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  • 1.
    Boggs, Dorothy
    et al.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Maternal Adolescent Reprod & Child Hlth Ctr, London, England;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Int Ctr Evidence Disabil, London, England.
    Milner, Kate M.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Maternal Adolescent Reprod & Child Hlth Ctr, London, England;Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Chandna, Jaya
    Univ Liverpool, Inst Translat Med, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
    Black, Maureen
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA;RIT Int, Durham, NC USA.
    Cavallera, Vanessa
    WHO, Dept Mental Hlth & Subst Abuse, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Dua, Tarun
    WHO, Dept Mental Hlth & Subst Abuse, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Fink, Guenther
    Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Basel, Switzerland;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    KC, Ashish
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Grantham-McGregor, Sally
    UCL, Fac Populat Hlth Sci, Inst Child Hlth, London, England.
    Hamadani, Jena
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res, Maternal & Child Hlth Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Hughes, Rob
    Childrens Investment Fund Fdn, London, England;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Populat Hlth, Maternal & Child Hlth Intervent Res Grp, London, England.
    Manji, Karim
    Muhimbili Univ Allied Hlth Sci, Dept Paediat & Child Hlth, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Mccoy, Dana Charles
    Harvard Univ, Harvard Grad Sch Educ, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Tann, Cally
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Maternal Adolescent Reprod & Child Hlth Ctr, London, England;Univ Coll Hosp NHS Trust, Neonatal Med, London, England.
    Lawn, Joy E.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Maternal Adolescent Reprod & Child Hlth Ctr, London, England.
    Rating early child development outcome measurement tools for routine health programme use2019In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 104, p. S22-S33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Identification of children at risk of developmental delay and/or impairment requires valid measurement of early child development (ECD). We systematically assess ECD measurement tools for accuracy and feasibility for use in routine services in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). Methods Building on World Bank and peer-reviewed literature reviews, we identified available ECD measurement tools for children aged 0-3 years used in >= 1 LMIC and matrixed these according to when (child age) and what (ECD domains) they measure at population or individual level. Tools measuring <2 years and covering >= 3 developmental domains, including cognition, were rated for accuracy and feasibility criteria using a rating approach derived from Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations. Results 61 tools were initially identified, 8% (n=5) population-level and 92% (n=6) individual-level screening or ability tests. Of these, 27 tools covering >= 3 domains beginning <2 years of age were selected for rating accuracy and feasibility. Recently developed population-level tools (n=2) rated highly overall, particularly in reliability, cultural adaptability, administration time and geographical uptake. Individual-level tool (n=25) ratings were variable, generally highest for reliability and lowest for accessibility, training, clinical relevance and geographical uptake. Conclusions and implications Although multiple measurement tools exist, few are designed for multidomain ECD measurement in young children, especially in LMIC. No available tools rated strongly across all accuracy and feasibility criteria with accessibility, training requirements, clinical relevance and geographical uptake being poor for most tools. Further research is recommended to explore this gap in fit-for-purpose tools to monitor ECD in routine LMIC health services.

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  • 2.
    Borgström, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Paediatric Inflammation, Metabolism and Child Health Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Bergsten, Amadeus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Paediatric Inflammation, Metabolism and Child Health Research.
    Tunebjer, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Paediatric Inflammation, Metabolism and Child Health Research.
    Hedin Skogman, Barbro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Center for Clinical Research Dalarna. Örebro Univ, Inst Med & Hlth Sci, Örebro, Sweden..
    Nevéus, Tryggve
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Paediatric Inflammation, Metabolism and Child Health Research.
    Daytime urotherapy in nocturnal enuresis: a randomised, controlled trial2022In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 107, no 6, p. 570-574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    According to international guidelines, children with enuresis are recommended urotherapy, or basic bladder advice, before treatment with evidence-based alternatives such as the enuresis alarm is given. The efficacy of this strategy has, however, not been supported by controlled studies. We wanted to test if basic bladder advice is useful in enuresis.

    Design

    Randomised, controlled trial.

    Setting

    Paediatric outpatient ward, regional hospital.

    Patients

    Treatment-naive enuretic children aged >= 6 years, no daytime incontinence.

    Interventions

    Three groups, each during 8 weeks: (A) basic bladder advice--that is, voiding and drinking according to a strict schedule and instructions regarding toilet posture, (B) enuresis alarm therapy and (C) no treatment (control group). Main outcome measures Reduction in enuresis frequency during week 7-8 compared with baseline.

