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  • 1. Andreou, Dimitrios
    et al.
    Saetre, Peter
    Werge, Thomas
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Agartz, Ingrid
    Sedvall, Göran C.
    Hall, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Terenius, Lars
    Jönsson, Erik G.
    Tryptophan hydroxylase gene 1 (TPH1) variants associated with cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and homovanillic acid concentrations in healthy volunteers2010In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 180, no 2-3, p. 63-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis. We investigated possible relationships between five TPH1 gene polymorphisms and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the major dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), and the major norepinephrine metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) in healthy volunteers (n = 132). The G-allele of the TPH1 rs4537731 (A-6526G) polymorphism was associated with 5-HIM and HVA, but not MHPG concentrations. None of the other four TPH1 polymorphisms (rs211105, rs1800532, rs1799913 and rs7933505) were significantly associated with any of the monoamine metabolite concentrations. Two (rs4537731G/rs211105T/rs1800532C/rs1799913C/rs7933505G and rs4537731A/rs211105T/rs1800532C/rs1799913C/rs7933505G) of five common TPH1 five-allele haplotypes were associated with 5-HIAA and HVA concentrations in opposite directions. None of the common haplotypes was associated with MHPG concentrations in the CSF. The results suggest that TPH1 gene variation participates in the regulation of serotonin and dopamine turnover rates in the central nervous system of healthy human subjects.

  • 2.
    Andreou, Dimitrios
    et al.
    Karolinska Hosp & Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Psychiat Sect, HUBIN Project, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Soderman, Erik
    Karolinska Hosp & Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Psychiat Sect, HUBIN Project, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Sedvall, Goran C.
    Karolinska Hosp & Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Psychiat Sect, HUBIN Project, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Terenius, Lars
    Karolinska Hosp & Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Psychiat Sect, HUBIN Project, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Agartz, Ingrid
    Karolinska Hosp & Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Psychiat Sect, HUBIN Project, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Oslo, NORMENT, Inst Clin Med, Oslo, Norway.;Diakonhjemmet Hosp, Dept Psychiat Res, Oslo, Norway..
    Jonsson, Erik G.
    Karolinska Hosp & Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Psychiat Sect, HUBIN Project, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Oslo, NORMENT, Inst Clin Med, Oslo, Norway..
    Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite concentrations as intermediate phenotypes between glutamate-related genes and psychosis2015In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 229, no 1-2, p. 497-504Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glutamate-related genes have been associated with schizophrenia, but the results have been ambiguous and difficult to replicate. Homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) are the major degradation products of the monoamines dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline, respectively, and their concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), mainly HVA, have been associated with schizophrenia. In the present study, we hypothesized that CSF HVA, 5-HIAA and MHPG concentrations represent intermediate phenotypes in the association between glutamate-related genes and psychosis. To test this hypothesis, we searched for association between 238 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ten genes shown to be directly or indirectly implicated in glutamate transmission and CSF HVA, 5-HIAA and MHPG concentrations in 74 patients with psychotic disease. Thirty-eight nominally significant associations were found. Further analyses in 111 healthy controls showed that 87% of the nominal associations were restricted to the patients with psychosis. Some of the psychosis-only-associated SNPs found in the D-amino acid oxidase activator (DADA) and the kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) genes have previously been reported to be associated with schizophrenia. The present results suggest that CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations may represent intermediate phenotypes in the association between glutamate-related genes and psychosis.

  • 3. Brain, Cecilia
    et al.
    Sameby, Birgitta
    Allerby, Katarina
    Quinlan, Patrick
    Joas, Erik
    Lindström, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Burns, Tom
    Waern, Margda
    Stigma, discrimination and medication adherence in schizophrenia: Results from the Swedish COAST study2014In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 220, no 3, p. 811-817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this naturalistic non-interventional study were to quantify the level of stigma and discrimination in persons with schizophrenia and to test for potential associations between different types of stigma and adherence to antipsychotics. Antipsychotic medication use was electronically monitored with a Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS (R)) for 12 months in 111 outpatients with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychosis (DSM-IV). Stigma was assessed at endpoint using the Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC). Single DISC items that were most frequently reported included social relationships in making/keeping friends (71%) and in the neighborhood (69%). About half of the patients experienced discrimination by their families, in intimate relationships, regarding employment and by mental health staff. Most patients (88%) wanted to conceal their mental health problems from others; 70% stated that anticipated discrimination resulted in avoidance of close personal relationships. Non-adherence (MEMS (R) adherence <= 0.80) was observed in 30 (27.3%). When DISC subscale scores (SD) were entered in separate regression models, neither experienced nor anticipated stigma was associated with adherence. Our data do not support an association between stigma and non-adherence. Further studies in other settings are needed as experiences of stigma and levels of adherence and their potential associations might vary by a healthcare system or cultural and sociodemographic contexts.

