocal types frequently overlap in space and time, and preliminary data indicate strong assortatively mating in sympatry. These observations suggest that the European nominate subspecies also consists of several independent evolutionary lineages, but so far morphological and ecological support for this view has been lacking. Bill morphology of crossbills is tightly linked to resource use, and we earlier showed that average morphology (of birds of unknown vocal type) indeed differed among years, consistent with the possibility that vocal types are morphologically differentiated if the proportion of each type caught varies among years. Here we test specifically for morphological differences between birds assigned to vocal type, at two sites and during two independent influxes. Differentiation between the two vocal types studied is highly significant, with the same pattern uncovered at each site and for each influx. Of eight traits investigated, in both univariate and multivariate analyses, the trait that differs most between the two types is the ecologically important bill depth. The difference in average bill depth between these two European vocal types (0.26 mm) is equivalent to the difference between some ecologically specialised North American vocal types. These results provide further evidence that the nominate subspecies of the common crossbill consists of several ecologically distinct populations, if not cryptic species.

  • 8.
    Evans, Simon R.
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst, Oxford OX1 2JD, England..
    Summers, Alex G. R.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst, Oxford OX1 2JD, England..
    Sheldon, Ben C.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Edward Grey Inst, Oxford OX1 2JD, England..
    Seasonality of carotenoid-based plumage coloration: modelling wavelength-specific change through spectral reconstruction2012In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 234-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plumage coloration has provided important model systems for research on signal expression. Whilst it had previously been assumed that moulting provided the only mechanism to change plumage coloration, recent studies have shown plumage colours to be seasonally dynamic, with implications both for the quantification of expression and for any signalling role. However, the mechanistic processes underlying such change remain uncertain. Here, we describe within-moult shifts in expression of a carotenoid-based colour trait the yellow ventral plumage of the great tit Parus major over a nine-month timespan. We report that plumage chromaticity (colour) but not achromaticity (brightness) exhibits a marked seasonal decline, independent of sex, age or body condition, and at a constant rate across twelve environmentally heterogeneous plots within our study site. To gain a greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying this change we employed a spectral reconstruction approach, that generates predicted spectra for any timepoint within the sampling period. By comparing spectra for both early and late in the moult we show that the seasonal decline in chromaticity is driven by both a marked reduction in ultraviolet (UV) reflectance and, to a lesser extent, loss of active carotenoid pigments. Thus, our study shows that seasonal loss of chromaticity in the great tit is driven by altered reflectance primarily in the UV section of the spectrum, a finding made possible by the use of spectral compartmentalisation and multi-parallel modelling to produce reconstructed spectra. Whether change in plumage coloration influences signal function will depend on the dynamics of the signalling system but it could clearly inflate patterns such as assortative mating and should be considered in studies of colour expression.

  • 9.
    Hjernquist, Marten B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Veen, Thor
    Font, Laura
    Klaassen, Marcel
    High individual repeatability and population differentiation in stable isotope ratios in winter-grown collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis feathers2009In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 102-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For migrants, we often lack complete information of their spatial distribution year round. Here, we used stable carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen isotope ratios extracted from feathers grown at the wintering sites of the long-distance migratory collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis, to study how individuals from different breeding populations are distributed at the wintering sites. A sub-sample of birds was also sampled in two consecutive years to test for the repeatability of isotope ratios. Birds from the same breeding populations had more similar isotope ratios compared to birds from other nearby populations (10-100 km apart). Furthermore, isotope repeatability within individuals was high, implying that the observed pattern of isotope variation is consistent between years. We put forward two hypotheses for these patterns; 1) strong wintering site philopatry and migratory connectivity, suggesting that migratory connectivity may potentially be found on a much smaller spatial scale than previously considered, and 2) consistent interpopulation differentiation of feeding ecology at their wintering site.

