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  • 1.
    Andersson, Ki
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology, Palaeontology group.
    Predicting carnivoran body mass from a weight bearing joint2004In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 262, no 2, 161-172 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictors used to calculate the body mass of extinct carnivorans often scale differently between different taxa, thus yielding body mass estimates that diverge considerably depending on which predictive equation is used. This requires the investigator to choose the ones most suitable, a procedure that is best avoided if possible. The carnivoran elbow joint is here explored with the aim of producing a single general body mass predictor that can be used over a broad range of terrestrial and arboreal carnivorans. The circumference of the distal humerus trochlea is found to be highly correlated with body mass, and trochlea circumference seems to scale similarly throughout the order Carnivora. This scaling is not as theoretically predicted by elastic similarity and is slightly higher than that predicted by geometric similarity, indicating a slight positive allometry for the latter. Some degree of differential scaling between carnivoran families and between animals of large and small size cannot be ruled out, but this result is inconclusive. A predictive model that allows mass estimations for a broad range of carnivorans is presented (a=0.601; b=2.552; r2=0.952, SEE=0.136, P<0001, n=92). Body mass for eight extinct carnivoran species are calculated and these generally conform to earlier mass predictions.

  • 2. Bushuev, A. V.
    et al.
    Husby, Arild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Sternberg, H.
    Grinkov, V. G.
    Quantitative genetics of basal metabolic rate and body mass in free-living pied flycatchers2012In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 288, no 4, 245-251 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite basal metabolic rate (BMR) being one of the most commonly measured physiological traits and an important indicator of competitive ability, very little is known about its genetic basis and relation to other physiological traits. Here, we present the first attempt to estimate the multivariate basis of BMR using a natural population of pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca breeding in the Tomsk Region, Western Siberia. We show relatively high and significant heritability of whole-organism BMR, mass-specific BMR and mass-independent BMR (h 2 = 0.43, 0.55 and 0.52, respectively), which indicates the potential of these energetic traits to respond to direct selection. In contrast to some previous reports, we found that the genetic correlations between body mass and all three measures of BMR were not significantly different from zero. Independent evolution of body mass and BMR in this species should therefore be possible. Following a previous report, we also estimated the genetic correlations between the different BMR measures and show they are all close to unity, suggesting that they are, from a genetic point of view, a similar trait. Our results are in contrast with previous studies measuring the genetic basis of metabolic rates using aviary-bred birds and highlight the importance of considering BMR in a natural setting.

  • 3.
    Dahl, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Backström, T.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Is growth hormone expression correlated with variation in growth rate along a latitudinal gradient in Rana temporaria?2011In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 285, no 2, 85-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In ectotherms, decreasing season length and lower temperature towards higher latitudes often favour higher growth and developmental rates. However, the underlying physiological mechanisms and particularly the hormonal correlates of clinal variation remain unexplored. The growth hormone (GH) plays a crucial role in growth of all vertebrates and high expression of GH is associated with rapid growth in many species. We tested the hypothesis that GH expression is correlated with a latitudinal gradient in growth in Scandinavian Rana temporaria tadpoles. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we measured GH and growth hormone receptor (GHR) expression at two time points from laboratory-raised tadpoles originating from eight populations collected along the latitudinal gradient. To explore latitudinal differences in stress-induced changes in GH expression, we also compared GH expression in tadpoles raised with and without predators. In accordance with previous studies we found a clear latitudinal gradient in growth. There were no latitudinal effects, or predator-induced effects on GH or GHR expression. However, there was some indication for among-population variation in GH expression. The lack of a latitudinal pattern in GH and GHR expression may be due to that the growth promoting effects of GH is dependent on other factors including insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF), IGF-binding proteins or prolactin. Further studies on these factors may provide insight on the proximal mechanisms of differences in growth in R. temporaria tadpoles.

