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  • 1.
    Alvarez, Jose M.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sohlberg, Joel
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Engström, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiological Botany.
    Zhu, Tianqing
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Englund, Marie
    Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Organismal Biol, Physiol Bot, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Moschou, Panagiotis N.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    von Arnold, Sara
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    The WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 3 gene PaWOX3 regulates lateral organ formation in Norway spruce2015In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 208, no 4, p. 1078-1088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In angiosperms, WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 3 (WOX3) genes are required for the recruitment of founder cells from the lateral domains of shoot meristems that form lateral regions of leaves. However, the regulation of the formation of lateral organs in gymnosperms remains unknown. By using somatic embryos of Norway spruce ( Picea abies) we have studied the expression and function of PaWOX3 during embryo development. The mRNA abundance of PaWOX3 was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, and the spatial expression of PaWOX3 was analysed by histochemical beta-glucuronidase (GUS) assays and in situ mRNA hybridization. To investigate the function of PaWOX3, we analysed how downregulation of PaWOX3 in RNA interference lines affected embryo development and morphology. PaWOX3 was highly expressed in mature embryos at the base of each cotyledon close to the junction between the cotyledons, and in the lateral margins of cotyledons and needles, separating them into an adaxial and an abaxial side. Downregulation of the expression of PaWOX3 caused defects in lateral margin outgrowth in cotyledons and needles, and reduced root elongation. Our data suggest that the WOX3 function in margin outgrowth in lateral organs is conserved among the seed plants, whereas its function in root elongation may be unique to gymnosperms.

  • 2. Avia, Komlan
    et al.
    Karkkainen, Katri
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Savolainen, Outi
    Association of FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1-like gene FTL2 expression with growth rhythm in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)2014In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 204, no 1, p. 159-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the genetic basis of the timing of bud set, an important trait in conifers, is relevant for adaptation and forestry practice. In common garden experiments, both Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) show a latitudinal cline in the trait. We compared the regulation of their bud set biology by examining the expression of PsFTL2, a Pinus sylvestris homolog to PaFTL2, a FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (FT/TFL1)-like gene, the expression levels of which have been found previously to be associated with the timing of bud set in Norway spruce. In a common garden study, we analyzed the relationship of bud phenology under natural and artificial photoperiods and the expression of PsFTL2 in a set of Scots pine populations from different latitudes. The expression of PsFTL2 increased in the needles preceding bud set and decreased during bud burst. In the northernmost population, even short night periods were efficient to trigger this expression, which also increased earlier under all photoperiodic regimes compared with the southern populations. Despite the different biology, with few limitations, the two conifers that diverged 140 million yr ago probably share an association of FTL2 with bud set, pointing to a common mechanism for the timing of growth cessation in conifers.

  • 3.
    Bu, Zhao-Jun
    et al.
    NE Normal Univ, Inst Peat & Mire Res, State Environm Protect Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Veg, Renmin 5268, Changchun 130024, Peoples R China.;Jilin Prov Key Lab Wetland Ecol Proc & Environm C, Renmin 5268, Changchun 130024, Peoples R China..
    Sundberg, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, POB 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Feng, Lu
    NE Normal Univ, Inst Peat & Mire Res, State Environm Protect Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Veg, Renmin 5268, Changchun 130024, Peoples R China.;Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Appl Ecol, Wenhua Rd, Shenyang 110016, Peoples R China..
    Li, Hong-Kai
    NE Normal Univ, Inst Peat & Mire Res, State Environm Protect Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Veg, Renmin 5268, Changchun 130024, Peoples R China.;Jilin Prov Key Lab Wetland Ecol Proc & Environm C, Renmin 5268, Changchun 130024, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Hong-Yan
    NE Normal Univ, Inst Peat & Mire Res, State Environm Protect Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Veg, Renmin 5268, Changchun 130024, Peoples R China.;Jilin Prov Key Lab Wetland Ecol Proc & Environm C, Renmin 5268, Changchun 130024, Peoples R China..
    Li, Hong-Chun
    NE Normal Univ, Inst Peat & Mire Res, State Environm Protect Key Lab Wetland Ecol & Veg, Renmin 5268, Changchun 130024, Peoples R China.;Natl Taiwan Univ, Dept Geosci, Taipei 106, Taiwan..
    The Methuselah of plant diaspores: Sphagnum spores can survive in nature for centuries2017In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 214, no 4, p. 1398-1402Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Burns, Jean H.
    et al.
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Dept Biol, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA.
    Bennett, Joanne M.
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Biol, Kirchtor 1, D-06108 Halle, Saale, Germany;Halle Jena Leipzig, German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res iDiv, Deutsch Pl 5e, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Li, Junmin
    Taizhou Univ, Zhejiang Prov Key Lab Plant Evolutionary Ecol & C, Taizhou City 318000, Peoples R China;Taizhou Univ, Zhejiang Prov Key Lab Plant Evolutionary Ecol & C, Taizhou 318000, Peoples R China.
    Xia, Jing
    South Cent Univ Nationalities, Coll Life Sci, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, Peoples R China.
    Arceo-Gomez, Gerardo
    East Tennessee State Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Johnson City, TN 37614 USA.
    Burd, Martin
    Monash Univ, Sch Biol Sci, Melbourne, Vic 3800, Australia.
    Burkle, Laura A.
    Montana State Univ, Dept Ecol, Bozeman, MT 59717 USA.
    Durka, Walter
    Halle Jena Leipzig, German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res iDiv, Deutsch Pl 5e, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany;UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Dept Community Ecol, Theodor Lieser Str 4, D-06120 Halle, Saale, Germany.
    Ellis, Allan G.
    Freitas, Leandro
    Inst Pesquisas Jardim Bot Rio de Janeiro, BR-22460030 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Rodger, James G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Department of Botany and Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa;.
    Vamosi, Jana C.
    Univ Calgary, Dept Biol Sci, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada.
    Wolowski, Marina
    Ashman, Tia-Lynn
    Knight, Tiffany M.
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Biol, Kirchtor 1, D-06108 Halle, Saale, Germany;Halle Jena Leipzig, German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res iDiv, Deutsch Pl 5e, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany;UFZ Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Dept Community Ecol, Theodor Lieser Str 4, D-06120 Halle, Saale, Germany.
    Steets, Janette A.
    Oklahoma State Univ, Dept Plant Biol Ecol & Evolut, Stillwater, OK 74078 USA.
    Plant traits moderate pollen limitation of introduced and native plants: a phylogenetic meta-analysis of global scale2019In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 223, no 4, p. 2063-2075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of pollination in the success of invasive plants needs to be understood because invasives have substantial effects on species interactions and ecosystem functions. Previous research has shown both that reproduction of invasive plants is often pollen limited and that invasive plants can have high seed production, motivating the questions: How do invasive populations maintain reproductive success in spite of pollen limitation? What species traits moderate pollen limitation for invaders? We conducted a phylogenetic meta-analysis with 68 invasive, 50 introduced noninvasive and 1931 native plant populations, across 1249 species. We found that invasive populations with generalist pollination or pollinator dependence were less pollen limited than natives, but invasives and introduced noninvasives did not differ. Invasive species produced 3x fewer ovules/flower and >250x more flowers per plant, compared with their native relatives. While these traits were negatively correlated, consistent with a tradeoff, this did not differ with invasion status. Invasive plants that produce many flowers and have floral generalisation are able to compensate for or avoid pollen limitation, potentially helping to explain the invaders' reproductive successes.

  • 5.
    Carlsbecker, Annelie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiological Botany.
    Sundstrom, Jens F.
    Englund, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiological Botany.
    Uddenberg, Daniel
    Izquierdo, Liz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Kvarnheden, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Vergara-Silva, Francisco
    Engström, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiological Botany.
    Molecular control of normal and acrocona mutant seed cone development in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and the evolution of conifer ovule-bearing organs2013In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 200, no 1, p. 261-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproductive organs in seed plants are morphologically divergent and their evolutionary history is often unclear. The mechanisms controlling their development have been extensively studied in angiosperms but are poorly understood in conifers and other gymnosperms. Here, we address the molecular control of seed cone development in Norway spruce, Picea abies. We present expression analyses of five novel MADS-box genes in comparison with previously identified MADS and LEAFY genes at distinct developmental stages. In addition, we have characterized the homeotic transformation from vegetative shoot to female cone and associated changes in regulatory gene expression patterns occurring in the acrocona mutant. The analyses identified genes active at the onset of ovuliferous and ovule development and identified expression patterns marking distinct domains of the ovuliferous scale. The reproductive transformation in acrocona involves the activation of all tested genes normally active in early cone development, except for an AGAMOUS-LIKE6/SEPALLATA (AGL6/SEP) homologue. This absence may be functionally associated with the nondeterminate development of the acrocona ovule-bearing scales. Our morphological and gene expression analyses give support to the hypothesis that the modern cone is a complex structure, and the ovuliferous scale the result of reductions and compactions of an ovule-bearing axillary short shoot in cones of Paleozoic conifers.