  • 10.
    Li, Xinlei
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Kunming Inst Zool, State Key Lab Genet Resources & Evolut, Kunming 650223, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Dong, Feng
    Chinese Acad Sci, Kunming Inst Zool, State Key Lab Genet Resources & Evolut, Kunming 650223, Peoples R China..
    Lei, Fumin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Alström, Per
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Zhang, Ruiying
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Ödeen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Fjeldså, Jon
    Univ Copenhagen, Nat Hist Museum Denmark, Ctr Macroecol Evolut & Climate, Univ Pk 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Vertebrate Zool, POB 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zou, Fasheng
    South China Inst Endangered Anim, Guangzhou 510260, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Xiaojun
    Chinese Acad Sci, Kunming Inst Zool, State Key Lab Genet Resources & Evolut, Kunming 650223, Peoples R China..
    Shaped by uneven Pleistocene climate: mitochondrial phylogeographic pattern and population history of white wagtail Motacilla alba (Aves: Passeriformes)2016In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 263-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the phylogeography and population history of the white wagtail Motacilla alba, which has a vast breeding range, covering areas with different Pleistocene climatic histories. The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit II gene (ND2) and Control Region (CR) were analyzed for 273 individuals from 45 localities. Our data comprised all nine subspecies of white wagtail. Four primary clades were inferred (M, N, SW and SE), with indications of M. grandis being nested within M. alba. The oldest split was between two haplotypes from the endemic Moroccan M. a. subpersonata (clade M) and the others, at 0.63-0.96 Mya; other divergences were at 0.31-0.38 Mya. The entire differentiation falls within the part of the Pleistocene characterized by Milankovitch cycles of large amplitudes and durations. Clade N was distributed across the northern Palearctic; clade SW in southwestern Asia plus the British Isles and was predicted by Ecological niche models (ENMs) to occur also in central and south Europe; and clade SE was distributed in central and east Asia. The deep divergence within M. a. subpersonata may reflect retention of ancestral haplotypes. Regional differences in historical climates have had different impacts on different populations: clade N expanded after the last glacial maximum (LGM), whereas milder Pleistocene climate of east Asia allowed clade SE a longer expansion time (since MIS 5); clade SW expanded over a similarly long time as clade SE, which is untypical for European species. ENMs supported these conclusions in that the northern part of the Eurasian continent was unsuitable during the LGM, whereas southern parts remained suitable. The recent divergences and poor structure in the mitochondrial tree contrasts strongly with the pronounced, well defined phenotypical differentiation, indicating extremely fast plumage divergence.

  • 11. Li, Xinlei
    et al.
    Dong, Feng
    Lei, Fumin
    Alström, Per
    Zhang, Ruiying
    Ödeen, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Fjeldså, Jon
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Zou, Fasheng
    Yang, Xiaojun
    Shaped by uneven Pleistocene climate: mitochondrial phylogeographic pattern and population history of White Wagtail Motacilla alba (Aves: Passeriformes).2016In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 47, p. 263-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the phylogeography and population history of the white wagtail Motacilla alba, which has a vast breeding range, covering areas with different Pleistocene climatic histories. The mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit II gene (ND2) and Control Region (CR) were analyzed for 273 individuals from 45 localities. Our data comprised all nine subspecies of white wagtail. Four primary clades were inferred (M, N, SW and SE), with indications of M. grandis being nested within M. alba. The oldest split was between two haplotypes from the endemic Moroccan M. a. subpersonata (clade M) and the others, at 0.63–0.96 Mya; other divergences were at 0.31–0.38 Mya. The entire differentiation falls within the part of the Pleistocene characterized by Milankovitch cycles of large amplitudes and durations. Clade N was distributed across the northern Palearctic; clade SW in southwestern Asia plus the British Isles and was predicted by Ecological niche models (ENMs) to occur also in central and south Europe; and clade SE was distributed in central and east Asia. e deep divergence within M. a. subpersonata may reflect retention of ancestral haplotypes. Regional differences in historical climates have had different impacts on different populations: clade N expanded after the last glacial maximum (LGM), whereas milder Pleistocene climate of east Asia allowed clade SE a longer expansion time (since MIS 5); clade SW expanded over a similarly long time as clade SE, which is untypical for European species. ENMs supported these conclusions in that the northern part of the Eurasian continent was unsuitable during the LGM, whereas southern parts remained suitable. e recent divergences and poor structure in the mitochondrial tree contrasts strongly with the pronounced, well defined phenotypical differentiation, indicating extremely fast plumage divergence. 