    Results

    The median number of wet nights out of 14 before and at the end of treatment were in group A (n=20) 12.5 and 11.5 (p=0.44), in group B (n=22) 11.0 and 3.5 (p<0.001) and in group C (n=18) 12.5 and 12.0 (p=0.55). The difference in reduction of enuresis frequency between the groups was highly significant (p=0.002), but no difference was found between basic bladder advice and controls.

    Conclusions

    Urotherapy, or basic bladder advice, is ineffective as a first-line treatment of nocturnal enuresis. Enuretic children who are old enough to be bothered by their condition should be offered treatment with the alarm or desmopressin.

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  • 3.
    Brix, Ninna
    et al.
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat & Adolescent Med, Aarhus, Denmark.;Aalborg Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat & Adolescent Med, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Glerup, Mia
    Aarhus Univ Hosp Skejby, Dept Pediat & Adolescent Med, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Thiel, Steffen
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Biomed, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Mistegaard, Clara Elbaek
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Biomed, Aarhus, Denmark.;Aarhus Univ Hosp Skejby, Dept Rheumatol, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Skals, Regitze Gyldenholm
    Aalborg Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Biostat, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Berntson, Lillemor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Paediatric Inflammation, Metabolism and Child Health Research.
    Fasth, Anders
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Pediat, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Susan Mary
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nordal, Ellen
    Univ Hosp North Norway, Dept Pediat, Tromso, Norway.;UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Dept Clin Med, Tromso, Norway.
    Rygg, Marite
    NTNU Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Clin & Mol Med, Trondheim, Norway.;St Olavs Hosp, Dept Pediat, Trondheim, Norway.
    Hasle, Henrik
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat & Adolescent Med, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Albertsen, Birgitte Klug
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat & Adolescent Med, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Herlin, Troels
    Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat & Adolescent Med, Aarhus, Denmark.
    M-ficolin: a valuable biomarker to identify leukaemia from juvenile idiopathic arthritis2022In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 107, no 4, p. 371-376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Distinction on clinical grounds between acute lymphoblastic leukaemia presenting with arthropathy (ALL arthropathy) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is difficult, as the clinical and paraclinical signs of leukaemia may be vague. The primary aim was to examine the use of lectin complement pathway proteins as markers to differentiate ALL arthropathy from JIA. The secondary aims were to compare the protein levels at baseline and follow-up in a paired number of children with ALL and to examine the correlation with haematology counts, erythrocyte sedimentation reaction (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), blasts, relapse and death.

    Study design: In this observational study, we measured M-ficolin, CL-K1 and MASP-3 in serum from children with ALL (n=151) and JIA (n=238) by time-resolved immunofluorometric assays. Logistic regression was used for predictions of ALL risk, considering the markers as the respective exposures. We performed internal validation using repeated '10-fold cross-validation' with 100 repetitions computing the area under the curve (AUC) as well as positive and negative predictive values in order to evaluate the predictive performance.

    Results: The level of M-ficolin was higher in JIA than ALL total and the ALL arthropathy subgroup. The M-ficolin level normalised after remission of ALL. M-ficolin could differentiate ALL from JIA with an AUC of 94% and positive predictive value (PPV) of 95%, exceeding CRP and haemoglobin. In a dichotomised predictive model with optimal cut-offs for M-ficolin, platelets and haemoglobin, AUC was 99% and PPV 98% in detecting ALL from JIA.

    Conclusion: M-ficolin is a valuable marker to differentiate the child with ALL from JIA.