  • 6.
    Chapurlat, Elodie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Anderson, Joseph
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Friberg, Magne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Lund Univ, Dept Biol, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Conflicting selection on floral scent emission in the orchid Gymnadenia conopsea2019In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 222, no 4, p. 2009-2022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Floral scent is a crucial trait for pollinator attraction. Yet only a handful of studies have estimated selection on scent in natural populations and no study has quantified the relative importance of pollinators and other agents of selection. In the fragrant orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, we used electroantennographic data to identify floral scent compounds detected by local pollinators and quantified pollinator-mediated selection on emission rates of 10 target compounds as well as on flowering start, visual display and spur length. Nocturnal pollinators contributed more to reproductive success than diurnal pollinators, but there was significant pollinator-mediated selection on both diurnal and nocturnal scent emission. Pollinators selected for increased emission of two compounds and reduced emission of two other compounds, none of which were major constituents of the total bouquet. In three cases, pollinator-mediated selection was opposed by nonpollinator-mediated selection, leading to weaker or no detectable net selection. Our study demonstrates that minor scent compounds can be targets of selection, that pollinators do not necessarily favour stronger scent signalling, and that some scent compounds are subject to conflicting selection from pollinators and other agents of selection. Hence, including floral scent traits into selection analysis is important for understanding the mechanisms behind floral evolution.

  • 7.
    Chapurlat, Elodie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Spatial variation in pollinator-mediated selection on phenology, floral display and spur length in the orchid Gymnadenia conopsea2015In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 208, no 4, p. 1264-1275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial variation in plant-pollinator interactions may cause variation in pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits, but to establish this link conclusively experimental studies are needed. We quantified pollinator-mediated selection on flowering phenology and morphology in four populations of the fragrant orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, and compared selection mediated by diurnal and nocturnal pollinators in two of the populations. Variation in pollinator-mediated selection explained most of the among-population variation in the strength of directional and correlational selection. Pollinators mediated correlational selection on pairs of display traits, and on one display trait and spur length, a trait affecting pollination efficiency. Only nocturnal pollinators selected for longer spurs, and mediated stronger selection on the number of flowers compared with diurnal pollinators in one population. The two types of pollinators caused correlational selection on different pairs of traits and selected for different combinations of spur length and number of flowers. The results demonstrate that spatial variation in interactions with pollinators may result in differences in directional and correlational selection on floral traits in a plant with a semi-generalized pollination system, and suggest that differences in the relative importance of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators can cause variation in selection.

  • 8.
    Cheeke, Tanya E.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala Bioctr, Dept Forest Mycol & Plant Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden.;Indiana Univ, Dept Biol, 1001 E Third St, Bloomington, IN 47405 USA..
    Phillips, Richard P.
    Indiana Univ, Dept Biol, 1001 E Third St, Bloomington, IN 47405 USA..
    Brzostek, Edward R.
    West Virginia Univ, Dept Biol, 53 Campus Dr, Morgantown, WV 26506 USA..
    Rosling, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Bever, James D.
    Indiana Univ, Dept Biol, 1001 E Third St, Bloomington, IN 47405 USA.;Univ Kansas, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, 2041 Haworth Hall,1200 Sunnyside Ave, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA..
    Fransson, Petra
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala Bioctr, Dept Forest Mycol & Plant Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Dominant mycorrhizal association of trees alters carbon and nutrient cycling by selecting for microbial groups with distinct enzyme function2017In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 214, no 1, p. 432-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While it is well established that plants associating with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi cycle carbon (C) and nutrients in distinct ways, we have a limited understanding of whether varying abundance of ECM and AM plants in a stand can provide integrative proxies for key biogeochemical processes. We explored linkages between the relative abundance of AM and ECM trees and microbial functioning in three hardwood forests in southern Indiana, USA. Across each site's 'mycorrhizal gradient', we measured fungal biomass, fungal : bacterial (F : B) ratios, extracellular enzyme activities, soil carbon : nitrogen ratio, and soil pH over a growing season. We show that the percentage of AM or ECM trees in a plot promotes microbial communities that both reflect and determine the C to nutrient balance in soil. Soils dominated by ECM trees had higher F : B ratios and more standing fungal biomass than AM stands. Enzyme stoichiometry in ECM soils shifted to higher investment in extracellular enzymes needed for nitrogen and phosphorus acquisition than in C-acquisition enzymes, relative to AM soils. Our results suggest that knowledge of mycorrhizal dominance at the stand or landscape scale may provide a unifying framework for linking plant and microbial community dynamics, and predicting their effects on ecological function.

  • 9. de Vries, Jan
    et al.
    Fischer, Angela Melanie
    Roettger, Mayo
    Rommel, Sophie
    Schluepmann, Henriette
    Bräutigam, Andrea
    Carlsbecker, Annelie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiological Botany.
    Gould, Sven Bernhard
    Cytokinin-induced promotion of root meristem size in the fern Azolla supports a shoot-like origin of euphyllophyte roots.2016In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 209, no 2, p. 705-720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phytohormones cytokinin and auxin orchestrate the root meristem development in angiosperms by determining embryonic bipolarity. Ferns, having the most basal euphyllophyte root, form neither bipolar embryos nor permanent embryonic primary roots but rather an adventitious root system. This raises the questions of how auxin and cytokinin govern fern root system architecture and whether this can tell us something about the origin of that root. Using Azolla filiculoides, we characterized the influence of IAA and zeatin on adventitious fern root meristems and vasculature by Nomarski microscopy. Simultaneously, RNAseq analyses, yielding 36 091 contigs, were used to uncover how the phytohormones affect root tip gene expression. We show that auxin restricts Azolla root meristem development, while cytokinin promotes it; it is the opposite effect of what is observed in Arabidopsis. Global gene expression profiling uncovered 145 genes significantly regulated by cytokinin or auxin, including cell wall modulators, cell division regulators and lateral root formation coordinators. Our data illuminate both evolution and development of fern roots. Promotion of meristem size through cytokinin supports the idea that root meristems of euphyllophytes evolved from shoot meristems. The foundation of these roots was laid in a postembryonically branching shoot system.

  • 10. Du, Fang K.
    et al.
    Peng, Xiao Li
    Liu, Jian Quan
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Hu, Feng Sheng
    Petit, Remy J.
    Direction and extent of organelle DNA introgression between two spruce species in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau2011In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 192, no 4, p. 1024-1033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent model has shown that, during range expansion of one species in a territory already occupied by a related species, introgression should take place preferentially from the resident species towards the invading species and genome components experiencing low rates of gene flow should introgress more readily than those experiencing high rates of gene flow. Here, we use molecular markers from two organelle genomes with contrasted rates of gene flow to test these predictions by examining genetic exchanges between two morphologically distinct spruce Picea species growing in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The haplotypes from both mitochondrial (mt) DNA and chloroplast (cp) DNA cluster into two distinct lineages that differentiate allopatric populations of the two species. By contrast, in sympatry, the species share the same haplotypes, suggesting interspecific genetic exchanges. As predicted by the neutral model, all sympatric populations of the expanding species had received their maternally inherited mtDNA from the resident species, whereas for paternally inherited cpDNA introgression is more limited and not strictly unidirectional. Our results underscore cryptic introgressions of organelle DNAs in plants and the importance of considering rates of gene flow and range shifts to predict direction and extent of interspecific genetic exchanges.

  • 11. Falahati-Anbaran, Mohsen
    et al.
    Lundemo, Sverre
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Stenoien, Hans K.
    Seed dispersal in time can counteract the effect of gene flow between natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana2014In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 202, no 3, p. 1043-1054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants may escape unfavorable environments by dispersing to new sites, or by remaining in an ungerminated state at a given site until environmental conditions become favorable. There is limited evidence regarding the occurrence, interplay and relative importance of dispersal processes in time and space in plant populations. Thirty-six natural populations of the annual ruderal species Arabidopsis thaliana were monitored over five consecutive years, sampling both seed bank and above-ground cohorts. We show that immigration rates are considerably higher than previously inferred, averaging 1.7% per populationyr(-1). On the other hand, almost one-third of the individuals in a given above-ground cohort result from seeds shed 2 or 3yr back in time in 10 of the studied populations. Populations that disappeared one year were recolonized by regeneration from the seed bank the subsequent year. Thus, dispersal in both time and space is an important contributor to the structuring of genetic variability in natural populations of A.thaliana, where a high dispersal rate in time may partly counteract the homogenizing effects of spatial seed and pollen dispersal.