  • 4.
    Edelaar, Pim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    van Eerde, K.
    Non-random infection across individuals and populations supports that parasites can change morphology within an adaptive radiation2011In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 283, no 2, 135-142 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive radiation is characterized by rapid phenotypic diversification as a result of utilizing different environments. Red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra Linnaeus - complex) have diversified in bill size and shape, and overall size, in response to differences in the conifer cones that hold the seeds they almost exclusively feed upon. However, a recent study showed how a bill of suboptimal size for foraging has evolved due to antagonistic selection by scaly leg mites Knemidokoptes jamaicensis. This suggests that the current variation in morphology within the adaptive radiation of crossbills may not be exclusively the result of adaptation to alternative resources. Using an independent set of populations, we found that the surprising and little-understood relationship between crossbill morphology and infection with mites is repeatable. Assuming mites depress survival, this relationship would result in directional, not stabilizing selection on morphology. We also find that the rates of infection can differ dramatically between populations, potentially depending on their ecologies. These findings suggest that morphological evolution within the adaptive radiation of crossbills may partly occur for reasons unrelated to resource use.

  • 5.
    Herdegen, Magdalena
    et al.
    Jagiellonian University,Krakow,Poland.
    Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Konowalik, Agnieszka
    Babik, Wieslaw
    Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland.
    Radwan, Jacek
    Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan,Poland.
    Heterozygosity, sexual ornament and body size in the crested newt2013In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 291, no 2, 146-153 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both genome-wide heterozygosity and heterozygosity at major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are often associated with higher fitness. Recent theoretical work indicates that sexual ornaments may reveal information about individual heterozygosity, and that preference for such ornaments may benefit females via the increased heterozygosity of their progeny. Here, we used path analysis to investigate the direct and indirect (via body size used as an index of condition) effects of heterozygosity at six microsatellite loci and the MHC class II DAB gene on the size of a sexual ornament, the crest, in the crested newt Triturus cristatus. We found that microsatellite heterozygosity, but not MHC heterozygosity, significantly predicted male body size, and that male body size significantly predicted crest height. However, there was no direct effect of MHC or microsatellite heterozygosity on crest height. Furthermore, microsatellite heterozygosity significantly increased with age, indicating that it had a positive effect on survival. Overall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that heterozygosity determines condition, and that variation in condition is expressed as variation in sexual ornamentation.

  • 6.
    Jones, Eleanor P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Johannesdottir, F.
    Gunduz, I.
    Richards, M. B.
    Searle, J. B.
    The expansion of the house mouse into north-western Europe2011In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 283, no 4, 257-268 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The western house mouse Mus musculus domesticus is a human commensal, and as such, its phylogeography relates to historical human settlement patterns and movements. We investigate the phylogeography of house mice in northern France and the British Isles (particularly Ireland and the Scottish islands) using microsatellite data and mitochondrial (mt) control region sequences from modern and museum material, placing these in a Europe-wide context. The majority of mtDNA sequences from northern France belong to a clade widespread across the British mainland and Germany, supporting an earlier suggestion that this clade distribution represents colonization by house mice in the Iron Age. The presence of the clade in south-western Ireland indicates possible Iron Age colonization there as well. However, the majority of the Irish sequences belong to a clade elsewhere associated with Norwegian Viking activity, and likely represent the main wave of house mouse colonization of Ireland, arriving from the Scottish islands during the Viking period and linked to urbanization. The St Kilda sequences (from 100-year-old museum samples of the extinct form 'Mus muralis' of Barrett-Hamilton) and sequences from South Uist and Lewis also belong to this clade. The clustering of populations shown by the microsatellite data is distinctly different from the mtDNA phylogeny, with populations grouping by geographic proximity, possibly reflecting the genetic effects of secondary colonization. When the mtDNA sequence data are placed in a Europe-wide context, it is clear that the distributions of the two prevalent clades from the vicinity of the British Isles are essentially limited to north-western Europe. These two clades show no evidence of expansion through central Europe, and may therefore reflect maritime colonization.