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  • 4.
    Brown, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition. Länssjukhuset Gävle Sandviken, Dept Paediat, Gävle, Sweden; Aga Khan Univ, Dept Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Atoms2023In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 108, no 8, article id iArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Brown, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition. Länssjukhuset Gävle Sandviken, Dept Paediat, Gävle, Sweden; Aga Khan Univ, Dept Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Atoms2023In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 108, no 7, article id iArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Brown, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition. Länssjukhuset Gävle Sandviken, Dept Paediat, Gävle, Sweden; Aga Khan Univ, Dept Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Atoms2023In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 108, no 6, article id iArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Brown, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition. Länssjukhuset Gävle Sandviken, Dept Paediat, Gävle, Sweden; Aga Khan Univ, Dept Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Atoms2023In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 108, no 12, article id iArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Brown, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition. Länssjukhuset Gävle Sandviken, Dept Paediat, Gävle, Sweden; Aga Khan Univ, Dept Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Atoms2024In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 109, no 1, p. i-iArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Brown, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Correspondence, update and clarification on `Puberty blockers in gender dysphoria: an international perspective' by Barbi L, Tornese G2022In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 107, no 12, article id e32Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Brown, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Lanssjukhuset Gavle Sandviken, Dept Paediat, Gavle, Sweden;Aga Khan Univ, Dept Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan.
    [Editor's note:] Clinical and cost-effectiveness of the Lightning Process in addition to specialist medical care for paediatric chronic fatigue syndrome: randomised controlled trial (vol 103, pg 155, 2018)2019In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 104, no 10, article id UNSP e3Article in journal (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 11.
    Brown, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Länssjukhuset Gävle Sandviken, Dept Paediat, Gävle, Sweden; Aga Khan Univ, Dept Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Highlights from this issue2020In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 105, no 4, p. I-IArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Brown, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition. Lanssjukhuset Gävle Sandviken, Dept Paediat, Gävle, Sweden.;Aga Khan Univ, Dept Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Int Maternal & Child Hlth IMCH, S-75237 Uppsala, Sweden..
    ROUND THE BLOC(K), AGAIN2023In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 108, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Brown, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition. Lanssjukhuset Gävle Sandviken, Dept Paediat, Gävle, Sweden.;Aga Khan Univ, Dept Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan..
    The Atoms2024In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 109, no 4, p. 0i-0iArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Brown, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition. Dept Paediat, Lanssjukhuset Gävle Sandviken, Gävle, Sweden.;Aga Khan Univ, Dept Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan..
    The Atoms2024In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 109, no 3, p. 0i-0iArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Brown, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition. Dept Paediat, Lanssjukhuset Gävle Sandviken, Gävle, Sweden.;Aga Khan Univ, Dept Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan..
    The Atoms2024In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 109, no 5, p. 0i-0iArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Brown, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition. Lanssjukhuset Gävle Sandviken, Dept Paediat, Gävle, Sweden.;Aga Khan Univ, Dept Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan..
    The Atoms2024In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 109, no 2, p. i-iArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Brown, Nick
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Lanssjukhuset Gavle Sandviken, Dept Paediat, Gavle, Sweden.
    Brown, Joseph
    Lanssjukhuset Gavle Sandviken, Dept Paediat, Gavle, Sweden.
    Age of consent?2020In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 105, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent thought-provoking piece by Neena Modi, ‘Votes for a better future’1 argued the case for entrusting parents with an additional vote for each of their children. Though this, rather exhilarating, idea might take time in gestation, it takes no more than a simple extrapolation of the central hypothesis to infer that the natural first step in the process has to be a change in the current law around voting age.

  • 18.
    Cheung, C. Ronny
    et al.
    Evelina London Childrens Hosp, Gen Paediat, London, England.;Kings Coll London, Sch Life Sci, Inst Women & Childrens Hlth, London, England..
    Brown, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition. Aga Khan Univ, Dept Child Hlth, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan..
    There's science ... and then there might be policy change ...2023In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 108, no 1, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Chopra, Mickey
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Rollins, Nigel
    Infant feeding in the time of HIV: Rapid assessment of infant feeding policy and programmes in four African countries scaling up prevention of mother to child transmission programmes2008In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 93, no 4, p. 288-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To assess the infant feeding components of prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes. Methods: Assessments were performed across Botswana, Kenya, Malawi and Uganda. 29 districts offering PMTCT were selected by stratified random sampling with rural and urban strata. All health facilities in the selected PMTCT district were assessed. The facility level manager and the senior nurse in charge of maternal care were interviewed. 334 randomly selected health workers involved in the PMTCT programme completed self-administered questionnaires. 640 PMTCT counselling observations were carried out and 34 focus groups were conducted amongst men and women. Results: Most health workers (234/334, 70%) were unable to correctly estimate the transmission risks of breastfeeding irrespective of exposure to PMTCT training. Infant feeding options were mentioned in 307 of 640 (48%) observations of PMTCT counselling sessions, and in only 35 (5.5%) were infant feeding issues discussed in any depth; of these 19 (54.3%) were rated as poor. Several health workers also reported receiving free samples of infant formula in contravention of the International Code on Breastmilk Substitutes. National HIV managers stated they were unsure about infant feeding policy in the context of HIV. Finally, there was an almost universal belief that an HIV positive mother who breastfeeds her child will always infect the child and intentional avoidance of breastfeeding by the mother indicates that she is HIV positive. Conclusion: These findings underline the need to implement and support systematic infant feeding policies and programme responses in the context of HIV programmes.

  • 20. Coscini, Nadia
    et al.
    Heyes, Priya
    Bedford, Helen
    Cohen, Eyal
    D'Aprano, Anita
    Goldfeld, Sharon
    Hargreaves, Dougal
    Loveday, Sarah
    Nejat, Sahar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Roberts, Gehan
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Saunders, Natasha Ruth
    Woolfenden, Susan
    Milner, Kate
    Multicountry review: developmental surveillance, assessment and care by outpatient paediatricians2023In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 153-159Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Care of young children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) is a major component of paediatric outpatient practice. However, cross-country practice reviews to date have been limited, and available data demonstrate missed opportunities for early identification, particularly in vulnerable population subgroups.