  • 12.
    Favre, Adrien
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Plant Ecol Genet, Inst Integrat Biol, Univ Str 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland.;Univ Leipzig, Inst Biol, Dept Mol Evolut & Plant Systemat & Herbarium LZ, Johannisallee 21-23, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany..
    Widmer, Alex
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Plant Ecol Genet, Inst Integrat Biol, Univ Str 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Karrenberg, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Plant Ecol Genet, Inst Integrat Biol, Univ Str 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Differential adaptation drives ecological speciation in campions (Silene): evidence from a multi-site transplant experiment2017In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 213, no 3, p. 1487-1499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate the role of differential adaptation for the evolution of reproductive barriers, we conducted a multi-site transplant experiment with the dioecious sister species Silenedioica and S.latifolia and their hybrids. Crosses within species as well as reciprocal first-generation (F-1) and second-generation (F-2) interspecific hybrids were transplanted into six sites, three within each species' habitat. Survival and flowering were recorded over 4yr. At all transplant sites, the local species outperformed the foreign species, reciprocal F-1 hybrids performed intermediately and F-2 hybrids underperformed in comparison to F-1 hybrids (hybrid breakdown). Females generally had slightly higher cumulative fitness than males in both within- and between-species crosses and we thus found little evidence for Haldane's rule acting on field performance. The strength of selection against F-1 and F-2 hybrids as well as hybrid breakdown increased with increasing strength of habitat adaptation (i.e. the relative fitness difference between the local and the foreign species) across sites. Our results suggest that differential habitat adaptation led to ecologically dependent post-zygotic reproductive barriers and drives divergence and speciation in this Silene system.

  • 13. Guerriera, Gea
    et al.
    Martin, Nathalie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Golovko, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Sundström, Jens
    Rask, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Ezcurra, Ines
    The RY/Sph element mediates transcriptional repression of MAT genes from late maturation to early seedling growth2009In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 184, no 3, p. 552-565Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    P>In orthodox seeds, the transcriptional activator ABI3 regulates two   major stages in embryo maturation: a mid-maturation (MAT) stage leading   to accumulation of storage compounds, and a late maturation (LEA) stage   leading to quiescence and desiccation tolerance. Our aim was to   elucidate mechanisms for transcriptional shutdown of MAT genes during   late maturation, to better understand phase transition between MAT and   LEA stages.   Using transgenic and transient approaches in Nicotiana, we examined   activities of two ABI3-dependent reporter genes driven by multimeric RY   and abscisic acid response elements (ABREs) from a Brassica napus napin   gene, termed RY and ABRE, where the RY reporter requires ABI3 DNA   binding.   Expression of RY peaks during mid-maturation and drops during late   maturation, mimicking the MAT gene program, and in Arabidopsis thaliana   RY elements are over-represented in MAT, but not in LEA, genes. The   ABI3 transactivation of RY is inhibited by staurosporine, by a PP2C   phosphatase, and by a repressor of maturation genes, VAL1/HSI2.   The RY element mediates repression of MAT genes, and we propose that   transcriptional shutdown of the MAT program during late maturation   involves inhibition of ABI3 DNA binding by dephosphorylation. Later,   during seedling growth, VAL1/HSI2 family repressors silence MAT genes by binding RY elements.

  • 14.
    Gunnarsson, Urban
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Plant Ecology.
    Nitrogen fertilization reduces Sphagnum production in bog communities2000In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 147, no 3, p. 527-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of increased nitrogen influx on Sphagnum growth and on interspecific competition between Sphagnum species were studied in a 3-yr experiment in mires situated in two areas with different rates of airborne N deposition. Sphagnum growth was recorded after various supplementary N influxes (0, 1, 3, 5 and 10 g m −2 yr−1) in hummocks and lawn communities. Sphagnum biomass production decreased with increasing N influx in both areas. After the first season at the low-deposition site, Sphagnum showed an increased growth in length with the intermediate N treatment, but in the second and third seasons the control treatment had the highest growth in length. Capitulum dry mass increased with increasing N influx. Sphagnum N concentration and N/P quotient were higher at the high- than at the low-deposition site. The low quotient at the low-deposition site, together with the initial growth increase with intermediate N supplements, indicates that growth was N-limited at this site, but our lowest N supplement was sufficient to reduce growth. The N treatments had no effect on interspecific competition between the Sphagnum species. This indicates that the species have similar responses to N. The species studied all occur naturally on ombrotrophic, N-poor sites and show low tolerances to increased N influx. Reduced Sphagnum production may affect the carbon balance, changing the mires from C sinks to sources.

  • 15.
    Huang, Hui-Run
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, South China Bot Garden, Key Lab Plant Resources Conservat & Sustainable U, Guangzhou 510650, Guangdong, Peoples R China;Chinese Acad Sci, Guangdong Prov Key Lab Appl Bot, South China Bot Garden, Guangzhou 510650, Guangdong, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Jia-Jia
    Chinese Acad Sci, South China Bot Garden, Key Lab Plant Resources Conservat & Sustainable U, Guangzhou 510650, Guangdong, Peoples R China;Chinese Acad Sci, Guangdong Prov Key Lab Appl Bot, South China Bot Garden, Guangzhou 510650, Guangdong, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Yong
    Chinese Acad Sci, South China Bot Garden, Key Lab Plant Resources Conservat & Sustainable U, Guangzhou 510650, Guangdong, Peoples R China;Chinese Acad Sci, Guangdong Prov Key Lab Appl Bot, South China Bot Garden, Guangzhou 510650, Guangdong, Peoples R China.
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ge, Xue-Jun
    Chinese Acad Sci, South China Bot Garden, Key Lab Plant Resources Conservat & Sustainable U, Guangzhou 510650, Guangdong, Peoples R China;Chinese Acad Sci, Guangdong Prov Key Lab Appl Bot, South China Bot Garden, Guangzhou 510650, Guangdong, Peoples R China.
    Wright, Stephen I.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Toronto, ON M5S 3B2, Canada.
    Homeologue-specific expression divergence in the recently formed tetraploid Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae)2018In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 220, no 2, p. 624-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following allopolyploid formation, extensive genome evolution occurs, with the eventual loss of many homeologous gene copies. Although this process of diploidization has occurred many times independently, the evolutionary forces determining the probability and rate of gene loss remain poorly understood. Here, we conduct genome and transcriptome sequencing in a broad sample of Chinese accessions of Capsella bursa-pastoris, a recently formed allotetraploid. Our whole genome data reveal three groups of these accessions: an Eastern group from low-altitude regions, a Western group from high-altitude regions, and a much more differentiated Northwestern group. Population differentiation in total expression was limited among closely related populations; by contrast, the relative expression of the two homeologous copies closely mirrors the genome-wide SNP divergence. Consistent with this, we observe a negative correlation between expression changes in the two homeologues. However, genes showing population genomic evidence for adaptive evolution do not show an enrichment for expression divergence between homeologues, providing no clear evidence for adaptive shifts in relative gene expression. Overall, these patterns suggest that neutral drift may contribute to the population differentiation in the expression of the homeologues, and drive eventual gene loss over longer periods of time.

  • 16. Huang, Hui-Run
    et al.
    Yan, Peng-Cheng
    Lascoux, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ge, Xue-Jun
    Flowering time and transcriptome variation in Capsella bursa-pastoris (Brassicaceae)2012In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 194, no 3, p. 676-689Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flowering is a major developmental transition and its timing in relation to environmental conditions is of crucial importance to plant fitness. Understanding the genetic basis of flowering time variation is important to determining how plants adapt locally. Here, we investigated flowering time variation of Capsella bursa-pastoris collected from different latitudes in China. We also used a digital gene expression ( DGE) system to generate partial gene expression profiles for 12 selected samples. We found that flowering time was highly variable and most strongly correlated with day length and winter temperature. Significant differences in gene expression between early-and late-flowering samples were detected for 72 candidate genes for flowering time. Genes related to circadian rhythms were significantly overrepresented among the differentially expressed genes. Our data suggest that circadian rhythms and circadian clock genes play an important role in the evolution of flowering time, and C. bursa-pastoris plants exhibit expression differences for candidate genes likely to affect flowering time across the broad range of environments they face in China.

