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  • 1. Agnafors, S.
    et al.
    Sydsjö, G.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Bladh, M.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Svedin, C.
    Behaviour problems in children-a longitudinal study of genetic and environmental factors2015In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, p. S35-S35Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Ahmad, Abdulbaghi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Sofi, MA
    Department of Psychiatry Erbil University Hospital Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan, IQ .
    Sundelin Wahlsten, Viveka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    von Knorring, Anne-Liis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Posttraumatic stress disorder in children after the military operation "Anfal" in Iraqi Kurdistan2000In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 235-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Five years after the military operation “Anfal” in Iraqi Kurdistan, 45 families were randomly selected among the survivors in two displacement camps. The Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms for Children (PTSS-C) and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) were administered to the oldest child and the caregiver in each family, respectively. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was reported in 87% of children and 60% of their caregivers. While childhood PTSD was only significantly predicted by child trauma score and the duration of captivity, it was neither predicted by maternal PTSD nor did it disappear after the reunion with the PTSD-free father. However, the small sample size makes the results hypotheses rather than conclusive.

  • 3.
    Ahmad, Abdulbaghi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Sundelin Wahlsten, Viveka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Applying EMDR on children with PTSD2008In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 127-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To find out child-adjusted protocol for eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Method Child-adjusted modification were made in the original adult-based protocol, and within- session measurements, when EMDR was used in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) on thirty-three 6-16-year-old children with post-traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD). Results EMDR was applicable after certain modifications adjusted to the age and developmental level of the child. The average treatment effect size was largest on re-experiencing, and smallest on hyperarousal scale. The age of the child yielded no significant effects on the dependent variables in the study. Conclusions A child-adjusted protocol for EMDR is suggested after being applied in a RCT for PTSD among traumatized and psychosocially exposed children.

  • 4.
    Ahmad, Abdulbaghi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Sundelin Wahlsten, Viveka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Sofi, MA
    Qahar, JA
    von Knorring, Anne-Liis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Reliability and validity of a child-specific cross-cultural instrument for assessing posttraumatic stress disorder2000In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 285-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children (PTSS-C) was developed as a cross-cultural semi-structured interview to diagnose posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to identify PTSD-non-related posttraumatic stress symptoms in children after various traumatic experiences. The psychometric properties were studied in two different child populations in Iraqi Kurdistan (the survivors of the military operation “Anfal”, and the orphans), in a sample of Kurdistanian refugee children in Sweden, and in a comparison sample of Swedish children. The instrument yielded satisfactory internal consistency, high interrater agreement, and excellent validity on cross-validation with the Child Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (CPTSD-RI) and the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DICA) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).

  • 5. Bolte, Sven
    et al.
    Marschik, Peter B.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Charman, Tony
    Roeyers, Herbert
    Elsabbagh, Mayada
    Infants at risk for autism: a European perspective on current status, challenges and opportunities2013In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 341-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, autism cannot be reliably diagnosed before the age of 2 years, which is why longitudinal studies of high-risk populations provide the potential to generate unique knowledge about the development of autism during infancy and toddlerhood prior to symptom onset. Early autism research is an evolving field in child psychiatric science. Key objectives are fine mapping of neurodevelopmental trajectories and identifying biomarkers to improve risk assessment, diagnosis and treatment. ESSEA (Enhancing the Scientific Study of Early Autism) is a COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action striving to create a European collaboration to enhance the progress of the discovery and treatment of the earliest signs of autism, and to establish European practice guidelines on early identification and intervention by bringing together European expertise from cognitive neuroscience and clinical sciences. The objective of this article is to clarify the state of current European research on at-risk autism research, and to support the understanding of different contexts in which the research is being conducted. We present ESSEA survey data on ongoing European high-risk ASD studies, as well as perceived challenges and opportunities in this field of research. We conclude that although high-risk autism research in Europe faces several challenges, the existence of several key factors (e.g., new and/or large-scale autism grants, availability of new technologies, and involvement of experienced research groups) lead us to expect substantial scientific and clinical developments in Europe in this field during the next few years.

