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  • 1.
    A. Hedqvist, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of ALM.
    Kommuner & Facebook: Hur hanteras regelverket kring allmänna handlingar?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this one-year master thesis in archival science was to examine how municipalities take regulations concerning public records into account when they use Facebook. Another aim was to examine the involvement of archivists, registrars or similar staff in the management of the regulations. Since Swedish archival theory and practice has a close connection to the application of these regulations, such an examination was hopefully going to reveal tendencies of importance for archival science. The method used to collect information was a web questionnaire and the result was based on answers from 21 municipalities with an official Facebook page. The questionnaire showed that six of the municipalities regarded documents originating from their Facebook page as public records. Three did not, and a large group had not yet decided how to treat these documents. Only three municipalities did archive documents from Facebook. The involvement of archivists, registrars and similar personnel was generally very small, even though regulations concerning public records had more often been taken into account in the municipalities that had informed this personnel about the use of an official Facebook page. The difference in management between the municipalities was together with the demand for national guiding principles indicating difficulties in applying the regulations to social medias like Facebook. The fact that most of the municipalities that had taken the regulations into account had come to the conclusion that Facebook generated public records, together with the fact that national guiding principles presented during the work with this thesis had the same interpretation, indicated that documents originating from Facebook will be a part of Swedish public records in the future. The difference in management and the demand for guidance also indicated a need for better division of responsibilities and a more active approach in the future, to ensure that the regulations concerning public records are taken into account early and correctly when authorities starts to use new medias.

  • 2. Aakhus, Mark
    et al.
    Ågerfalk, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Lyytinen, Kalle
    Te’eni, Dov
    Symbolic Action Research in Information Systems: Introduction to the Special Issue2014In: Management Information Systems Quarterly, ISSN 0276-7783, E-ISSN 2162-9730, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 1187-1200Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue introduction explores the need to study information systems as symbolic action systems, defines broadly the research domain and related assumptions, notes the origins of this perspective, articulates its key lines of study, and discusses the state of the field in light of published research. The essay also positions the three papers of the special issue in the broader Information Systems (IS) discourse and notes their specific contribution in bridging so far unconnected streams of research and expanding research methods amenable to symbolic action research. This introductory essay furthermore observes some unique challenges in pulling together the special issue that invited the editors to combat against the tendency to approach communicative processes associated with information systems as primarily psychological processes. In closing we note several lines of inquiry that can strengthen future studies of symbolic action including better design theories, more flexible and open use of methods, and attentive use of rich traditions that inform symbolic action research in IS.

  • 3. Aalbers, M.
    et al.
    Christophers, Brett
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Centring Housing in Political Economy2014In: Housing, Theory and Society, ISSN 1403-6096, E-ISSN 1651-2278, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 373-394Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Aalbers, Manuel B.
    et al.
    Christophers, Brett
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    The Housing Question under Capitalist Political Economies2014In: Housing, Theory and Society, ISSN 1403-6096, E-ISSN 1651-2278, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 422-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This short article is a reply to four commentaries that were written in response to our paper "Centering Housing in Political Economy". Rather than discussing each of the commentaries separately, we have chosen to distil and discuss four themes that appear important both to the commentators and to us: theory and abstraction; land rent; mortgage securitization; and the role of the state. Our discussion of theory advances the claim that theories and frameworks that take not only the economics of housing but also its politics, history, geography and institutions seriously can in principle be commensurate under the critical realist ontology suggested by two of our commentators. Our discussion of securitization adds to the existing literature on the theorization of the spatial fix and the circuits of capital. Finally, in reconsidering the housing question in political economy, we argue that you cannot today come to grips with the laws of the latter without factoring in on the centrality of the former.

  • 5.
    Aall Campbell, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Odlander, Mikaela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    ”Ingen gillar kyckling så mycket!": Hur en grupp ungdomar, boende på ett ungdomshem, upplever sin mat- och måltidssituation.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: På Statens institutionsstyrelses (SiS) särskilda ungdomshem bor ungdomar med psykosociala problem, till exempel missbruk och kriminalitet. Ungdomar som är omhändertagna och får vård mot sin vilja befinner sig i en komplex situation. Då dessa människor inte har stor möjlighet att påverka sin mat- och måltidssituation kan det vara intressant att undersöka hur de upplever denna.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen var att undersöka intagna ungdomars upplevelse av sin mat- och måltidssituation vid boende på ungdomshem.