  • 17.
    Junker, Robert R.
    et al.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Hellbrunnerstr 34, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    Kuppler, Jonas
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Hellbrunnerstr 34, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    Amo, Luisa
    Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Dept Anim Ecol, NL-6700 EH Wageningen, Netherlands;CSIC, Museo Nacl Ciencias Nat, Dept Evolutionary Ecol, E-28006 Madrid, Spain.
    Blande, James D.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Dept Environm & Biol Sci, Kuopio 70211, Finland.
    Borges, Renee M.
    Indian Inst Sci, Ctr Ecol Sci, Bangalore 560012, Karnataka, India.
    van Dam, Nicole M.
    Halle Jena Leipzig Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena, German Ctr Integrat Biodivers Res iDiv, Deutsch Pl 5e, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Dicke, Marcel
    Wageningen Univ, Entomol Lab, POB 16, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Dötterl, Stefan
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Hellbrunnerstr 34, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    Ehlers, Bodil K.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Biosci, Vejlsovej 25, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Etl, Florian
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Hellbrunnerstr 34, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria;Univ Vienna, Dept Bot & Biodivers Res, A-1030 Vienna, Austria.
    Gershenzon, Jonathan
    Max Planck Inst Chem Ecol, Dept Biochem, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
    Glinwood, Robert
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Crop Prod Ecol, Box 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gols, Rieta
    Wageningen Univ, Entomol Lab, POB 16, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Groot, Astrid T.
    Univ Amsterdam, IBED, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam, Netherlands;Max Planck Inst Chem Ecol, Dept Entomol, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
    Heil, Martin
    CINVESTAV Irapuato, Dept Ingn Genet, Irapuato 36821, Mexico.
    Hoffmeister, Mathias
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Hellbrunnerstr 34, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    Holopainen, Jarmo K.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Dept Environm & Biol Sci, Kuopio 70211, Finland.
    Jarau, Stefan
    Ulm Univ, Inst Neurobiol, Helmholtzstr 10-1, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.
    John, Lena
    Ulm Univ, Inst Neurobiol, Helmholtzstr 10-1, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.
    Kessler, Andre
    Cornell Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA.
    Knudsen, Jette T.
    Lund Univ, Deptartment Biol, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden;Nattaro Labs AB, S-22381 Lund, Sweden.
    Kost, Christian
    Max Planck Inst Chem Ecol, Res Grp Expt Ecol & Evolut, D-07745 Jena, Germany;Univ Osnabruck, Sch Biol Chem, Dept Ecol, D-49074 Osnabruck, Germany.
    Larue-Kontic, Anne-Amelie C.
    Salzburg Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Hellbrunnerstr 34, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    Leonhardt, Sara Diana
    Wurzburg Univ, Dept Anim Ecol & Trop Biol, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.
    Lucas-Barbosa, Dani
    Wageningen Univ, Entomol Lab, POB 16, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Majetic, Cassie J.
    St Marys Coll, Dept Biol, Notre Dame, IN 46556 USA.
    Menzel, Florian
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Zool, D-55128 Mainz, Germany.
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Pasquet, Remy S.
    IRD, Dept ECOBIO, 44 Bd Dunkerque, F-13572 Marseille 02, France.
    Poelman, Erik H.
    Wageningen Univ, Entomol Lab, POB 16, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Raguso, Robert A.
    Cornell Univ, Dept Neurobiol & Behav, Ithaca, NY 14853 USA.
    Ruther, Joachim
    Univ Regensburg, Inst Zool, Univ Str 31, D-93053 Regensburg, Germany.
    Schiestl, Florian P.
    Univ Zurich, Dept Systemat & Evolutionary Bot, Zollikerstr 107, CH-8008 Zurich, Switzerland.
    Schmitt, Thomas
    Wurzburg Univ, Dept Anim Ecol & Trop Biol, D-97074 Wurzburg, Germany.
    Tholl, Dorothea
    Virginia Tech, Dept Biol Sci, Blacksburg, VA 24061 USA.
    Unsicker, Sybille B.
    Max Planck Inst Chem Ecol, Dept Biochem, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
    Verhulst, Niels
    Wageningen Univ, Entomol Lab, POB 16, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Visser, Marcel E.
    Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Dept Anim Ecol, NL-6700 EH Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Weldegergis, Berhane T.
    Wageningen Univ, Entomol Lab, POB 16, NL-6700 AA Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Köllner, Tobias G.
    Max Planck Inst Chem Ecol, Dept Biochem, D-07745 Jena, Germany.
    Covariation and phenotypic integration in chemical communication displays: biosynthetic constraints and eco-evolutionary implications2018In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 220, no 3, p. 739-749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical communication is ubiquitous. The identification of conserved structural elements in visual and acoustic communication is well established, but comparable information on chemical communication displays (CCDs) is lacking. We assessed the phenotypic integration of CCDs in a meta-analysis to characterize patterns of covariation in CCDs and identified functional or biosynthetically constrained modules. Poorly integrated plant CCDs (i.e. low covariation between scent compounds) support the notion that plants often utilize one or few key compounds to repel antagonists or to attract pollinators and enemies of herbivores. Animal CCDs (mostly insect pheromones) were usually more integrated than those of plants (i.e. stronger covariation), suggesting that animals communicate via fixed proportions among compounds. Both plant and animal CCDs were composed of modules, which are groups of strongly covarying compounds. Biosynthetic similarity of compounds revealed biosynthetic constraints in the covariation patterns of plant CCDs. We provide a novel perspective on chemical communication and a basis for future investigations on structural properties of CCDs. This will facilitate identifying modules and biosynthetic constraints that may affect the outcome of selection and thus provide a predictive framework for evolutionary trajectories of CCDs in plants and animals.

  • 18.
    Kemi, Ulla
    et al.
    Department of Biology, University of Oulu.
    Niittyvuopio, Anne
    Department of Biology, University of Oulu.
    Tiovainen, Tuomas
    Department of Biology, University of Oulu.
    Pasanen, Anu
    Department of Biology, University of Oulu.
    Quilot-Turion, Bénédicte
    Department of Biology, University of Oulu.
    Holm, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Savolainen, Outi
    Department of Biology, University of Oulu.
    Kuittinen, Helmi
    Department of Biology, University of Oulu.
    Role of vernalization and of duplicated Flowering Locus C in the perennial Arabidopsis lyrata2013In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 197, no 1, p. 323-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is one of the main genes influencing the vernalization requirement and natural flowering time variation in the annual Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we studied the effects of vernalization on flowering and its genetic basis in the perennial Arabidopsis lyrata. Two tandemly duplicated FLC genes (FLC1 and FLC2) were compared with respect to expression and DNA sequence. The effect of vernalization on flowering and on the expression of FLC1 was studied in three European populations. The genetic basis of the FLC1 expression difference between two of the populations was further studied by expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping and sequence analysis. FLC1 was shown to have a likely role in the vernalization requirement for flowering in A. lyrata. Vernalization decreased its expression and the northern study populations showed higher FLC1 expression than the southern one. eQTL mapping between two of the populations revealed one eQTL affecting FLC1 expression in the genomic region containing the FLC genes. Most FLC1 sequence differences between the study populations were found in the promoter region and in the first intron. Variation in the FLC1 sequence may cause differences in FLC1 expression between late- and early-flowering A. lyrata populations.

  • 19.
    Lendvay, Bertalan
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Forest Snow & Landscape Res WSL, Zurcherstr 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland..
    Hartmann, Martin
    Swiss Fed Inst Forest Snow & Landscape Res WSL, Zurcherstr 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland..
    Brodbeck, Sabine
    Swiss Fed Inst Forest Snow & Landscape Res WSL, Zurcherstr 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland..
    Nievergelt, Daniel
    Swiss Fed Inst Forest Snow & Landscape Res WSL, Zurcherstr 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland..
    Reinig, Frederick
    Swiss Fed Inst Forest Snow & Landscape Res WSL, Zurcherstr 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland..
    Zoller, Stefan
    ETH, Genet Divers Ctr, Univ Str 16, CH-8092 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Parducci, Laura
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Gugerli, Felix
    Swiss Fed Inst Forest Snow & Landscape Res WSL, Zurcherstr 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland..
    Buentgen, Ulf
    Swiss Fed Inst Forest Snow & Landscape Res WSL, Zurcherstr 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Geog, Downing Pl, Cambridge CB2 3EN, England.;Masaryk Univ, Global Change Res Ctr, Brno 61300, Czech Republic..
    Sperisen, Christoph
    Swiss Fed Inst Forest Snow & Landscape Res WSL, Zurcherstr 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland..
    Improved recovery of ancient DNA from subfossil wood - application to the world's oldest Late Glacial pine forest2018In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 217, no 4, p. 1737-1748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ancient DNA from historical and subfossil wood has a great potential to provide new insights into the history of tree populations. However, its extraction and analysis have not become routine, mainly because contamination of the wood with modern plant material can complicate the verification of genetic information. Here, we used sapwood tissue from 22 subfossil pines that were growing c. 13000yr bp in Zurich, Switzerland. We developed and evaluated protocols to eliminate surface contamination, and we tested ancient DNA authenticity based on plastid DNA metabarcoding and the assessment of post-mortem DNA damage. A novel approach using laser irradiation coupled with bleaching and surface removal was most efficient in eliminating contaminating DNA. DNA metabarcoding confirmed which ancient DNA samples repeatedly amplified pine DNA and were free of exogenous plant taxa. Pine DNA sequences of these samples showed a high degree of cytosine to thymine mismatches, typical of post-mortem damage. Stringent decontamination of wood surfaces combined with DNA metabarcoding and assessment of post-mortem DNA damage allowed us to authenticate ancient DNA retrieved from the oldest Late Glacial pine forest. These techniques can be applied to any subfossil wood and are likely to improve the accessibility of relict wood for genome-scale ancient DNA studies.

