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  • 1. Aakhus, Mark
    et al.
    Ågerfalk, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Lyytinen, Kalle
    Te’eni, Dov
    Symbolic Action Research in Information Systems: Introduction to the Special Issue2014In: Management Information Systems Quarterly, ISSN 0276-7783, E-ISSN 2162-9730, Vol. 38, no 4, 1187-1200 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue introduction explores the need to study information systems as symbolic action systems, defines broadly the research domain and related assumptions, notes the origins of this perspective, articulates its key lines of study, and discusses the state of the field in light of published research. The essay also positions the three papers of the special issue in the broader Information Systems (IS) discourse and notes their specific contribution in bridging so far unconnected streams of research and expanding research methods amenable to symbolic action research. This introductory essay furthermore observes some unique challenges in pulling together the special issue that invited the editors to combat against the tendency to approach communicative processes associated with information systems as primarily psychological processes. In closing we note several lines of inquiry that can strengthen future studies of symbolic action including better design theories, more flexible and open use of methods, and attentive use of rich traditions that inform symbolic action research in IS.

  • 2. Aalbers, M.
    et al.
    Christophers, Brett
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Centring Housing in Political Economy2014In: Housing, Theory and Society, ISSN 1403-6096, E-ISSN 1651-2278, Vol. 31, no 4, 373-394 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Aalbers, Manuel B.
    et al.
    Christophers, Brett
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    The Housing Question under Capitalist Political Economies2014In: Housing, Theory and Society, ISSN 1403-6096, E-ISSN 1651-2278, Vol. 31, no 4, 422-428 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This short article is a reply to four commentaries that were written in response to our paper "Centering Housing in Political Economy". Rather than discussing each of the commentaries separately, we have chosen to distil and discuss four themes that appear important both to the commentators and to us: theory and abstraction; land rent; mortgage securitization; and the role of the state. Our discussion of theory advances the claim that theories and frameworks that take not only the economics of housing but also its politics, history, geography and institutions seriously can in principle be commensurate under the critical realist ontology suggested by two of our commentators. Our discussion of securitization adds to the existing literature on the theorization of the spatial fix and the circuits of capital. Finally, in reconsidering the housing question in political economy, we argue that you cannot today come to grips with the laws of the latter without factoring in on the centrality of the former.

  • 4.
    Aall Campbell, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Odlander, Mikaela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    ”Ingen gillar kyckling så mycket!": Hur en grupp ungdomar, boende på ett ungdomshem, upplever sin mat- och måltidssituation.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: På Statens institutionsstyrelses (SiS) särskilda ungdomshem bor ungdomar med psykosociala problem, till exempel missbruk och kriminalitet. Ungdomar som är omhändertagna och får vård mot sin vilja befinner sig i en komplex situation. Då dessa människor inte har stor möjlighet att påverka sin mat- och måltidssituation kan det vara intressant att undersöka hur de upplever denna.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen var att undersöka intagna ungdomars upplevelse av sin mat- och måltidssituation vid boende på ungdomshem.

    Metod: En semistrukturerad intervjustudie med en framtagen intervjuguide genomfördes på ett statligt ungdomshem i Mellansverige. Sju personer intervjuades. Intervjuerna analyseras med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Analysen resulterade i tre huvudsakliga teman: Maktlöshet och missnöje, Måltider – källa till gemenskap och otrygghet och Matens roll i relationen till personalen. Informanterna upplevde ett missnöje gällande maten som serverades på institutionen. De ansåg framförallt att variationen av maträtter var otillräcklig. Vidare upplevdes måltidssituationen stundtals som otrygg då den delades med andra avdelningar på institutionen. Att personalen ibland använde maten som ett verktyg för bestraffning samt ansågs vara otydliga i sin kommunikation upplevdes som problematiskt.

    Slutsats: Att vara frihetsberövad innebär en begränsning av självbestämmandet. Denna form av boendesituation kräver en struktur av rutiner och fasta tidpunkter för att fungera och det är obestridligt att självbestämmandet är mindre än vid ett liv i frihet. Dock bör myndigheten eventuellt överväga att till viss del öka graden av inflytande från ungdomarna, i syfte att skapa en bättre mat- och måltidsupplevelse för ungdomarna som bor på deras institutioner.

  • 5.
    Aalto, Aino-Maija
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The (in)effectiveness of financial incentive on fertility behaviour: Childcare –a safety net for children?2017Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Is childcare a safety net for vulnerable children? This paper investigates the role of childcare for the health outcomes of children whose parents are unemployed. Exploiting time variation in childcare access resulting from a reform requiring Swedish municipalities to provide childcare also for children with unemployed parents, we estimate causal effects on health, as measured by register data on hospitalizations. We find that access to childcare reduced hospitalizations for infections among toddlers, especially among boys. Among children in preschool age access to childcare caused a temporary increase in hospitalization for infections the year they got access to childcare.