    METHODS: Multicountry review of national paediatric body guidance related to developmental surveillance, early identification and early childhood intervention together with review of outpatient paediatrician practices for developmental assessment of children aged 0-5 years with/at risk of NDDs. Review included five countries with comparable nationalised universal child healthcare systems (ie, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Sweden and the UK). Data were collected using a combination of published and grey literature review, supplemented by additional local sources with descriptive review of relevant data points.

    RESULTS: Countries had broadly similar systems for early identification of young children with NDDs alongside universal child health surveillance. However, variation existed in national paediatric guidance, paediatric developmental training and practice, including variable roles of paediatricians in developmental surveillance at primary care level. Data on coverage of developmental surveillance, content and quality of paediatric development assessment practices were notably lacking.

    CONCLUSION: Paediatricians play an important role in ensuring equitable access to early identification and intervention for young children with/at risk of NDDs. However, strengthening paediatric outpatient care of children with NDD requires clearer guidance across contexts; training that is responsive to shifting roles within interdisciplinary models of developmental assessment and improved data to enhance equity and quality of developmental assessment for children with/at risk of NDDs.

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  • 21.
    Deyessa, N
    et al.
    School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    Berhane, Y
    Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Emmelin, M
    Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sweden.
    Ellsberg, M C
    Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sweden.
    Kullgren, G
    Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sweden.
    Högberg, Ulf
    Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sweden.
    Joint effect of maternal depression and intimate partner violence on increased risk of child death in rural Ethiopia.2010In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 95, no 10, p. 771-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To assess independent and interaction effect of experience of intimate partner violence and depression on risk of child death.

    DESIGN: Community-based cohort design.

    SETTING: The study was conducted within the demographic surveillance site of Butajira Rural Health Program in south central Ethiopia.

    PARTICIPANTS: Women (n=561) who gave birth to a live child.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Exposure status comprising physical, sexual and emotional violence by intimate partner was based on the WHO multi-country questionnaire on violence against women. Depression status was measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Risk of child death and its association with maternal exposure to violence and/or being depressed was analysed by incidence, rate ratios and interaction.

    RESULTS: The child death in the cohort was 42.1 (95% CI, 32.7 to 53.5) children per 1000 person years, and maternal depression is associated with child death. The risk of child death increases when maternal depression is combined with physical and emotional violence (RR=4.0; 95% CI, 1.6 to 10.1) and (RR=3.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 10.4), showing a synergistic interaction.

    CONCLUSION: An awareness of the devastating consequences on child survival in low income setting of violence against women and depression is needed among public health workers as well as clinicians, for both community and clinical interventions.

  • 22.
    Forssman, Linda
    et al.
    Tampere Center for Child Health Research, School of Medicine, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Ashorn, Per
    Ashorn, Ulla
    Maleta, Kenneth
    Matchado, Andrew
    Kortekangas, Emma
    Leppänen, Jukka M
    Eye-tracking-based assessment of cognitive function in low-resource settings2017In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 102, no 4, p. 301-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Early development of neurocognitive functions in infants can be compromised by poverty, malnutrition and lack of adequate stimulation. Optimal management of neurodevelopmental problems in infants requires assessment tools that can be used early in life, and are objective and applicable across economic, cultural and educational settings.

    Objective and design: The present study examined the feasibility of infrared eye tracking as a novel and highly automated technique for assessing visual-orienting and sequence-learning abilities as well as attention to facial expressions in young (9-month-old) infants. Techniques piloted in a high-resource laboratory setting in Finland (N=39) were subsequently field-tested in a community health centre in rural Malawi (N=40).

    Results: Parents' perception of the acceptability of the method (Finland 95%, Malawi 92%) and percentages of infants completing the whole eye-tracking test (Finland 95%, Malawi 90%) were high, and percentages of valid test trials (Finland 69-85%, Malawi 68-73%) satisfactory at both sites. Test completion rates were slightly higher for eye tracking (90%) than traditional observational tests (87%) in Malawi. The predicted response pattern indicative of specific cognitive function was replicated in Malawi, but Malawian infants exhibited lower response rates and slower processing speed across tasks.

    Conclusions: High test completion rates and the replication of the predicted test patterns in a novel environment in Malawi support the feasibility of eye tracking as a technique for assessing infant development in low-resource setting. Further research is needed to the test-retest stability and predictive validity of the eye-tracking scores in low-income settings.