  • 4.
    Brooks, Samantha J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Solstrand Dahlberg, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Swenne, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Aronsson, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Zarei, Sanaz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Lundberg, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Jacobsson, Josefin A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Rask-Andersen, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Salonen-Ros, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Rosling, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Obsessive-compulsivity and working memory are associated with differential prefrontal cortex and insula activation in adolescents with a recent diagnosis of an eating disorder2014In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 224, no 3, p. 246-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of rumination at the beginning of eating disorder (ED) is not well understood. We hypothesised that impulsivity, rumination and restriction could be associated with neural activity in response to food stimuli in young individuals with eating disorders (ED). We measured neural responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), tested working memory (WM) and administered the eating disorders examination questionnaire (EDE-Q), Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS-11) and obsessive-compulsive inventory (OCI-R) in 15 adolescent females with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) (mean age 15 years) and 20 age-matched healthy control females. We found that EDNOS subjects had significantly higher scores on the BIS 11, EDE-Q and OCI-R scales. Significantly increased neural responses to food images in the EDNOS group were observed in the prefrontal circuitry. OCI-R scores in the EDNOS group also significantly correlated with activity in the prefrontal circuitry and the cerebellum. Significantly slower WM responses negatively correlated with bilateral superior frontal gyrus activity in the EDNOS group. We conclude that ruminations, linked to WM, are present in adolescent females newly diagnosed with EDNOS. These may be risk factors for the development of an eating disorder and may be detectable before disease onset.

  • 5.
    Comasco, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Hallman, Jarmila
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Wallen-Mackenzie, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Developmental Genetics.
    Haplotype-tag single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the Vesicular Glutamate Transporter (VGLUT) genes in severely alcoholic women2014In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 219, no 2, p. 403-405Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Frans, Örjan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åhs, Jill
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bihre, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Distance to Threat and Risk of Acute and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Bank Robbery: A longitudinal study2018In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 267, p. 461-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    • Environmental factors surrounding trauma influencing PTSD risk are understudied.
    • Proximal distances to threatening individuals could increase PTSD risk directly or indirectly by increasing ASD risk.
    • Proximity to robber, ASD and PTSD was assessed in bank employees following robbery.
    • We found that proximity to robber increase PTSD risk indirectly by increasing ASD risk.
    • We speculate that proximity to threat may increase stress and arousal making trauma memories intrusive.
  • 7.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Hogmark, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Kent W
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Effects of stimulants and atomoxetine on cortisol levels in children with ADHD2013In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 209, no 3, p. 740-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have lower diurnal cortisol levels than non-ADHD comparison subjects. Aiming at elucidating the effects of medications used to treat ADHD, we investigated saliva cortisol in children with ADHD: 20 without medication, 147 on methylphenidate, and 21 on atomoxetine. The only significant finding was that children on atomoxetine had higher cortisol levels at bedtime than unmedicated children.

  • 8.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Neurodev Disorders KIND, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Pediat Neuropsychiat Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Högberg, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Valladares, Eliette
    Ctr Res & Intervent Hlth, Leon, Nicaragua.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Associations between psychiatric symptoms and cortisol levels in Nicaraguan young school-age children2016In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 240, p. 376-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The regulation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with its end product cortisol seems to be affected in several psychiatric disorders. Although findings are not conclusive, internalizing symptoms have primarily been associated with higher diurnal cortisol levels and externalizing symptoms with lower cortisol levels. In this study on nine-year-olds in Nicaragua (n=111), we investigated associations between child psychiatric symptoms, using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL), and saliva cortisol levels collected in the morning and afternoon, also adjusting for potential confounders. In line with previous findings, internalizing symptoms were significantly associated with higher morning, but not afternoon cortisol levels. Surprisingly, externalizing symptoms were also significantly associated with higher morning cortisol levels. Possibly, this association between externalizing symptoms and cortisol levels may be characteristic of early ages, representing a higher exposure to external stressors. The study highlights the need for prospective studies, following the development of the HPA-axis and its association with psychiatric symptoms.