  • 6.
    Aaltonen, Suvi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Rekilä, Elina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Analysis of Companies' Attitudes Towards Recruitment of Skilled Refugees in Finland2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Migratory flows have escalated especially during the past year. In general, the current refugee crisis has formulated both negative and positive stances towards refugees. In consequence of various perspectives, it was seen relevant to spread awareness of the skilled refugees as a potential workforce. Subsequently, this thesis concentrates on analysing companies' attitudes of skilled refugees’ employment in Finland. In relation to a recent German study, reflections towards refugees' employment are made.

    The attitudinal scope of this thesis refers to the complexity of the topic. Companies' stances were examined by setting 'bipolar attitude pairs' to enable thematic analysis. The key findings suggest a strong indication to openness towards hiring skilled refugees. However, the results demonstrate a solid correlation with criticality in regard to the plausibility of skills. Facilitating employment of skilled refugees are not seen as a top priority for most of the companies, partially due to lacking multicultural work communities and the experience of hiring foreigners in Finland. 

  • 7.
    Aarelaid-Tart, Aili
    et al.
    Tallinn University, Estonia .
    Bennich-Björkman, Li
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Baltic biographies at historical crossroads2011Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book brings together life stories from five generations of Balts, living through the diverse and recurring transformations of the twentieth century: occupations, war, independence, totalitarianism, and democratic rule and market economy. The twentieth century history of the Baltic countries has often been deeply tragic. Lying on the coastline of the Baltic Sea, these rather small but strategically well located territories have historically found themselves in the middle of many power struggles between larger states, empires and other power-holders: the Teutonic Knights, Swedish kings, Tsarist Russia, Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union. Today, they are once again forced to stand up to the Russian Federation.

    Biographical interviewing is a field focused on individuals, and on how those individuals choose to re-create and present their lived lives, make meaning of it through the narratives they tell. To interpret the biographical narrations of Lithuanians, Latvians and Estonians, shaped by complex and controversial historical background, the authors use Pierre Bourdieu’s concept of social and cultural capitals, the principles of Erving Goffman’s framing analysis and Alessandro Portelli’s distinction of private and public spheres, Anton Steen’s investigations of post-Socialist elites and Piotr Sztompka’s theory of cultural trauma, etc. Given analyses of particular biographical narrations are supplemented by brief historical and sociological overviews, which allow the reader to better understand the contexts of lived lives, and the mental atmosphere in which the interviews were conducted.

  • 8.
    Aarsand , Pål Andre
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Forsberg, Lucas
    Tema Barn, Linköpings universitet.
    De öppna och stängda dörrarnas moral: dilemman i deltagande observation med videokamera2009In: Den väsentliga vardagen: några diskursanalytiska perspektiv på tal, text och bild, Stockholm: Liber , 2009Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 9.
    Aarsand, Pål
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University.
    Players animation in computer gaming: Real/virtual and subject/object in interaction2010In: M3 Interaction: From a conference / [ed] Hernwall, Patrik, Södertörn: Södertörn högskola , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Aarsand, Pål
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Young Boys Playing Digital Games: From console to the playground2010In: Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, ISSN 1891-943X, E-ISSN 1891-943X, Vol. 4, no 1, 38-55 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies how digital games are part of the everyday lives of Swedish 6 to 7-year-old boys. The data consist of video recordings from two schools, two after-school centres and four homes. The focus is on how children engage in, organize and use digital games in face-to-face interaction. It is argued that digital game competence matters not only in front of the screen, but also in the playground. In addition, it is argued that what counts as game competence is negotiated in the peer group.

  • 11.
    Aarsand, Pål Andre
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Digital kompetens i barns vardag2008In: Locus, ISSN 1100-3197, no 2, 17-30 p.Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 12.
    Aarsand, Pål Andre
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Frame switches and identity performances: Alternating between online and offline2008In: Text & Talk, ISSN 1860-7330, Vol. 28, no 2, 147-165 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Aarsand, Pål Andre
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Aronsson, Karin
    Barn och ungdomsvetenskap , Stockholms Universitet.
    Computer gaming and territorial negotiations in family life2009In: Childhood, ISSN 0907-5682, E-ISSN 1461-7013, Vol. 16, no 4, 497-517 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines territorial negotiations concerning gaming, drawing on video recordings of gaming practices in middle-class families. It explores how private vs public gaming space was co-construed by children and parents in front of the screen as well as through conversations about games. Game equipment was generally located in public places in the homes, which can be understood in terms of parents' surveillance of their children, on the one hand, and actual parental involvement, on the other. Gaming space emerged in the interplay between game location, technology and practices, which blurred any fixed boundaries between public and private, place and space, as well as traditional age hierarchies.

