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  • 1. Basma, Jaafar
    et al.
    Ryttlefors, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Latini, Francesco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Pravdenkova, Svetlana
    Krisht, Ali
    Mobilization of the Transcavernous Oculomotor Nerve During Basilar Aneurysm Surgery: Biomechanical Bases for Better Outcome2014In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 106-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The transcavernous approach adds a significant exposure advantage in basilar aneurysm surgery. However, one of its frequently reported side effects is postoperative oculomotor nerve palsy. OBJECTIVE: To present the technique of mobilizing the oculomotor nerve throughout its intracranial course and to analyze its consequences on the nerve tension and clinical outcome. METHODS: The oculomotor nerve is mobilized from its mesencephalic origin to the superior orbital fissure. Its degree of mobility, related to the imposed pulling force, was measured in 11 cadaveric nerves. Tension was mathematically deduced and compared before and after mobilizing of the cavernous segment. One hundred four patients treated for basilar aneurysms with the orbitozygomatic pretemporal transcavernous approach were followed up for a 1-year period and evaluated for postoperative oculomotor nerve palsy. RESULTS: Releasing the transcavernous segment compared to cisternal mobilization alone resulted in a significant increase in freedom of mobility from 4 to 7.9 mm (P < .001) and in a significant decrease in tension from 0.8 to 0.5 N (P = .006). Ninety-nine percent of aneurysms treated with this technique were amenable to neck clipping, and a total of 84% of patients had a good postoperative outcome (modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2). All patients showed direct postoperative palsy; however, 97% had a complete recovery by 9 months. Only 3 patients had a persistent diplopia on medial gaze, which was corrected with prism glasses. CONCLUSION: Mobilization of the transcavernous oculomotor nerve results in better maneuverability and less tension on the nerve, which lead to successful surgical treatment and favorable oculomotor outcome.

  • 2. Citerio, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Piper, Ian
    Chambers, Iain R.
    Galli, Davide
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Kiening, Karl
    Ragauskas, Arminas
    Sahuquillo, Juan
    Gregson, Barbara
    Multicenter clinical assessment of the raumedic Neurovent-P intracranial pressure sensor: A report by the brainIT group2008In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 1152-1158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the robustness and zero-drift of an intracranial pressure sensor, Neurovent-P (Raumedic AG, Munchberg, Germany), when used in the clinical environment. METHODS: A prospective multicenter trial, conforming to the International Organization for Standardization 14155 Standard, was conducted in 6 European BrainIT centers between July 2005 and December 2006. Ninety-nine catheters were used. The study was observational, followed by a centralized sensor bench test after catheter removal. RESULTS: The mean recorded value before probe insertion was 0.17 +/- 1.1 mm Hg. Readings outside the range 1 mm Hg were recorded in only 3 centers on a total of 15 catheters. Complications were minimal and mainly related to the insertion bolt. The mean recorded pressure value at removal was 0.8 +/- 2.2 mm Hg. No relationship was identified between postremoval reading and length of monitoring. The postremoval bench test indicated the probability of a system failure, defined as a drift of more than 3 mm Hg, at a range between 12 and 17%. CONCLUSION: The Neurovent-P catheter performed well in clinical use in terms of robustness. The majority of technical complications were associated with the bolt fixation technology. Adverse events were rare and clinically nonsignificant. Despite the earlier reported excellent bench test zero-drift rates, under the more demanding clinical conditions, zero-drift rate remains a concern with catheter tip strain gauge technology. This performance is similar, and not superior, to other intracranial pressure devices.

  • 3.
    Elf, Kristin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Nilsson, Pelle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Howells, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Cerebral perfusion pressure between 50 and 60 mm Hg may be beneficial in head-injured patients: A computerized secondary insult monitoring study2005In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 962-971Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence of secondary insults using a computerized monitoring data collecting system and to investigate their relationship to outcome when the neurointensive care was dedicated to avoiding secondary insults.