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  • 23.
    Hansson, Mats G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Gattorno, Marco
    Stjernschantz Forsberg, Joanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Feltelius, Nils
    Martini, Alberto
    Ruperto, Nicolino
    Ethics bureaucracy: a significant hurdle for collaborative follow-up of drug effectiveness in rare childhood diseases2012In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 97, no 6, p. 561-563Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Högberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Andersson, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Forensic Medicine.
    Högberg, Göran
    Karolinska Inst, Child & Adolescent Psychiat Unit, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thiblin, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Forensic Medicine.
    Why is there a multi-fold difference in diagnosis of abuse among infants with long bone fracture in East Anglia compared with Sweden?2019In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 104, no 11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Jing Xiong, Jiang
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research.
    Xiulan, Xia
    Greiner, Ted
    Guangli, Lian
    Rosenqvist, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research.
    A two-year family-based behaviour treatment for obese children2005In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 90, no 12, p. 1235-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Childhood obesity has become a nutritional problem in China since the 1990s.

    Aims: A family based behavioural treatment was developed and tested, to see if its use was feasible in China and to evaluate its impact on obese schoolchildren.

    Methods: In a single school in Beijing, 33 obese children were randomly assigned to a treatment group and 35 to a control group. The treatment group participated in a family based behavioural treatment programme for two years. Height and weight were measured every six months for all participants. Blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were measured at baseline and after two years of programme implementation.

    Results: Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was significantly reduced in the treatment group (from 26.6 (1.7) to 24.0 (0.9), 95% CI 2.06 to 3.18) but not in the control group (from 26.1 (1.5) to 26.0 (1.6)). Total cholesterol decreased 5.5% and triglycerides 9.7% in the treatment group. There was a significant correlation between change in BMI and change in triglycerides. There were no significant changes in plasma lipids in the controls. Blood pressure values also decreased significantly in the treatment, but not the control group.

    Conclusions: A family based behavioural intervention was feasible to use in treating obesity in schoolchildren in Beijing, China. After two years of implementation, it successfully decreased the degree of obesity, reduced levels of blood pressure, and decreased serum lipids in treatment; there were no significant changes among control children.

  • 26. Johnson Mollen, Cynthia
    et al.
    Brown, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Paediatric emergency medicine.2022In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 107, no 3, p. 211-211, article id archdischild-2021-323388Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Karlsson, B
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics.
    Gustafsson, J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics.
    Hedov, Gerth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Ivarsson, S A
    Annerén, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Thyroid dysfunction in Down's syndrome: relation to age and thyroid autoimmunity1998In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 242-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The prevalence of thyroid disease is increased in Down's syndrome. Most available data come from cross sectional studies.

    AIMS:

    To study longitudinally thyroid function in patients with Down's syndrome in Uppsala county (85 patients) up to the age of 25 years.

    METHODS:

    Observational study based on yearly follow up in a children's clinic. Thyroid function tests were performed at each visit to the clinic.

    RESULTS:

    Hypothyroidism was found in 30 and hyperthyroidism was found in two of the 85 patients. No sex difference was seen. Half of the patients with hypothyroidism acquired the condition before the age of 8 years, but only one of them displayed thyroid autoantibodies at diagnosis. Most patients who developed hypothyroidism after this age had thyroid autoantibodies. In the prepubertal patients with hypothyroidism, growth velocity was lower during the year before the start of thyroxine treatment than during the year after treatment began; it was also lower than that of sex and age matched euthyroidic children with Down's syndrome.

    CONCLUSION:

    Thyroid dysfunction in patients with Down's syndrome is common in childhood. Consequently, annual screening is important. Autoimmune thyroid disease is uncommon in young children with Down's syndrome but is common after 8 years of age.

  • 28.
    KC, Ashish
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), Global Health Research on Implementation and Sustainability.
    Bhandari, Amit
    Lessons from the field: progress towards the sustainable development goals in Nepal in federal transition of the state.2020In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 105, no 9, p. 817-818, article id archdischild-2019-318505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    KC, Ashish
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Global Health Research on Implementation and Sustainability.
    Kukka, Antti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Global Health Research on Implementation and Sustainability.
    Complex medical intervention does not imply effectiveness: contrasting results of two recent multi-country intervention trials WHO immediate kangaroo mother care and HELIX therapeutic hypothermia.2022In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 107, no 3, p. 209-210, article id archdischild-2021-323004Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30. Langusch, Catherine C
    et al.
    Norlén, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Titmuss, Angela
    Donoghue, Kim
    Holland, Andrew J A
    Shun, Albert
    Delbridge, Leigh
    Focused image-guided parathyroidectomy in the current management of primary hyperparathyroidism.2015In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 100, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) in childhood and adolescence has been considered a different disease to that seen in adults, with predominantly familial aetiology mandating open exploration to exclude parathyroid hyperplasia in contrast to the adoption of focused image-guided parathyroidectomy (FP) in adults.

    STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study in a tertiary referral hospital setting of all children and adolescents (<18 years) undergoing parathyroid surgery for PHPT. Data were obtained from a dedicated endocrine surgery database and hospital medical records.

    RESULTS: Over the 35-year study period (1980-2014), there were 31 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for PHPT. 3 patients were from known multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1) families, 3 had an isolated family history of PHPT and 25 were sporadic. In the sporadic group, 24 (96%) presented with symptomatic hypercalcaemia, affecting the gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, genitourinary or neuropsychiatric systems. In the 25 patients with sporadic PHPT, nine (36%) had FP with a single adenoma removed with a 100% initial cure rate. Sixteen patients (64%) in the sporadic group had an open exploration: 14 had single gland disease while 2 patients required a second procedure to achieve a final cure rate of 100%. Of the three patients with MEN1, one was cured, one has persistent hyperparathyroidism after FP and the third has permanent hypoparathyroidism after open exploration.

    CONCLUSIONS: The majority of children and adolescents with PHPT have symptomatic disease due to a single adenoma. They can therefore be managed in a similar fashion to their adult counterparts with preoperative localisation studies aiming to permit FP in a day case setting.

  • 31.
    Larsson, Sara Marie
    et al.
    Halland Hosp, Dept Clin Chem, S-30185 Halmstad, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Paediat, Lund, Sweden..
    Hellström-Westas, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research.
    Hillarp, Andreas
    Lund Univ, Dept Translat Med, Lund, Sweden..
    Åkeson, Pia Karlsland
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Malmö, Prevent Paediat, Lund, Sweden..
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Paediat, Umeå, Sweden..
    Askelöf, Ulrica
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Div Obstet & Gynecol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Götherström, Cecilia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Div Obstet & Gynecol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Andersson, Ola
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Paediat, Lund, Sweden..
    Haemoglobin and red blood cell reference intervals during infancy2022In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 107, p. 351-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: There is a need for updated haematological reference data in infancy. This study aimed to define intervals for haemoglobin and red blood cell biomarkers based on data from a large cohort of longitudinally followed Swedish infants.

    Design: Longitudinal cohort study.

    Setting: Two Swedish study centres.

    Participants: Three community-based populations including 442 presumably healthy infants born at term and with umbilical cord clamping delayed to 30 s or more after birth.

    Methods: Blood samples were collected from umbilical cord blood (a), at 48-118 hours (b), at 4 months (c) and at 12 months (d). Reference intervals as the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles were calculated in coherence with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.

    Results: Reference intervals for haemoglobin (g/L) were: (a) 116-189, (b) 147-218, (c) 99-130, (d) 104-134, and for mean cell volume (fL): (a) 97-118, (b) 91-107, (c) 71-85, (d) 70-83. Reference intervals for erythrocyte counts, reticulocyte counts, reticulocyte haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin and mean cell haemoglobin concentration were also estimated. According to the WHO definition of anaemia, a haemoglobin value less than 110 g/L, 16% of this presumably healthy cohort could be classified as anaemic at 12 months.

    Conclusion: We found mainly narrower reference intervals compared with previously published studies. The reference intervals for each parameter varied according to the infants' age, demonstrating the necessity of age definitions when presenting infant reference intervals. The discrepancy with the WHO classification for anaemia at 12 months, despite favourable conditions in infancy, needs future investigation.

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  • 32.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Abolishing inequity, a necessity for poverty reduction and the realisation of child mortality targets2015In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 100 Suppl 1, p. S5-S9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first Millennium Development Goal (MDG 1) due in 2015 concerns poverty reduction. It has been claimed to be fulfilled on a global level, but still more than 1 billion people are living in abject poverty. There is a strong link between the economy and child survival, and only a minority of countries will have reached the MDG target for child mortality reduction by 2015. This paper discusses the relationship between poverty and child survival. It argues that a focus on equity is necessary to further reduce child mortality, through poverty reduction in absolute terms and also through targeting interventions for increased child survival to disadvantaged populations. The political will to actually achieve real change for those in greatest need is crucial but not to be taken for granted, and the distribution rather than the generation of wealth needs to be made a priority in the post-MDG era.