  • 12.
    Lindström, Åke
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Ecol Bldg, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Alerstam, Thomas
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Ecol Bldg, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Bahlenberg, Peter
    Lake Annsjon Bird Observ, Handol 563, SE-83015 Duved, Sweden..
    Ekblom, Robert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Fox, James W.
    British Antarctic Survey, Nat Environm Res Council, High Cross, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0ET, England..
    Råghall, Johan
    Lake Annsjon Bird Observ, Handol 563, SE-83015 Duved, Sweden..
    Klaassen, Raymond H. G.
    Univ Groningen, Conservat Ecol Grp, NL-9700 AB Groningen, Netherlands..
    The migration of the great snipe Gallinago media: intriguing variations on a grand theme2016In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 321-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The migration of the great snipe Gallinago media was previously poorly known. Three tracks in 2010 suggested a remarkable migratory behaviour including long and fast overland non-stop flights. Here we present the migration pattern of Swedish male great snipes, based on 19 individuals tracked by light-level geolocators in four different years. About half of the birds made stopover(s) in northern Europe in early autumn. They left the breeding area 15 d earlier than those which flew directly to sub-Sahara, suggesting two distinct autumn migration strategies. The autumn trans-Sahara flights were on average 5500 km long, lasted 64 h, and were flown at ground speeds of 25 m s(-1) (90 km h(-1)). The arrival in the Sahel zone of west Africa coincided with the wet season there, and the birds stayed for on average three weeks. The birds arrived at their wintering grounds around the lower stretches of the Congo River in late September and stayed for seven months. In spring the great snipes made trans-Sahara flights of similar length and speed as in autumn, but the remaining migration through eastern Europe was notably slow. All birds returned to the breeding grounds within one week around mid-May. The annual cycle was characterized by relaxed temporal synchronization between individuals during the autumn-winter period, with maximum variation at the arrival in the wintering area. Synchronization increased in spring, with minimum time variation at arrival in the breeding area. This suggests that arrival date in the breeding area is under strong stabilizing selection, while there is room for more flexibility in autumn and arrival to the wintering area. The details of the fast non-stop flights remain to be elucidated, but the identification of the main stopover and wintering areas is important for future conservation work on this red-listed bird species.

  • 13.
    Liu, Yang
    et al.
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Life Sci, Coll Ecol & Evolut, State Key Lab Biocontrol, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Guoling
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Life Sci, Coll Ecol & Evolut, State Key Lab Biocontrol, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Huang, Qin
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Life Sci, Coll Ecol & Evolut, State Key Lab Biocontrol, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Jia, Chenxi
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Natl Zool Museum China, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Carey, Geoff
    AEC, Yuen Long, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Leader, Paul
    AEC, Yuen Long, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Li, Yun
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Life Sci, Coll Ecol & Evolut, State Key Lab Biocontrol, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Zou, Fasheng
    South China Inst Endangered Anim, Guangdong Entomol Inst, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Xiaojun
    Chinese Acad Sci, Kunming Inst Zool, State Key Lab Genet Resources & Evolut, Kunming, Peoples R China..
    Olsson, Urban
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Systemat & Biodivers, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Species delimitation of the white-tailed rubythroat Calliope pectoralis complex (Aves, Muscicapidae) using an integrative taxonomic approach2016In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 899-910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our knowledge of the systematics and taxonomy of Asian birds has improved much in the last two decades, and the number of recognised species has increased significantly as a result of in-depth studies using an integrative taxonomic approach. The Sino-Himalayan mountains harbor a high level of passerine diversity. Several allopatric or parapatric taxa that are currently treated as subspecies of polytypic species within that region are likely to deserve full species status, and thus their taxonomic status needs to be revisited. Based on analyses of multilocus data, vocalizations and morphology, we propose that the white-tailed rubythroat Calliope pectoralis should be treated as two species, the Himalayan rubythroat C. pectoralis sensu stricto in the Tian Shan and Himalayan mountains, and the Chinese rubythroat C. tschebaiewi in the mountains of southwestern and north-central China. According to our dating analyses based on mitochondrial loci, these two species diverged approximately 2.2 million yr ago. We further found that C. tschebaiewi was paraphyletic to C. pectoralis sensu stricto in nuclear data, which demonstrates a state of mitonuclear discordance that warrants further work. Our results suggest that geographic changes and glacial cycles in the Pleistocene may have caused allopatric divergence in the C. pectoralis complex. Our study stresses the importance of applying an integrative taxonomy approach to fully unravel the true avian diversity in the Sino-Himalayan Mountains.

