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  • 1. Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Wage incentives and wage rigidity: A representative view from within2007In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 14, no 3, 347-369 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent literature has used surveys of those who set wages to learn about the nature of wage incentives and the sources of wage rigidity. Methodologically, we overcome many of the objections that have been raised against this work. Substantively, we find that: (i) the reasons for real wage rigidity differ significantly between large and small firms, and between the high- and low-end of the labor market; (ii) efficiency wage mechanisms reinforce rigidities due to worker bargaining power; (iii) money illusion is a widespread phenomenon across all segments of the labor market; (iv) unions reinforce nominal wage rigidities due to external pay comparisons; (v) there appears to be gender differences in pay bargaining and work morale.

  • 2.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Effects of Decentralization on School Resources2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Effects of decentralization on school resources2008In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 27, no 3, 276-284 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has undertaken major national reforms of its school sector, which, consequently, has been classified as one of the most decentralized ones in the OECD. This paper investigates whether local tax base, grants, and preferences affected local school resources differently as decentralization took place. We find that municipal tax base affects per pupil spending in the same way regardless of whether the school sector is centralized or decentralized, but has a smaller effect on teacher–pupil ratio after the reforms. The less-targeted grants are the fewer teachers per pupil do the municipalities employ. The results for local preferences are less clear-cut.

  • 4.
    Albrecht, James
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Vroman, Susan
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    The aggregate labor market effects of the Swedish Knowledge Lift program2009In: Review of economic dynamics (Print), ISSN 1094-2025, E-ISSN 1096-6099, Vol. 12, no 1, 129-146 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish adult education program known as the Knowledge Lift (1997-2002) was unprecedented in its size and scope, aiming to raise the skill level of large numbers of low-skill workers. This paper evaluates the potential effects of this program on aggregate labor market outcomes. This is done by calibrating an equilibrium search model with heterogeneous worker skills using pre-program data and then forecasting the program impacts. We compare the forecasts to observed aggregate labor market outcomes after termination of the program.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Social stratification and out-of-school learning2013In: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), ISSN 0964-1998, E-ISSN 1467-985X, Vol. 176, no 3, 679-701 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the effects of out-of-school learning we use data on children who stayed in boarding houses while attending public elementary schools in Sweden in the 1940s. The out-of-school environment at the boarding houses could be considered as being more conducive to learning than the home environment: the pupils at the boarding houses had daily scheduled time for doing their homework with the assistance of a junior school teacher and, in addition, they had access to a small library. The placement at boarding houses was based on the distance from their place of residence to the nearest school and thus had no direct connection to the pupils' skills, which simplifies the empirical analysis based on register data. We find that the more conducive learning environment equalized skills at school leaving age, and the effect was greater for children with poor initial ability.

  • 6. Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Waldenström, Nina
    Do you want your child to have a certified teacher?2011In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 30, no 1, 65-78 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the teaching staff composition with respect to certification affects student achievement in compulsory Swedish schools. We apply an instrumental variable to estimate the effect of the share of non-certified teachers on student achievement (measured by grade point average, GPA). We find statistically significant negative effects on the GPA. The effect is stronger for students with highly educated parents. A one percentage point increase in the share of non-certified teachers is expected to decrease student's GPA by, on average, 1.8 standard deviations per year. This is a substantial effect considering the large differences in the shares of non-certified teachers across schools and municipalities.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Elvira
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Econ, S-22007 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Ctr Econ Demog, S-22007 Lund, Sweden..
    Lundborg, Petter
    Lund Univ, Dept Econ, S-22007 Lund, Sweden.;Lund Univ, Ctr Econ Demog, S-22007 Lund, Sweden.;IZA, Dresden, Germany..
    Vikström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Income receipt and mortality: Evidence from Swedish public sector employees2015In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 131, 21-32 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study the short-run effect of salary receipt on mortality among Swedish public sector employees. By exploiting variation in paydays across work-places, we completely control for mortality patterns related to, for example, public holidays and other special days or events coinciding with paydays and for general within-month and within-week mortality patterns. We find a dramatic increase in mortality on the day that salaries arrive. The increase is especially pronounced for younger workers and for deaths due to activity-related causes such as heart conditions and strokes. The effect is entirely driven by an increase in mortality among low income individuals, who are more likely to experience liquidity constraints. All things considered, our results suggest that an increase in general economic activity on salary receipt is an important cause of the excess mortality.

