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  • 1. Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Bladh, Marie
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    A Biopsychosocial Approach to Risk and Resilience on Behavior in Children Followed from Birth to Age 122017In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 584-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems calls for more knowledge into factors associated with resilience. The present study used multiple statistical methodologies to examine a biopsychosocial model of risk and resilience on preadolescence behavior. Data from 889 children and mothers from a birth cohort were used. An adversity score was created by combining maternal symptoms of depression, psychosocial risk and children's experiences of life events. The proposed resilience factors investigated were candidate genetic polymorphisms, child temperament, social functioning, and maternal sense of coherence. The l/l genotype of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region was associated with lower internalizing scores, but not mainly related to the level of adversity. An easy temperament was associated with resilience for children exposed to high adversity. Social functioning was found to be promotive independent of the risk level. The results support a multiple-level model of resilience indicating effects, though small, of both biological and psychosocial factors.

  • 2.
    Dahlberg, Anton
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    Karolinska Institute.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Salari, Raziye
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    SDQ in the Hands of Fathers and Preschool Teachers: Psychometric Properties in a Non-clinical Sample of 3-5-Year-Olds2019In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 132-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a well-established instrument for measuring social and behavioural problems among children, with good psychometric properties for older children, but less validity reports on pre-schoolers. In addition, there is a knowledge gap concerning fathers as informants. The present work is one of the few validity studies to include preschool teachers and the first on preschool children where fathers are included as separate informants. In this study, SDQs were collected from a large community sample (n = 17,752) of children aged 3-5, rated by mothers, fathers, and preschool teachers and analysed using confirmatory factor analysis. Our results revealed acceptable fit for all informant groups and measurement invariance across child gender, child age, and parental education level. Our findings suggest good construct validity of the SDQ for a non-clinical preschool population and imply that it may be used for assessing child behaviour problems from different informant perspectives.

  • 3. Frey, Ariel
    et al.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Martin, Andrés
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Adolescents in transition: school and family characteristics in the development of violent behaviors entering high school.2009In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents are vulnerable to becoming involved in problematic behaviors, disengaging academically, and dropping out of school. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of self-perceived school attachment and family involvement on the development of these negative behaviors during adolescence. The Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) survey was conducted among 652 predominantly minority, inner-city adolescents during their transition from middle to high school in order to examine school attachment, perceived teacher support, parental control, and exposure to community violence as predictors of engagement in violent activities, development of aggressive beliefs, perception of school climate, and academic motivation one year later. Family and school factors appeared to be differentially associated with the negative outcomes. School attachment was associated with lower levels of violent delinquency and aggressive beliefs, as well as with academic motivation. Perceived teacher support was associated with positive perceptions of school climate and with academic motivation. Parental control was associated with lower levels of violent activity and with higher levels of academic motivation. Violence exposure was related to violent delinquency and negative perception of school climate. School attachment, teacher support, parental control, and violence exposure must all be incorporated into school reform efforts intended to break the inner city cycle of violence.

  • 4.
    Giannotta, Fabrizia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Prospective Links Between Hyperactive/Impulsive, Inattentive, and Oppositional-Defiant Behaviors in Childhood and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence: The Moderating Influence of Gender and the Parent–Child Relationship Quality2016In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 857-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We prospectively investigated the effect of child hyperactive/impulsive, inattentive, and oppositional/defiant behaviors on the development of youth antisocial behaviors, and the moderating influence of gender and the parent-child relationship quality in a normative sample. Participants (N = 673, 50 % girls) were assessed at 10 years of age (parent reports) and at age 15 (parent and adolescent reports). Using latent change models, we found that initial levels of, as well as increases in, hyperactivity/impulsivity and oppositional behaviors and initial levels of inattention behaviors predicted youth antisocial behaviors. The increase in oppositional behaviors was predictive of youth antisocial behaviors in girls only. Child hyperactive/impulsive behaviors predicted youth antisocial behaviors only in children for whom the quality of the parent-child relationship deteriorated from childhood to adolescence. Thus, both initial levels of and increases in disruptive behaviors as well as gender are important for understanding the development of antisocial behaviors in adolescence. We received partial support for the hypothesized, moderating role of a high-quality parent-child relationship.

