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  • 1.
    Andersson Grönlund, Marita
    et al.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology/Ophthalmology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Landgren, Magnus
    Strömland, Kerstin
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology/Ophthalmology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Aring, Eva
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology/Ophthalmology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Leif
    Tuvemo, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Hellström, Ann
    Relationships between ophthalmological and neuropaediatric findings in children adopted from Eastern Europe2010In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 88, no 2, 227-234 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate and relate visual function, ocular dimensions and neuropaediatric findings in adoptees from Eastern Europe. Methods: We studied 72 of 99 children, born during 1990-95 and adopted from Eastern Europe to western Sweden during 1993-97. The children (mean age 7.5 years, range 4.8-10.5 years; 41 boys, 31 girls) were examined after a mean period of 5 years post-adoption by a multidisciplinary team. Correlations between ophthalmological findings and neuropaediatric data were analysed. Results: Bivariate and regression analyses indicate a significant positive correlation between visual acuity (VA) and perceptual organization (p < 0.001), as well as between strabismus and verbal comprehension (p < 0.02). Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) was correlated with low VA (p < 0.02), subnormal stereovision (p < 0.009) and small optic discs (p < 0.02). Small head circumference was related to low VA (p < 0.015) and small optic discs (p < 0.03). Furthermore, small optic discs were related to low birthweight (p < 0.005) and preterm birth (p < 0.01). Large optic cups were correlated with poorer perceptual organization (p < 0.02). Conclusions: In this group of adoptees from Eastern Europe, ophthalmological findings were correlated to neuropaediatric findings, especially those arising from prenatal adverse events resulting in growth deficiency and central nervous system damage. Therefore, it is important and valuable with an ophthalmological examination in children adopted from Eastern Europe.

  • 2.
    Arnell, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Mäntyjärvi, Maija
    Tuppurainen, Kaija
    Andreasson, Sten
    Dahl, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Stargardt disease: linkage to the ABCR gene region on 1p21-p22 in Scandinavian families1998In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 76, no 6, 649-52 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stargardt disease (STGD) or fundus flavimaculatus (FFM) is one of the most frequent causes of macular degeneration in childhood. The disease is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and the corresponding gene has been localized to chromosome 1p21-22 and subsequently identified as the ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCR) gene. PURPOSE: To characterize Finnish and Swedish STGD families genetically, with special reference to chromosome region 1p21-22. METHODS: We performed genetic linkage and haplotype analyses in five families of Finnish and Swedish origin with members affected by STGD or FFM. RESULTS: Evidence for linkage between STGD and the ABCR gene region on chromosome 1p was found with a maximum cumulative two-point lod score for marker D1S188 (Z=4.04, theta=0.001). The affected individuals of all families, including the offspring of a consanguineous family, were found heterozygous for haplotypes spanning the ABCR gene. CONCLUSION: The results support genetic homogeneity for a STGD/FFM gene defect on chromosome 1p21-22. A variety of haplotypes tightly linked to the ABCR gene region were found among affected individuals which indicate the presence of several independent STGD mutations in the Scandinavian population.

  • 3.
    Bjärnhall, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Tomic, Lidija
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Mishima, Hiromu
    Tsukamoto, Hidetoshi
    Alm, Albert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Retinal mean transit time in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and normal-tension glaucoma2007In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 85, no 1, 67-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To compare the mean transit time (MTT) of retinal circulation in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and eyes with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and examine the possible relationship between MTT and visual field damage, expressed as mean deviation (MD).

    Methods: Video fluorescein angiography was performed in 40 patients with POAG or NTG. Dye curves for fluorescein passing through the retinal arteries and veins were used to calculate MTT in each patient with a computer-assisted technique based on an impulse-response analysis (MTTir).

    Results: We were able to analyse MTTir in all 40 angiograms. Mean (SD) MTTir was 5.0 (1.5) seconds in eyes with POAG and 4.7 (1.4) seconds in eyes with NTG. The difference was not statistically significant. There was a weak but significant correlation between the MD and MTTir (MTTir = 4.12–0.08*MD; r = −0.49, p = 0.0013).