    METHODS: Patients 16 to 79 years old admitted to the neurointensive care unit between August 1998 and December 2002 with traumatic brain injury and 54 hours or more of valid monitoring within the first 120 hours after trauma (one value/min) were included. Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), systolic blood pressure (BPs), and mean blood pressure (BPm) was required, and insult levels were defined (ICP >25/>35, BPs <100/<90/>160/>180, BPm <80/<70/>110/>120, and CPP <60/<50/>70/>80 mm Hg). Insults were quantified as proportion of valid monitoring time at the insult level. Logistic regression analyses were performed with admission and secondary insult variables as explanatory variables and favorable outcome as dependent variable.

    RESULTS: Eighty-one patients, 63 men and 18 women, with a mean age of 43.0 years, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Seventy-two patients (89%) had Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 8 or less. Thirty-one patients (38%) had diffuse injury, and 50 (62%) had mass lesions. Mean Injury Severity Score was 26.6. After 6 months, 54% of the patients had achieved a favorable outcome. Most patients spent 5% or less of the monitoring time at the insult level except for CPP greater than 70 mm Hg. Low age, high Glasgow Coma Scale motor score, low Injury Severity Score, and CPP less than 60 mm Hg insults were significant predictors of favorable outcome in the final multiple logistic regression model.

    CONCLUSION: Overall, the secondary insults were rare, except for high CPP. The results suggest that patients with traumatic brain injury might benefit from a CPP slightly less than 60 mm Hg.

  • 4. Geranmayeh, Fatemeh
    et al.
    Scheithauer, Bernd W.
    Spitzer, Christoph
    Meyer, Fredric B.
    Svensson-Engwall, Ann-Cathrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Graeber, Manuel B.
    Microglia in gemistocytic astrocytomas2007In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 159-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Although gemistocytic astrocytomas, they behave more aggressively than other astrocytomas. Their proliferative potential is low, and it remains an intriguing question why these tumors are so biologically "successful". They show a high mutation rate of the P53 gene, cytological abnormalities, and frequent perivascular mononuclear infiltrates. Microglial cells, a feature of this astrocytoma variant, are of increasing interest in the context of glioma growth. Methods: We selected 23 tumor biopsies from 201 samples obtained from patients with gemistocytic astrocytomas operated at Mayo Clinic between 1985 and 1998. These tumors were formerly anaylzed for P53 mutations, P53 protein, and proliferative activity (9). Immunolabeling for three microglial markers, including CR3/43, Ki-M1P, and iba1, was performed on adjacent tissue sections. In additions, in situ hybridization for the alpha-chain of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II molecule recognized by the CR3/43 monoclonal antibody was performed. Results: A high number of microglia was detected in gemistoccytic astrocytomas. More microglia were present if the fraction of gemistocytic tumor cells was high (correlation coefficient = 0.699; P < 0.0002). Interestingly, a number of gemistocytes were immunoreactive for MHC Class II molecules, an observation confirmed by in situ hybridization. Importantly, the higher the number of Class II immunoreactive gemistocytes, the fewer Class II positive microglial cell could be detected (correlation coefficient = -0.5649; P < 0.005). Conclusion: Our results support the view that gemistocytic astrocytomas contain unusually high numbers of microglial cells. We propose that the finding of aberrant MHC Class II expression by gemistocytic tumor cells correlates with a loss of immune-competent MHC Class II-expressing microglia. This may be related to the expecially poor prognosis of gemistocytic astrocytomas for which induction of T cell anergy could provide one explanation.