  • 14.
    Aarsand, Pål Andre
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Aronsson, Karin
    Barn och ungdomsvetenskap, Stockholms universitet.
    Response cries and other gaming moves-Building intersubjectivity in gaming2009In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 41, no 8, 1557-1575 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focuses on the ways in which response cries (Goffman, 1981) are deployed as interactional resources in computer gaming in everyday life. It draws on a large-scale data set of video recordings of the everyday lives of middleclass families. The recordings of gaming between children and between children and parents show that response cries were not arbitrarily located within different phases of gaming (planning, gaming or commenting on gaming). Response cries were primarily used as interactional resources for securing and sustaining joint attention (cf. Goodwin, 1996) during the gaming as such, that is, during periods when the gaming activity was characterized by a relatively high tempo. In gaming between children, response cries co-occurred with their animations of game characters and with sound making, singing along, and code switching in ways that formed something of an action aesthetic, a type of aesthetic that was most clearly seen in gaming between game equals (here: between children). In contrast, response cries were rare during the planning phases and during phases in which the participants primarily engaged in setting up or adjusting the game.

  • 15.
    Aarsand, Pål Andre
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Forsberg, Lucas
    Producing children’s corporeal privacy: ethnographic video recording as material-discursive practice2010In: Qualitative Research, ISSN 1468-7941, E-ISSN 1741-3109, Vol. 10, no 2, 249-268 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the use of video cameras in participant observation drawing on approximately 300 hours of video data from an ethnographic study of Swedish family life. Departing from Karen Barad's post-humanistic perspective on scientific practices, the aim is to critically analyse how researchers, research participants and technology produce and negotiate children's corporeal privacy. Ethnographic videotaping is understood as a material-discursive practice that creates and sustains boundaries between private and public, where videotaping is ideologically connected to a public sphere that may at times 'intrude' on children's corporeal privacy. The limits of corporeal privacy are never fixed, but open for negotiation; ethnographers may therefore unintentionally transgress the boundary and thus be faced with ethical dilemmas. The fluidity of privacy calls for ethical reflexivity before, during and after fieldwork, and researchers must be sensitive to when ethical issues are at hand and how to deal with them.

  • 16.
    Aarsand, Pål
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Assarsson, Liselott
    VILL, NTNU.
    Intergenerational encounters: Digital literacy in family settings.2009In: Learning in the network society and the digitized school / [ed] Krumsvik Rune, New York: Nova Science Publishers , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17. Aarsand, Pål
    et al.
    Forsberg [Gottzén], Lucas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Producing children's corporeal privacy: ethnographic video recording as material-discursive practice2010In: Qualitative Research, ISSN 1468-7941, E-ISSN 1741-3109, Vol. 10, no 2, 249-268 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the use of video cameras in participant observation drawing on approximately 300 hours of video data from an ethnographic study of Swedish family life. Departing from Karen Barad’s post-humanistic perspective on scientific practices, the aim is to critically analyse how researchers, research participants and technology produce and negotiate children’s corporeal privacy. Ethnographic videotaping is understood as a material-discursive practice that creates and sustains boundaries between private and public, where videotaping is ideologically connected to a public sphere that may at times ‘intrude’ on children’s corporeal privacy. The limits of corporeal privacy are never fixed, but open for negotiation; ethnographers may therefore unintentionally transgress the boundary and thus be faced with ethical dilemmas. The fluidity of privacy calls for ethical reflexivity before, during and after fieldwork, and researchers must be sensitive to when ethical issues are at hand and how to deal with them.

  • 18. Aarsand Simonsen, Pål
    et al.
    Forsberg [Gottzén], Lucas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    De öppna och stängda dörrarnas moral: Dilemman i deltagande observation med video2009In: Den västentliga vardagen: Några diskursanalytiska perspektiv på tal, text och bild / [ed] Anna Sparrman, Jakob Cromdal, Ann-Carita Evaldsson & Viveka Adelswärd, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2009, 148-168 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Aarum Hansen, Heidi
    et al.
    Østfold University College.
    Björktomta, Siv-Britt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Svalastog, Anna Lydia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Digital society generates new challenges on Child Welfare Services2017In: Croatian Medical Journal, ISSN 0353-9504, E-ISSN 1332-8166, ISSN ISSN 0353-9504, Vol. 58, no feb, 80-83 p., 2017.58.80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital society has created a new situation that challenges the present discourse on public services. Since it is only a recent phenomenon, digital society has not yet been in-cluded in the broader filed of social work education and practice. In the present text, we focus on casework with children. The examples described in the text are taken from Scandinavian experiences and reflect our background and practice in social work with children. However, we dare to say that the situation is more or less the same in the rest of Europe, as illustrated by the presented social work examples and references from wider European context.