    Conslusions: The results demonstrate that loss of neuronal tissue in glaucoma is combined with an effect on the retinal circulation and that the effect is similar in eyes with NTG and eyes with POAG.

  • 4.
    Caines, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Dahl, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Holmström, Gerd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Longterm oculomotor and visual function in spina bifida cystica: a population-based study2007In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 85, no 6, 662-666 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To document and describe the development from birth of visual and oculomotor functions in a group of children with spina bifida cystica (myelomeningocele and myeloschisis [MMC]). The emphasis in this study is on findings at 12-14 year follow-up. METHODS: Twenty children aged 12-14 years with myelomeningocele and Chiari-related malformations were examined by an orthoptist and a paediatric ophthalmologist. A further child who did not wish to participate actively in the study is also reported. Visual acuity for near and distance, refractometer readings in cycloplegia, the presence of ocular motility disorders and nystagmus were recorded. Accommodation, convergence, colour vision and stereo acuity were assessed and the fundus and media were examined. RESULTS: Six children (29%) in the study group had subnormal vision, although no child was visually impaired. Eleven (52%) showed manifest strabismus and 17 (81%) had a significant refractive error. Near visual acuity was normal in nearly all the children, but accommodation was defective in 10. Nine children had nystagmus and two had optic atrophy. No visual field defects were found. CONCLUSIONS: The high incidence of ocular disturbances in children with spina bifida highlights the importance of regular ophthalmological investigation and follow-up.

  • 5.
    Ekström, Curt
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Botling Taube, Amelie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Pseudoexfoliation and cataract surgery: a population-based 30-year follow-up study2015In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 93, no 8, 774-777 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    To study the relationship between pseudoexfoliation (PEX) and cataract surgery in a population in which PEX is a common finding.

    METHODS:

    Survival analyses were performed in a cohort of 760 residents 65-74 years of age, examined in a population survey in the municipality of Tierp, Sweden, during 1984-1986. To expand the cohort, participants in other studies in Tierp were enrolled. Additionally, subjects were recruited by means of glaucoma case records established at the Eye Department in Tierp in 1978-2007. In total, the cohort comprised 1471 individuals, representing more than 15 900 person-years of risk. Information on cataract surgery was obtained from the glaucoma case records and from medical records.

    RESULTS:

    By the end of the study in August 2014, 564 subjects had undergone cataract surgery. Of these cases, 224 were affected by PEX at baseline. In multivariate analyses, PEX was the second most important predictor for cataract surgery after lens opacities, accounting for a 2.38-fold (95% confidence interval 2.01-2.84) increased risk.

    CONCLUSION:

    The results strongly suggest that PEX is a predictor for cataract surgery in the population under study.

  • 6. Fahnehjelm, Kristina Teär
    et al.
    Holmström, Gerd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Ying, Liu
    Haglind, Charlotte Bieneck
    Nordenström, Anna
    Halldin, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Alm, Jan
    Nemeth, Antal
    von Döbeln, Ulrika
    Ocular characteristics in 10 children with long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: a cross-sectional study with long-term follow-up.2008In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 86, no 3, 329-337 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE

    To present long-term ocular complications and electroretinographic (ERG) findings in children with long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency - a life-threatening metabolic disease - and the relation to age at diagnosis, treatment and other clinical parameters.

    METHODS

    Ten children with LCHAD deficiency underwent repeated ophthalmological evaluations including ERG.

    RESULTS

    All 10 children developed chorioretinal pathology. Regardless of age at diagnosis, initiation of treatment and age at examination, inter-individual differences were present. Profound chorioretinal atrophy, severe visual impairment and progressive myopia had developed in two teenagers. Milder chorioretinopathy with or without subnormal visual acuity was present in all other children. ERG was pathological in seven children. The chorioretinopathy often started in the peripapillary or perimacular areas. In one patient, unilateral visual impairment was associated with fibrosis.