  • 9.
    Jokinen, Jussi
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Umea, Sweden..
    Königsson, Johan
    Umea Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Umea, Sweden..
    Moberg, Tomas
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jönsson, Erik G.
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, KG Jebsen Ctr Psychosis Res, NORMENT, Oslo, Norway..
    Tiihonen, Jari
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Eastern Finland, Niuvanniemi Hosp, Dept Forens Psychiat, Kuopio, Finland..
    Nordström, Peter
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neuro-psycho-pharmacology.
    Åsberg, Marie
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Platelet monoamine oxidase activity and interpersonal violence in male suicide attempters2018In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 260, p. 173-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low platelet monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity, proxy of low central serotonergic functions, has been shown to correlate with criminal behavior in adolescents that come from an unfavorable psychosocial environment but not in adolescents from good conditions, indicating a link between environment, MAO-B activity and aggressive behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MAO-B activity and lifetime interpersonal violence in suicide attempters. The study included a total of 28 suicide attempters (18 men and 10 women). Assessments of childhood exposure to and expressed interpersonal violence during childhood and as an adult were carried out with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS). Platelet MAO-B activity was measured with 2-phenylethylamine (b-PEA) as substrate. Broken down by gender, the correlations between platelet MAO-B activity and both exposure scores to interpersonal violence as a child and expressed lifetime interpersonal violence were significant in male suicide attempters (r = -0.61, p = 0.035; r = - 0.84, p = 0.0005), but not in women. Our finding of significant associations between interpersonal violence and low MAO-B activity need to be replicated in other cohorts of suicide attempters.

  • 10.
    Lindblad, Frank
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Eickhoff, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Forslund, Anders H
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Isaksson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c in children with ADHD2015In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 226, no 2-3, p. 515-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reports of hypocortisolism and overweight in pediatric ADHD motivate an investigation of blood glucose regulation in this group. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c were investigated in 10 children (10-15 years) with ADHD and 22 comparisons. Fasting blood glucose was similar in both groups. HbA1c values were higher in the ADHD-group. BMI-SDS was also higher in the ADHD-group but did not predict HbA1c. The results suggest an association between ADHD and an altered blood glucose homeostasis.

  • 11.
    Nordenskjöld, Richard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Malmberg, Filip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Larsson, Elna-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Simmons, Andrew
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Intracranial volume normalization methods: Considerations when investigating gender differences in regional brain volume2015In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 231, no 3, p. 227-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intracranial volume (ICV) normalization of regional brain volumes (v) is common practice in volumetric studies of the aging brain. Multiple normalization methods exist and this study aimed to investigate when each method is appropriate to use in gender dimorphism studies and how differences in v are affected by the choice of method. A new method based on weighted ICV matching is also presented. Theoretical reasoning and simulated experiments were followed by an evaluation using real data comprising 400 subjects, all 75 years old, whose ICV was segmented with a gold standard method. The presented method allows good visualization of volume relation between gender groups. A different gender dimorphism in volume was found depending on the normalization method used for both simulated and real data. Method performance was also seen to depend on the slope (B) and intercept (m) from the linear relation between v and ICV (v=B·ICV+m) as well as gender distribution in the cohort. A suggested work-flow for selecting ICV normalization method when investigating gender related differences in regional brain volume is presented.

  • 12.
    Papadopoulos, Fotios C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Skalkidou, Alkistis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Sergentanis, Theodoros N.
    Kyllekidis, Spyros
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Petridou, Eleni T.
    Preventing suicide and homicide in the United States: the potential benefit in human lives2009In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 169, no 2, p. 154-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to assess the potential benefit in human lives if all geographical regions in the US (Northeast, South, Midwest, and West) achieved the lowest suicide and homicide rates observed within these regions, age-, race- and gender-adjusted suicide and homicide rates for each of the four regions were calculated based on data retrieved using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention database for 1999-2004. Data on known risk factors were retrieved from online sources. Overall suicide rates (10.42 per 100,000) exceeded homicide rates (6.97 per 100,000). Almost 27% (12,942 lives per year) of the 288,222 suicide and homicide deaths during the study period might have been avoided if all US regions achieved the mortality rate reported by the Northeast. A firearm was used in 55% of all suicides and 66% of all homicides. In the total estimate of avoidable deaths, firearm suicides (90%) and firearm homicides (75%) were overrepresented. The Northeast had the lowest access to firearms (20%) contrasted to almost double in the other regions, whereas greater firearms availability was related to unrestricted firearm legislation. Measures to restrict firearms availability should be highly prioritized in the public health agenda in order to achieve an impressive benefit in human lives.