  • 20.
    Aasa, Johannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Blir det bättre med tiden?: En studie av Large cap-noterade bolags nedskrivningsprövningar av goodwill2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2005 beslutades att svenska företag vars aktier är noterade på en reglerad marknadsplats ska upprätta sina årsredovisningar enligt regelverket IFRS. En av många förändringar som detta medförde var att den immateriella illgången goodwill årligen ska nedskrivningsprövas, istället för att som tidigare linjärt avskrivas. För att utföra en nedskrivningsprövning måste ett företag värdera goodwill. Det inbegriper att fastställa en rad antaganden och precisera nyckeltal. Information om processen ska enligt standarden IAS 36 finnas att tillgå i företagets årsredovisning. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka om svenska företag noterade på Large cap-listan har blivit bättre på att uppfylla informationskraven som preciseras i IAS 36 mellan år 2006 och år 2012. Studien omfattar de företag på Large cap-listan som innehar goodwillposter i år 2006 och 2012 års årsredovisningar, exklusive företag som tillhör branschen Healthcare. Resultatet från undersökningen påvisar en förbättring mellan de två undersökta åren för samtliga branscher. Det betyder att intressenter som vill läsa företagens finanisella rapporter har mer och bättre information om goodwill att tillgå.

  • 21.
    Aastangen, Kim
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Parsimony and Fragility of Hedonic Housing Price Indexes - Some Evidence from the Oslo Metropolitan Area1998Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 22.
    Abadir, Karim and Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Information Science. STATISTICS.
    The joint moment generating function of quadratic forms in multivariate autoregressive series- The case with deterministic components2001In: Econometric theory, Vol. 17, 222-246 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Abadir, Karim M.
    et al.
    Imperial College, London.
    Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Biases of correlograms and of AR representations of stationary series2012In: Journal of Time Series Econometrics, ISSN 1941-1928, E-ISSN 1941-1928, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We derive the relation between the biases of correlograms and of estimates of auto-regressive AR(k) representations of stationary series, and we illustrate it with a simple AR example. The new relation allows for k to vary with the sample size, which is a representation that can be used for most stationary processes. As a result, the biases of the estimators of such processes can now be quantified explicitly and in a unified way.

  • 24.
    Abbas, Jaser
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Varför höll man auktion? En undersökning av auktioner i Södermanlands län år 1860 - 18972012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25.
    Abbas, Jaser
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lilja, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Hur långt sträcker sig tilliten?: Kreditnätverk,handelsmän och ekonomiska konjunkturer i 1850-talets Malmö2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Ham'piyvastigī bih ibtikār-i khvīshtan : muṭāliʻih-ī pīrāmūn-i zanān-i muhājir-i ṣāḥib-i shirkat dar sūʾid2005In: Avaie Zaen, ISSN 0804-8134, no 54/55, 20-27 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Integration på egen hand: En studie av invandrade kvinnoföretagare i Sverige2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The principal aim of this thesis is to discover and analyse the motives that make immigrant women start their own businesses in Sweden and to investigate whether this is a way to achieve integration in working life. The empirical material consists of two types of interviews. One type consisted of interviews with five experts on labour market issues, and the other of interviews with 16 female entrepreneurs of Iranian, Chilean and Turkish origin having their own business in the Greater Stockholm region. Results from the first set of interviews indicate that female immigrants who independently start their enterprise rely mainly on their own resources of power and abilities. They are either women with class resources such as higher educations, previous work experience, language abilities and economic savings, or young women with certificates from high schools or universities. The social environment where they grew up, the gender structure and gender roles in the family before and after immigration and time of residence in Sweden also influence the extent to which women immigrants can act independently. According to the experience of the experts, the motives for starting their business are either different structural reasons, e.g. unemployment, lack of suitable or well-paying jobs, lay-offs etc, or personal reasons such as having a meaningful occupation, to support the family, to earn money of their own, to be independent from men and strive for a better standard of living etc.

    Results from the second set of interviews indicate that the most important resource these women have used when establishing their businesses is class resources such as education and adequate training, different types of work experiences, human capital and in addition to this economic savings. For many of the women in this sample different structural reasons, like unemployment, lack of good job opportunities, discrimination on work places, merge with personal reasons such as strivings to achieve independence, being one’s own boss, to realize one’s plans and ambitions, when starting their business. Independent entrepreneurship is a good way for immigrant women to be integrated in working life especially if they start within certain branches. These are branches in which the women have appropriate university education or vocational training, previous work experience or which correspond to their personal interests. In addition immigrant women become more integrated if an education received abroad is treated as equivalent to the parallel Swedish education or degree. A further factor promoting integration is if they can fully exploit their capacities when developing their own businesses. These conditions help them to feel much more satisfaction in working life as women identify themselves with their actual profession and feel that they have found the “right place” for themselves in the society.