    Metod: En semistrukturerad intervjustudie med en framtagen intervjuguide genomfördes på ett statligt ungdomshem i Mellansverige. Sju personer intervjuades. Intervjuerna analyseras med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Analysen resulterade i tre huvudsakliga teman: Maktlöshet och missnöje, Måltider – källa till gemenskap och otrygghet och Matens roll i relationen till personalen. Informanterna upplevde ett missnöje gällande maten som serverades på institutionen. De ansåg framförallt att variationen av maträtter var otillräcklig. Vidare upplevdes måltidssituationen stundtals som otrygg då den delades med andra avdelningar på institutionen. Att personalen ibland använde maten som ett verktyg för bestraffning samt ansågs vara otydliga i sin kommunikation upplevdes som problematiskt.

    Slutsats: Att vara frihetsberövad innebär en begränsning av självbestämmandet. Denna form av boendesituation kräver en struktur av rutiner och fasta tidpunkter för att fungera och det är obestridligt att självbestämmandet är mindre än vid ett liv i frihet. Dock bör myndigheten eventuellt överväga att till viss del öka graden av inflytande från ungdomarna, i syfte att skapa en bättre mat- och måltidsupplevelse för ungdomarna som bor på deras institutioner.

  • 6.
    Aalto, Aino-Maija
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The (in)effectiveness of financial incentive on fertility behaviour: Childcare –a safety net for children?2017Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Is childcare a safety net for vulnerable children? This paper investigates the role of childcare for the health outcomes of children whose parents are unemployed. Exploiting time variation in childcare access resulting from a reform requiring Swedish municipalities to provide childcare also for children with unemployed parents, we estimate causal effects on health, as measured by register data on hospitalizations. We find that access to childcare reduced hospitalizations for infections among toddlers, especially among boys. Among children in preschool age access to childcare caused a temporary increase in hospitalization for infections the year they got access to childcare.

  • 7.
    Aaltonen, Suvi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Rekilä, Elina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Analysis of Companies' Attitudes Towards Recruitment of Skilled Refugees in Finland2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Migratory flows have escalated especially during the past year. In general, the current refugee crisis has formulated both negative and positive stances towards refugees. In consequence of various perspectives, it was seen relevant to spread awareness of the skilled refugees as a potential workforce. Subsequently, this thesis concentrates on analysing companies' attitudes of skilled refugees’ employment in Finland. In relation to a recent German study, reflections towards refugees' employment are made.

    The attitudinal scope of this thesis refers to the complexity of the topic. Companies' stances were examined by setting 'bipolar attitude pairs' to enable thematic analysis. The key findings suggest a strong indication to openness towards hiring skilled refugees. However, the results demonstrate a solid correlation with criticality in regard to the plausibility of skills. Facilitating employment of skilled refugees are not seen as a top priority for most of the companies, partially due to lacking multicultural work communities and the experience of hiring foreigners in Finland. 

  • 8.
    Aarelaid-Tart, Aili
    et al.
    Tallinn University, Estonia .
    Bennich-Björkman, Li
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Baltic biographies at historical crossroads2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book brings together life stories from five generations of Balts, living through the diverse and recurring transformations of the twentieth century: occupations, war, independence, totalitarianism, and democratic rule and market economy. The twentieth century history of the Baltic countries has often been deeply tragic. Lying on the coastline of the Baltic Sea, these rather small but strategically well located territories have historically found themselves in the middle of many power struggles between larger states, empires and other power-holders: the Teutonic Knights, Swedish kings, Tsarist Russia, Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union. Today, they are once again forced to stand up to the Russian Federation.