  • 6.
    Comasco, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Agnafors, Sara
    Aho, Nikolas
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Psychiatric Symptoms in Adolescents: FKBP5 Genotype Early Life Adversity Interaction effects2015In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 1473-1483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychiatric disorders are multi-factorial and their symptoms overlap. Constitutional and environmental factors influence each other, and this contributes to risk and resilience in mental ill-health. We investigated functional genetic variation of stress responsiveness, assessed as FKBP5genotype, in relation to early life adversity and mental health in two samples of adolescents. One population-based sample of 909 12-year-old adolescents was assessed using the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events scale and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. One sample of 398 17-year-old adolescents, enriched for poly-victimized individuals (USSS), was assessed using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC). TheFKBP5 rs1360780 and rs3800373 polymorphisms were genotyped using a fluorescence-based competitive allele-specific PCR. Most prominently among poly-victimized older male adolescents, the least common alleles of the polymorphisms, in interaction with adverse life events, were associated with psychiatric symptoms, after controlling for ethno-socio-economic factors. The interaction effect between rs3800373 and adverse life events on the TSCC sub-scales-anxiety, depression, anger, and dissociation-and with the rs1360780 on dissociation in the USSS cohort remained significant after Bonferroni correction. This pattern of association is in line with the findings of clinical and neuroimaging studies, and implies interactive effects of FKBP5 polymorphisms and early life environment on several psychiatric symptoms. These correlates add up to provide constructs that are relevant to several psychiatric symptoms, and to identify early predictors of mental ill-health.

  • 7. Hodgins, Sheilagh
    et al.
    Lövenhag, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Rehn, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    A 5-year follow-up study of adolescents who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden2014In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 347-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that substance misuse in adolescence is associated with increased risks of hospitalizations for mental and physical disorders, convictions for crimes, poverty, and premature death from age 21 to 50. The present study examined 180 adolescent boys and girls who sought treatment for substance misuse in Sweden. The adolescents and their parents were assessed independently when the adolescents first contacted the clinic to diagnose mental disorders and collect information on maltreatment and antisocial behavior. Official criminal files were obtained. Five years later, 147 of the ex-clients again completed similar assessments. The objectives were (1) to document the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and drug use disorders (DUD) in early adulthood; and (2) to identify family and individual factors measured in adolescence that predicted these disorders, after taking account of AUD and DUD in adolescence and treatment. Results showed that AUD, DUD, and AUD + DUD present in mid-adolescence were in most cases also present in early adulthood. Prediction models detected no positive effect of treatment in limiting persistence of these disorders. Thus, treatment-as-usual provided by the only psychiatric service for adolescents with substance misuse in a large urban center in Sweden failed to prevent the persistence of substance misuse. Despite extensive clinical assessments of the ex-clients and their parents, few factors assessed in mid-adolescence were associated with substance misuse disorders 5 years later. It may be that family and individual factors in early life promote the mental disorders that precede adolescent substance misuse.

  • 8.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Early psychosocial adversity and cortisol levels in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder2013In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 425-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies suggest a different regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with lower diurnal cortisol levels, especially in the morning, in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with controls. Since exposure to foetal and childhood psychosocial adversity has been associated with both ADHD and HPA-axis functioning, such exposures may explain these low cortisol levels in ADHD via early programming of the HPA-axis. Thus, our main aim was to retrospectively study foetal and early childhood exposures to psychosocial adversity in children with ADHD and to relate these exposures to cortisol levels. Saliva samples were collected during a regular weekday in children, 6-17 years old, with clinically confirmed ADHD (n = 197) and non-affected comparisons (n = 221) for radioimmunoassay analysis of cortisol. Parental rating scales were used for categorising subtypes of ADHD and degree of exposure to adversity. Children with ADHD had more reports of at least one rated foetal adversity (p = 0.041) and childhood adversity (p < 0.001) than comparisons. The association between low morning cortisol levels and ADHD-symptoms remained when analyses were adjusted for adversities, age, sex, sampling time and symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder. No relation was found between exposures to foetal/childhood adversity and cortisol levels except for a positive relation between childhood adversity and cortisol morning increase in children with ADHD. The hypothesis that early adversity may influence the HPA-axis, leading to lower cortisol levels in children with ADHD, was not supported by our findings.