  • 28.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Invandrarkvinnor och integration: Integration i arbetslivet genom egenföretagande. Är det möjligt för invandrade kvinnor?2005In: Kvinnor mot fundamentalism, no 25-26Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 29.
    Abdallah, Dalia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Consociationalism in Lebanon: A Case Study on the Functionality of the Consociational Political System in Lebanon2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research seeks to answer how a consociational political model works in practice in the case of Lebanon. Through an examination of Lebanon’s political system and its power-sharing formula, the case study identifies the four pillars of consociationalism, i.e. grand coalition, minority veto, proportional representation and segmental autonomy, and studies their functionality after the Ta’if Agreement was reached in 1989. Although the agreement ended the Lebanese civil war, it did not provide much in regards to the political system. The study concludes that the four pillars are extremely weak in Lebanon and that the consociational system rather reinforces differences in the Lebanese society instead of neutralizing them.

  • 30.
    Abdelzadeh, Ali
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för juridik, psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Zetterberg, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Ekman, Joakim
    Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Procedural fairness and political trust among young people: Evidence from a panel study on Swedish high school students2015In: Acta Politica, ISSN 0001-6810, E-ISSN 1741-1416, Vol. 50, no 3, 253-278 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of ‘fair’ institutions in developing democratic legitimacy has received increased attention. Citizens who perceive – on basis of past experiences – that they are being treated fairly by authorities have been held to have greater trust in political institutions. However, previous studies on the relationship between procedural fairness and political trust have not paid sufficient attention to individuals with limited first-hand experiences of authorities. We examine the relationship on an authority that virtually all individuals meet early in life: the school. Using structural equation modeling on unique panel data covering 1,500 Swedish adolescents (ages ranging from 13 to 17), we find a reciprocal relationship: personal encounters with school authorities shape young people’s political trust; however, the images that adolescents get of the political system (through family, peers, media, etc.) have also consequences on their perceptions about the authorities they encounter in their daily lives. The analysis increases our understanding of how individuals form their political allegiances by showing that the relationship between fairness and trust is more dynamic than has previously been suggested: neither an accumulated set of experiences of authorities nor formal ties with political institutions (as voters, etc.) are required for a relationship to emerge. 

  • 31.
    Abdi, Ikran
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Does equity volatility affect the corporate investment level?2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The paper studies the relation between valuation and corporate investment level. It provides an insight to the q-model and its implications for investment level. By acknowledge the q-model’s empirical shortcomings it questions whether adjustments for volatility will strengthen the q-model empirically. It argues: as volatility is a proxy for risk, stock market volatility would be related to firm behaviour and investment decisions.

  • 32.
    Abdlbari, Abdulbari
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Product registration in e-commerce for small and medium companies (SMEs): Usability aspects2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People these days are able to buy almost anything online. With a continuously increased E-commerce, small and medium sized companies (SMEs) feel obligated to enter the competitive E-commerce market. Moreover, for small companies with little or no experience in e-commerce it could become overwhelming to get a web-shop up and running. One important tasks in managing a web-shop is to register products into the system. This must be easy and efficient. The focus of this thesis is to answer the question "How can user-centered design principles improve productregistration, particularly in the SME context?". At the start of this study, surveys and interviews were conducted, which showed that product registration is very time consuming at the moment. User tests were conducted to measure the efficiency and the general usability of a system maintaining over 100 active web-shops. Based on the results of the first iteration of the user test conducted, design changes were proposed and implemented. A second iteration of the user test showed improved efficiency and substantially less errors. The most important new design elements were related to navigation, workflow and adjustment of input fields to the data sources. Thus it has been shown that the threshold for SME web-shops to go online can be lowered by a systematic application of user-centered design of the user interface.

  • 33.
    Abdo, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Gustavsson, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Controllerns funktion en studie av business controllerns arbetsuppgifter2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen visar att en business controller i större utsträckning arbetar med analys och omvärldsbevakning än tidigare, vilket kräver att de tar hänsyn till både intern och extern information. Samtidigt har de inte helt övergivit redovisningsrelaterade arbetsuppgifter eftersom att det är en viktig del av den ekonomiska verksamheten, som business controllern behöver en övergripande förståelse för. En aspekt som påverkar business controllerns arbetsuppgifter i stor utsträckning är personalansvar.