  • 33. Petridou, E
    et al.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Athens University Medical School, Greece.
    Lescohier, I
    Trichopoulos, D
    Car restraints and seating position for prevention of motor vehicle injuries in Greece1998In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 78, no 4, p. 335-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The protective effect of child restraint and the relative safety of front and rear seating in a population where children often travel unrestrained was assessed in a population based case-control study. The cases were all 129 children aged 0-11 years injured as car passengers in a motor vehicle accident who contacted, during 1996, one of the two major children's hospitals in Athens; emergency cases are accepted by the two hospitals on alternate days throughout the year, thus generating a random sample of children injured as car passengers. The prevalence of the studied exposures in the study base was estimated from an inspection survey comprising a random sample of 191 children of the same age who travelled in passenger cars. The survey was conducted by medical staff from our centre in collaboration with the road traffic police. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated after adjustment for confounding factors through the Mantel-Haenszel procedure. The OR for injury was 3.3 among unrestrained children compared with restrained children (comparison essentially limited to children aged 0-4 years) and 5.0 for children seated in the front compared with those seated in the rear (comparison essentially limited among unrestrained children). Protective effect estimates derived from this analytical study suggest that in Greece about two thirds of all childhood injuries from car crashes could have been avoided through the regular use of a proper child restraint. The data also indicate that, in the absence of a child restraint system, a rear seating position conveys substantial protection and could explain the low mortality of children as car passengers in Greece, a country which is characterised by a high overall road traffic mortality as well as a high childhood accident mortality.

  • 34.
    Scott-Jupp, Robert
    et al.
    Salisbury Dist Hosp, Childrens Unit, Salisbury, Wilts, England..
    Brown, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Int MaternLänssjukhuset Gävle Sandviken, Dept Paediat, Gävle, Sweden..
    Stenson, Ben J.
    Royal Infirm Edinburgh NHS Trust, Simpson Ctr Reprod Hlth, Neonatal Unit, Neonatol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Martin Ward Platt 1954-2019: a tribute2020In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 105, no 9, p. 815-816Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35. Scott-Jupp, Robert
    et al.
    Carter, Emily
    Brown, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition. Department of Paediatrics, Länssjukhuset Gävle-Sandviken, Gävle, Sweden.
    Effects of consultant residence out-of-hours on acute paediatric admissions2020In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 105, no 7, p. 661-663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acute paediatric units require round-the-clock skilled resident medical cover. Fully trained doctors remaining resident on-site at night and weekends may improve care at these times, but costs are higher. In compensation, more senior doctors may be less likely to admit children.

    METHODS: In a unit providing 24-hour, 7-day acute services, out-of-hours resident cover has been divided between level 2/3 trainees and consultants. Between 2007 and 2017, night and weekend day shifts were identified as resident consultant or non-resident consultant. Admission numbers (duration of stay of ≥4 hours) were obtained from hospital activity databases. Analyses were undertaken on total admissions and stratified by time of day and duration of stay of >12 or < 12 hours. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were derived using negative binomial regression .

    RESULTS: For all out-of-hours and short-stay patients, children were significantly more likely to be admitted when there was no resident consultant: IRRs 1.07 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.09) and 1.09 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.18), respectively. There was no difference between rates stratified into long stay at night or weekend days: IRRs 1.01 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.07) and 1.03 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.18) respectively .

    CONCLUSION: A resident consultant presence was associated with reduced total, night-time and short-stay admissions.

  • 36. Sommerfelt, K
    et al.
    Andersson, HW
    Sonnander, K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Ahlsten, G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Ellertsen, B
    Markestad, T
    Jacobsen, G
    Hoffman, HJ
    Bakketeig, L
    Cognitive development of term small for gestational age children of five years of age2000In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 83, no 1, p. 25-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM

    To assess the relative significance for cognitive development of small for gestational age, parental demographic factors, and factors related to the child rearing environment.

    METHODS

    IQ of a population based cohort of 338 term infants who were small for gestational age (SGA) and without major handicap, and a random control sample of 335 appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants were compared at 5 years of age.

    RESULTS

    The mean non-verbal IQ was four points lower, while the mean verbal IQ was three points lower for the children in the SGA group. The results were not confounded by parental demographic or child rearing factors. However, parental factors, including maternal non-verbal problem solving abilities, and child rearing style, accounted for 20% of the variance in non-verbal IQ, while SGA versus AGA status accounted for only 2%. The comparable numbers for verbal IQ were 30 and 1%. Furthermore, we found no evidence that the cognitive development of SGA children was more sensitive to a non-optimal child rearing environment than that of AGA children. Maternal smoking at conception was associated with a reduction in mean IQ comparable to that found for SGA status, and this effect was the same for SGA and AGA children. The cognitive function of asymmetric SGA was comparable to that of symmetric SGA children.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Our findings indicate that child cognitive development is strongly associated with parental factors, but only marginally associated with intrauterine growth retardation.