  • 14.
    Martinossi-Allibert, I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. CNRS MNHN UPMC, Ctr Sci Conservat, UMR7204, Paris, France..
    Clavel, J.
    CNRS MNHN UPMC, Ctr Sci Conservat, UMR7204, Paris, France.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Environm Sci Policy & Management, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ducatez, S.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Biol Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Viol, I. Le
    CNRS MNHN UPMC, Ctr Sci Conservat, UMR7204, Paris, France..
    Teplitsky, C.
    CNRS MNHN UPMC, Ctr Sci Conservat, UMR7204, Paris, France..
    Does habitat specialization shape the evolutionary potential of wild bird populations?2017In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 1158-1165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because specialist species evolved in more temporally and spatially homogeneous environments than generalist species, they are supposed to experience less fluctuating selection. For this reason, we expect specialists to show lower overall genetic variation as compared to generalists. We also expect populations from specialist species to be smaller and more fragmented, with lower neutral genetic diversity. We tested these hypotheses by investigating patterns of genetic diversity along a habitat specialization gradient in wild birds, based on estimates of heritability, coefficients of variation of additive genetic variance, and heterozygosity available in the literature. We found no significant effect of habitat specialization on any of the quantitative genetic estimators but generalists had higher heterozygosity. This effect was mainly a consequence of the larger population size of generalists. Our results suggest that evolutionary potential does not differ at the population level between generalist and specialist species, but the trend observed in heterozygosity levels and population sizes may explain their difference in susceptibility to extinction.

  • 15. Morales, Judith
    et al.
    Ruuskanen, Suvi
    Laaksonen, Toni
    Eeva, Tapio
    Mateo, Rafael
    Belskii, Eugen
    Ivankina, Elena V.
    Jarvinen, Antero
    Kerimov, Anvar
    Korpimaki, Erkki
    Krams, Indrikis
    Maend, Raivo
    Morosinotto, Chiara
    Orell, Markku
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Siitari, Heli
    Slater, Fred M.
    Tilgar, Vallo
    Visser, Marcel E.
    Winkel, Wolfgang
    Zang, Herwig
    Moreno, Juan
    Variation in eggshell traits between geographically distant populations of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca2013In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 111-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expression and impact of maternal effects may vary greatly between populations and environments. However, little is known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. In birds, as in other oviparous animals, the outermost maternal component of an egg is the shell, which protects the embryo, provides essential mineral resources and allows its interaction with the environment in the form of gas exchange. In this study, we explored variation of eggshell traits (mass, thickness, pore density and pigmentation) across 15 pied flycatcher populations at a large geographic scale. We found significant between-population variation in all eggshell traits, except in pore density, suggesting spatial variation in their adaptive benefits or in the females' physiological limitations during egg laying. Between- population variation in shell structure was not due to geographic location (latitude and longitude) or habitat type. However, eggshells were thicker in populations that experienced higher ambient temperature during egg laying. This could be a result of maternal resource allocation to the shell being constrained under low temperatures or of an adaptation to reduce egg water loss under high temperatures. We also found that eggshell colour intensity was positively associated with biliverdin pigment concentration, shell thickness and pore density. To conclude, our findings reveal large- scale between-population variation of eggshell traits, although we found little environmental dependency in their expression. Our findings call for further studies that explore other environmental factors (e.g. calcium availability and pollution levels) and social factors like sexual selection intensity that may account for differences in shell structure between populations.

  • 16. Pitala, Natalia
    et al.
    Ruuskanen, Suvi
    Laaksonen, Toni
    Doligez, Blandine
    Tschirren, Barbara
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    The effects of experimentally manipulated yolk androgens on growth and immune function of male and female nestling collared flycatchers Ficedula albicollis2009In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 225-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hormone-mediated maternal effects may be an important mechanism for adjusting offspring phenotype to particular requirements of the environment. We manipulated the levels of testosterone and androstenedione in the yolk of collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis eggs to investigate the effects of pre-natal exposure to androgens on growth and immune function. Androgen treatment tended to reduce the growth of males, and enhance the growth of females, as indicated by significant interaction between sex and androgen treatment. Cellular immune function was not affected by androgen treatment or sex. Survival of nestlings until fledging was not related to androgen treatment. Our results indicate that in the collared flycatcher yolk androgens do not involve clear overall benefits during the nestling stage, and that growth-enhancing effects of increased yolk androgen levels on female nestlings are counterbalanced by detrimental effects on male nestlings.