    CONCLUSION

    Early diagnosis and adequate therapy might delay but not prevent the progression of retinal complications. Late diagnosis with severe symptoms at diagnosis, neonatal hypoglycaemia and frequent decompensations may increase the progression rate of the chorioretinopathy. LCHAD deficiency, a potentially lethal disease, is sometimes difficult to diagnose. Unusual chorioretinal findings should alert the ophthalmologist to the long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, especially if there is a history of neonatal hypoglycaemia or failure to thrive.

  • 7. Heijl, Anders
    et al.
    Algvere, Peep V.
    Alm, Albert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Andersen, Nis
    Bauer, Birgitta
    Carlsson, Jan-Olof
    Ehinger, Berndt
    Eide, Nils
    Fledelius, Hans
    Foerster, Michael
    Hjortdal, Jesper
    Holmström, Gerd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Høvding, Gunnar
    Kivelä, Tero
    la Cour, Morten
    Lindblom, Bertil
    Møller-Pedersen, Torben
    Nikoskelainen, Eeva
    Prause, Jan Ulrik
    Riise, Ruth
    Rosenberg, Thomas
    Seregard, Stefan
    Stefánsson, Einar
    Tarkkanen, Ahti
    Tervo, Timo
    Tornqvist, Kristina
    Zetterström, Charlotta
    Nordic research in ophthalmology.2005In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 83, no 3, 278-288 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nordic ophthalmologists and vision scientists are active in many fields of eye research. This is most evident at the biannual Nordic Congress of Ophthalmology, most recently held in Malmö in June 2004. The authors here review some of the research in vision and ophthalmology presented at this meeting or published recently by Nordic scientists. This paper does not represent a comprehensive review of all Nordic research in the field, but attempts to give an overview of some of the activities underway in eye research in this part of the world.

  • 8.
    Mathew, Jessica
    et al.
    College of Optometry, University of Houston.
    Goosey, John
    Houston Eye Associates, Houston, Texas, USA.
    Söderberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Bergmanson, Jan
    College of Optometry, University of Houston.
    Lamellar changes in the keratoconic cornea2015In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 93, no 8, 767-773 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Meyer, Linda M.
    et al.
    Dong, Xiuqin
    Wegener, Alfred
    Söderberg, Per
    St Erik's Eye Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Light scattering in the C57BL/6 mouse lens2007In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 85, no 2, 178-182 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE

    To characterize inherent light scattering in the C57BL/6 mouse lens.

    METHODS

    Lenses from 20 6-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were extracted from freshly enucleated globes and microsurgically cleaned of remnants of the ciliary body. Lens light scattering was measured quantitatively with a light dissemination meter (LDM). Morphological properties of the mouse lenses were documented using grid- and dark-field illumination photography. Analysis of variance was performed to establish variance for animals, variance between left and right eyes and variance for measurements.

    RESULTS

    Average inherent light scattering in the C57BL/6 mouse lens is 0.16 +/- 0.02 tEDC (transformed equivalent diazepam concentration). The mean size of a mouse lens at 6 weeks is 1.9 mm in diameter. Two lenses featured pre-existing cortical lens opacities. Variance for animals was assessed to be 7.9 10(- 4) tEDC(2), variance for measurements was 1.6 10(- 4) tEDC(2), and variance between left and right eyes was 8.8 10(- 4) tEDC(2). The tolerance limit for non-pathological light scattering was determined to 0.26 tEDC. No significant difference in light scattering between left and right mouse lenses was found. The minimum number of C57BL/6 mice required for detection of a 10% experimentally induced change in light scattering intensity was estimated to be 50 for independent group experiments and 25 for paired design experiments.

    CONCLUSIONS

    The C57BL/6 mouse is a suitable animal in which to conduct experiments on light scattering or cataractogenesis with high precision at reasonable sample sizes. Before including C57BL/6 mice into a study on cataractogenesis, pre-existing lens opacities such as congenital cataract must be excluded.