  • 9.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Kent W
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    The Pressure-Activation-Stress scale in relation to ADHD and cortisol2015In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 153-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pressure–Activation–Stress (PAS) scale is a self-report questionnaire for children concerning perceived stress. To explore behavioral and physiological correlates, we investigated if scores discriminate between a group prone to perceive high levels of stress [children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)] and a healthy school sample, and if they are associated with diurnal cortisol levels. The PAS scale was filled in at home by children (11–17 years) with clinically confirmed ADHD (n = 102) and non-affected comparisons (n = 146). Saliva samples were collected four times during a regular school day for radioimmunoassay analysis of cortisol. Subtypes and severity of ADHD symptoms were determined using parental rating scales. Children with ADHD scored higher on the PAS scale than a school sample. The PAS scores were similar over ages in the ADHD group while they increased with age in the healthy group. Female sex was associated with higher stress in both groups but no gender interaction was found. No association was found between PAS scores and cortisol levels in neither group. Children in the ADHD group had a lower ratio of cortisol levels/perceived stress on all sampling occasions, built up both by the higher PAS scores and the lower cortisol levels in children with ADHD. The higher PAS scores in children with ADHD support the validity of the scale. The lack of association between PAS scores and diurnal cortisol levels is intriguing and illustrates the complexity of the stress concept. Stress-related fragility seems to accompany ADHD during childhood.

  • 10.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Olsson, Nora Choque
    Coco, Christina
    Görling, Anders
    Flygare, Oskar
    Råde, Anna
    Chen, Qi
    Berggren, Steve
    Tammimies, Kristiina
    Bölte, Sven
    Long-term social skills group training for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled trial.2019In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 189-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social skills group training (SSGT) is widely used for intellectually able children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies indicate small to moderate effects on social communication capacities. The duration of most available programs is relatively short, and extended training might lead to further improvement. This randomized controlled trial compared an extended 24-week version of the SSGT program KONTAKT with standard care. The weekly sessions gradually shifted in content from acquisition of new skills to real-world application of the acquired skills. A total of 50 participants with ASD (15 females; 35 males) aged 8-17 years were included. The study was conducted at two child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient units in Sweden. The primary outcome was the Social Responsiveness Scale-Second Edition (SRS-2) rated by parents and blinded teachers. Secondary outcomes included parent- and teacher-rated adaptive behaviors, trainer-rated global functioning and clinical severity, and self-reported child and caregiver stress. Assessments were made at baseline, posttreatment, and at 3-months follow-up. Parent-rated SRS-2 scores indicated large effects posttreatment [- 19.2; 95% CI - 29.9 to - 8.5; p < .001, effect size (ES) = 0.76], which were maintained at follow-up (- 20.7; 95% CI - 31.7 to - 9.7; p < .0001, ES = 0.82). These estimates indicate substantially larger improvement than previously reported for shorter SSGT. However, the effects on teacher-rated SRS-2 and most secondary outcomes did not reach statistical significance. Our results suggest added benefits of extended SSGT training, implying that service providers might reach better results by optimizing the delivery of SSGT.

  • 11.
    Karlsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Risk and protective factors for peer victimization: a 1-year follow-up study of urban American students2014In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 773-781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined whether internalizing problems, parental warmth and teacher support were associated with adolescents' experience of future peer victimization in school. Data were drawn from two rounds of the longitudinal Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Study subjects comprised 593 US urban adolescents (aged 13.8 ± 0.8 years; 56 % female). Results showed that there was a substantial degree of continuity in peer victimization over a 1-year period. The presence of internalizing (anxiety, depressive and somatic) symptoms at baseline was associated with an increased risk of peer victimization over time. Both parental warmth and teacher support were uniquely associated with a lower risk for peer victimization. Implications of these findings for prevention efforts are discussed.