  • 34.
    Abdo, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Gustavsson, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Hur ser revisorn på sitt oberoende?: En caseundersökning utifrån analysmodellen2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En förutsättning för att revisorer ska kunna säkra tilltron till de granskande företagen är att de uppfattas som oberoende. En av anledningarna till att det är intressant att undersöka revisorns oberoende är att analysmodellen, som är ett verktyg för att säkra detta, lagstadgades för fyra år sedan, och vi förutsätter att den nu har förankrats bland revisorerna i Sverige. Frågor som tittas närmare på i undersökningen är om det är möjligt för en revisor att uppehålla sitt oberoende samtidigt som denne uppfyller kundernas krav, och hur revisorerna tolkar regleringen kring oberoende i sitt arbete. Undersökningen baseras på analysmodellens fem huvudsakliga oberoendehot. Studien genomförs genom att presentera ett case för godkända och auktoriserade revisorer, som efterföljs av en diskussion.

    Resultaten av undersökningen visar att revisorernas verklighet skiljer sig från befintliga regelverk i vissa hänseenden. I många situationer är en revisor mer överseende än vad lagens riktlinjer är. I slutändan är det upp till revisorn själv att avgöra vart gränserna går för revisorns oberoende, vilket kan ifrågasätta analysmodellens existens.

  • 35.
    Abdulrahim, Muhanad Adnan Abdulrahim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Investigating the requirements for an e-service that provide relevant online information for newly arrived immigrants in Sweden2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a huge need for information when you arrive as an immigrant in a new country. The purpose of the study is to find out recommendations for an information portal for newly arrived immigrants in Sweden.

    First, a survey was conducted to the webmasters of relevant authorities online resources regarding their ways of considering the needs of immigrant users. The answers showed that the webmasters of the official websites showed interest in considering the needs of immigrants in their websites by including pages in different languages, but most of them considered this to be difficult, expensive and problematic.

    To know more about a particular user group, a survey, interviews and observations have been done.

    A survey to newly arrived immigrants showed that their ICT skills are comparable to the average of Swedish citizens. In spite of differences within the immigrant group, like age, gender and cultural factors, they also shared common characteristics. Most of the immigrants trusted Swedish websites and Swedish authorities websites as reliable information resources more than websites in their mother-tongue.

    Test-persons were faced with the task of finding information about the possibility to borrow money for furniture for the first home in Sweden, our observations showed that very few of the test-persons managed to find their way to the correct authority webpage (Studiemedels-nämnden). Most test-persons tried by using many ways to search for the information, but all except two gave up. None of the test-persons managed to find the pages that were translated to their mother-tongue.

    The study points out the need for a systematical approach to web information for newly arrived immigrants to help them with their integration process and benefit from Swedish e-government services. A central multilingual portal website should be the heart of this program.

    This approach can be introduced in SFI schools given that all SFI schools are supplied with computers.

  • 36.
    Abdulreda, Alico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Giba, Gabriela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Generation Y: En studie om vad som motiverar yngre medarbetare2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Generation Y or Millennials are people born 1980-1999. They are raised with a more advanced technology like no other generation before them. The technology has affected the individuals from generation Y in a way which has led them to become impatience. Studies have shown that people in generation Y are very emotional compared to other generations before them. Individuals from generation Y are already entering the labour market. Studies have shown that if an organisation wants to have a bright future the employees are a very important access. A leader who knows how to motivate and lead his co-workers has a great asset which may have a positive impact on the organisation. The purpose of this study is to understand what motivates people who are included in generation Y and what kind of leadership suits them best. Most of the theoretical framework came from scientific articles with theories and models of motivation and leadership for generation Y. Semi-structured interviews were chosen for the research method to get right information. The result of the study showed that generation Y is mostly motivated by inner motivation and prefer a leader who can adapt to the many work situations that can occur in the organisations.

  • 37.
    Abedian, Emil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Mattsson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Revisionsplikt: Mikroföretagens inställning till revision och revisorer2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 38.
    Abedian, Emil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Pettersson, Helene
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    "REVISORN SKA INTE BEHÖVA VARA NÅGON STÅLMANNEN": En efterfrågestudie av revisorsproven2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Abens, Liene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hellström, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Barnavårdsutredningar av ensamkommande barn: En kvalitativ studie av socialsekreterares erfarenheter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Det utredningsverktyg som idag används vid barnavårdsutredningar är verktyget Barns behov i centrum (BBIC), ett verktyg som är anpassat till att stötta nätverk som finns i barnets närhet, vanligtvis familjen, som socialt system runt barnet. För ensamkommande barn däremot, lyser dessa sociala nätverk med sin frånvaro. Ensamkommande barn till Sverige är en idag ökande grupp av människor i samhället vilket har skapat ett behov av väl anpassade verktyg i utredningsarbetet för att identifiera, strukturera, och utreda insatser för dessa grupper, inom ramen för det sociala arbetet.