  • 5.
    Johnson, Ulf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Nilsson, Pelle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Howells, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Favorable Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients With Impaired Cerebral Pressure Autoregulation When Treated at Low Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Levels2011In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 714-721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral pressure autoregulation (CPA) is defined as the ability of the brain vasculature to maintain a constant blood flow over a range of different systemic blood pressures by means of contraction and dilatation. OBJECTIVE: To study CPA in relation to physiological parameters, treatment, and outcome in a series of traumatic brain injury patients. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, 44 male and 14 female patients (age, 15-72 years; mean, 38.7 years; Glasgow Coma Scale score, 4-13; median, 7) were analyzed. Patients were divided into groups on the basis of status of CPA (more pressure active vs more pressure passive) and level of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP; low vs high CPP). The proportions of favorable outcome in the groups were assessed. Differences in physiological variables in the different groups were analyzed. RESULTS: Patients with more impaired CPA treated at CPP levels below median had a significantly higher proportion of favorable outcome compared with patients with more impaired CPA treated at CPP levels above median. No significant difference in outcome was seen between patients with more intact CPA when divided by level of CPP. In patients with more impaired CPA, CPP < 50 mm Hg and CPP < 60 mm Hg were associated with favorable outcome, whereas CPP > 70 mm Hg and CPP > 80 mm Hg were associated with unfavorable outcome. In patients with more intact CPA, no difference in physiological variables was seen between patients with favorable and unfavorable outcomes. CONCLUSION: Our results support that in traumatic brain injury patients with impaired CPA, CPP should not be elevated.

  • 6. Koivisto, Anne M
    et al.
    Alafuzoff, Irina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Savolainen, Sakari
    Sutela, Anna
    Rummukainen, Jaana
    Kurki, Mitja
    Jääskeläinen, Juha E
    Soininen, Hilkka
    Rinne, Jaakko
    Leinonen, Ville
    Poor Cognitive Outcome in Shunt-Responsive Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus2013In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 72, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) causes cognitive decline that can be alleviated by shunting, but long-term outcome studies are scarce. OBJECTIVE:: To elucidate the long-term cognitive condition of shunt-responsive iNPH patients. METHODS:: The follow-up data (Kuopio University Hospital NPH Registry) of 146 patients diagnosed with iNPH by clinical and radiological examination, 24-hour intraventricular pressure monitoring, frontal cortical biopsy, and response to the shunt were analyzed for signs of dementia. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and specified memory disorder criteria were used. Median follow-up was 4.8 years. RESULTS:: At the end of follow-up, 117 (80%) of the 146 iNPH patients had cognitive decline and 67 (46%) had clinical dementia. The most common clinical diagnoses were Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. In multivariate analysis of the 146 iNPH patients, memory deficit as a first symptom before shunt (odds ratio [OR] 18.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-175), male sex (OR 3.29; 95% CI 1.11-9.73), age (OR 1.17 year; 95% CI 1.07-1.28), and follow-up time (OR 1.20 year; 95% CI 1.02-1.40) predicted dementia. Interestingly, 8 (5%) iNPH patients had dementia without any signs of other neurodegenerative diseases in clinical, neuroradiological, or brain biopsy evaluation. These patients initially presented a full triad of symptoms, with gait disturbance being the most frequent initial symptom followed by deterioration in cognition. CONCLUSION:: The novel findings were (a) a significant risk of dementia in iNPH initially responsive to cerebrospinal fluid shunt, (b) cognitive impairment most commonly due to iNPH-related dementia followed by concurrent degenerative brain disease, and (c) a subgroup with dementia related to iNPH without comorbidities. ABBREVIATIONS:: Aβ, amyloid betaAD, Alzheimer diseaseCI, confidence intervalHPτ, hyperphosphorylated tauICP, intracranial pressureiNPH, idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalusKUH, Kuopio University HospitalNPH, normal pressure hydrocephalusVaD, vascular dementia.

  • 7. Pellettieri, L
    et al.
    Nilsson, B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology.
    Carlsson, C A
    Nilsson, U
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology.
    Serum immunocomplexes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.1986In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 767-771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immunocomplexes (IC) in serum were analyzed in 54 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from ruptured arterial aneurysms. A previous study had shown that patients with SAH and vasospasm had a significantly higher incidence of ICs in the blood than patients without vasospasm. The aim of the present study was to study how the IC content varied with time and compare this pattern with the clinical picture. Forty-two patients presented clinical or radiological signs of cerebral vasospasm during their hospital stays, whereas 12 patients showed no such signs. The patients with vasospasm had a significantly higher amount of ICs in serum than those without vasospasm. In 37 patients with vasospasm, the changes of IC content during the 1st weeks after SAH correlated well with the clinical course. Data indicated that a high IC content preceded the onset of vasospasm and a low content preceded clinical improvement. This observation supports the idea that the presence of ICs might be the cause and not the result of vasospasm.