  • 12. Koposov, Roman A
    et al.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Eisemann, Martin
    Sidorov, Pavel I
    Alcohol abuse in Russian delinquent adolescents. Associations with comorbid psychopathology, personality and parenting.2005In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 254-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Adolescent delinquency and alcohol abuse have become a growing concern in Russia. Psychopathology, a dysfunctional family and specific personality factors have all been linked to addictive and antisocial behavior. Since delinquent youth represent a specific risk group, where alcohol misuse tends to be more pronounced than in the general population, the objectives of this study were: 1) to compare differences in personality and parenting factors, and in psychopathology in juvenile delinquents with and without alcohol abuse; and 2) to evaluate the associations between alcohol abuse, personality and parenting factors, after controlling for comorbid psychopathology.

    METHODS: Psychopathology, including alcohol abuse, was assessed by means of a psychiatric interview in 229 Russian incarcerated male juvenile delinquents. In addition, alcohol use, personality, and parenting factors were assessed by self-reports.

    RESULTS: Alcohol-abusing delinquents (n=138) scored significantly higher on novelty seeking and maternal emotional warmth and reported higher levels of psychopathology, as compared to nonalcohol-abusing delinquents (n=91). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that personality and parenting factors were significantly related to alcohol abuse, even after controlling for comorbid psychopathology.

    CONCLUSION: Alcohol-abusing delinquents are at risk for a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Alcohol abuse is associated with personality and parenting factors independently of comorbid psychopathology. Early interventions with high-risk youths may help to reduce their psychiatric problems and alcohol abuse.

  • 13.
    Lindblad, Frank
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Dalén, Monica
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Vinnerljung, Bo
    Hjern, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    School performance of international adoptees better than expected from cognitive test results2009In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 301-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate school performance of international adoptees in relation to their cognitive competence. METHOD: From the population of all male Swedish residents born 1973-1976, registered in the census 1985 and with complete test scores from military conscription, the following study groups were identified: Korean adoptees (n = 320), non-Korean adoptees (n = 1,125), siblings (children born by adoptive parents, n = 190) and Swedish majority comparisons (n = 142,024). Global scores from intelligence tests at conscription were compared with grade points from the last compulsory school year (year 9). Linear and logistic regression was applied in statistical analyses. RESULTS: The mean grade points in theoretical subjects were lower in non-Korean adoptees than in the majority population, but when global test scores from military conscription were adjusted for, outcomes were significantly better, equal for physics, than in the majority population. The grade points of Korean adoptees were higher than in the majority population and the same held true after adjusting for global test scores. When SES was taken into account, the risk of poor school performance (only completed lower subject levels) increased in non-Korean adoptees compared to models only adjusted for age and sex. CONCLUSION: Male international adoptees generally perform better in school than expected by their cognitive competence. A cognitive evaluation is important in the assessment of adoptees with learning difficulties.

  • 14.
    Löfving-Gupta, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Willebrand, Mimmie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Koposov, Roman
    UiT, Reg Ctr Child & Youth Mental Hlth & Child Welf, Tromso, Norway.
    Blatny, Marek
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Inst Psychol, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Hrdlicka, Michal
    Charles Univ Prague, Fac Med 2, Univ Hosp Motol, Dept Child Psychiat, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Child Study, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Yale Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Child Study, New Haven, CT 06520 USA;Sater Forens Psychiat Clin, S-78327 Sater, Sweden.
    Community violence exposure and substance use: cross-cultural and gender perspectives2018In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 493-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The negative effects of community violence exposure on child and adolescent mental health are well documented and exposure to community violence has been linked both to a number of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Our aim was, therefore, to investigate cross-cultural and gender differences in the relationship between community violence exposure and substance abuse. A self-report survey was conducted among 10,575, 12-18 year old adolescents in three different countries, Czech Republic (N = 4537), Russia (N = 2377) and US (N = 3661). We found that in all three countries both substance use and problem behavior associated with it increased similarly along with severity of violence exposure and this association was not gender-specific. It was concluded that in spite of the differences in the levels of violence exposure and substance use cross-culturally and by gender, the pattern of their association is neither culturally nor gender bound.