  • 10. Mody Jr, Vino C
    et al.
    Kakar, Manoj
    Elfving, Åse
    Söderberg, Per G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Ascorbate in the guinea pig lens: dependence on drinking water supplementation2005In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 83, no 2, 228-233 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether lens ascorbate concentration can be elevated with drinking water supplementation. METHODS: Pigmented guinea pigs received drinking water supplemented with L-ascorbate, concentration 0.00, 2.84, 5.68 or 8.52 mm for a duration of 4 weeks. In addition, the chow fed to all animals contained 125 mmol L-ascorbate per kg of chow. At the end of the supplementation period, the guinea pigs were killed. Each lens was extracted. The lens was processed and ascorbate concentration was measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with 254 nm ultraviolet radiation detection. The data were analysed with regression. RESULTS: At the end of the test period, all lenses were devoid of cataract as observed by slit-lamp examination. All lenses contained a detectable concentration of ascorbate. Estimated 95% confidence intervals for mean animal-averaged lens ascorbate concentrations (micromol/g wet weight of whole lens) per group were 0.51 +/- 0.04 (0.00 mm; n = 6), 0.70 +/- 0.18 (2.84 mm; n = 6), 0.71 +/- 0.11 (5.68 mm; n = 5), and 0.71 +/- 0.06 (8.52 mm; n = 6). Animal-averaged lens ascorbate concentration [Asc(lens)] (micromol/g wet weight lens) increased with ascorbate supplementation in drinking water [Asc(water)] (M), in agreement with the model: [Asc(lens)] = A - Be(-kAsc(water)]. CONCLUSION: Lens ascorbate concentration increases with drinking water supplementation in the guinea pig without cataract development. The currently presented method for measurement of whole lens ascorbate content is suitable.

  • 11. Mody Jr, Vino C
    et al.
    Kakar, Manoj
    Elfving, Åse
    Söderberg, Per G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Ultraviolet radiation-B-induced cataract in albino rats: maximum tolerable dose and ascorbate consumption2006In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 84, no 3, 390-395 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate the maximum tolerable dose (MTD) for cataract induced by ultraviolet radiation-B (UVB) in 7-week-old albino rats and to study the effect of UVB eye exposure on lens ascorbate content. METHODS: Fifty 7-week-old albino Sprague Dawley rats were unilaterally exposed in vivo to 300-nm UVB under anaesthesia, receiving 0, 0.25, 3.5, 4.3 and 4.9 kJ/m(2). The MTD was estimated based on lens forward light scattering measurements. Lens ascorbate content was determined in the processed lens using high performance liquid chromatography with UVR detection. RESULTS: Animals exposed to UVB doses >or=3.5 kJ/m(2) developed cortical cataracts. The MTD for avoidance of UVB-induced cataract was estimated to 3.01 kJ/m(2). UVB exposure decreased lens ascorbate concentration in the exposed lens in line with UVB dose, H(e), according to the models: C = C(NonCo) + C(Co)e(-kH(e) ) for exposed lenses; C = C(NonCo) + C(Co) for non-exposed lenses, and C(d) = C(Co)(e(-kH(e) ) - 1). Parameters for consumable and non-consumable ascorbate were estimated to C(NonCo) = 0.04 and C(Co) = 0.11 micromol/g wet weight of lens. For lens ascorbate difference, tau = 1/k = 0.86 kJ/m(2). A total of 63% of UVB consumable ascorbate has been consumed after only tau = 0.86 kJ/m(2), while MTD(2.3 : 16) = 3.01 kJ/m(2), indicating that ascorbate decrease is in the order of 3.5 times more sensitive to detecting UVR damage in the lens than forward light scattering. CONCLUSIONS: The MTD for avoidance of UVB-induced cataract in the 7-week-old albino Sprague Dawley rat was estimated to be 3.01 kJ/m(2). In vivo UVB exposure of the rat eye decreases lens ascorbate content following an exponential decline, and suprathreshold doses cause greater effect than subthreshold doses.

  • 12. Olafsdottir, Eydis
    et al.
    Andersson, Dan K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Stefánsson, Eina
    Visual acuity in a population with regular screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus and eye disease2007In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 85, no 1, 40-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Regular screening for both diabetes mellitus and diabetic eye disease should be the gold standard in preventing diabetic blindness. In the community of Laxå, County of Örebro, Sweden, such screening has been carried out since 1983. We evaluate visual impairment and blindness in this population.