  • 20. Limpens, J.
    et al.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Aerts, R.
    Heijmans, M. M. P. D.
    Sheppard, L. J.
    Bragazza, L.
    Williams, B. L.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Bubier, J.
    Moore, T.
    Rochefort, L.
    Mitchell, E. A. D.
    Buttler, A.
    van den Berg, L. J. L.
    Gunnarsson, U.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Francez, A. -J
    Gerdol, R.
    Thormann, M.
    Grosvernier, P.
    Wiedermann, M. M.
    Nilsson, M. B.
    Hoosbeek, M. R.
    Bayley, S.
    Nordbakken, J. -F
    Paulissen, M. P. C. P.
    Hotes, S.
    Breeuwer, A.
    Ilomets, M.
    Tomassen, H. B. M.
    Leith, I.
    Xu, B.
    Glasshouse vs field experiments: do they yield ecologically similar results for assessing N impacts on peat mosses?2012In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 195, no 2, p. 408-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peat bogs have accumulated more atmospheric carbon (C) than any other terrestrial ecosystem today. Most of this C is associated with peat moss (Sphagnum) litter. Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can decrease Sphagnum production, compromising the C sequestration capacity of peat bogs. The mechanisms underlying the reduced production are uncertain, necessitating multifactorial experiments. We investigated whether glasshouse experiments are reliable proxies for field experiments for assessing interactions between N deposition and environment as controls on Sphagnum N concentration and production. We performed a meta-analysis over 115 glasshouse experiments and 107 field experiments. We found that glasshouse and field experiments gave similar qualitative and quantitative estimates of changes in Sphagnum N concentration in response to N application. However, glasshouse-based estimates of changes in production even qualitative assessments diverged from field experiments owing to a stronger N effect on production response in absence of vascular plants in the glasshouse, and a weaker N effect on production response in presence of vascular plants compared to field experiments. Thus, although we need glasshouse experiments to study how interacting environmental factors affect the response of Sphagnum to increased N deposition, we need field experiments to properly quantify these effects.

  • 21. Limpens, J.
    et al.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Gunnarsson, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Aerts, R.
    Bayley, S.
    Bragazza, L.
    Bubier, J.
    Buttler, A.
    van den Berg, L. J. L.
    Francez, A-J
    Gerdol, R.
    Grosvernier, P.
    Heijmans, M. M. P. D.
    Hoosbeek, M. R.
    Hotes, S.
    Ilomets, M.
    Leith, I.
    Mitchell, E. A. D.
    Moore, T.
    Nilsson, M. B.
    Nordbakken, J-F
    Rochefort, L.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Sheppard, L. J.
    Thormann, M.
    Wiedermann, M. M.
    Williams, B. L.
    Xu, B.
    Climatic modifiers of the response to nitrogen deposition in peat-forming Sphagnum mosses: a meta-analysis2011In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 191, no 2, p. 496-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peatlands in the northern hemisphere have accumulated more atmospheric carbon (C) during the Holocene than any other terrestrial ecosystem, making peatlands long-term C sinks of global importance. Projected increases in nitrogen (N) deposition and temperature make future accumulation rates uncertain. Here, we assessed the impact of N deposition on peatland C sequestration potential by investigating the effects of experimental N addition on Sphagnum moss. We employed meta-regressions to the results of 107 field experiments, accounting for sampling dependence in the data. We found that high N loading (comprising N application rate, experiment duration, background N deposition) depressed Sphagnum production relative to untreated controls. The interactive effects of presence of competitive vascular plants and high tissue N concentrations indicated intensified biotic interactions and altered nutrient stochiometry as mechanisms underlying the detrimental N effects. Importantly, a higher summer temperature (mean for July) and increased annual precipitation intensified the negative effects of N. The temperature effect was comparable to an experimental application of almost 4 g N m(-2) yr(-1) for each 1 degrees C increase. Our results indicate that current rates of N deposition in a warmer environment will strongly inhibit C sequestration by Sphagnum-dominated vegetation.

  • 22.
    Linde, Anna-Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Linnean Ctr Plant Biol Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eklund, D. Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Linnean Ctr Plant Biol Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kubota, Akane
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Biostudies, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
    Pederson, Eric R. A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Linnean Ctr Plant Biol Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Holm, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Linnean Ctr Plant Biol Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gyllenstrand, Niclas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Linnean Ctr Plant Biol Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nishihama, Ryuichi
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Biostudies, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
    Cronberg, Nils
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Ecol Bldg, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden.
    Muranaka, Tomoaki
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
    Oyama, Tokitaka
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
    Kohchi, Takayuki
    Kyoto Univ, Grad Sch Biostudies, Kyoto 6068502, Japan.
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution. Linnean Ctr Plant Biol Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Early evolution of the land plant circadian clock2017In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 216, no 2, p. 576-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While angiosperm clocks can be described as an intricate network of interlocked transcriptional feedback loops, clocks of green algae have been modelled as a loop of only two genes. To investigate the transition from a simple clock in algae to a complex one in angiosperms, we performed an inventory of circadian clock genes in bryophytes and charophytes. Additionally, we performed functional characterization of putative core clock genes in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and the hornwort Anthoceros agrestis. Phylogenetic construction was combined with studies of spatiotemporal expression patterns and analysis of M. polymorpha clock gene mutants. Homologues to core clock genes identified in Arabidopsis were found not only in bryophytes but also in charophytes, albeit in fewer copies. Circadian rhythms were detected for most identified genes in M. polymorpha and A. agrestis, and mutant analysis supports a role for putative clock genes in M. polymorpha. Our data are in line with a recent hypothesis that adaptation to terrestrial life occurred earlier than previously expected in the evolutionary history of charophyte algae. Both gene duplication and acquisition of new genes was important in the evolution of the plant circadian clock, but gene loss has also contributed to shaping the clock of bryophytes.

  • 23. Millett, J.
    et al.
    Svensson, Brita M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Newton, J.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Reliance on prey-derived nitrogen by the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia decreases with increasing nitrogen deposition2012In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 195, no 1, p. 182-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carnivory in plants is presumed to be an adaptation to a low-nutrient environment. Nitrogen (N) from carnivory is expected to become a less important component of the N budget as root N availability increases. Here, we investigated the uptake of N via roots versus prey of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia growing in ombrotrophic bogs along a latitudinal N deposition gradient through Sweden, using a natural abundance stable isotope mass balance technique. Drosera rotundifolia plants receiving the lowest level of N deposition obtained a greater proportion of N from prey (57%) than did plants on bogs with higher N deposition (22% at intermediate and 33% at the highest deposition). When adjusted for differences in plant mass, this pattern was also present when considering total prey N uptake (66, 26 and 26 mu g prey N per plant at the low, intermediate and high N deposition sites, respectively). The pattern of mass-adjusted root N uptake was opposite to this (47, 75 and 86 mu g N per plant). Drosera rotundifolia plants in this study switched from reliance on prey N to reliance on root-derived N as a result of increasing N availability from atmospheric N deposition.