  • 5. Horowitz, Laura
    et al.
    Westlund, Karolina
    Ljungberg, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centrum för klinisk forskning i D län (CKFD).
    Aggression and withdrawal related behavior within conflict management progression in preschool boys with language impairment2007In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 237-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective This study examined conflict behavior in naturalistic preschool settings to better understand the role of non-affiliative behavior and language in conflict management. Method Free-play at preschool was filmed among 20 boys with typically developing language (TL) and among 11 boys with Language Impairment (LI); the boys 4-7 years old. Conflict behavior was coded and analyzed with a validated system. Post-conflict non-affiliative behavior (aggression and withdrawal) displays, and the links between the displays and reconciliation (i.e., former opponents exchange friendly behavioral shortly after conflict termination) was examined. Results Group comparisons revealed boys with LI displayed aggression in a smaller share of conflicts, but exhibited 'active' withdrawal (left the room), in a larger conflict share. Boys with TL overcame aggression (more common TL behavior) and after reconciled, to a greater extent than the boys with LI after active withdrawal (more common LI behavior). Also, after reciprocal or only verbal aggression, boys with LI reconciled to a lesser extent than boys with TL. Conclusions The boys with LI demonstrated difficulties confronting conflict management, as well as concluding emotionally heightened and aggressive behavioral turns.

  • 6.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Stickley, Andrew
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Risk and Protective Factors for Problematic Drinking in Early Adolescence: A Systematic Approach.2019In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol use during early adolescence is associated with other risk behaviors as well as future health problems. Within the design of a larger prospective research program, a cohort of U.S. inner-city sixth-grade students (N = 1573, mean age = 12.10) were assessed and reassessed in the seventh-grade. Self-reported information was obtained on problems related to alcohol, fixed markers of risk (e.g. sex, age, SES), individual and interpersonal factors (e.g. internalizing and externalizing symptoms) and contextual factors (e.g. substance availability). Alcohol-related problems in seventh grade were foremost predicted by individual and interpersonal factors in the sixth grade including depressive symptoms, conduct problems, a decreased perception of wrongdoing, and affiliation with delinquent peers. In addition, alcohol use in the sixth grade and being of Hispanic or White ethnicity was also associated with subsequent alcohol-related problems. Interventions should be directed towards assessing and treating individual risk factors such as depression and externalizing symptoms.

  • 7. Ruchkin, Vladislav
    et al.
    Gilliam, Walter S
    Mayes, Linda
    Developmental pathway modeling in considering behavior problems in young Russian children.2008In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 49-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In planning interventions it is essential to understand how adverse risk factors in early childhood are associated with child mental health problems, whether some types of problems can be better explained by the specific risk factors, and whether early risk factors are differently related to different types of child behavior problems. A community sample of 692 1.5-3.5-year-old children from Northern Russia was assessed by means of maternal reports. The study compared two models for the development of internalizing (withdrawn, anxious/depressed) and externalizing (aggressive, destructive) behavior problems in relation to the same early risk factors using structural equation modeling. Findings suggested that the development of these problems is related to maternal psychological problems and alcohol use during pregnancy, and mediated by the continuing maternal and family dysfunction and compromised postnatal condition of the child. Results indicated good model fit for both internalizing and externalizing problems, and neither of the models fit significantly better than the other. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding developmental risk and informing intervention and prevention efforts.