  • 8.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Demmelmaier, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Hansson, Ann-Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lindahl, Erica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Winblad, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research.
    Samverkan i Resursteam: effekter på organisation, hälsa och sjukskrivning2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi utvärderar samverkansformen Resursteam, som bedrivits som ett försök för att minska långa sjukskrivningar. Resursteam innebär att ett team med hand-läggare från Försäkringskassan, husläkare, sjukgymnast och beteendevetare, vid regelbundna möten bedömer sjukskrivna personers rehabiliteringsbehov och ger förslag på åtgärder. Det övergripande syftet är att skatta effekten av Resursteam på den försäkrades sjukskrivningslängd och självskattade hälsa. Vi har genomfört (i) en kartläggning av verksamheten, (ii) en enkätstudie till sjuk-skrivna som deltagit i Resursteam och till jämförelsepersoner samt (ii) skattat effekten av Resursteam på självskattad hälsa och sjukskrivning. Resultaten är entydiga och visar på inga eller negativa effekter för de personer som ingått i Resursteam. Som exempel kan nämnas att tiden i sjukskrivning förlängs med cirka 20 procent i genomsnitt.

  • 9.
    Angelov, Nikolay
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Eliason, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    The Differential Earnings and Income Effects of Involuntary Job Loss on Workers with Disabilities: Evidence from Sweden2016In: Labour, ISSN 1121-7081, E-ISSN 1467-9914, Vol. 30, no 2, 213-233 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People with disabilities are consistently found to face considerable difficulties in the labour market. In this study we investigated whether their earnings and income trajectories are more adversely affected in case of involuntary job loss. Earnings of those with and without disabilities began to diverge already several years prior to job loss because of larger incidence of sickness. Following job loss much more job losers with disabilities became disability retirees resulting in a considerable and seemingly permanent earnings differential. However, larger uptake of public social insurances among job losers with disabilities resulted in a much smaller income differential.

  • 10.
    Angelov, Nikolay
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lindahl, Erica
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Parenthood and the Gender Gap in Pay2016In: Journal of Labor Economics, ISSN 0734-306X, Vol. 34, no 3, 545-579 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compare the income and wage trajectories of women to those of their male partners before and after parenthood. Focusing on the within-couple gap allows us to control for both observed and unobserved attributes of the spouse and to estimate both short-and long-term effects of entering parenthood. We find that 15 years after the first child has been born, the male-female gender gaps in income and wages have increased by 32 and 10 percentage points, respectively. In line with a collective labor supply model, the magnitude of these effects depends on counterfactual relative incomes or wages within the family.

  • 11.
    Ansell, Christopher
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Lundin, Martin
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Öberg, PerOla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    How Learning Aggregates: A Social Network Analysis of Learning between Swedish municipalities2017In: Local Government Studies, ISSN 0300-3930, E-ISSN 1743-9388, Vol. 43, no 7, 903-926 p., 10.1080/03003930.2017.1342626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a unique data set of learning among all 290 Swedish municipalities, we use social network analysis to analyze how learning networks aggregate nationally. To facilitate this analysis, we describe five ideal-typical patterns of aggregation—core-periphery, small world, top-down regionalism, bottom-up regionalism, and urban hierarchy. Each of these ideal types has important implications for how ideas, information, and innovation will circulate among municipalities. Social network analysis allows us to both isolate these patterns and to appreciate composite patterns. The analysis indicates that Swedish municipalities are a small world network with clear regional and hierarchical elements. County seats serve an important role as network hubs.

  • 12.
    Ansell, Christopher
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Lundin, Martin
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Öberg, PerOla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Learning Networks Among Swedish Municipalities: Is Sweden a Small World?2017In: Knowledge and Networks / [ed] Johannes Glückler, Emmanuel Lazega & Ingmar Hammer, Springer International Publishing , 2017, 315-336 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed, networked learning processes are widely touted as a basis for superior performance. Yet we know relatively little about how learning networks operate in the aggregate. We explore this issue by utilizing a unique data set on learning among Swedish municipalities. The data indicate that geographic proximity and county are the basic structuring properties of the global network. Municipalities learn from their near neighbors, especially from neighbors in the same county, and these two principles produce a high degree of local clustering in the municipal learning networks. At the same time, we also find evidence that Swedish municipalities are a small world linked together on a national basis. Two mechanisms knit the Swedish municipalities together. First, county seats serve as hubs that link local clusters together. Second, local clusters aggregate into regional clusters. Despite a high degree of local clustering, hubs and regions provide a structural basis for the national diffusion of policy ideas and practices among Swedish municipalities.