  • 8.
    Ryttlefors, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Persson, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Ilodigwe, Don
    Macdonald, R. Loch
    Patient age and vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage2010In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 911-917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured intracranial aneurysm is a devastating disease with high mortality and morbidity. The incidence of SAH increases with advancing age. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether age is an independent predictor of angiographic vasospasm, delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DINDs), or abnormal transcranial Doppler (TCD) measurements in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS: Data from CONSCIOUS-1 (Clazosentan to Overcome Neurological Ischemia and Infarct Occurring After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage study), a dose-finding study of clazosentan, were used. Data on angiographic vasospasm, DINDs, and TCD abnormalities were prospectively recorded as well as baseline characteristics and treatment data. Patient age was considered in 3 ways: as a continuous variable, dichotomized at age 65 years, and categorized by decade. Age was investigated as the main variable, whereas other possible confounding variables were adjusted for in the multiple logistic regression modeling with each of 3 dichotomized vasospasm outcome measures, presence or absence of angiographic vasospasm, DINDs, and TCD abnormalities as the dependent variable. RESULTS: The proportions of patients with angiographic vasospasm, DINDs, and TCD abnormalities were 45%, 19%, and 81%, respectively. Age, whether considered as a continuous, dichotomous, or a categorical variable, was not significantly associated with angiographic vasospasm, DINDs, or abnormal TCD measurements. CONCLUSION: Age does not seem to be a significant predictor for cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  • 9.
    Ryttlefors, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Howells, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Nilsson, Pelle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Secondary insults in subarachnoid hemorrhage: occurrence and impact on outcome and clinical deterioration2007In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 704-714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To study the occurrence of secondary insults during neurointensive care of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage using a computerized multimodality monitoring system and to study the impact of secondary insults on clinical deterioration and functional outcome.

    METHODS: Patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage who were admitted to the neurointensive care unit between January 1999 and December 2002 with at least 120 hours of multimodality monitoring data within the first 240 hours of neurointensive care were included. Data were continuously recorded for intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), mean arterial blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and temperature. Secondary insult levels were defined as ICP of 20 or greater or 25 or greater; CPP of 60 or lower, 55 or lower, greater than 100, or greater than 110; mean arterial blood pressure of 80 or lower, 70 or lower, 120 or greater, or 130 or greater; systolic blood pressure of 110 or lower, 100 or lower, 180 or greater, or 200 or greater; temperature of 38°C or higher or 39°C or higher; and oxygen saturation of less than 95 or less than 90. Secondary insults were quantified as the proportion of good monitoring time at the insult level. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed with admission and secondary insult variables as explanatory variables and clinical deterioration and independent outcome as the dependent variable, respectively.

    RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients (67 women; mean age, 57.8 yr) met the inclusion criteria. In the univariate analysis, ICP of 20 or greater, ICP of 25 or greater, CPP of 60 or less, and CPP of 55 or less increased the risk of clinical deterioration, whereas CPP greater than 100 and systolic blood pressure greater than 180 decreased the risk of clinical deterioration. In the multivariate logistic regression, ICP of 25 or greater and CPP of greater than 100 had an independent effect on clinical deterioration. The occurrence of secondary insults had no significant effect on functional outcome.

    CONCLUSION: Elevated ICP not responding to treatment is predictive of clinical deterioration, whereas high CPP decreases the risk of clinical deterioration. It may be beneficial to not lower spontaneous high CPP in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  • 10.
    Salci, Konstantin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Nilsson, Pelle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Goiny, Michel
    Piper, Ian
    Contant, Charles
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Low intracranial compliance increases the impact of intracranial volume insults to the traumatized brain: A microdialysis study in a traumatic brain injury rodent model2006In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 367-373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The vulnerability of the brain is Considered to be increased after trauma. The present study was undertaken to determine whether intracranial volume insults in the posttraumatic period led to increased metabolic disturbances if intracranial compliance was decreased.