  • 8.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Yale Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Child Study, 333 Cedar St, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.;Sater Forens Psychiat Clin, S-78327 Sater, Sweden..
    Koposov, Roman A.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Reg Ctr Child & Youth Mental Hlth & Welf, Tromso, Norway..
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Univ Barcelona, Fundacio St Joan de Deu, Parc Sanitari St Joan de Deu,Dr Antoni Pujades 42, Barcelona 08830, Spain.;Inst Salud Carlos III, Ctr Invest Biomed Red Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Monforte Lemos 3-5 Pabellon 11, Madrid 28029, Spain..
    Stickley, Andrew
    Natl Inst Mental Hlth, Dept Child & Adolescent Mental Hlth, NCNP, 4-1-1 Ogawahigashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 1878553, Japan.;Sodertorn Univ, Stockholm Ctr Hlth & Social Change SCOHOST, S-14189 Huddinge, Sweden.;Univ Tokyo, Grad Sch Med, Dept Human Ecol, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 1130033, Japan..
    Suicidal Behavior in Juvenile Delinquents: The Role of ADHD and Other Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders2017In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 691-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the role of psychiatric morbidity in relation to a history of suicidal behavior, with a particular focus on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Suicidality and psychiatric diagnoses were assessed in 370 incarcerated male juvenile delinquents from Northern Russia using the semi-structured K-SADS-PL psychiatric interview. A lifetime history of suicidal ideation only (24.7 %) and suicidal ideation with suicide attempts (15.7 %) was common. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the role of ADHD and other psychiatric disorders in suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. A history of suicidal ideation and of suicide attempts were associated with higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and with the number of comorbid psychiatric disorders. An ADHD diagnosis was associated with an increased risk for both suicidal ideation and for suicide attempts. The comorbidity of ADHD with drug dependence further increased the risk for suicidal ideation, while ADHD and alcohol dependence comorbidity increased the risk for suicide attempts. Our findings highlight the importance of adequately detecting and treating psychiatric disorders in vulnerable youths, especially when they are comorbid with ADHD.

  • 9.
    Salari, Raziye
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Division of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Stockholm Brain Institute, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rydell, Ann-Margret
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorell, Lisa
    Division of Psychology, Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Stockholm Brain Institute, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Neuropsychological functioning and attachment representations in early school age as predictors of ADHD symptoms in late adolescence2017In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 370-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine relations between parent and child attachment representations and neuropsychological functions at age 8, as well as relations between these constructs and ADHD symptoms over a 10-year period. A community-based sample of 105 children (52 boys) participated. Measures of attachment representations and a range of neuropsychological functions were collected at age 8. Parents rated emotion dysregulation and ADHD symptoms at age 8 and ADHD symptoms again at age 18. Significant, although modest, relations were found between disorganized attachment and some aspects of neuropsychological functioning in childhood. When studying outcomes in late adolescence and controlling for early ADHD symptom levels, spatial working memory and disorganized attachment remained significant in relation to both ADHD symptom domains, and one measure of inhibition remained significant for hyperactivity/impulsivity. When examining independent effects, spatial working memory and disorganized attachment were related to inattention, whereas spatial working memory and dysregulation of happiness/exuberance were related to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our findings showing that disorganized attachment is longitudinally related to ADHD symptoms over and above the influence of both neuropsychological functioning and early ADHD symptom levels highlights the importance of including measures of attachment representations when trying to understand the development of ADHD symptoms. If replicated in more “at-risk” samples, these findings could also suggest that parent–child attachment should be taken into consideration when children are referred for assessment and treatment of ADHD.

  • 10. Schwab-Stone, Mary
    et al.
    Koposov, Roman
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Cross-Cultural Findings on Community Violence Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology: Comparing Adolescents in the United States, Russia, and Belgium2013In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 516-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to investigate cross-cultural differences in the relation between community violence and psychopathology. A self-report survey was conducted in a representative sample of 3,309 14-17 year old adolescents from urban communities in the US (N = 1,343), Belgium (N = 946) and Russia (N = 1,009). In all three countries, boys reported higher prevalences of violence exposure and more victimization by community violence than girls. Controlling for involvement in antisocial behavior, levels of psychopathology increased along with severity of exposure to community violence (from no exposure to witnessing to victimization). The associations between community violence and internalizing problems were similar across countries and gender. Current findings suggest that the relationships between community violence and adolescent mental health are not culture bound and that they follow similar dynamics in different populations. Clinical implications and directions are discussed.

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