  • 13. Arni, Patrick
    et al.
    Lalive, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Van Ours, Jan C.
    How effective are unemployment benefit sanctions?: looking beyond unemployment exit2013In: Journal of applied econometrics (Chichester, England), ISSN 0883-7252, E-ISSN 1099-1255, Vol. 28, no 7, 1153-1178 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of benefit sanctions on post-unemployment outcomes such as post-unemployment employment stability and earnings. We use rich register data which allow us to distinguish between a warning that a benefit reduction may take place in the near future and the actual withdrawal of unemployment benefits. Adopting a multivariate mixed proportional hazard approach to address selectivity, we find that warnings do not affect subsequent employment stability but do reduce post-unemployment earnings. Actual benefit reductions lower the quality of post-unemployment jobs both in terms of job duration as well as in terms of earnings.

  • 14.
    Avdic, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. CINCH, Essen, Germany.;Univ Duisburg Essen, Essen, Germany..
    Improving efficiency or impairing access? Health care consolidation and quality of care: Evidence from emergency hospital closures in Sweden2016In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 48, 44-60 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent health care consolidation trends raise the important policy question whether improved emergency medical services and enhanced productivity can offset adverse quality effects from decreased access. This paper empirically analyzes how geographical distance from an emergency hospital affects the probability of surviving an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), accounting for health-based spatial sorting and data limitations on out-of-hospital mortality. Exploiting policy-induced variation in hospital distance derived from emergency hospital closures and detailed Swedish mortality data over two decades, results show a drastically decreasing probability of surviving an AMI as residential distance from a hospital increases one year after a closure occurred. The effect disappears in subsequent years, however, suggesting that involved agents quickly adapted to the new environment.

  • 15.
    Avdic, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. CINCH, Essen, Germany.; Univ Duisburg Essen, Duisburg, Germany..
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. UCLS, Uppsala, Sweden.; IZA, Bonn, Germany..
    Absenteeism, Gender and the Morbidity–Mortality Paradox2017In: Journal of applied econometrics (Chichester, England), ISSN 0883-7252, E-ISSN 1099-1255, Vol. 32, no 2, 440-462 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women are, on average, more often absent from work for health reasons than men, but live longer. This conflicting pattern suggests that the gender absenteeism gap arises partly from factors unrelated to objective health. An overlooked explanation is that men and women might have different preferences for absenteeism due to different attitudes to, for example, risk. Using detailed administrative data on absenteeism, hospitalizations, and mortality, we evaluate the existence of gender-specific preferences for absenteeism and analyze whether these differences are socially determined. We find robust evidence of gender differences in absenteeism that cannot be explained by poorer objective health among women.

  • 16.
    Ba, Bocar A.
    et al.
    Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Ham, John C.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.;Univ Wisconsin, IRP, Madison, WI USA.;IZA, Bonn, Germany..
    LaLonde, Robert J.
    Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 USA.;IZA, Bonn, Germany..
    Li, Xianghong
    York Univ, N York, ON, Canada..
    Estimating (Easily Interpreted) Dynamic Training Effects from Experimental Data2017In: Journal Labor Economics, ISSN 0734-306X, E-ISSN 1537-5307, Vol. 35, S149-S200 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the effect of endogenous training participation on transitions in and out of employment for disadvantaged women in the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) study. Decomposing the effect of training on employment into its effects on transitions in and out of employment has the potential to develop more effective programs. We also consider a potentially serious identification problem that arises when individuals do not undertake training immediately, and we propose a test to shed light on this problem. We find that this problem is not important in our context. JTPA classroom training substantially reduced unemployment durations, and thus it complements programs that increase employment durations.

  • 17.
    Bastani, Spencer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Selin, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Bunching and non-bunching at kink points of the Swedish tax schedule2014In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 109, 36-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent microeconometric studies of taxpayers' responsiveness to taxation have shown that intensive margin labor supply and earnings elasticities typically are modest and sometimes equal to zero. A common view is that long-run responses still might be large if micro-estimates are downward biased owing to optimization frictions. In this paperwe estimate the taxable income elasticity at a very large kink point of the Swedish tax schedule using the bunching method. During the period of study the change in the log net-of-tax rate reached a maximum value of 45.6%. Interestingly, we obtain a precise elasticity estimate of zero for wage earners at this large kink. We also conclude by the means of numerical simulations that, even though the kink point we study is very large, income effects are unlikely to bias our estimates. The size of the kink allows us to derive tighter bounds on the long-run elasticity than previous studies. Ifwage earners on average tolerate 1% of their disposable income in optimization costs, the upper bound on the long-run compensated taxable income elasticity is 0.39.