  • 24. Mitchell, EAD
    et al.
    Buttler, A
    Grosvernier, P
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Plant Ecology.
    Albinsson, C
    Greenup, AL
    Heijmans, MMPD
    Hoosbek, MR
    Saarinen, T
    Relationships among testate amoebae (Protozoa), vegetation and water chemistry in five Sphagnum-dominated peatlands in Europe2000In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 145, no 1, p. 95-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the relationships between groups of organisms and the degree to which these relationships are consistent across major climatic gradients, we analysed the testate amoeba (Protozoa) communities, vegetation and water chemistry of one peatland in five countries: Switzerland, The Netherlands, Great Britain, Sweden and Finland, as part of the BERI (Bog Ecosystem Research Initiative) project. The relationships between the different data sets and subsets were investigated by means of detrended correspondence analysis, canonical correspondence analysis and Mantel permutation tests. The comparison of data on vegetation and testate amoebae showed that inter-site differences are more pronounced for the vegetation than for the testate amoebae species assemblage. Testate amoebae are a useful tool in multi-site studies and in environmental monitoring of peatlands because: (1) the number of species in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands is much higher than for mosses or vascular plants; (2) most peatland species are cosmopolitan in their distributions and therefore less affected than plants by biogeographical distribution patterns, thus differences in testate amoeba assemblages can be interpreted primarily in terms of ecology; (3) they are closely related to the ecological characteristics of the exact spot where they live, therefore they can be used to analyse small-scale gradients that play a major role in the functioning of peatland ecosystems. This study revealed the existence of small-scale vertical gradients within the vegetation and life-form niche separation in response to water chemistry. The deep-rooted plants such as Carex spp. and Eriophorum spp. are related to the chemistry of water sampled at or near the ground water table, whereas the mosses are not. Testate amoebae were shown to be ecologically more closely related to the chemistry of water sampled at or near the water table level and to the mosses than to the deep-rooted plants.

  • 25.
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lajuenesse, Marc J.
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa.
    Adapting with the enemy: local adaptation in plant-herbivore interactions2012In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 193, no 2, p. 294-296Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Parachnowitsch, Amy L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Raguso, Robert A.
    Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University.
    Kessler, André
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University.
    Phenotypic selection to increase floral scent emission, but not flower size or colour in bee-pollinatedPenstemon digitalis2012In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 195, no 3, p. 667-675Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Parducci, Laura
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Bennett, Keith D.
    Univ St Andrews, Dept Geog & Sustainable Dev, Sch Geog & Geosci, St Andrews KY16 9AL, Fife, Scotland.;Queens Univ Belfast, Marine Lab, Portaferry BT22 1LS, North Ireland..
    Ficetola, Gentile Francesco
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Lab Ecol Alpine LECA, F-38000 Grenoble, France.;Univ Milan, Dept Biosci, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Alsos, Inger Greve
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Tromso Museum, NO-9037 Tromso, Norway..
    Suyama, Yoshihisa
    Tohoku Univ, Grad Sch Agr Sci, Field Sci Ctr, 232-3 Yomogida, Osaki, Miyagi 9896711, Japan..
    Wood, Jamie R.
    Landcare Res, Longterm Ecol Lab, POB 69040, Lincoln Canterbury 7640, New Zealand..
    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther
    Univ Copenhagen, Ctr GeoGenet, Nat Hist Museum Denmark, DK-1350 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Ancient plant DNA in lake sediments2017In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 214, no 3, p. 924-942Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in sequencing technologies now permit the analyses of plant DNA from fossil samples (ancient plant DNA, plant aDNA), and thus enable the molecular reconstruction of palaeofloras. Hitherto, ancient frozen soils have proved excellent in preserving DNA molecules, and have thus been the most commonly used source of plant aDNA. However, DNA from soil mainly represents taxa growing a few metres from the sampling point. Lakes have larger catchment areas and recent studies have suggested that plant a DNA from lake sediments is a more powerful tool for palaeofloristic reconstruction. Furthermore, lakes can be found globally in nearly all environments, and are therefore not limited to perennially frozen areas. Here, we review the latest approaches and methods for the study of plant aDNA from lake sediments and discuss the progress made up to the present. We argue that a DNA analyses add new and additional perspectives for the study of ancient plant populations and, in time, will provide higher taxonomic resolution and more precise estimation of abundance. Despite this, key questions and challenges remain for such plant aDNA studies. Finally, we provide guidelines on technical issues, including lake selection, and we suggest directions for future research on plant aDNA studies in lake sediments.

  • 28.
    Pölme, Sergei
    et al.
    Univ Tartu, Nat Hist Museum, 14a Ravila, EE-50411 Tartu, Estonia.;Univ Tartu, Dept Bot, 40 Lai St, EE-51005 Tartu, Estonia..
    Bahram, Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Univ Tartu, Dept Bot, 40 Lai St, EE-51005 Tartu, Estonia.
    Jacquemyn, Hans
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Dept Biol Plant Conservat & Populat Biol, Kasteelpk Arenberg 31, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium..
    Kennedy, Peter
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Plant Biol, 1445 Gortner Ave, St Paul, MN 55108 USA..
    Kohout, Petr
    Univ Tartu, Dept Bot, 40 Lai St, EE-51005 Tartu, Estonia.;Acad Sci Czech Republ, Inst Bot, CZ-25243 Pruhonice, Czech Republic.;Charles Univ Prague, Fac Sci, CZ-12844 Prague 2, Czech Republic..
    Moora, Mari
    Univ Tartu, Dept Bot, 40 Lai St, EE-51005 Tartu, Estonia..
    Oja, Jane
    Univ Tartu, Dept Bot, 40 Lai St, EE-51005 Tartu, Estonia..
    Öpik, Maarja
    Univ Tartu, Dept Bot, 40 Lai St, EE-51005 Tartu, Estonia..
    Pecoraro, Lorenzo
    Natl Orchid Conservat Ctr China, Shenzhen Key Lab Orchid Conservat & Utilizat, Shenzhen 518114, Peoples R China.;Orchid Conservat & Res Ctr Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518114, Peoples R China.;Tsinghua Univ, Grad Sch Shenzhen, Ctr Biotechnol & BioMed, Shenzhen 518055, Peoples R China.;Tsinghua Univ, Grad Sch Shenzhen, Div Life & Hlth Sci, Shenzhen 518055, Peoples R China.;Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microbiol, State Key Lab Mycol, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Tedersoo, Leho
    Univ Tartu, Nat Hist Museum, 14a Ravila, EE-50411 Tartu, Estonia..
    Host preference and network properties in biotrophic plant-fungal associations2018In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 217, no 3, p. 1230-1239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analytical methods can offer insights into the structure of biological networks, but mechanisms that determine the structure of these networks remain unclear. We conducted a synthesis based on 111 previously published datasets to assess a range of ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that may influence the plant-associated fungal interaction networks. We calculated the relative host effect on fungal community composition and compared nestedness and modularity among different mycorrhizal types and endophytic fungal guilds. We also assessed how plant-fungal network structure was related to host phylogeny, environmental and sampling properties. Orchid mycorrhizal fungal communities responded most strongly to host identity, but the effect of host was similar among all other fungal guilds. Community nestedness, which did not differ among fungal guilds, declined significantly with increasing mean annual precipitation on a global scale. Orchid and ericoid mycorrhizal fungal communities were more modular than ectomycorrhizal and root endophytic communities, with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in an intermediate position. Network properties among a broad suite of plant-associated fungi were largely comparable and generally unrelated to phylogenetic distance among hosts. Instead, network metrics were predominantly affected by sampling and matrix properties, indicating the importance of study design in properly inferring ecological patterns.

  • 29.
    Rosling, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Midgley, Meghan G.
    Cheeke, Tanya
    Urbina, Hector
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Fransson, Petra
    Phillips, Richard P.
    Phosphorus cycling in deciduous forest soil differs betweenstands dominated by ecto- and arbuscular mycorrhizal trees2016In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 209, no 3, p. 1184-1195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although much is known about how trees and their associated microbes influence nitrogen cycling in temperate forest soils, less is known about biotic controls over phosphorus (P) cycling. Given that mycorrhizal fungi are instrumental for P acquisition and that the two dominant associations – arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi – possess different strategies for acquiring P, we hypothesized that P cycling would differ in stands dominated by trees associated with AM vs ECM fungi.We quantified soil solution P, microbial biomass P, and sequentially extracted inorganic and organic P pools from May to November in plots dominated by trees forming either AM or ECM associations in south-central Indiana, USA.Overall, fungal communities in AM and ECM plots were functionally different and soils exhibited fundamental differences in P cycling. Organic forms of P were more available in ECM plots than in AM plots. Yet inorganic P decreased and organic P accumulated over the growing season in both ECM and AM plots, resulting in increasingly P-limited microbial biomass. Collectively, our results suggest that P cycling in hardwood forests is strongly influenced by biotic processes in soil and that these are driven by plant-associated fungal communities.