    Syfte: Studiens syfte är att undersöka socialsekreterares erfarenheter av det sociala utredningarbetet av ensamkommande barn till Sverige.

    Metod: För att uppnå studiens syfte har nio semi-strukturerade intervjuer med socialsekreterare i Mellansverige genomförts och analyserats med en hermeneutisk deduktiv tolkningsmetod.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar på svårigheter i det praktiska sociala arbetet kring ensamkommande barn enligt socialsekreterares erfarenheter. Svårigheter beskrevs som att (i) utredningsverktygen inte var anpassade till uppgiften, (ii) att det fanns bristande riktlinjer kring arbetets utförande, (iii) att det kunde finnas en misstro från barnens sida gentemot myndigheter, (iv) att utreda inom den lagstadgade tidsramen, samt (v) att det kunde finnas bristande resurser för arbetets genomförande. Socialsekreterarna hade även erfarenhet av stå ensamma i att finna lösningar på dessa brister. Erfarenheterna analyseras utifrån Bronfenbrenners utvecklingsekologiska modell.

    Slutsatser: Utformningen av BBIC-verktyget kan möjligtvis skapa svårigheter i socialsekreterares utredningsarbete av ensamkommande barn, då ensamkommande barn kan ha en annan utvecklingsekologi än vad BBIC förutsätter.

    Implikationer för det sociala arbetet: En anpassning av BBIC-verktyget efter de särskilda omständigheter och behov som gäller för ensamkommande barn i Sverige kan vara till fördel för framtida socialt arbete. Vidare forskning bör göras inom området utredningsarbetet av barn som lever i en utvecklingsekologi skild från den BBIC förutsätter. 

  • 40.
    Abonyi, Balazs
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Johansson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    "Die deutsche Welle""Den tyska vågen": En studie om nya trender i investeringsflöden från Tyskland till Sverige2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 41.
    Abonyi, Balazs
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Johansson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Let's get social on the way to the market: A study of German companies' internationalization proceses2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Germany and Sweden have been significant trade partners throughout history, which has even strengthened during the last decades. Many German firms have established their business in Sweden and vice versa. The Uppsala model has often been used to describe the way a company becomes international. However, in recent years there has been a demand for a new perspective that also takes the social aspect of internationalization into account. This paper focuses on these two approaches and tries to combine them. We have conducted a survey amongst German companies that are members in the Swedish-German Chamber of Commerce and also conducted an interview with the CEO of the Chamber Dipl.Ing. Klaus Bohler. We analyzed our answers and presented our conclusions, which suggests that a significant part of the firms questioned relied on their former social ties when they decided about entering the Swedish market. However, the mode of entry was not influenced remarkably. Furthermore, we concluded that the German counterparts were more active in seeking business opportunities; in more than 60 percent of the cases the initiative was taken by the German seller.

  • 42.
    Abou Ramadan, Ibrahim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Bergström, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Trenden inom den frivilliga miljöredovisningen: - En studie om hur företagens storlek och branschtillhörighet påverkar trenden2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har blivit allt vanligare att företagen redovisar om deras miljöpåverkan samt hur de Arbetar för att minska deras miljöpåverkan. Att företag frivilligt publicerar miljöredovisningar har skapat en diskussion bland forskare, som försöker att besvara frågor som varför företag frivilligt redovisar om deras miljöpåverkan samt hur olika företagsegenskaper påverkar miljöredovisningen. Denna undersökning syftar till att testa om legitimitetsteorin kan förklara sambandet mellan samhällets miljömedvetenhet och företagens miljöredovisning samt undersöka hur egenskaperna storlek och branschtillhörighet påverkar detta samband. Undersökningen bygger på miljöredovisningar hämtade från årsredovisningar och CSR redovisningar för 144 börsnoterade svenska företag från åren 2005 och 2011.  Antalet sidor och innehållet i miljöredovisningarna analyserades med hjälp av en innehållsanalys. Resultatet av denna undersökning tyder på att legitimitetsteorin kan förklara sambandet mellan samhällets miljömedvetenhet och företagens miljöredovisning, samt att företagens storlek och branschtillhörigheten tycks påverka sambandet. Företagens storlek och branschtillhörighet tycks påverka både antalet sidor och innehållet i miljöredovisningen.