  • 13.
    Pohlkamp, Lilian
    et al.
    Ersta Skondal Bracke Univ Coll, Palliat Res Ctr, Dept Hlth Care Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kreicbergs, Ulrika
    Ersta Skondal Bracke Univ Coll, Palliat Res Ctr, Dept Hlth Care Sci, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Prigerson, Holly G.
    Weill Cornell Med, Ctr Res End Life Care, New York, NY USA.
    Sveen, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, National Center for Disaster Psychiatry. Ersta Skondal Bracke Univ Coll, Palliat Res Ctr, Dept Hlth Care Sci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Psychometric properties of the Prolonged Grief Disorder-13 (PG-13) in bereaved Swedish parents2018In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 267, p. 560-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to validate the Swedish version of the Prolonged Grief Disorder-13 tool (PG-13) by examining its psychometric properties, including factor structure, discriminant and concurrent validity. The PG-13 was assessed in a sample of Swedish parents who had lost a child to cancer 1-5 years previously. The sample included 225 parents (133 mothers and 92 fathers) with a mean age of 46.02 years (SD = 8.15) and 16.0% met the criteria for Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD). A principal component analysis was performed, and the results supported a one-factor structure of the PG-13. The PG-13 was shown to have high internal consistency and intelligible associations with concurrent psychological symptoms and grief rumination as well as with known risk factors for PGD. These results indicate satisfactory psychometric properties of the instrument, thus supporting the use of the PG-13 as a valid measure of PGD.

  • 14.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Natl Inst Mental Hlth, NCNP, Dept Child & Adolescent Mental Hlth, 4-1-1 Ogawahigashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 1878553, Japan;Sodertorn Univ, Stockholm Ctr Hlth & Social Change SCOHOST, S-14189 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Univ Barcelona, Parc Sanit St Joan de Deu, Parc Sanitari St Joan de Deu, Dr Antoni Pujadas 42, Barcelona 08830, Spain;Inst Salud Carlos III, Ctr Invest Biomed Red Salud Mental CIBERSAM, Monforte de Lemos 3-5,Pabellon 11, Madrid 28029, Spain.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    Natl Inst Mental Hlth, NCNP, Dept Child & Adolescent Mental Hlth, 4-1-1 Ogawahigashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 1878553, Japan.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Yale Univ, Sch Med, Ctr Child Study, New Haven, CT 06510 USA.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    Univ North Carolina Chapel Hill, Carolina Populat Ctr, 137 East Franklin St, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA.
    Yazawa, Aki
    Univ Fukui, Res Ctr Child Mental Dev, Fukui 9101193, Japan.
    Kamio, Yoko
    Natl Inst Mental Hlth, NCNP, Dept Child & Adolescent Mental Hlth, 4-1-1 Ogawahigashi, Kodaira, Tokyo 1878553, Japan.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and happiness among adults in the general population2018In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 265, p. 317-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite an increasing focus on the role of mood and emotions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as yet, there has been comparatively little research on positive emotions. To address this research gap, the current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and happiness using data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. The analytic sample comprised 7274 adults aged 18 and above residing in private households in England. Information was collected on ADHD symptoms using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener, while happiness was assessed with a single (3-point) measure. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis and a mediation analysis were performed to examine associations. Greater ADHD symptom severity was associated with higher odds for feeling less happy. Mood instability (percentage mediated 37.1%), anxiety disorder (35.6%) and depression (29.9%) were all important mediators of the association between ADHD and happiness. Given that happiness has been linked to a number of beneficial outcomes, the results of this study highlight the importance of diagnosing ADHD in adults and also of screening for and treating any comorbid psychiatric disorders in these individuals.