    Biographical interviewing is a field focused on individuals, and on how those individuals choose to re-create and present their lived lives, make meaning of it through the narratives they tell. To interpret the biographical narrations of Lithuanians, Latvians and Estonians, shaped by complex and controversial historical background, the authors use Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of social and cultural capitals, the principles of Erving Goffman’s framing analysis and Alessandro Portelli’s distinction of private and public spheres, Anton Steen’s investigations of post-Socialist elites and Piotr Sztompka’s theory of cultural trauma, etc. Given analyses of particular biographical narrations are supplemented by brief historical and sociological overviews, which allow the reader to better understand the contexts of lived lives, and the mental atmosphere in which the interviews were conducted.

  • 9.
    Aarni, Teddy
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    Adonis och Venus från Amis: om "bushmankonst" och paleolitiska paralleller1976Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Aarnio, Mikko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Fredriksson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Wolf, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Sörensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Eriksson, Måns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Peterson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Linnman, Clas
    Visualization of painful inflammation in patients with pain after traumatic ankle sprain using [(11)C]-D-deprenyl PET/CT.2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 17, p. 418-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Positron emission tomography (PET) with the radioligand [(11)C]-D-deprenyl has shown increased signal at location of pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic whiplash injury. The binding site of [(11)C]-D-deprenyl in peripheral tissues is suggested to be mitochondrial monoamine oxidase in cells engaged in post-traumatic inflammation and tissue repair processes. The association between [(11)C]-D-deprenyl uptake and the transition from acute to chronic pain remain unknown. Further imaging studies of musculoskeletal pain at the molecular level would benefit from establishing a clinical model in a common and well-defined injury in otherwise healthy and drug-naïve subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate if [(11)C]-D-deprenyl uptake would be acutely elevated in unilateral ankle sprain and if tracer uptake would be reduced as a function of healing, and correlated with pain localizations and pain experience.

    METHODS: Eight otherwise healthy patients with unilateral ankle sprain were recruited at the emergency department. All underwent [(11)C]-D-deprenyl PET/CT in the acute phase, at one month and 6-14 months after injury.

    RESULTS: Acute [(11)C]-D-deprenyl uptake at the injury site was a factor of 10.7 (range 2.9-37.3) higher than the intact ankle. During healing, [(11)C]-D-deprenyl uptake decreased, but did not normalize until after 11 months. Patients experiencing persistent pain had prolonged [(11)C]-D-deprenyl uptake in painful locations.

    CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The data provide further support that [(11)C]-D-deprenyl PET can visualize, quantify and follow processes in peripheral tissue that may relate to soft tissue injuries, inflammation and associated nociceptive signaling. Such an objective correlate would represent a progress in pain research, as well as in clinical pain diagnostics and management.

  • 11.
    Aarnio, Mikko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Linnman, Clas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lampa, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Sörensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Whiplash injuries associated with experienced pain and disability can be visualized with [11C]-D-deprenyl PET/CTManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The understanding of etiological mechanisms of whiplash associated disorder is still inadequate. Objective visualization and quantification of peripheral musculoskeletal injury and possible painful inflammation in whiplash associated disorder would facilitate diagnosis, strengthen patients’ subjective pain reports and aid clinical decisions eventually leading to better treatments. In the current study, we further evaluated the potential to use [11C]D-deprenyl PET/CT to visualize inflammation after whiplash injury. Sixteen patients with whiplash injury grade II were recruited at the emergency department and underwent [11C]D-deprenyl PET/CT in the acute phase and at 6 months after injury. Subjective pain levels, self rated neck disability and active cervical range of motion were recorded at each imaging session. Results showed that the molecular aspects of inflammation and possible tissue injuries after acute whiplash injury could be visualized, objectively quantified and followed over time with [11C]-D-deprenyl PET/CT. An altered [11C]D-deprenyl uptake in the cervical bone structures and facet joints was associated with subjective pain levels and self rated disability during both imaging occasions. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of affected peripheral structures in whiplash injury and strengthens the idea that PET/CT detectable organic lesions in peripheral tissue may be relevant for the development of persistent pain and disability in whiplash injury.