  • 43.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Establishment Processes in an Underdeveloped Country: The Case of Swedish Firms in Kenya1994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The Establishment Processes of Swedish Firms in Kenya-Eight Cases.1989Report (Other scientific)
  • 45.
    Abraha, Nadab
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Government.
    Landlocked: En kvantitativ studie om landsbundenhetens effekter påafrikanska nationers välstånd2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka varför afrikanska landsbundna nationer är fattigareän afrikanska icke-landsbundna nationer. Adam Smith konstaterade redan 1776 i sinbok ”Nationernas välstånd” att en nations geografiska position har en betydelse för hur aktivman eventuellt kommer bli i den globala handeln. Sedan dess har forskning tagitlandsbundenhets negativa effekter alltför vedertaget. Studiens förklarande variabler är FDI,infrastruktur kvalité och export. Vidare inkluderas även kolonialhistoria, utbildning och skattsom kontrollvariabler. För att undersöka sambandet använder sig studien sig av multipelregressionsanalys genom OLS (ordinary least square) metod för att undersöka sambanden.Två av studiens hypoteser går i linje med resultat, att afrikanska landsbundna länder ärfattigare på grund av de har sämre infrastruktur och har lägre export men att effekten avlandsbundenhet kvarstod vid kontroll för FDI. Vid kontroll för nationer med liknandeinfrastruktur kvalité oavsett landsbundenhet – visar resultaten att infrastruktur kvalitén kankompensera de geografiska hindren.

  • 46.
    Abrahamson, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Iggesunds bruks inköp av bondehemman i Bjuråkers socken: En undersökning av hur köpen påverkade socknen samt vilka som sålde hemmanen1976Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
  • 47.
    Abrahamson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Birds of a Feather Flock Together: First Time Investors and IPOs2015In: Proceedings of 10th Annual London Business Research Conference / [ed] Md. Mahbubul Hoque Bhuiyan, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Initial public offerings (IPOs) are firms entering the stock market, through offering shares to be publicly traded in the stock market for the first time. Similarly, first time stock investors (rookies) enter the stock market through buying shares. Investment decisions have been interesting to study both for academics and practitioners for decades. In this paper knowledge on IPOs and investment decisions of rookies are brought together. Moreover, rookies who chose to invest in initial public offerings (IPOs) as their entry to the stock market. The study is based on a hand-collected dataset of IPOs and of an ownership registry of all Swedish shareholders. The study shows that IPOs can serve as a first time investment for rookies, however, preferred together with other shares. Rookies investing in IPOs hold larger portfolios and have larger income than other rookies. IPOs attract rookies to larger extent than non-rookies. Thereby, through IPOs the stock market receives not only new firms but also new investors.

  • 48.
    Abrahamson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Rookies Attracting Rookies2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies initial public offerings (IPOs) and the individual shareholders of IPO firms, with a focus on IPO investment decisions of individual investors (rookies) entering the stock market. The study, which uses a hand-collected dataset of IPOs and an ultimate ownership registry of all Swedish shareholders, analyzes the IPO investment decisions of rookies. This paper aims to analyze IPO investor characteristics but mainly focuses on the importance of IPOs in attracting stock market rookies. The results show that rookies investing in IPOs hold larger portfolios and have higher income than other rookies, indicating sophistication among IPO rookies compared with other rookies. Moreover, the proportion of IPO investors among rookies is compared to that of non-rookies, showing that IPOs attract rookies to a larger extent than non-rookies. IPOs therefore seem to play a previously overlooked role of attracting rookies to the stock market.

  • 49.
    Abrahamson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Rookies to the Stock Market2015In: Eastern Finance Association 2015 Program April 8-11, New Orleans / [ed] Professor Daniel Bradley, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “Rookies tothe Stock Market”Martin Abrahamson*Working paper, please do not quote or publish, without permission from the author [Version,March2015]

    This study focuses on individual investors entering the stock market “rookies”. A unique data set reflecting all individual investor holdings in Swedish stocks over the sample period 2004 to 2010 is used to examine portfolio preferences.Although the average shareholder is aging,the study shows signs of rejuvenation, since rookies are attracted to the stock market. The results show that the majority of the rookies choose one well-known company for their first stock market investment.The rookie characteristics show gender differences, where female rookies have lower income, are older but hold larger portfolios than their male equivalent.

  • 50.
    Abrahamson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Rookies to the Stock Market: A Portrait of New Shareholders2016In: Research In International Business and Finance, ISSN 0275-5319, E-ISSN 1878-3384, Vol. 38, no 3, 565-576 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines individuals entering the stock market, “rookies.” The study uses unique ownership data, containing investor holdings of all listed Swedish firms over the sample period from 2004 to 2010, to examine rookies’ stock portfolios. In addition, this study explores investor sophistication among rookies, based on individual characteristics and portfolio composition. Although the average shareholder is aging and leaving the stock market, this study shows there are signs of rejuvenation, with rookies entering the stock market. The results show that the majority of rookies hold under-diversified stock portfolios and choose one large firm as their first stock market investment. Rookie characteristics display gender differences, in which the average female rookie has lower income, is older, but holds a larger stock portfolio than her male counterpart.

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