  • 15.
    Syk, Mikaela
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Ellström, Sofie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Mwinyi, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Schiöth, Helgi B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Ramklint, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Cunningham, Janet L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Plasma levels of leptin and adiponectin and depressive symptoms in young adults2019In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 272, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circulating levels of adipokines are known to be associated with depression. This study aimed to investigate a possible association between leptin, adiponectin and dimensional measures of depressive symptoms in young adults with and without psychiatric illness. Total plasma adiponectin and leptin levels were measured in 194 young adults seeking psychiatric ambulatory care and 57 healthy controls. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Self-Rating Scale (MADRS-S). Analysis was performed on men and women separately. P-leptin levels were significantly elevated in patients compared with controls and correlated with total MADRS-S scores in the women. Women with P-leptin in the highest quartile reached a significantly higher MADRS-S score than women in the lowest quartile, but this difference disappeared after adjusting for body mass index (BMI) and antidepressant use. MADRS-S score was associated with P-leptin in female patients without antidepressant use, independently of BMI. There was no association between P-leptin levels and current major depression. P-adiponectin levels were not associated with depressive symptoms or current major depression. The findings indicate that P-leptin levels are associated with depressive symptom severity in young women; however, the association is linked to other factors, which challenges its usefulness as a biomarker for depression in clinical psychiatry.

  • 16. Tikkanen, Roope
    et al.
    Auvinen-Lintunen, Laura
    Ducci, Francesca
    Sjöberg, Rickard L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Goldman, David
    Tiihonen, Jari
    Ojansuu, Ilkka
    Virkkunen, Matti
    Psychopathy, PCL-R, and MAOA genotype as predictors of violent reconvictions2011In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 185, no 3, p. 382-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) has shown a moderate association with violence. The efficacy of PCL-R in varying monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotypes is, however, unexamined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PCL-R and psychopathy on the risk for violent reconvictions among 167 MAOA genotyped alcoholic offenders. Violent reconvictions and PCL-R scores among violent offenders were assessed after a 7-year non-incarcerated follow-up. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the alcohol exposure and age-adjusted effect of PCL-R score and psychopathy on the risk for reconvictions among differing MAOA genotypes. Results suggest that the PCL-R total score predicts impulsive reconvictions among high-activity MAOA offenders (6.8% risk increase for every one-point increase in PCL-R total score. P=0.015), but not among low-activity MAOA offenders, whereas antisocial behavior and attitudes predicted reconvictions in both genotypes (17% risk increase among high-activity MAOA offenders and 12.8% increase among low-activity MAOA offenders for every one-point increase in factor 2 score). Both narcissistic self-image with related interpersonal style (factor 1 score) and psychopathy (PCL-R >= 30) failed to predict future violence. Results suggest that the efficacy of PCL-R is altered by MAOA genotype, alcohol exposure, and age, which seems important to note when PCL-R is used for risk assessments that will have legal or costly preventive work consequences.

  • 17. Wallinius, M.
    et al.
    Nilsson, T.
    Hofvander, B.
    Anckarsäter, H.
    Stålenheim, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatry, University Hospital.
    Facets of psychopathy among mentally disordered offenders: Clinical comorbidity patterns and prediction of violent and criminal behavior2012In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 198, no 2, p. 279-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity and consequences of psychopathy are still debated, and its relation to other mental disorders, pathological personality traits, and criminality needs to be further investigated by clinical, longitudinal studies using structured diagnostic instruments. The present study used two groups of mentally disordered offenders (N=153) investigated with in-depth clinical assessments and prospective long-term follow-up to identify the convergence between 1) the four facets of psychopathy defined by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial), 2) mental disorders according to SCID I and II interviews, 3) personality traits as measured by the Karolinska Scales of Personality, and 4) criminal recidivism. The Interpersonal facet differed substantially from the other three facets by not being significantly associated with substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder (the other facets at P≤0.001 level), or personality traits involving impulsive and aggressive antisocial behaviors (the other facets at P<0.01 level). Furthermore, the interpersonal facet could not predict violent recidivism better than random. The Antisocial facet outperformed not only the other facets but also the total PCL-R score in the prediction of violent recidivism, P<0.001.The findings confirm psychopathy as a heterogeneous phenomenon and have clinical implications for assessments of psychopathy and violence risk assessments in clinical and forensic contexts.

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