  • 30.
    Schipperges, B
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecological Botany.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecological Botany.
    Response of photosynthesis of Sphagnum species from contrasting microhabitats to tissue water content and repeated desiccation1998In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 140, no 4, p. 677-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The response of photosynthetic CO2 exchange to tissue water content in five spp. of Sphagnum from contrasting microhabitats (S. fuscum (Schimp.) Klinggr., S. papillosum H. Lindb., S. magellanicum Brid., S. balticum (Russ.) C. Jens. and S. cuspidatum Ehrh. ex Hoffm.) was measured in the laboratory using an infrared gas analyser technique. Experiments were designed to test recovery of net photosynthesis after periodic and long lasting desiccation.

    The contact between capitula and basal parts of the mosses seems to be important for survival. Isolated capitula cut off from any contact with the water table were not able to recover after complete desiccation (at 15°C for 2–4 d). When contact with the water table is lost, e.g. during long periods of desiccation, recovery of net photosynthesis can take place but only if the water content of the capitula does not fall too far below c. 10–20% of the water content at compensation point.

    There was no relationship between the ability of net photosynthesis to recover from desiccation and the wetness of the natural microhabitat. Sphagna survive dry periods by avoidance of drying out by high capillarity or dense growth form (as in S. fuscum).

  • 31. Sletvold, Nina
    et al.
    Grindeland, John M.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Ecological Botany.
    Pollinator-mediated selection on floral display, spur length and flowering phenology in the deceptive orchid Dactylorhiza lapponica2010In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 188, no 2, p. 385-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonrewarding animal-pollinated plants commonly experience severe pollen limitation, which should result in strong selection on traits affecting the success of pollination. However, the importance of pollinators as selective agents on floral traits in deceptive species has not been quantified experimentally. Here, we quantified pollinator-mediated selection (Delta beta(poll)) on floral morphology and start of flowering in the deceptive orchid Dactylorhiza lapponica by subtracting estimates of selection gradients for plants receiving supplemental hand-pollination from estimates obtained for open-pollinated control plants. There was directional selection for taller plants with more flowers and longer spurs, but no statistically significant selection on corolla size or flowering start. Pollinator-mediated selection accounted for all observed selection on spur length (Delta beta(poll) = 0.32), 76% of the selection on plant height (Delta beta(poll) = 0.19) and 42% of the selection on number of flowers (Delta beta(poll) = 0.30). Sixteen per cent of developing fruits were consumed by insect herbivores, but fruit herbivory had only minor effects on the strength of pollinator-mediated selection. Our results demonstrate that pollinators mediate selection on floral traits likely to affect both pollinator attraction and pollination efficiency, and are consistent with the hypothesis that deceptive species experience strong selection for increased display and mechanical fit between flower and pollinator.

  • 32.
    Sundberg, S
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Plant Ecology.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Plant Ecology.
    Experimental evidence for a persistent spore bank in Sphagnum2000In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 148, no 1, p. 105-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spore capsules of four Sphagnum species were buried at different depths in peat on a bog. Spore viability was determined after 0, 1, 2 and 3 yr. Viability generally declined with time, but viable spores were still found at all depths after 3 yr. The light-coloured spores of S. balticum and S. tenellum retained their viability better than the darker spores of S. fuscum and S. lindbergii. Survival was highest under wet but aerobic conditions, but was also high under humid or periodically desiccated conditions. By contrast, most spores stored under wet, anaerobic conditions died within 2–3 yr. These results, and predictions from them, are not consistent with earlier results for spores of long-lived and dominant bryophytes, or for seeds of phanerogams of undisturbed wetlands and forests. There was no correlation between spore size and longevity across species, but the small spores from small capsules of S. balticum and S. tenellum generally showed higher viability than those from the medium-sized and large capsules of the same species. This suggests a positive intraspecific relationship between longevity and dispersal distance. There was an indication of conditional dormancy, controlled by weather, in Sphagnum spores. The experiments indicate that Sphagnum spores can form a long-term persistent spore bank under suitable conditions, with a half-life of between 1 and 20 yr (mean across species of 2.6 and 5.0 yr at two depths studied), and with potential values in individual spore capsules of several decades, or even of centuries. Sphagnum spores kept refrigerated showed 15–35% viable spores after 13 yr. The capacity to form a persistent spore bank that can be activated whenever favourable conditions occur might help explain the wide geographical distribution of many Sphagnum species in the boreal and temperate zones, where they have managed to colonize almost every suitable patch of acidic, nutrient-poor wetland.

  • 33.
    Sundberg, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    The Sphagnum air-gun mechanism resurrected2010In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 185, no 4, p. 886-889Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Toräng, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Wunder, Joerg
    Obeso, Jose Ramon
    Herzog, Michel
    Coupland, George
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Large-scale adaptive differentiation in the alpine perennial herb Arabis alpina2015In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 206, no 1, p. 459-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about the incidence and magnitude of local adaptation can help to predict the response of natural populations to a changing environment, and should be of particular interest in arctic and alpine environments where the effects of climate change are expected to be severe. To quantify adaptive differentiation in the arctic-alpine perennial herb Arabis alpina, we conducted reciprocal transplant experiments for 3yr between Spanish and Scandinavian populations. At the sites of one Spanish and one Scandinavian population, we planted seedlings representing two Spanish and four Scandinavian populations, and recorded survival, flowering propensity and fecundity. The experiment was replicated in two subsequent years. The results demonstrate strong adaptive differentiation between A.alpina populations from the two regions. At the field site in Spain, survival and fruit production of Spanish populations were higher than those of Scandinavian populations, while the opposite was true at the site in Scandinavia, and these differences were consistent across years. By comparison, fitness varied little among populations from the same region. The results suggest that the magnitude and geographical scale of local adaptation need to be considered in predictions of the effects of global change on the dynamics of arctic and alpine plant populations.

  • 35.
    Trunschke, Judith
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Sletvold, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Ågren, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Interaction intensity and pollinator-mediated selection2017In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 214, no 3, p. 1381-1389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In animal-pollinated plants, the opportunity for selection and the strength of pollinatormediated selection are expected to increase with the degree of pollen limitation. However, whether differences in pollen limitation can explain variation in pollinator-mediated and net selection among animal-pollinated species is poorly understood. In the present study, we quantified pollen limitation, variance in relative fitness and pollinator- mediated selection on five traits important for pollinator attraction (flowering start, plant height, flower number, flower size) and pollination efficiency (spur length) in natural populations of 12 orchid species. Pollinator-mediated selection was quantified by subtracting estimates of selection gradients for plants receiving supplemental hand-pollination from estimates obtained for open-pollinated control plants. Mean pollen limitation ranged from zero to 0.96. Opportunity for selection, pollinatormediated selection and net selection were all positively related to pollen limitation, whereas nonpollinator-mediated selection was not. Opportunity for selection varied five-fold, strength of pollinator-mediated selection varied three-fold and net selection varied 1.5-fold among species. Supplemental hand-pollination reduced both opportunity for selection and selection on floral traits. The results show that the intensity of biotic interactions is an important determinant of the selection regime, and indicate that the potential for pollinator-mediated selection and divergence in floral traits is particularly high in species that are strongly pollen-limited.

  • 36. Vasiliauskas, Rimvydas
    et al.
    Menkis, Audrius
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Finlay, Roger D.
    Stenlid, Jan
    Wood-decay fungi in fine living roots of conifer seedlings2007In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 174, no 2, p. 441-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mycorrhizal basidiomycetes are known to have multiple, independent evolutionary origins from saprotrophic ancestors. To date, a number of studies have revealed functional resemblance of mycorrhizal fungi to free-living saprotrophs, but information on the ability of saprotrophic fungi to perform as mycorrhizal symbionts is scarce. Here, the objective was to investigate the ability of three wood-decay fungi, Phlebiopsis gigantea, Phlebia centrifuga and Hypholoma fasciculare, to colonize fine roots of conifer seedlings. For each fungus, mycorrhizal syntheses were attempted with Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris. After 24 wk, isolation of fungi and direct sequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA were carried out from healthy-looking surface-sterilized root tips that yielded both pure cultures and ITS sequences of each inoculated strain. Mycelial mantle of P. gigantea was frequently formed on root tips of P. abies, and microscopical examination has shown the presence of intercellular hyphae inside the roots. The results provide evidence of the ability of certain wood-decay fungi to colonise fine roots of tree seedlings.