    Perspective: This article presents a novel way of objectively visualizing possible structural damage and inflammation that cause pain and disability in whiplash injury. This PET method can bring an advance in pain research and eventually would facilitate the clinical management of patients in pain.

  • 12.
    Aaro, Axel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Konsumtion i den digitala sfären: En utredning av rättsläget efter UsedSoft och Allposters2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Aarsand , Pål Andre
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Forsberg, Lucas
    Tema Barn, Linköpings universitet.
    De öppna och stängda dörrarnas moral: dilemman i deltagande observation med videokamera2009In: Den väsentliga vardagen: några diskursanalytiska perspektiv på tal, text och bild, Stockholm: Liber , 2009Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 14.
    Aarsand, Pål
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Parenting and digital games: On children’s game play in US families2011In: Journal of Children and Media, ISSN 1748-2798, E-ISSN 1748-2801, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 318-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on parenting and children's game play. The study is based on an ethnographic study of 32 American middle-class families and takes a discourse analytic approach. Earlier research has argued that parenting styles are dependent on social class, ethnicity, and gender. The present data reveal considerable diversity in how middle-class parents deal with game play, which is currently one of the most common child and youth leisure activities. This diversity is seen across stances taken within the same interview and across interviews. It is argued that differences in middle-class families' parenting styles are related to their view of the child and their stance on game technology. In addition, talk about parenting reveals parents' construction of good and bad parenting, where they see themselves as belonging to the former category.

  • 15.
    Aarsand, Pål
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University.
    Players animation in computer gaming: Real/virtual and subject/object in interaction2010In: M3 Interaction: From a conference / [ed] Hernwall, Patrik, Södertörn: Södertörn högskola , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Aarsand, Pål
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    The Ordinary Player: Teenagers talk about digital games2012In: Journal of Youth Studies, ISSN 1367-6261, E-ISSN 1469-9680, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 961-977Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Aarsand, Pål
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Young Boys Playing Digital Games: From console to the playground2010In: Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, ISSN 1891-943X, E-ISSN 1891-943X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 38-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies how digital games are part of the everyday lives of Swedish 6 to 7-year-old boys. The data consist of video recordings from two schools, two after-school centres and four homes. The focus is on how children engage in, organize and use digital games in face-to-face interaction. It is argued that digital game competence matters not only in front of the screen, but also in the playground. In addition, it is argued that what counts as game competence is negotiated in the peer group.

  • 18.
    Aarsand, Pål Andre
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Digital kompetens i barns vardag2008In: Locus, ISSN 1100-3197, no 2, p. 17-30Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 19.
    Aarsand, Pål Andre
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Frame switches and identity performances: Alternating between online and offline2008In: Text & Talk, ISSN 1860-7330, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 147-165Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Aarsand, Pål Andre
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Aronsson, Karin
    Barn och ungdomsvetenskap , Stockholms Universitet.
    Computer gaming and territorial negotiations in family life2009In: Childhood, ISSN 0907-5682, E-ISSN 1461-7013, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 497-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines territorial negotiations concerning gaming, drawing on video recordings of gaming practices in middle-class families. It explores how private vs public gaming space was co-construed by children and parents in front of the screen as well as through conversations about games. Game equipment was generally located in public places in the homes, which can be understood in terms of parents' surveillance of their children, on the one hand, and actual parental involvement, on the other. Gaming space emerged in the interplay between game location, technology and practices, which blurred any fixed boundaries between public and private, place and space, as well as traditional age hierarchies.

  • 21.
    Aarsand, Pål Andre
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Aronsson, Karin
    Barn och ungdomsvetenskap, Stockholms universitet.
    Response cries and other gaming moves-Building intersubjectivity in gaming2009In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1557-1575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focuses on the ways in which response cries (Goffman, 1981) are deployed as interactional resources in computer gaming in everyday life. It draws on a large-scale data set of video recordings of the everyday lives of middleclass families. The recordings of gaming between children and between children and parents show that response cries were not arbitrarily located within different phases of gaming (planning, gaming or commenting on gaming). Response cries were primarily used as interactional resources for securing and sustaining joint attention (cf. Goodwin, 1996) during the gaming as such, that is, during periods when the gaming activity was characterized by a relatively high tempo. In gaming between children, response cries co-occurred with their animations of game characters and with sound making, singing along, and code switching in ways that formed something of an action aesthetic, a type of aesthetic that was most clearly seen in gaming between game equals (here: between children). In contrast, response cries were rare during the planning phases and during phases in which the participants primarily engaged in setting up or adjusting the game.