  • 37.
    Wiklund, Lars
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Ronquist, G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    George, Mary
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Ammonia: not the culprit2001In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 84, no 6, p. 525-533Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Åsling Monemi, Kajsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Tabassum Naved, Ruchira
    Persson, Lars Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Violence against women increases the risk of foetal and early childhood growth impairment: A cohort study in rural Bangladesh2009In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 94, p. 775-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    To assess whether different forms of family violence against women were associated with impaired size at birth and early childhood growth.

    METHODS:

    A substudy embedded into a community-based food and micronutrient supplementation trial (MINIMat) of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh included a 2-year follow-up of the 3164 live-born children of participating women. Anthropometric data were collected from birth up to 24 months of age, and converted to WHO growth standard SD scores. Size at birth and early childhood growth were assessed in relation to women's exposure to physical, sexual and emotional violence and the level of controlling behaviour in the family.

    RESULTS:

    Fifty per cent of all women reported a lifetime experience of some form of family violence. The mean birth weight was 2701 g, 30% were low birth weight (<2500 g), mean birth length was 47.8 cm (17.5%, <or=2 SD) and at 24 months of age 37% were underweight and 50% of the children were stunted. Exposure to any form of violence was negatively associated with weight and length at birth and weight-for-age and height-for-age SD scores at 24 months of age, as well as a change in weight and height SD score from birth to 24 months of age (p<0.05, adjusted for potential confounders).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Violence against women was associated with an increased risk of fetal and early childhood growth impairment, adding to the multitude of confirmed and plausible health consequences caused by this problem.

  • 39.
    Åsling-Monemi, Kajsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Naved, R .T.
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Violence against women and the risk of fetal and early childhood growth impairment: a cohort study in rural Bangladesh2009In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 94, no 10, p. 775-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether different forms of family violence against women were associated with impaired size at birth and early childhood growth. METHODS: A substudy embedded into a community-based food and micronutrient supplementation trial (MINIMat) of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh included a 2-year follow-up of the 3164 live-born children of participating women. Anthropometric data were collected from birth up to 24 months of age, and converted to WHO growth standard SD scores. Size at birth and early childhood growth were assessed in relation to women's exposure to physical, sexual and emotional violence and the level of controlling behaviour in the family. RESULTS: Fifty per cent of all women reported a lifetime experience of some form of family violence. The mean birth weight was 2701 g, 30% were low birth weight (<2500 g), mean birth length was 47.8 cm (17.5%, <0.05, adjusted for potential confounders). CONCLUSIONS: Violence against women was associated with an increased risk of fetal and early childhood growth impairment, adding to the multitude of confirmed and plausible health consequences caused by this problem.

  • 40. Åström, Eva
    et al.
    Jorulf, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology.
    Söderhäll, Stefan
    Intravenous pamidronate treatment of infants with severe osteogenesis imperfecta2007In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 92, no 4, p. 332-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Children with the severe forms of osteogenesis imperfecta have in several studies been treated with intravenous pamidronate, but there are only few reports of the effect of early treatment.

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of treatment started in infancy.

    Methods: In a prospective observational study, with a historic control group, intravenous disodium pamidronate (APD) was given as monthly infusions to 11 children with osteogenesis imperfecta aged 3–13 (median 3.6) months, who had severe osteogenesis imperfecta with congenital bowing of the femora and vertebral compression fractures.

    Results: During treatment of children aged between 3 and 6 (median 4.5) years, dual-energy x ray absorptiometry measurements of the lumbar spine showed a gradual increase in bone density. Bone metabolism parameters in serum (alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, procollagen 1 carboxy-terminal peptide, collagen 1 teleopeptide) and in urine (deoxypyridinoline) indicated a decrease in bone turnover. An improvement of mobility was seen and at the latest recording, at the age of 3.3–6.5 (median 4.8) years, the children could all walk. Vertebral remodelling was seen, with increased vertebral height, and no child developed scoliosis, kyphosis or basilar impression. All children required femoral intramedullar rods for fractures, and five needed tibial rodding for extreme curvatures that prevented functional standing and walking. No adverse effects were seen on growth, fracture healing or blood chemistry.

    Conclusions: APD is an efficient symptomatic treatment for infants with severe osteogenesis imperfecta, but additional orthopaedic surgery is often needed. Early treatment may prevent scoliosis and basilar impression. Long-term follow-up is important.

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