  • 15.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Sonnby, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nordquist, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Comasco, Erica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Sjöberg, Richard L
    Transcription Factor Activating Protein-2β (TFAP-2β) genotype and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in relation to symptoms of depression in two independent samples2014In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 207-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Transcription Factor Activating Protein-2β (TFAP-2β) gene has been shown to influence monoaminergic neurotransmission, and several genes important for monoaminergic function have binding sites for TFAP-2β. Familial studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest a hereditary-determined subtype of ADHD with comorbid depression. We examined a functional variation of the TFAP-2β gene in the context of co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression in two independent population-based samples of adolescents (Group A, n = 175 and Group B, n = 1,506) from Sweden. Results indicated 6.1 to 7.8 % of adolescents screened positively for ADHD and depression symptoms. Symptoms of depression were more common among girls who screened positively for ADHD and did not carry the nine-repeat allele of the TFAP-2β intron 1 Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) polymorphism. The presence of the nine-repeat variant of the TFAP-2β intron 1 VNTR appears to protect girls with ADHD symptoms from the co-expression of symptoms of depression.

  • 16.
    Ramklint, Mia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    von Knorring, Anne-Liis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    von Knorring, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Personality disorders in former child psychiatric patients2002In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 11, p. 289-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present case-control study was undertaken in order to investigate the long-term outcome with respect to personality disorder (PD) symptomatology in former childpsychiatric in-patients as compared to matched controls from the general population. Altogether 359 former patients and 359 controls were invited to participate in the study. Of these, 164 (46%) former patients and 193 (54%) controls approved participation. From these, 137 age and sex-matched pairs with a mean age of 30.7 (SD = 6.8) years were constructed. Adult PD symptomatology was assessed by means of the DSM-IV and ICD-10 PersonalityQuestionnaire (DIP-Q). There were 52 former patients (38%) and 15 controls (10.9%) who fulfilled criteria for at least one DSM-IV self-reported PD. There was a significantly higher prevalence for all specific self-reported PDs in former patients compared to controls. The mean number of disorders was 1.7 (SD = 2.6) in former patients and 0.3 (SD = 0.8) incontrols. Moreover, former patients fulfilled more PD criteria than controls (23 vs. 11; median numbers). The former patients had significantly lower global functioning and more psychosocial problems than the controls. These problems were related to personalitypathology. The results of this study indicate that child psychiatric morbidity seems to increase the risk for adult PD symptomatology. However, the results may be biased by the low participation rate.

  • 17. Ruchkin, V V
    et al.
    Koposov, R A
    Eisemann, M
    Hägglöf, B
    Conduct problems in Russian adolescents: the role of personality and parental rearing.2001In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 19-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was 1) to assess the predictive value of conduct problems prior to the age of 12 for the severity of antisocial behaviour during adolescence, and 2) to investigate the relationships between personality traits/parental rearing and childhood conduct problems/teenage antisocial behaviour. A group of 193 delinquents was assessed by means of the Antisocial Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Retrospective Childhood Problems (RETROPROB), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the EMBU questionnaire on parental rearing. The extreme groups of delinquents as defined by childhood conduct problems, differed significantly on the experience of a rejecting father and a self-directed character. Furthermore, some specific predictive patterns for current antisocial behaviour by childhood conduct disorder and both personality dimensions and parental rearing factors emerged. The findings are discussed in the light of the interactive nature of relations between personality and parental rearing in the development of antisocial behaviour among adolescents.

  • 18. Samm, Algi
    et al.
    Värnik, Airi
    Tooding, Liina-Mai
    Sisask, Merike
    Kölves, Kairi
    von Knorring, Anne-Liis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Children's Depression Inventory in Estonia - Single items and factor structure by age and gender2008In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 162-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of study was to estimate the score of symptoms of depression with the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) among Estonian schoolchildren aged 7-13-year-old, according to age and gender differences, and to identify the components in factor analysis characterising self-reported childhood symptoms of depression. The applicability of the CDI in 7-year-old children was also estimated. The number of subjects in the study was 725 (342 girls and 383 boys), and the mean age was 10.2 (SD 1.7). The mean total score of the CDI for the whole sample was 9.96 (SD=6.3, range 0-39, median 9.0). The mean scores of symptoms of depression among children did not differ by gender or age. There were no significant differences in the CDI mean scores between 7-year-old compared to older schoolchildren in the present study. Factor analysis obtained five factors: anhedonia, ineffectiveness, negative self-esteem, negative mood and interpersonal problems. Significant gender and age differences were found: girls reported more symptoms of anhedonia and negative self-esteem, and boys reported more symptoms of ineffectiveness. Younger children reported more symptoms of anhedonia and ineffectiveness, and older children negative self-esteem. The study serves as baseline data before intervention of the EC project "European Alliance Against Depression''.