  • 22.
    Aarsand, Pål Andre
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Forsberg, Lucas
    Producing children’s corporeal privacy: ethnographic video recording as material-discursive practice2010In: Qualitative Research, ISSN 1468-7941, E-ISSN 1741-3109, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 249-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the use of video cameras in participant observation drawing on approximately 300 hours of video data from an ethnographic study of Swedish family life. Departing from Karen Barad's post-humanistic perspective on scientific practices, the aim is to critically analyse how researchers, research participants and technology produce and negotiate children's corporeal privacy. Ethnographic videotaping is understood as a material-discursive practice that creates and sustains boundaries between private and public, where videotaping is ideologically connected to a public sphere that may at times 'intrude' on children's corporeal privacy. The limits of corporeal privacy are never fixed, but open for negotiation; ethnographers may therefore unintentionally transgress the boundary and thus be faced with ethical dilemmas. The fluidity of privacy calls for ethical reflexivity before, during and after fieldwork, and researchers must be sensitive to when ethical issues are at hand and how to deal with them.

  • 23.
    Aarsand, Pål
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Assarsson, Liselott
    VILL, NTNU.
    Intergenerational encounters: Digital literacy in family settings.2009In: Learning in the network society and the digitized school / [ed] Krumsvik Rune, New York: Nova Science Publishers , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24. Aarsand, Pål
    et al.
    Forsberg [Gottzén], Lucas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Producing children's corporeal privacy: ethnographic video recording as material-discursive practice2010In: Qualitative Research, ISSN 1468-7941, E-ISSN 1741-3109, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 249-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the use of video cameras in participant observation drawing on approximately 300 hours of video data from an ethnographic study of Swedish family life. Departing from Karen Barad’s post-humanistic perspective on scientific practices, the aim is to critically analyse how researchers, research participants and technology produce and negotiate children’s corporeal privacy. Ethnographic videotaping is understood as a material-discursive practice that creates and sustains boundaries between private and public, where videotaping is ideologically connected to a public sphere that may at times ‘intrude’ on children’s corporeal privacy. The limits of corporeal privacy are never fixed, but open for negotiation; ethnographers may therefore unintentionally transgress the boundary and thus be faced with ethical dilemmas. The fluidity of privacy calls for ethical reflexivity before, during and after fieldwork, and researchers must be sensitive to when ethical issues are at hand and how to deal with them.

  • 25.
    Aarsand, Pål
    et al.
    Department of Education and Life Long Learning, Norwegian University of Technology and Science.
    Melander, Helen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Appropriation through guided participation: Media literacy activities in children's everyday lives2016In: Discourse, Context & Media, ISSN 2211-6958, E-ISSN 2211-6966, Vol. 12, p. 20-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores media literacy practices in children’s everyday lives and some of the ways in which young children appropriate basic media literacy skills through guided participation in situated activities. Building on an ethnomethodological perspective, the analyses are based on video recordings documenting the activities in which four target children, aged 6-7 years old, participated at home and in school. Through the detailed analysis of two mundane media literacy activities – online calling and word processing – similarities and differences in media usage within and out-of-school are examined. It is shown how children’s media literacy activities encompass verbal, embodied and social competencies that are made relevant, and thus accessible for learning, in interaction between the adults and children in the form of norms and guidelines for what constitutes knowledgeable participation in media literacy activities, and that are appropriated and reactualized by the children in interaction with their peers. The findings show how the participants coordinate their actions on and in front of the screen and where spatiality and temporality are oriented to as crucial aspects of the organization of the activities. Moreover, it is demonstrated how old and new technologies are linked together in culturally and historically embedded conceptualizations of literacy. 