  • 18. Behncke, Stefanie
    et al.
    Frölich, Markus
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lechner, Michael
    A Caseworker Like Me - Does The Similarity Between The Unemployed and Their Caseworkers Increase Job Placements?2010In: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 120, no 549, 1430-1459 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines whether the chances of job placements improve if the unemployed are counselled by caseworkers who belong to the same social group, defined by gender, age, education and nationality. Based on an unusually informative dataset, which links Swiss unemployed to their caseworkers, we find positive employment effects of about 3 percentage points if the caseworker and his unemployed client belong to the same social group. Coincidence in a single characteristic, e.g., same gender of caseworker and unemployed, does not lead to detectable effects on employment. These results, obtained by statistical matching methods, are confirmed by several robustness checks.

  • 19.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Holmlund, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Do Benefit Hikes Damage Job Finding? Evidence from Swedish Unemployment Insurance Reforms2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2001 and 2002, Sweden introduced several unemployment insurance reforms. A major innovation in the first reform was the introduction of a two-tiered benefit structure for some unemployed individuals. This system involved supplementary compensation during the first 20 weeks of unemployment. The 2002 reform retained the two-tiered benefit structure but involved also substantial benefit hikes for spells exceeding 20 weeks. This paper examines how these reforms affected transitions from unemployment to employment. We take advantage of the fact that the reforms had quasi-experimental features where the “treatments” differed considerably among unemployed individuals. We find that the reforms had strikingly different effects on job finding among men and women. The two reforms in conjunction are estimated to have increased the expected duration of unemployment among men but to have decreased the duration of unemployment among women. The overall effect on the duration of unemployment is not statistically different from zero. However, the reforms reduced job finding among males who remained unemployed for more than 20 weeks.

  • 20.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Öcert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Effects of contracting out employment services: Evidence from a randomized experiment2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries welfare services that traditionally have been provided by the public sector are being contracted out to private providers. But are private contractors better at providing these services? We use a randomized experiment to empirically assess the effectiveness of contracting out employment services to private placement agencies. Our results show that unemployed at private placement agencies have a closer interaction with their case worker than unemployed at the Public Employment Service (PES); e.g., they receive more assistance in improving their job search technology. We do not find any overall difference in the chances of finding employment between private placement agencies and the PES, but this hides important heterogeneities across different types of unemployed. In particular, private providers are better at providing employment services to immigrants, whereas they may be worse for adolescents. Any effects tend to fade away over time.

  • 21.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Effects of contracting out employment services: Evidence from a randomized experiment2013In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 98, 68-84 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries welfare services that traditionally have been provided by the public sector are being contracted out to private providers. But are private contractors better at providing these services? We use a randomized experiment to empirically assess the effectiveness of contracting out employment services to private placement agencies. Our results show that unemployed at private placement agencies have a closer interaction with their case worker than unemployed at the Public Employment Service (PES); e.g., they receive more assistance in improving their job search technology. We do not find any overall difference in the chances of finding employment between private placement agencies and the PES, but this hides important heterogeneities across different types of unemployed. In particular, private providers are better at providing employment services to immigrants, whereas they may be worse for adolescents. Any effects tend to fade away over time. 

  • 22.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Mellander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Do regional payroll tax reductions boost employment?2009In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 16, no 5, 480-489 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a Difference-in-Differences approach, we evaluate the effects of a 10 percentage point reduction in the payroll tax introduced in 2002 in northern Sweden. We find no employment effects among firms existing both before and after the reform, whereas the average wage bill per employee increases by about 0.25% per percentage point reduction in the tax rate. Extending the analysis to include entry and exit of firms, we find evidence of positive effects on the number of firms and a tendency to positive employment effects. Moreover, the wage incidence estimates become insignificant when we account for entry and exit of firms.

  • 23.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Skans, Oskar Nordström
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Vikman, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Workfare for the old and long-term unemployed2013In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 25, 25-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the effects of conditioning benefits on program participation among older long-term unemployed workers. We exploit a Swedish reform which reduced UI duration from 90 to 60 weeks for a group of older unemployed workers in a setting where workers who exhausted their benefits received unchanged transfers if they agreed to participate in a work practice program. Our results show that job finding increased as a result of the shorter duration of passive benefits. The time profile of the job-finding effects suggests that the results are due to deterrence during the program-entry phase. We find no impact on ensuing job durations or wages, suggesting that the increased job-finding rate was driven by increased search intensity rather than lower reservation wages. A crude cost-benefit analysis suggests that the reform reduced the combined cost of programs and transfers.

  • 24.
    Bergemann, Annette
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Caliendo, Marco
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Zimmermann, Klaus F.
    The threat effect of participation in active labor market programs on job search behavior of migrants in Germany2011In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 32, no 7, 777-795 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Labor market programs may affect unemployed individuals' behavior before they enroll. The aim of this paper is to study whether such ex ante effects differ according to ethnic origin.