    Methods: All persons in the community of Laxå with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 276) participated in the study. An age- and gender-matched control group (n = 259) was assembled. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was tested in all participants, and a detailed eye examination performed by an ophthalmologist.

    Results: No significant statistical differences were seen between the diabetes and control groups regarding visual acuity (VA). In all, 2.9% of the diabetes patients and 1.2% of the controls had BCVA ≤ 0.1. Only one person in the diabetes group was blind as a result of diabetic retinopathy. In both groups the leading cause of blindness was age-related macular degeneration. In a logistic regression analysis we found that in both the diabetes and the control populations, increasing age was related to worsening BCVA (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10–1.16 versus OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.13–1.19), as was female gender in the diabetes group only (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.69–4.40).

    Conclusions: In a population that is carefully screened for diabetes mellitus and provided with regular screening for diabetic retinopathy, the loss of vision from diabetic retinopathy is uncommon.

  • 13.
    Theocharis, Ioannis P.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Alexandridou, Anastassia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Gili, Nasser Jadidi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Tomic, Zoran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Combined phacoemulsification and pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole treatment.2005In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 83, no 2, 172-175 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE

    To assess the outcome of simultaneous phacoemulsification, pars plana vitrectomy and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in eyes with macular hole.

    METHODS

    A retrospective study was conducted in 38 eyes (36 patients) after combined phacoemulsification, insertion of a posterior capsule IOL and pars plana vitrectomy.

    RESULTS

    The macular hole was successfully closed in 32 of the 38 eyes (84%). In six eyes (16%) the hole failed to close and one eye underwent a second operation. Vision improved by two or more Snellen lines in 29 eyes (73%), there was no change in seven eyes (18%), and visual acuity decreased in two eyes (5%). Intraoperative and postoperative complications included retinal tears in nine eyes (24%), posterior capsule rupture in two eyes (5%), transient postoperative increase of intraocular pressure in eight eyes (21%), and posterior capsule opacification in five eyes (13%).

    CONCLUSION

    Combining phacoemulsification, IOL insertion and pars plana vitrectomy for macular hole repair can reduce the need for cataract surgery in the future, decrease costs, shorten postoperative recovery time and allow for clearer intraoperative visualization, making the procedure safer and more effective.

  • 14. Zhang, Fengju
    et al.
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Söderberg, Per
    St Erik's Eye Hospital, Karolinska Institute and First Hospital attached to Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.
    Interaction of anaesthetic drugs and UV-B irradiation in the anterior segment of the rat eye2007In: Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1395-3907, E-ISSN 1600-0420, Vol. 85, no 7, 745-752 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To determine the impact of anaesthesia on acute transient cataractogenesis and ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced cataractogenesis.

    METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized with pentobarbital, which caused almost full eyelid closure, or xylazine/ketamine, which caused eyelid retraction and proptosis. The eyelids of one eye were kept open with either a suture or adhesive tape, or both. The other eye was kept closed with either a suture or tape. Cataract was graded clinically and quantified in vitro as intensity of forward light scattering. In two UVR experiments, anaesthetized rats were irradiated unilaterally with 5 kJ/m2 UVR-B 300 nm for 15 mins. The difference between the two UVR experiments was the degree of proptosis in the pentobarbital group. Corneal drying was judged clinically with a grading scale.

    RESULTS: Within 60 mins of anaesthesia induction in the first experiment, almost all lenses in open eyes developed cataract, whereas all lenses in closed eyes remained clear. In the first UVR experiment the lens light scattering was significantly higher in the xylazine/ketamine group. In the second UVR experiment the pentobarbital group was treated to achieve proptosis similar to that in the xylazine/ketamine group, which led to a smaller difference in lens light scattering between the two anaesthesia groups. Lens light scattering in the pentobarbital groups was significantly higher with forced proptosis than without prominent proptosis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Xylazine/ketamine anaesthesia facilitates the development of UVR-induced cataract, whereas pentobarbital anaesthesia does not. Xylazine/ketamine anaesthesia induces more proptosis and therefore leads to increased exposure of the cornea and, secondarily, the lens.

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