  • 26.
    Aarsand, Pål
    et al.
    Pedagogisk institutt, Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskaplige Universitet.
    Melander, Helen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Evaldsson, Ann-Carita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Om media literacy-praktiker i barns vardagsliv2013In: Literacy-praktiker i och utanför skolan / [ed] Sangeeta Bagga-Gupta, Ann-Carita Evaldsson, Caroline Liberg & Roger Säljö, Stockholm: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2013, p. 41-63Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27. Aarsand Simonsen, Pål
    et al.
    Forsberg [Gottzén], Lucas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    De öppna och stängda dörrarnas moral: Dilemman i deltagande observation med video2009In: Den västentliga vardagen: Några diskursanalytiska perspektiv på tal, text och bild / [ed] Anna Sparrman, Jakob Cromdal, Ann-Carita Evaldsson & Viveka Adelswärd, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2009, p. 148-168Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Aarum Hansen, Heidi
    et al.
    Østfold University College.
    Björktomta, Siv-Britt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Svalastog, Anna Lydia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Digital society generates new challenges on Child Welfare Services2017In: Croatian Medical Journal, ISSN 0353-9504, E-ISSN 1332-8166, ISSN ISSN 0353-9504, Vol. 58, no feb, p. 80-83, article id 2017.58.80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital society has created a new situation that challenges the present discourse on public services. Since it is only a recent phenomenon, digital society has not yet been in-cluded in the broader filed of social work education and practice. In the present text, we focus on casework with children. The examples described in the text are taken from Scandinavian experiences and reflect our background and practice in social work with children. However, we dare to say that the situation is more or less the same in the rest of Europe, as illustrated by the presented social work examples and references from wider European context.

  • 29.
    Aas, Egil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Apel, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Dock, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Gamrell, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Lekberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Notelid, Michel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Reisborg, Synnöve
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Undersökningar för Mälarbanans sträckning: Fältsäsongen 19921993In: TOR, ISSN 0495-8772, Vol. 25, p. 53-77Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Aasa, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Blir det bättre med tiden?: En studie av Large cap-noterade bolags nedskrivningsprövningar av goodwill2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2005 beslutades att svenska företag vars aktier är noterade på en reglerad marknadsplats ska upprätta sina årsredovisningar enligt regelverket IFRS. En av många förändringar som detta medförde var att den immateriella illgången goodwill årligen ska nedskrivningsprövas, istället för att som tidigare linjärt avskrivas. För att utföra en nedskrivningsprövning måste ett företag värdera goodwill. Det inbegriper att fastställa en rad antaganden och precisera nyckeltal. Information om processen ska enligt standarden IAS 36 finnas att tillgå i företagets årsredovisning. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka om svenska företag noterade på Large cap-listan har blivit bättre på att uppfylla informationskraven som preciseras i IAS 36 mellan år 2006 och år 2012. Studien omfattar de företag på Large cap-listan som innehar goodwillposter i år 2006 och 2012 års årsredovisningar, exklusive företag som tillhör branschen Healthcare. Resultatet från undersökningen påvisar en förbättring mellan de två undersökta åren för samtliga branscher. Det betyder att intressenter som vill läsa företagens finanisella rapporter har mer och bättre information om goodwill att tillgå.

  • 31.
    Aastangen, Kim
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Parsimony and Fragility of Hedonic Housing Price Indexes - Some Evidence from the Oslo Metropolitan Area1998Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 32.
    Abadir, Karim and Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. STATISTICS.
    The joint moment generating function of quadratic forms in multivariate autoregressive series- The case with deterministic components2001In: Econometric theory, Vol. 17, p. 222-246Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Abadir, Karim M.
    et al.
    Imperial College, London.
    Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Biases of correlograms and of AR representations of stationary series2012In: Journal of Time Series Econometrics, ISSN 1941-1928, E-ISSN 1941-1928, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We derive the relation between the biases of correlograms and of estimates of auto-regressive AR(k) representations of stationary series, and we illustrate it with a simple AR example. The new relation allows for k to vary with the sample size, which is a representation that can be used for most stationary processes. As a result, the biases of the estimators of such processes can now be quantified explicitly and in a unified way.