  • 37.
    Weston, David J.
    et al.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Biosci Div, Oak Ridge, TN USA; Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Climate Change Sci Inst, Oak Ridge, TN USA.
    Turetsky, Merritt R.
    Univ Guelph, Dept Integrat Biol, Guelph, ON, Canada.
    Johnson, Matthew G.
    Texas Tech Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Lubbock, TX USA.
    Granath, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Lindo, Zoe
    Univ Western Ontario, Dept Biol, London, ON, Canada.
    Belyea, Lisa R.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Sch Geog, London, England.
    Rice, Steven K.
    Union Coll, Dept Biol Sci, Schenectady, NY USA.
    Hanson, David T.
    Univ New Mexico, Dept Biol, Albuquerque, NM USA.
    Engelhardt, Katharina A. M.
    Univ Maryland, Appalachian Lab, Ctr Environm Sci, Frostburg, MD USA.
    Schmutz, Jeremy
    HudsonAlpha Inst Biotechnol, Huntsville, AL USA; Joint Genome Inst, Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA USA.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Ume Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Climate Impacts Res Ctr, Abisko, Sweden.
    Euskirchen, Eugenie S.
    Univ Alaska, Inst Arctic Biol, Fairbanks, AK USA.
    Stenoien, Hans K.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, NTNU Univ Museum, Trondheim, Norway.
    Szovenyi, Peter
    Univ Zurich, Dept Systemat & Evolutionary Bot, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Jackson, Michelle
    Duke Univ, Dept Biol, Durham, NC USA.
    Piatkowski, Bryan T.
    Duke Univ, Dept Biol, Durham, NC USA.
    Muchero, Wellington
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Biosci Div, Oak Ridge, TN USA.
    Norby, Richard J.
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Climate Change Sci Inst, Oak Ridge, TN USA ;Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Environm Sci Div, Oak Ridge, TN USA.
    Kostka, Joel E.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Biol, Atlanta, GA USA; Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Earth & Atmospher Sci, Atlanta, GA USA.
    Glass, Jennifer B.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Biol, Atlanta, GA USA; Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Earth & Atmospher Sci, Atlanta, GA USA.
    Rydin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Limpens, Juul
    Wageningen Univ, Dept Environm Sci, Plant Ecol & Nat Conservat Grp, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Forest Sci, Peatland & Soil Ecol Grp, Joensuu, Finland.
    Ullrich, Kristian K.
    Max Planck Inst Evolutionary Biol, Plon, Germany.
    Carrell, Alyssa
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Biosci Div, Oak Ridge, TN USA.
    Benscoter, Brian W.
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Davie, FL USA.
    Chen, Jin-Gui
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Biosci Div, Oak Ridge, TN USA.
    Oke, Tobi A.
    Univ Guelph, Dept Integrat Biol, Guelph, ON, Canada.
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Ecol & Management, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ranjan, Priya
    Univ Tennessee, Dept Plant Sci, Knoxville, TN USA.
    Jacobson, Daniel
    Oak Ridge Natl Lab, Biosci Div, Oak Ridge, TN USA.
    Lilleskov, Erik A.
    US Forest Serv, Res Stn, Houghton, MI USA.
    Clymo, R. S.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Sch Biol & Chem Sci, London, England.
    Shaw, A. Jonathan
    Duke Univ, Dept Biol, Durham, NC USA.
    The Sphagnome Project: enabling ecological and evolutionary insights through a genus-level sequencing project2018In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 217, no 1, p. 16-25Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable progress has been made in ecological and evolutionary genetics with studies demonstrating how genes underlying plant and microbial traits can influence adaptation and even 'extend' to influence community structure and ecosystem level processes. Progress in this area is limited to model systems with deep genetic and genomic resources that often have negligible ecological impact or interest. Thus, important linkages between genetic adaptations and their consequences at organismal and ecological scales are often lacking. Here we introduce the Sphagnome Project, which incorporates genomics into a long-running history of Sphagnum research that has documented unparalleled contributions to peatland ecology, carbon sequestration, biogeochemistry, microbiome research, niche construction, and ecosystem engineering. The Sphagnome Project encompasses a genus-level sequencing effort that represents a new type of model system driven not only by genetic tractability, but by ecologically relevant questions and hypotheses.

  • 38. Wiedermann, Magdalena M.
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Ecological Botany.
    Ericson, Lars
    Nordin, Annika
    Ecophysiological adjustment of two Sphagnum species in response to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition2009In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 181, no 1, p. 208-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, it was investigated whether Sphagnum species have adjusted their nitrogen (N) uptake in response to the anthropogenic N deposition that has drastically altered N-limited ecosystems, including peatlands, worldwide.A lawn species, Sphagnum balticum, and a hummock species, Sphagnum fuscum, were collected from three peatlands along a gradient of N deposition (2, 8 and 12 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) The mosses were subjected to solutions containing a mixture of four N forms. In each solution one of these N forms was labeled with N-15 (namely (NH4+)-N-15 (NO3-)-N-15 and the amino acids [N-15] alanine (Ala) and [N-15] glutamic acid (Glu)).It was found that for both species most of the N taken up was from, followed by Ala, Glu, and very small amounts from. At the highest N deposition site N uptake was reduced, but this did not prevent N accumulation as free amino acids in the Sphagnum tissues.The reduced N uptake may have been genetically selected for under the relatively short period with elevated N exposure from anthropogenic sources, or may have been the result of plasticity in the Sphagnum physiological response. The negligible Sphagnum NO3- uptake may make any NO3- deposited readily available to co- occurring vascular plants.

  • 39.
    Zhou, Shun-Fan
    et al.
    Fudan Univ, Sch Life Sci, Inst Plant Biol, Collaborat Innovat Ctr Genet & Dev,State Key Lab, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Le
    Fudan Univ, Sch Life Sci, Inst Plant Biol, Collaborat Innovat Ctr Genet & Dev,State Key Lab, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China..
    Valdes, Ana Elisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiological Botany.
    Engström, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiological Botany.
    Song, Ze-Ting
    Fudan Univ, Sch Life Sci, Inst Plant Biol, Collaborat Innovat Ctr Genet & Dev,State Key Lab, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Sun-Jie
    Fudan Univ, Sch Life Sci, Inst Plant Biol, Collaborat Innovat Ctr Genet & Dev,State Key Lab, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Jian-Xiang
    Fudan Univ, Sch Life Sci, Inst Plant Biol, Collaborat Innovat Ctr Genet & Dev,State Key Lab, Shanghai 200433, Peoples R China..
    Membrane-associated transcription factor peptidase, site-2 protease, antagonizes ABA signaling in Arabidopsis2015In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 208, no 1, p. 188-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abscisic acid plays important roles in maintaining seed dormancy while gibberellins (GA) and other phytohormones antagonize ABA to promote germination. However, how ABA signaling is desensitized during the transition from dormancy to germination is still poorly understood. We functionally characterized the role of membrane-associated transcription factor peptidase, site-2 protease (S2P), in ABA signaling during seed germination in Arabidopsis. Genetic analysis showed that loss-of-function of S2P conferred high ABA sensitivity during seed germination, and expression of the activated form of membrane-associated transcription factor bZIP17, in which the transmembrane domain and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen-facing C-terminus were deleted, in the S2P mutant rescued its ABA-sensitive phenotype. MYC and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged bZIP17 were processed and translocated from the ER to the nucleus in response to ABA treatment. Furthermore, genes encoding negative regulators of ABA signaling, such as the transcription factor ATHB7 and its target genes HAB1, HAB2, HAI1 and AHG3, were up-regulated in seeds of the wild-type upon ABA treatment; this up-regulation was impaired in seeds of S2P mutants. Our results suggest that S2P desensitizes ABA signaling during seed germination through regulating the activation of the membrane-associated transcription factor bZIP17 and therefore controlling the expression level of genes encoding negative regulators of ABA signaling.

  • 40.
    Ågren, Jon
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Schemske, Douglas W.
    Reciprocal transplants demonstrate strong adaptive differentiation of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana in its native range2012In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 194, no 4, p. 1112-1122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To quantify adaptive differentiation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we conducted reciprocal transplant experiments for five years between two European populations, one near the northern edge of the native range (Sweden) and one near the southern edge (Italy). We planted seeds (years 13) and seedlings (years 45), and estimated fitness as the number of fruits produced per seed or seedling planted. In eight of the 10 possible site x year comparisons, the fitness of the local population was significantly higher than that of the nonlocal population (3.122.2 times higher at the southern site, and 1.73.6 times higher at the northern site); in the remaining two comparisons no significant difference was recorded. At both sites, the local genotype had higher survival than the nonlocal genotype, and at the Italian site, the local genotype also had higher fecundity. Across years, the relative survival of the Italian genotype at the northern site decreased with decreasing winter soil temperature. The results provide evidence of strong adaptive differentiation between natural populations of A similar to thaliana and indicate that differences in tolerance to freezing contributed to fitness variation at the northern site. In ongoing work, we explore the functional and genetic basis of this adaptive differentiation.

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