    Design/methodology/approach - The authors apply a method that relates self-reported perceived treatment rates and job search behavioral outcomes, such as the reservation wage or search intensity, to each other. German native workers are compared with migrants with a Turkish origin or Central and Eastern European (including Russian) background. Job search theory is used to derive theoretical predictions. The ex ante effect of the German active labor market program (ALMP) system is examined using the novel IZA Evaluation Data Set which includes self-reported assessments of the variables of interest as well as an unusually detailed amount of information on behavior, attitudes and past outcomes.

    Findings - It is found that the ex ante threat effect on the reservation wage and search effort varies considerably among the groups considered.

    Originality/value - The study is the first to investigate whether migrants and natives react similarly to the expectation of participating in an ALMP, and whether migrants of different regions of origin react similarly or not.

  • 25.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Sodertorn Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umea Univ, Umea Sch Business & Econ, Dept Econ, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Spagnolo, Giancarlo
    Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Ctr Econ Policy Res, EIEF, Stockholm Sch Econ SITE, Rome, Italy..
    Privatization and quality: Evidence from elderly care in Sweden2016In: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 49, 109-119 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-contractible quality dimensions are at risk of degradation when the provision of public services is privatized. However, privatization may increase quality by fostering performance-improving innovation, particularly if combined with increased competition. We assemble a large data set on elderly care services in Sweden between 1990 and 2009 and estimate how opening to private provision affected mortality rates - an important and not easily contractible quality dimension - using a difference-in-difference in-difference approach. The results indicate that privatization and the associated increase in competition significantly improved non-contractible quality as measured by mortality rates.

  • 26.
    Blind, Ina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Åslund, Olof
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    All aboard? Commuter Train Access and Labor Market OutcomesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Blind, Ina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Åslund, Olof
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Som på räls? Förbättrade pendlingsmöjligheter och individens arbetsmarknad2015Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Brodd, Katarina Strand
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Grönqvist, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Gerd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Strömberg, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Development of smooth pursuit eye movements in very preterm infants: 1. General aspects2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 7, 983-991 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  To investigate early oculo-motor development in a population-based cohort of very preterm infants.

    Methods:  Early oculo-motor development was prospectively studied by measuring smooth pursuit eye movements at 2 and 4 months corrected age in a population of very preterm infants born in Uppsala County 2004–2007. Eighty-one preterm infants were studied, and 32 healthy term infants constituted the control group.

    Results:  The study group consisted of infants with a mean gestational age of28 + 5 weeks. At 2 and 4 months corrected age, infants born very preterm showed lower gain (p < 0.001) and proportion of smooth pursuit eyemovements (p < 0.001) compared to the control group. The boys showed higher gain of smooth pursuit eye movements at both 2 and 4 months corrected age, compared to girls.

    Conclusions:  Oculo-motor development measured by smooth pursuit eye movements is delayed in very preterm infants at 2 and 4 months corrected age. This might be a risk factor or early indicator of later perceptual and behavioural impairment.

  • 29.
    Brodd, Katarina Strand
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Grönqvist, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Gerd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Development of Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements in very preterm born infants: 3. Association to perinatal risk factors2012In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 101, no 2, 164-171 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  To investigate the association between perinatal risk factors and neonatal complications and early oculo-motor development in very preterm infants.

    Methods:  Perinatal risk factors were identified, and the potential association with early oculo-motor development was evaluated by measuring smooth pursuit eye movements (SP) at 2 and 4 months' corrected age (CA) in a population of very preterm infants born in Uppsala County 2004-2007 (n = 113).

    Results:  Among the 15 tested factors, eight showed significant association in univariate analysis with lower levels of SP at 4 months' CA, namely administration of prenatal corticosteroids, gestational age, birthweight, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, periventricular leukomalacia, intraventricular haemorrhage >grade 2, and persistent ductus arteriosus. At 2 months' CA, only retinopathy of prematurity >stage 2 was associated with lower levels of SP. When all factors significant in the univariate tests were included in multiple regressions aimed to assess each factor's independent relation to SP, periventricular leukomalacia was the only significant independent factor. When adding 2-5 of the significant factors using multiple regression analysis, the levels of SP became lower.

    Conclusion:  Perinatal risk factors were associated with lower levels of SP. This could be interpreted as delayed or disturbed development of normal oculomotor ability.

  • 30.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, SOFI, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Vlachos, Jonas
    Stockholm Univ, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Res Inst Ind Econ IFN, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The Headmaster Ritual: The Importance of Management for School Outcomes2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 118, no 4, 912-940 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the impact of individual principals on school outcomes by using panel data that allow us to track principals over time. We find that individual principals have a substantive impact on school policies, working conditions, and student outcomes. In particular, students who attend a school that has a one standard deviation better principal improve their achievement by between 0.05 and 0.1 standard deviations. Despite rich background information on principals, it is difficult to characterize successful management, suggesting that innate skills are central. We find that the scope for discretion is larger among voucher schools and in areas with school competition.