  • 34. Abarca-Gómez, L.
    et al.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Ezzati, M
    Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults.2017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10113, p. 2627-2642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults.

    METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5-19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity).

    FINDINGS: Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (-0·01 kg/m(2) per decade; 95% credible interval -0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m(2) per decade (0·69-1·35, PP>0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m(2) per decade (0·64-1·25, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m(2) per decade (-0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m(2) per decade (0·50-1·06, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4-1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8-6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5-1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7-9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0-12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8-10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4-19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3-14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7-29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5-38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44-117) million girls and 117 (70-178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24-89) million girls and 74 (39-125) million boys worldwide were obese.

    INTERPRETATION: The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults.

  • 35.
    Abazi, Kaltrina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Ett stärkt skydd för visselblåsare?: En granskning av lagförslaget om stärkt skydd för arbetstagare som slår larm och dess semidispositiva karaktär2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 36.
    Abbas, Jaser
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Varför höll man auktion? En undersökning av auktioner i Södermanlands län år 1860 - 18972012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 37.
    Abbas, Jaser
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lilja, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Hur långt sträcker sig tilliten?: Kreditnätverk,handelsmän och ekonomiska konjunkturer i 1850-talets Malmö2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Ham'piyvastigī bih ibtikār-i khvīshtan : muṭāliʻih-ī pīrāmūn-i zanān-i muhājir-i ṣāḥib-i shirkat dar sūʾid2005In: Avaie Zaen, ISSN 0804-8134, no 54/55, p. 20-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Integration på egen hand: En studie av invandrade kvinnoföretagare i Sverige2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The principal aim of this thesis is to discover and analyse the motives that make immigrant women start their own businesses in Sweden and to investigate whether this is a way to achieve integration in working life. The empirical material consists of two types of interviews. One type consisted of interviews with five experts on labour market issues, and the other of interviews with 16 female entrepreneurs of Iranian, Chilean and Turkish origin having their own business in the Greater Stockholm region. Results from the first set of interviews indicate that female immigrants who independently start their enterprise rely mainly on their own resources of power and abilities. They are either women with class resources such as higher educations, previous work experience, language abilities and economic savings, or young women with certificates from high schools or universities. The social environment where they grew up, the gender structure and gender roles in the family before and after immigration and time of residence in Sweden also influence the extent to which women immigrants can act independently. According to the experience of the experts, the motives for starting their business are either different structural reasons, e.g. unemployment, lack of suitable or well-paying jobs, lay-offs etc, or personal reasons such as having a meaningful occupation, to support the family, to earn money of their own, to be independent from men and strive for a better standard of living etc.

    Results from the second set of interviews indicate that the most important resource these women have used when establishing their businesses is class resources such as education and adequate training, different types of work experiences, human capital and in addition to this economic savings. For many of the women in this sample different structural reasons, like unemployment, lack of good job opportunities, discrimination on work places, merge with personal reasons such as strivings to achieve independence, being one’s own boss, to realize one’s plans and ambitions, when starting their business. Independent entrepreneurship is a good way for immigrant women to be integrated in working life especially if they start within certain branches. These are branches in which the women have appropriate university education or vocational training, previous work experience or which correspond to their personal interests. In addition immigrant women become more integrated if an education received abroad is treated as equivalent to the parallel Swedish education or degree. A further factor promoting integration is if they can fully exploit their capacities when developing their own businesses. These conditions help them to feel much more satisfaction in working life as women identify themselves with their actual profession and feel that they have found the “right place” for themselves in the society.