  • 19.
    Sampaio, Filipa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Barendregt, Jan J.
    Epigear International, Sunrise Beach, Australia; School of Public Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Feldman, Inna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Lee, Yong Yi
    Sawyer, Michael G.
    Dadds, Mark R.
    Scott, James G.
    Mihalopoulos, Cathrine
    Population cost-effectiveness of the Triple P parenting programme for the treatment of Conduct Disorder: an economic modelling study2018In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 933-944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parenting programmes are the recommended treatments of conduct disorders (CD) in children, but little is known about their longer term cost-effectiveness. This study aimed to evaluate the population cost-effectiveness of one of the most researched evidence-based parenting programmes, the Triple P—Positive Parenting Programme, delivered in a group and individual format, for the treatment of CD in children. A population-based multiple cohort decision analytic model was developed to estimate the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted of Triple P compared with a ‘no intervention’ scenario, using a health sector perspective. The model targeted a cohort of 5–9-year-old children with CD in Australia currently seeking treatment, and followed them until they reached adulthood (i.e., 18 years). Multivariate probabilistic and univariate sensitivity analyses were conducted to incorporate uncertainty in the model parameters. Triple P was cost-effective compared to no intervention at a threshold of AU$50,000 per DALY averted when delivered in a group format [incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) = $1013 per DALY averted; 95% uncertainty interval (UI) 471–1956] and in an individual format (ICER = $20,498 per DALY averted; 95% UI 11,146–39,470). Evidence-based parenting programmes, such as the Triple P, for the treatment of CD among children appear to represent good value for money, when delivered in a group or an individual face-to-face format, with the group format being the most cost-effective option. The current model can be used for economic evaluations of other interventions targeting CD and in other settings.

  • 20.
    Sampaio, Filipa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ssegonja, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nystrand, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Feldman, Inna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Health, public sector service use and related costs of Swedish preschool children: results from the Children and Parents in Focus trial2019In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 43-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite Sweden's good child health statistics, data on the mental health and wellbeing of Swedish preschool children is scarce and not routinely collected in healthcare. The study aimed to: identify the proportion of preschool children with mental health and somatic problems, the public sector services used by these children and whether they differ by type of problems, investigate whether other factors affect service use, and estimate the costs associated with these services. This study used cross-sectional data on a sample of 3175 children aged 3-5 from the "Children and Parents in Focus trial". Data on service use, child health and demographics were obtained from primary caregivers. Child mental health was assessed by both primary caregivers and teachers. 8.9% of the sample reported mental health problems, and approximately 1% had comorbid somatic and mental health problems. Over 50% of the preschoolers used any service, with school assistant being the most frequently used. The average annual cost per child, regardless of health status, was US$921, with 75% of the costs accruing at school. The presence of both somatic and mental health problems predicted higher service use, in particular extra services used at school and at home (mean annual cost US$13826 and US$1583, respectively). Children with comorbid problems accounted for the highest mean costs. Mental health problems among preschool children were particularly high compared to studies from other countries. There is a need to strengthen school mental health services to engage in proactive early identification of children with mental health problems so that appropriate care is provided.

    Trial registration number: ISRCTN16513449. Registered 23 July 2013.