  • 31.
    Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Swedish Inst Social Res, IFAU, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Swedish Inst Social Res, CREAM, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Holmlund, Helena
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Econ, CESifo, IFAU,IZA, POB 640, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Gothenburg, UCLS, POB 640, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Parental choice, neighbourhood segregation or cream skimming?: An analysis of school segregation after a generalized choice reform2016In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 29, no 4, 1155-1190 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the evolution of school segregation in Sweden in the aftermath of the 1992 universal voucher reform, which spurred the establishment of new independent schools and introduced parental choice. We assess the relative importance of neighbourhood segregation, parental choice and the location of independent schools for school segregation. In particular, we exploit variation in school choice opportunities across municipalities and provide descriptive evidence that in regions where school choice has become more prevalent, school segregation between immigrants and natives, and between children of high/low educated parents, has increased more than in regions where choice is limited. This result also holds when we account for residential segregation and focus on excess segregation over and above the segregation that would occur if all pupils attended their assigned schools. We find that the increase in school segregation 15 years after the reform that can be attributed to choice is relatively small.

  • 32. Böhlmark, Anders
    et al.
    Lindahl, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Independent Schools and Long-Run Educational Outcomes: Evidence from Sweden’s Large Scale Voucher Reform2015In: Economica, ISSN 0013-0427, E-ISSN 1468-0335, Vol. 82, no 327, 508-551 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate effects on educational outcomes from the expansion of the independent school sector in Sweden, which followed as a consequence of the radical 1992 voucher reform. Using variation in this expansion across municipalities, we find that an increase in the share of independent school students improves average short- and long-run outcomes, explained primarily by external effects (e.g. school competition). For most outcomes, we observe significant effects first a decade after the reform. By using regional level TIMSS data, we can reconcile our results with the negative national trend for Swedish students in international achievement tests.

  • 33.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Jacobson, Tor
    Lindé, Jesper
    Roszbach, Kasper
    Corporate credit risk modeling and the macroeconomy2007In: Journal of Banking & Finance, ISSN 0378-4266, E-ISSN 1872-6372, Vol. 31, no 3, 845-868 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a surge in the research efforts put into modeling credit and default risk during the past decade, few studies have incorporated the impact that macroeconomic conditions have on business defaults. In this paper, we estimate a duration model to explain the survival time to default for borrowers in the business loan portfolio of a major Swedish bank over the period 1994-2000. The model takes both firm-specific characteristics, such as accounting ratios and payment behaviour, loan-related information, and the prevailing macroeconomic conditions into account. The output gap, the yield curve and consumers' expectations of future economic development have significant explanatory power for the default risk of firms. We also compare our model with a frequently used model of firm default risk that conditions only on firm-specific information. The comparison shows that while the latter model can make a reasonably accurate ranking of firms' according to default risk, our model, by taking macro conditions into account, is also able to account for the absolute level of risk.

  • 34.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus Univ, Kalmar, Sweden..
    Dahl, Gordon B.
    Univ Calif San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Inst Evaluat Labour Market, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Rooth, Dan-Olof
    Linnaeus Univ, Kalmar, Sweden..
    THE EFFECT OF SCHOOLING ON COGNITIVE SKILLS2015In: Review of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0034-6535, E-ISSN 1530-9142, Vol. 97, no 3, 533-547 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify the causal effect of schooling on cognitive skills, we exploit conditionally random variation in the date Swedish males take a battery of cognitive tests in preparation for military service. We find an extra ten days of school instruction raises scores on crystallized intelligence tests (synonyms and technical comprehension tests) by approximately 1% of a standard deviation, whereas extra nonschool days have almost no effect. In contrast, test scores on fluid intelligence tests (spatial and logic tests) do not increase with additional days of schooling but do increase modestly with age.

  • 35. Carlsson, Mikael
    et al.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Evaluating Microfoundations for Aggregate Price Rigidities: Evidence from Matched Firm-Level Data on Product Prices and Unit Labor Cost2012In: The American Economic Review, ISSN 0002-8282, E-ISSN 1944-7981, Vol. 102, no 4, 1571-1595 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using matched data on product-level prices and the producing firm's unit labor cost, we find a moderate pass-through of current idiosyncratic marginal-cost changes. Also, the response does not vary across firms facing very different idiosyncratic shock variances, but identical aggregate conditions. These results do not fit the predictions of Mackowiak and Wiederholt (2009). Neither do firms react strongly to predictable marginal-cost changes, as expected from Mankiw and Reis (2002). We find that firms consider both current and expected future marginal cost when setting prices. This points toward impediments to continuous price adjustments as a key driver of monetary non-neutrality.