  • 7.
    Merilä, Juha
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Animal Ecology.
    Wiggins, DA
    Offspring number and quality in the blue tit: A quantitative genetic approach1995In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 237, no 4, 615-623 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of natural brood size variation on offspring quality was studied in a blue tit (Parus caeruleus) population on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea. Offspring quality, measured as nestling body mass at day 13 post-hatch, declined significantly with increasing brood size, as did offspring structural body size (tarsus length). A quantitative genetic analysis revealed a high heritability of tarsus length, but also that the shorter tarsi of young from larger broods represented a negative environmental deviation from the genotypic values of their parents. Similarly, positive environmental deviations in tarsus length were found in small broods. Nestling mortality increased with increasing brood size, and smaller and lighter nestlings suffered higher mortality between day 13 and 20 post-hatch. These findings, together with those of previous studies showing that the survival prospects of malnutritioned passerine young are greatly reduced, provide evidence for a trade-off between the quantity and quality of young under non-manipulative conditions.

  • 8.
    Orizaola, G
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Laurila, A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Microgeographic variation in the effects of larval temperature environment on juvenile morphology and locomotion in the pool frog2009In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 277, no 4, 267-274 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In animals with complex life cycles, the environment experienced early during the development may have strong effects on later performance and fitness. We investigated the intraspecific variation in the effects of larval temperature environment on the morphology and locomotory performance of juvenile pool frogs Rana lessonae originating from three closely located populations of the northern fringe metapopulation in central Sweden. Tadpoles were raised individually at two temperatures (20 and 25 degrees C) until metamorphosis. We measured the morphology of the metamorphs and tested the jumping performance of the froglets after complete tail absorption. We found that early temperature environment affected juvenile morphology, metamorphs from high-temperature environments having relatively longer hindlimbs (tibiofibulas) and longer tails when weight at metamorphosis was accounted for. In absolute terms, froglets from low temperature jumped significantly longer; however, after correcting for size differences the relationship was reversed, individuals raised at high temperature performing better. In both temperatures, relative jumping performance was positively associated with tibiofibula and body length. Populations differed both in metamorphic traits and in jumping capacity, especially at low temperature, suggesting microgeographical variation in temperature sensitivity within the metapopulation. Our results indicate that the temperature environment experienced during the early aquatic stages can influence the morphology and performance of juvenile frogs, and that these effects can be population specific.

  • 9.
    Rogell, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Berglund, Axel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Laurila, Anssi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Population divergence of life history traits in the endangered green toad: implications for a support release programme2011In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 285, no 1, 46-55 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing awareness that adaptive differences among local populations may affect the success of translocation programmes. A mismatch in habitat quality of the target localities and in the local adaptations of the translocated individuals may reduce the success rate of the translocation programme. The green toad Bufo viridis is the most threatened amphibian in Sweden and has been the focus of an extensive translocation programme of eggs, tadpoles and juvenile toads to several localities with apparently favourable conditions for green toads. However, the success of these measures has been poor. In this study, we investigated the extent of local adaptation in the green toad by examining population divergence and the effect of thermal and saline conditions on larval performance in four Scandinavian populations. In a common garden experiment, we measured larval survival and development as well as the occurrence of spinal deformations. In addition, we quantified pond temperature and water salinity, two important environmental variables for larval performance in anurans in the breeding ponds as well as in seven additional localities included in the conservation programme. We found significant variation among the localities in water temperature and salinity, and significant among-population divergence in larval life history traits and spinal deformations, including both trait means and plastic responses to salinity and temperature. The available evidence suggests that at least part of this divergence is adaptive. We did not find direct support for local adaptation affecting the success of the translocations, however, we argue that the population origin and the impact of rearing conditions on the fitness-related larval traits should be taken into account in the introduction measures of the Swedish green toad conservation programme as well as in translocation programmes in general.

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