    METHODS: A weight drop technique with a brain compression of 1.5 mm was used for injury. Intracranial compensatory volume was decreased 60 mu l by placing rubber film between the dura mater and the bone. Intracranial volume insults were induced using the Bolus injection technique. Microdialysis was used to measure interstitial lactate, pyruvate, hypoxanthine, and glycerol. Fifty-two-rats Were allocated to trauma and sham groups with 0 to 3 layers of rubber film with and without intracranial volume insults.

    RESULTS: In the groups with reduced intracranial volume exposed to intracranial volume insults, the time course of metabolic markers showed higher increases and slower recovery rates than for the other groups. Reduced intracranial volume or intracranial volume insults alone did not cause any changes compared with controls.

    CONCLUSION: These results support the hypothesis that decreased intracranial compliance increases the vulnerability of the brain for secondary volume insults even with intracranial pressure at low levels between the insults. This finding has important clinical implications in that it stresses the need to identify patients with low intracranial compliance so that their treatment can be optimized.

  • 11.
    Smits, Anja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Duffau, Hugues
    Seizures and the Natural History of World Health Organization Grade II Gliomas: A Review2011In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 68, no 5, p. 1326-1333Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    The majority of adults with low-grade gliomas have seizures. Despite the frequency of seizures as initial symptoms and symptoms of later disease, seizures in relation to the natural course of low-grade gliomas have received little attention.

    METHODS:

    In this review, we provide an update of the literature on the prognostic impact of preoperative seizures and discuss the tumor-and treatment-related factors affecting seizure control at later stages of the disease.

    RESULTS:

    Seizures occur most frequently at disease presentation and predict a more favorable outcome. Initial seizures are correlated with tumor location and possibly indirectly to the molecular profile of the tumor. About 50% of all patients with seizures at presentation continue to have seizures before surgery. Maximal tumor resection, including resection of epileptic foci, is a valuable strategy for improving seizure control. In addition, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as single therapies or in combination with surgery, have shown beneficial effects in terms of seizure reduction. Recurrent seizures after macroscopically complete tumor resection may be a marker for accelerated tumor growth. Recurrent seizures after an initial transient stabilization after radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy may be a marker for anaplastic tumor transformation.

    CONCLUSION:

    Preoperative seizures likely reflect, apart from tumor location, intrinsic tumor properties as well. Change in seizure control in individual patients is frequently associated with altered tumor behavior. Including seizures and seizure control as clinical parameters is recommended in future trials of low-grade gliomas to further establish the prognostic value of these symptoms and to identify the factors affecting seizure control.

  • 12.
    Zetterling, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Hallberg, Lena
    Department of Radiology Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge.
    Hillered, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Karlsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Enblad, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurosurgery.
    Brain energy metabolism in patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and global cerebral edema2010In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 1102-1110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have shown that global cerebral edema on the first computed tomography scan is associated with a more severe initial injury and is an independent predictor of poor outcome. Effects of secondary ischemic events also influence outcome after SAH. OBJECTIVE: This study demonstrates that early global edema is related to markers of an increased cerebral energy metabolism as measured with intracerebral microdialysis, which could increase vulnerability to adverse events. METHODS: Fifty-two patients with microdialysis monitoring after spontaneous SAH were stratified according to the occurrence of global cerebral edema on the first computed tomography scan taken a median of 2 hours after the initial bleed. Microdialysis levels of glucose, lactate, and pyruvate were compared between the global edema (n = 31) and no global edema (n = 21) groups. Clinical outcome was assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Scale score at >/= 6 months. RESULTS: Patients with global edema showed significantly elevated lactate and pyruvate levels 70 to 79 hours after SAH and marginally significantly higher levels of lactate 60 to 69 hours and 80 to 89 hours after SAH. There was a trend toward worse outcome in the edema group. CONCLUSION: Patients with global cerebral edema have higher interstitial levels of lactate and pyruvate. The edema group may have developed a cerebral hypermetabolism to meet the increased energy demand in the recovery phase after SAH. This stress would make the brain more vulnerable to secondary insults, increasing the likelihood of energy failure.

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