  • 36. Crepon, Bruno
    et al.
    Ferracci, Marc
    Jolivet, Gregory
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Active labor market policy effects in a dynamic setting2009In: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 7, no 2-3, 595-605 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper implements a method to identify and estimate treatment effects in a dynamic setting where treatments may occur at any point in time. By relating the standard matching approach to the timing-of-events approach, it demonstrates that effects of the treatment on the treated at a given date can be identified although non-treated may be treated later in time. The approach builds on a "no anticipation" assumption and the assumption of conditional independence between the duration until treatment and the counterfactual durations until exit. To illustrate the approach, the paper studies the effect of training for unemployed workers in France, using a rich register data set. Training has little impact on unemployment duration. The contamination of the standard matching estimator due to later entries into treatment is large if the treatment probability is high.

  • 37.
    Crepon, Bruno
    et al.
    Ctr Res Econ & Stat CREST, F-92245 Malakoff, France.;Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Act Lab J PAL, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA..
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Univ Bristol, Dept Econ, Bristol BS8 1TH, Avon, England.;Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Act Lab J PAL, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA..
    Active Labor Market Policies2016In: Annual Review Of Economics, Vol 8 / [ed] Aghion, P Rey, H, ANNUAL REVIEWS , 2016, 521-546 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active labor market policies are massively used with the objective being to improve labor market outcomes of individuals out of work. Many observational evaluation studies have been published. In this review, we critically assess policy effectiveness. We emphasize insights from recent randomized controlled trials. In addition, we examine policy effects that have not been the primary object of most of the past evaluations, such as anticipatory effects of advance knowledge of future treatments and equilibrium effects, and we discuss the actual implementation of policies. We discuss the importance of heterogeneity of programs and effects and examine the extent to which potential participants are interested in enrollment. We also discuss the assessment of costs and benefits of programs.

  • 38.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Edmark, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Is There a "Race-to-the-Bottom" in the Setting of Welfare Benefit Levels?: Evidence from a Policy Intervention2008In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 92, no 5-6, 1193-1209 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate whether local governments react on the welfare benefit levels in neighboring jurisdictions when setting their own benefit levels. We solve the simultaneity problem arising from the welfare game by utilizing a policy intervention; more specifically, we use a centrally geared exogenous placement of a highly welfare prone group (refugees) among Swedish municipalities as an instrument. The IV estimates indicate that there exists a "race-to-the-bottom" and that the effect is economically as well as statistically significant; if the neighboring municipalities decrease their welfare benefit level by 100 SEK, a municipality decreases its benefit level with approximately 41 SEK. This result is robust to several alternative model specifications.

  • 39.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Edmark, Karin
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Hansen, Jörgen
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Fattigdom i folkhemmet: Från socialbidrag till självförsörjning2008 (ed. 1:a upplagan)Book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Gustavsson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Inequality and Crime: Separating the Effects of Permanent and Transitory Income2008In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 70, no 2, 129-153 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies on income inequality and crime have typically used total income or total earnings. However, it is quite likely that it is changes in permanent rather than in transitory income that affects crime rates. The purpose of this paper is therefore to disentangle the two effects by, first, estimating region-specific inequality in permanent and transitory income and, second, estimating crime equations with the two separate income components as explanatory variables. The results indicate that it is important to separate the two effects; while an increase in the inequality in permanent income yields a positive and significant effect on total crimes and three different property crimes, an increase in the inequality in transitory income has no significant effect. Using a traditional, aggregate, measure of income yields insignificant effects on crime.

  • 41.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    On the Vote Purchasing Behavior of Incumbent Governments2002In: American Political Science Review, ISSN 0003-0554, E-ISSN 1537-5943, Vol. 96, no 1, 27-40 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate whether there are any tactical motives behind the distribution of grants from central to lower level governments. We use a temporary grant program that is uniquely suitable for testing theories of vote-purchasing behavior of incumbent governments. The temporary grant program differs from traditional intergovernmental grants in several aspects, most importantly in the sovereign decision making power given to the incumbent central government. We find support for the hypothesis that the incumbent government used the grant program under study in order to win votes. In particular, we find strong support for the Lindbeck-Weibull/Dixit-Londregan model in which parties distribute transfers to regions where there are many swing voters. This result is statistically as well as economically significant. We do however not find any support for the model that predicts that the incumbent government transfers money to its own supporters.