  • 21.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Ådahl, Kajsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Stenvall, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Ssegonja, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Batti, Hemrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Gavra, Parthena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Fängström, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Salari, Raziye
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social medicine/CHAP.
    Teaching Recovery Techniques: evaluation of a group intervention for unaccompanied refugee minors with symptoms of PTSD in Sweden2018In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 467-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015, a total of 35,369 unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) sought asylum in Sweden. In a previous study of 208 URMs, we found that 76% screened positive for PTSD. This study aimed to (1) evaluate the indicated prevention program Teaching Recovery Techniques (TRT) in a community setting and describe the program's effects on symptoms of PTSD and depression in URMs; and (2) examine participants' experiences of the program. The study included 10 groups. Methods for evaluation included the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-8) and the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale Self-report (MADRS-S) at baseline and at post-intervention. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 participating URMs to elicit their experiences. Pre- and post-measures were available for 46 participants. At baseline, 83% of the participants reported moderate or severe depression and 48% suicidal ideation or plans. Although more than half (62%) of the participants reported negative life events during the study period, both PTSD (CRIES-8) and depression (MADRS-S) symptoms decreased significantly after the intervention (p = 0.017, 95% CI − 5.55; − 0.58; and p < 0.001, 95% CI − 8.94; − 2.88, respectively). The qualitative content analysis resulted in six overall categories: social support, normalisation, valuable tools, comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness when the youth described their experiences of the program, well reflecting TRT's program theory. Overall, results indicate that TRT, delivered in a community setting, is a promising indicated preventive intervention for URMs with PTSD symptoms. This successful evaluation should be followed up with a controlled study.

  • 22. Suk, Eefje
    et al.
    van Mill, Josine
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Doreleijers, Theo
    Deboutte, Dirk
    Adolescent suicidal ideation: a comparison of incarcerated and school-based samples.2009In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 377-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate suicidal ideations and associated psychopathology in two groups of adolescents, a sample of detained youth and a general population sample. In both groups the comparisons of mental health characteristics between suicidal ideators and non-suicidal youth were conducted separately for girls and boys.

    METHODS: The study sample consisted of 290 delinquent adolescents [228 boys and 62 girls] from three Flemish juvenile detention centers and 1,548 adolescents [811 boys and 737 girls] from an age-matched school-based sample. Both groups were administered the Social and Health Assessment [SAHA], a self-report survey investigating levels of psychopathology [internalizing and externalizing] and risk-taking behavior.

    RESULTS: Suicidal ideations during the past year were reported by 21.5% of detained males, compared to 6.7% in the general population. In females, 58.1% of detained individuals reported suicidal thoughts during the past year, compared to 14.4% of the general population. In girls and boys from the general population, both internalizing and externalizing problems were higher in suicidal ideators than in non-suicidal youth, while in the detention group mainly internalizing problems were higher in suicidal ideators. When comparing detention suicidal ideators with those from the general population, male suicidal ideators scored higher on delinquency, while detained female suicidal ideators also scored higher on posttraumatic stress, but lower on prosocial beliefs.

    LIMITATIONS: Information used in this study was solely based on self-report measures only and limited to Flemish adolescents.

    CONCLUSION: Since suicidal ideation is a frequent problem in detained youth, adequate recognition and treatment seems clinically relevant. While both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology may be an indicator of suicidal ideation in the general population, internalizing problems may be the main clinical predictor in detained youth.

  • 23. Vermeiren, R
    et al.
    Deboutte, D
    Ruchkin, V
    Yale Child Study Center.
    Schwab-Stone, M
    Antisocial behaviour and mental health. Findings from three communities.2002In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 168-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between antisocial behaviour and psychopathology (depression, somatization, anxiety), expectations for the future, and sensation seeking in adolescents.

    METHOD: A cross-national self-report study assessing 955 students in Antwerp (Belgium), 1026 in Arkhangelsk (Russia) and 1391 in New Haven (US) was conducted. Adolescents were assigned antisocial group status according to the nature of their reported deviant behaviour. A non-antisocial group, a moderate antisocial group (non-aggressive behaviour) and a severe antisocial group (mainly aggressive behaviour) were identified.

    RESULTS: In both genders and in all three countries, depression, somatization, negative expectations for the future and sensation seeking gradually increased from the non-antisocial group to the moderate antisocial group, and finally to the severe antisocial group. Levels of anxiety were insignificant across most groups.

    CONCLUSION: Although cross-national differences exist, the variables of interest showed markedly similar trends between antisocial groups across countries. The current study adds to the debate over the relationship between anxiety and antisocial behaviour.