  • 17. Podmokla, Edyta
    et al.
    Dubiec, Anna
    Arct, Aneta
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Malaria infection status predicts extra-pair paternity in the blue tit2015In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 303-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extra-pair matings comprise a common reproductive strategy among socially monogamous bird species. However, it remains unclear why females decide to mate with extra-pair males. Indirect benefits in terms of improving offspring genetic quality are usually invoked to explain this phenomenon. Parasite resistance genes are often considered as a female target of seeking extra-pair matings, but the direct test of this hypothesis is generally lacking. Here, we report on a relationship between the status of infection with malaria parasites (Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) and occurrence of extra-pair paternity in a wild population of the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus inhabiting Gotland (Sweden). We found that the probability of extra-pair paternity is significantly related to the infection status of social parents. Infected males showed higher probability of being cuckolded than uninfected ones. However, this was observed only among males mated to uninfected females. Thus, avian malaria may potentially contribute to explanation of extra-pair mating behaviour.

  • 18. Podmokla, Edyta
    et al.
    Dubiec, Anna
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Arct, Aneta
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Avian malaria is associated with increased reproductive investment in the blue tit2014In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 219-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Haemosporidians causing avian malaria are very common parasites among bird species. Their negative effects have been repeatedly reported in terms of deterioration in survival prospects or reproductive success. However, a positive association between blood parasites and avian fitness has also been reported. Here, we studied a relationship between presence of malaria parasites and reproductive performance of the host, a hole-breeding passerine - the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus. Since the malaria parasites might affect their hosts differently depending on environmental conditions, we performed brood size manipulation experiment to differentiate parental reproductive effort and study the potential interaction between infection status and brood rearing conditions on reproductive performance. We found individuals infected with malaria parasites to breed later in the season in comparison with uninfected birds, but no differences were detected in clutch size. Interestingly, infected parents produced heavier and larger offspring with stronger reaction to phytohemagglutinin. More importantly, we found a significant interaction between infection status and brood size manipulation in offspring tarsus length and reaction to phytohemagglutinin: presence of parasites had stronger positive effect among birds caring for experimentally enlarged broods. Our results might be interpreted either in the light of the parasite-mediated selection or terminal investment hypothesis.

  • 19.
    Podmokla, Edyta
    et al.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Dubiec, Anna
    Polish Acad Sci, Museum & Inst Zool, Warsaw, Poland..
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Sudyka, Joanna
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Krupski, Adam
    Polish Acad Sci, Museum & Inst Zool, Warsaw, Poland..
    Arct, Aneta
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Effect of haemosporidian infections on host survival and recapture rate in the blue tit2017In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 796-803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parasites are ubiquitous in the wild and by imposing fitness costs on their hosts they constitute an important selection factor. One of the most common parasites of wild birds are Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, protozoans inhabiting the blood, which cause avian malaria and malaria-like disease, respectively. Although they are expected to cause negative effects in infected individuals, in many cases studies in natural populations failed to detect such effect. Using data from seven breeding seasons (2008-2014), we applied a multistate capture-mark-recapture approach to study the effect of infection with malaria and malaria-like parasites, individual age and sex on the probability of survival and recapture rate in a small passerine, the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, inhabiting the island of Gotland, Sweden. We found no effect of infection on survival prospects. However, the recapture rate of infected individuals was higher than that of uninfected ones. Thus, while our data do not support the presence of infection costs in terms of host survival, it suggests that parasites from the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus may affect some aspects of host behaviour, which translates into biased estimation of infection frequency at the population level.