  • 42.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    On mandatory activation of welfare receivers2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether mandatory activation programs for welfare receivers have effects on welfare participation, employment and disposable income. In contrast to earlier studies we are able to capture both entry and exit effects. The empirical analysis makes use of a Swedish welfare reform in which the city districts in Stockholm gradually implemented mandatory activation programs for individuals on welfare. The reform is well suited for investigating effects of such programs for several reasons. First, the reform was not combined with any other policy instruments, like time limits or tax credits, making sure that we will capture effects of mandatory activation policies and nothing else. Second, the reform was initiated at different points of time in different city districts, which ease identification. Third, using data from city districts within a single local labor market we can control for confounding macro economic shocks. Overall, we find that mandatory activation of welfare receivers reduce overall welfare participation and increases employment. We also find that mandatory activation programs appear to work best for young people and for people born in non-Western countries. For disposable income, we do not find a statistically significant effect.

  • 43.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    The Effects of Work Requirements on Welfare Participation2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundqvist, Heléne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. IFAU.
    Intergovernmental Grants and Bureaucratic Power2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In their role as agenda setters and implementers of political decisions, bureaucrats potentially have the power to influence decisions in their own favor. It is however difficult to empirically test whether bureaucrats actually are involved in such actions. In this paper we suggest and apply a new way of testing the hypothesis that bureaucrats can and do in fact affect policy to their own benefit. Making use of a discontinuity in the Swedish grant system, we estimate causal effects of intergovernmental grants on different types of personnel employed by the local governments. On the margin, we find a large, positive effect of grants on the number of bureaucrats in the central administration, but no effects on the number of personnel in other important sectors run

    by the local government (child care, schools and elderly care). These results support the

    view that bureaucrats are able to, and do indeed, affect the allocation of grants within

    municipalities to support own goals.

  • 45.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Aktivering av socialbidragstagare i Sverige2008In: Søkelys på arbeidsmarkedet, ISSN 0800-6199, E-ISSN 1504-7970, Vol. 25, no 2, 277-289 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Valår och den kommunala politiken2008In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 36, no 5, 6-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Rattsø, Jørn
    NTNU, Trondheim.
    Ågren, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Using a discontinuous grant rule to identify the effect of grants on local taxes and spending2008In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 92, no 12, 2320-2335 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When investigating the effects of federal grants on the behavior of lower-level governments, it is hard to defend the handling of grants as an exogenous factor. Federal governments often set grants based on characteristics and performance of decentralized governments. In this paper we make use of a discontinuity in the Swedish grant system in order to estimate the causal effects of general intergovernmental grants on local spending and local tax rates. The formula for the distribution of funds is used as an exclusion restriction in an IV-estimation. We find evidence of crowding-in, where federal grants are shifted to more local spending, but not to reduced local tax rates.

  • 48.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Tovmo, Per
    NTNU, Trondheim.
    Power Properties of the Sargan Test in the Presence of Measurement Errors in Dynamic Panels2008In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 15, no 5, 349-353 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the power properties of the Sargan test in the presence of measurement errors in dynamic panel data models. The conclusion from Monte Carlo simulations, and an application on the data used by Arellano and Bond (1991), is that in the very likely case of measurement errors in either the dependent or any of the independent variables, we will, if we rely on the Sargan test, quite likely accept a mis-specified model and end up with biased results.

  • 49. de Graaf-Zijl, Marloes
    et al.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Heyma, Arjan
    Stepping stones for the unemployed: the effect of temporary jobs on the duration until (regular) work2011In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 24, no 1, 107-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transitions from unemployment into temporary work are often succeeded by a transition from temporary into regular work. This paper investigates whether temporary work increases the transition rate to regular work. We use longitudinal survey data of individuals to estimate a multi-state duration model, applying the 'timing of events' approach. The data contain multiple spells in labour market states at the individual level. We analyse results using novel graphical representations, which unambiguously show that temporary jobs shorten the unemployment duration, although they do not increase the fraction of unemployed workers having regular work within a few years after entry into unemployment.

  • 50.
    de Luna, Xavier
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Stat, USBE, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Fowler, Philip
    Umea Univ, Dept Stat, USBE, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Inst Study Labor IZA, Bonn, Germany..
    Proxy variables and nonparametric identification of causal effects2017In: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 150, 152-154 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proxy variables are often used in linear regression models with the aim of removing potential confounding bias. In this paper we formalise proxy variables within the potential outcomes framework, giving conditions under which it can be shown that causal effects are nonparametrically identified. We characterise two types of proxy variables and give concrete examples where the proxy conditions introduced may hold by design.

1234 1 - 50 of 185
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  • asciidoc
  • rtf