  • 24.
    Vrettou, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Nilsson, Kent W
    Tuvblad, Catherine
    Rehn, Mattias
    Åslund, Cecilia
    Andershed, Anna-Karin
    Wallén-Mackenzie, Åsa
    Andershed, Henrik
    Hodgins, Sheilagh
    Nylander, Ingrid
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    VGLUT2 rs2290045 genotype moderates environmental sensitivity to alcohol-related problems in three samples of youths.2019In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 2 (VGLUT2)-mediated neurotransmission has been highlighted in studies on addiction-related phenotypes. The single nucleotide polymorphism rs2290045 in VGLUT2 has been associated with alcohol dependence, but it is unknown whether or how this association is affected by environmental factors. The present study determined whether the association of alcohol-related problems with the rs2290045 in the VGLUT2 gene was modified by negative and positive environmental factors. Three samples were included: a clinical sample of 131 adolescents followed from age 17 to 22; a general population sample of 1794 young adults; and a general population sample of 1687 adolescents followed from age 14 to 17. DNA was extracted from saliva and the rs2290045 (T/C) was genotyped. Alcohol-related problems were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Stressful life events (SLE) and parenting were assessed by questionnaires. Gene-environment interactions were investigated using a dual statistical approach. In all samples (effect sizes 0.6-6.2%), and consistent with the differential susceptibility framework, T carriers exposed to SLE reported more alcohol-related problems if they had experienced poor parenting, and lower alcohol-related problems if they had received supportive parenting. T carriers not exposed to SLE reported higher alcohol-related problems if they had received supportive parenting and lower alcohol-related problems if they had received poor parenting. Among CC carriers, alcohol-related problems did not vary as a function of negative and positive environmental factors. In conclusion, in three samples of youths, alcohol-related problems were associated with an interaction of VGLUT2 rs2290045, SLE, and parenting.

  • 25.
    Wennberg, Birgitta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Linköping, Sweden.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Research in Disability and Habilitation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Per A
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Linköping, Sweden.
    Effectiveness of time-related interventions in children with ADHD aged 9–15 years: a randomized controlled study2018In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 329-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Specific problems with time and timing that affect daily routines, homework, school work, and social relations have been recognized in children with ADHD. The primary treatments for children with ADHD do not specifically focus on time-related difficulties. The aim of this randomized controlled study (RCT) was to investigate how multimodal interventions, consisting of training in time-processing ability (TPA) and compensation with time-assistive devices (TAD), affect TPA and daily time management (DTM) in children with ADHD and time difficulties, compared with only educational intervention. Thirty-eight children on stable medication for ADHD in the 9-15-year age range were randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The children's TPA was measured with a structured assessment (KaTid), and the children's DTM was rated by a parent questionnaire (Time-Parent scale) and by children's self-reporting (Time-Self-rating). The intervention consisted of time-skill training and compensation with TAD. Data were analysed for differences in TPA and in DTM between the control and intervention groups in the 24-week follow-up. Children in the intervention group increased their TPA significantly (p = 0.019) more compared to the control group. The largest increase was in orientation to time. In addition, the parents in the intervention group rated their children's DTM as significantly (p = 0.01) improved compared with the parents in the control group. According to the children, their DTM was not significantly changed. In conclusion, a multimodal intervention consisting of time-skill training and TAD improved TPA and DTM in children with ADHD aged 9-15 years.

  • 26.
    Åslund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Starrin, Bengt
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Shaming experiences and the association between adolescent depression and psychosocial risk factors2007In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 298-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective  To investigate whether psychosocial risk factors such as parental separation, parental unemployment and experiences of sexual abuse are associated with adolescent depression, and whether shaming experiences (defined as experiences of being degraded, or ridiculed by others) may account for such an association. Method  A total of 5048 Swedish adolescents answered the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2004 (SALVe—2004) during classhours. The survey included questions about depressive symptoms, parental separation, parental unemployment and experiences of sexual abuse. Results  The psychosocial risk factors studied were all associated with depression, but several of these associations became non-significant when a factor for shaming experiences was entered into the models. The explained variance for depression furthermore increased from approximately 4–7% to 17–20% when shame was included. Conclusion  Shaming experiences may mediate part of the association between psychosocial risk factors and depression. These findings may have important implications for the understanding of psychotherapeutic treatment of the effects of risk factors in depressed patients.

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