  • 20.
    Song, Gang
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Ruiying
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China; Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Genet & Dev Biol, Ctr Dev Biol, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Irestedt, Martin
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Bioinformat & Genet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cai, Tianlong
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Coll Life Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China; Univ Copenhagen, Nat Hist Museum Denmark, Ctr Macroecol Evolut & Climate, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Qu, Yanhua
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Ericson, Per G. P.
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Bioinformat & Genet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fjeldså, Jon
    Univ Copenhagen, Nat Hist Museum Denmark, Ctr Macroecol Evolut & Climate, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lei, Fumin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China; Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Coll Life Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Complete taxon sampling of the avian genus Pica (magpies) reveals ancient relictual populations and synchronous Late-Pleistocene demographic expansion across the Northern Hemisphere2018In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 49, no 2, article id UNSP e01612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have suggested that bird populations in east Asia were less affected by Pleistocene climatic fluctuations than those in Europe and North America. However, this is mainly based on comparisons among species. It would be more relevant to analyse geographical populations of widespread species or species complexes. We analyzed two mitochondrial genes and two nuclear introns for all taxa of Pica to investigate 1) which Earth history factors have shaped the lineage divergence, and 2) whether different geographical populations were differently affected by the Pleistocene climatic changes. Our mitochondrial tree recovered three widespread lineages, 1) in east Asia, 2) across north Eurasia, and 3) in North America, respectively, with three isolated lineages in northwest Africa, Arabia and the Qinghai‐Tibet Plateau, respectively. Divergences among lineages took place 1.4–3.1 million yr ago. The northwest African population was sister to the others, which formed two main clades. In one of these, Arabia was sister to Qinghai‐Tibet, and these formed the sister clade to the east Asia clade. The other main clade comprised the North American and north Eurasian clades. There was no or very slight structure within these six geographical clades, including a lack of differentiation between the two North American species black‐billed magpie P. hudsonia and yellow‐billed magpie P. nutalli. Demographic expansion was recorded in the three most widespread lineages after 0.06 Ma. Asymmetric gene flow was recorded in the north Eurasian clade from southwestern Europe eastward, whereas the east Asian clade was rooted in south central China. Our results indicate that the fragmentation of the six clades of Pica was related to climatic cooling and aridification during periods of the Pliocene–Pleistocene. Populations on both sides of the Eurasian continent were similarly influenced by the Pleistocene climate changes and expanded concomitantly with the expansion of steppes. Based on results we also propose a revised taxonomy recognising seven species of Pica.

  • 21.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Paternity Guarding In The Yellowhammer Emberiza-Citrinella - A Detention Experiment1994In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 135-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of male presence on their territories for maintaining paternity in their mates' offspring was investigated in the Yellowhammer. Males were experimentally detained for one hour before and during their mate's fertile period. When males were detained, their territories received an increased number of intrusions and intruding males. Also the duration of intrusions increased compared with when they were present on their territories. No difference was found in intrusion patterns between the prefertile and the fertile period. No intrusions were observed during the post-fertile period. The rate of intrusion was not related to number of neighbouring males although young males suffered from a higher intrusion rate when the number of young neighbouring males increased. Old males with much yellow were subject to more intrusions than other males, predominantly by other older males, indicating a cost of wearing colourful plumage. In spite of the low intensity, or absence, of mate guarding found in a previous study of the Yellowhammer, results indicate that male presence on their territories may reduce the potential for extra-pair fertilizations.

  • 22.
    Väli, Ulo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Saag, Pauli
    Dombrovski, Valery
    Meyburg, Bernd-Ulrich
    Maciorowski, Grzegorz
    Mizera, Tadeusz
    Treinys, Rimgaudas
    Fagerberg, Sofie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms in avian hybrid identification: a comparative case study2010In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 34-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The correct identification of hybrids is essential in avian hybridisation studies, but selection of the appropriate set of genetic markers for this purpose is at times complicated. Microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are currently the most commonly used markers in this field. We compare the efficiency of these two marker types, and their combination, in the identification of the threatened avian species, the greater spotted eagle and the lesser spotted eagle, as well as hybrids between the two species. We developed novel SNP markers from genome-wide distributed 122 candidate introns using only sympatric samples, and tested these markers successfully in 60 sympatric and allopatric spotted eagles using Bayesian model-based approaches. Comparatively, only one out of twelve previously described avian nuclear intron markers showed significant species-specific allele frequency difference, thus stressing the importance of selecting the proper markers. Twenty microsatellites outperformed selected nine SNPs in species identification, but were poorer in hybrid detection, whereas the resolution power of ten microsatellites remained too low for correct assignment. A combination of SNPs and microsatellites resulted in the most efficient and accurate identification of all individuals. Our study shows that the use of various sets of markers could lead to strikingly different assignment results, hybridisation studies may have been affected by too low a resolution power of used markers, and that an appropriate set of markers is essential for successful hybrid identification.