  • 40.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Invandrarkvinnor och integration: Integration i arbetslivet genom egenföretagande. Är det möjligt för invandrade kvinnor?2005In: Kvinnor mot fundamentalism, no 25-26Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 41.
    Abbaszadegan, Farid, 1962-
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Asian and African Languages.
    Sydostasien1996Collection (editor) (Other scientific)
  • 42.
    Abbaszadegan, Farid, 1962- Wennberg, Franz, 1972-
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Asian and African Languages.
    Hydropolitik och demokrati1998Collection (editor) (Other scientific)
  • 43.
    Abbaszadegan, Farid, 1962- Wennberg, Franz, 1972-
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Languages, Department of Asian and African Languages.
    Olja, en förbannelse?1999Collection (editor) (Other scientific)
  • 44.
    Abbaszadegan, Farid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Asian and African Languages.
    Utas, BoUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Languages, Department of Asian and African Languages.
    Centralasien - gamla folk söker ny väg (Central Asia - ancient peoples seeking a new route)1995Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Abdallah, Dalia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Consociationalism in Lebanon: A Case Study on the Functionality of the Consociational Political System in Lebanon2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research seeks to answer how a consociational political model works in practice in the case of Lebanon. Through an examination of Lebanon’s political system and its power-sharing formula, the case study identifies the four pillars of consociationalism, i.e. grand coalition, minority veto, proportional representation and segmental autonomy, and studies their functionality after the Ta’if Agreement was reached in 1989. Although the agreement ended the Lebanese civil war, it did not provide much in regards to the political system. The study concludes that the four pillars are extremely weak in Lebanon and that the consociational system rather reinforces differences in the Lebanese society instead of neutralizing them.

  • 46.
    Abdallah, Laila
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Cultural Anthropology.
    Olika aspekter av kvinnlig omskärelse: den internationella debatten mellan kulturrelativister och essentialister2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47.
    Abdallah, Muhammed
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Polisens metoder i kampen mot grov organiserad brottslighet – en rättsanalys2014Student paper other, 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 48.
    Abdelzadeh, Ali
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Ekman, Joakim
    Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Procedural fairness and political trust among young people: Evidence from a panel study on Swedish high school students2015In: Acta Politica, ISSN 0001-6810, E-ISSN 1741-1416, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 253-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of ‘fair’ institutions in developing democratic legitimacy has received increased attention. Citizens who perceive – on basis of past experiences – that they are being treated fairly by authorities have been held to have greater trust in political institutions. However, previous studies on the relationship between procedural fairness and political trust have not paid sufficient attention to individuals with limited first-hand experiences of authorities. We examine the relationship on an authority that virtually all individuals meet early in life: the school. Using structural equation modeling on unique panel data covering 1,500 Swedish adolescents (ages ranging from 13 to 17), we find a reciprocal relationship: personal encounters with school authorities shape young people’s political trust; however, the images that adolescents get of the political system (through family, peers, media, etc.) have also consequences on their perceptions about the authorities they encounter in their daily lives. The analysis increases our understanding of how individuals form their political allegiances by showing that the relationship between fairness and trust is more dynamic than has previously been suggested: neither an accumulated set of experiences of authorities nor formal ties with political institutions (as voters, etc.) are required for a relationship to emerge. 

  • 49.
    Abdi Ali, Dusit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Ethnology.
    Material och Smak: Tingens betydelse i skapandet av ett hem och identitet2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 50.
    Abdi Ali, Dusit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology.
    The bright hopes and desoluted dream of Ethiopian women: A study of circular migration to middle east and the gulf states2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Migration and re-migration of economically and socially marginalized Ethiopian women and girls has become a phenomenon. Based on interviews with 12 Ethiopian migrant women returned from the Middle East and the Gulf States, the primary aim of this thesis is to describe and study Ethiopian women migrants’ circular migration to the Middle East. I will mainly focus on how social dynamics in the family, gender relations and economic circumstances are intricate. The process of women’s migration and how the expectations of the family can be gender differentiated are discussed. Further, the migrant women’s power relation when class and ethnicity determine their position is discussed. Relations with the sending family and the issues related to the women who return, as well as problems affecting them at home and in the destination countries, are looked at. Various and complex issues of migration and the women’s roles are discussed with reference to the women’s experiences. Migration provides women with opportunities for social and economic mobility but can also subject them to ethnic discrimination, exploitation, and abuse. The movement is generally seen as voluntary labor migration and it has placed them in a vulnerable position both at home and abroad. Their migration is interconnected to the economic need but also the responsibilities they have towards their family and kin.

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