  • 23.
    Wei, Chentao
    et al.
    Beijing Normal Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Biodivers & Ecol Engn, Coll Life Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Univ Chicago, Dept Ecol & Evolut, 940 E 57Th St, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Price, Trevor D.
    Univ Chicago, Dept Ecol & Evolut, 940 E 57Th St, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Liu, Jiayu
    Beijing Normal Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Biodivers & Ecol Engn, Coll Life Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Alström, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden.;Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Yanyun
    Beijing Normal Univ, Minist Educ, Key Lab Biodivers & Ecol Engn, Coll Life Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    The evolutionary origin of variation in song length and frequency in the avian family Cettiidae2017In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 48, no 10, p. 1295-1300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aspects of bird song have been shown to correlate with morphological and ecological features, including beak and body size, and habitat. Here we study evolution of song length and song frequency among 30 species belonging to the Cettiidae. Frequency is negatively correlated with body size, and song length increases with latitude. Although migration distance correlates with latitude, the association of song length with latitude is only present within the non-migratory species, implying the association is not a consequence of migration. We place these correlations in a historical framework to show that the body size-frequency association arose early in the group, but the latitude-song length association is more evolutionarily labile. We suggest that latitudinal correlates of song length may reflect increased importance of sexual selection by female choice.

  • 24.
    Weissensteiner, Matthias H.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Poelstra, Jelmer W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Wolf, Jochen B. W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Low-budget ready-to-fly unmanned aerial vehicles: an effective tool for evaluating the nesting status of canopy-breeding bird species2015In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 425-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remotely controlled, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) promise to be of high potential for a variety of applications in ecological and behavioural research. Off-the-shelf solutions have recently become available for civil use at steeply decreasing costs. In this study, we explored the utility of an UAV equipped with an on-board camera (14 megapixel photo and 1920 x 1080 pixel video resolution) in assessing the breeding status, offspring number and age of a canopy-breeding bird species, the hooded crow Corvus [corone] cornix. We further quantified performance and potential time savings using the UAV versus inspection with alternative approaches (optical instruments, camera on a telescopic rod, tree climbing). Nesting status, number and approximate age of nestlings could be assessed with good success in all 24 attempts using the UAV. Eighty-five percent of the time required for inspection by climbing could be saved. Disturbance was moderate and lower than caused by climbing or using a camera on a telescopic rod. Additionally, UAV usage avoided tree damage and circumvented health risks associated with tree-climbing.

  • 25. Wiley, Chris
    et al.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Effects of hybridization on the immunity of collared Ficedula albicollis and pied flycatchers F-hypoleuca, and their infection by haemosporidians2009In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 352-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because they are ubiquitous and typically reduce the fitness of hosts, parasites may play important roles in hybrid zone dynamics. Despite much work on herbivores and hybrid plants, the effect of parasites on the fitness of animal hybrids is poorly known. In an attempt to partly fill this gap, we examined the prevalence of avian haemosporidians Haemoproteus in a hybrid zone between collared Ficedula albicollis and pied flycatchers F. hypoleuca. 40 species-informative genetic markers allowed us to identify F1 hybrids, thus avoiding problems inherent in many studies that group hybrid genotypes. Furthermore, naturally occurring extra-pair paternity allowed us to test the immune responses of pure and hybrid nestlings to a novel antigen (phytohaemagglutinin) in a shared environment. In contrast to previous suggestions that animal hybrids may more often display resistance against parasites than plant hybrids, F1 hybrids exhibited prevalence of parasitism and immune responses that were intermediate between the two parental species. We also detected differences between the two parental species in their prevalence of infection, with the competitively dominant species (collared flycatcher) being less often infected by Haemoproteus. Overall, our results contribute to other recent data supporting the idea that the resistance of animals to parasites is variously and unpredictably affected by hybridization, and that there is a concordance in the general patterns observed in plants and animals. Haemosporidians in avian hybrids provide a useful system for investigating the interactions between hosts and parasites that characterize host contact zones.

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