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  • 1.
    Adamsson, Viola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    A Healthy Nordic Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: Intervention Studies with Special Emphasis on Plasma Lipoproteins2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A healthy diet is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several risk factors, modifiable by diet, are involved in the development of CVD, e.g. hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, obesity and hypertension. Little data however exist on diets composed of foods originating from the Nordic countries, and their potential to reduce CVD risk.

    This thesis aimed to investigate whether an ad libitum healthy Nordic diet (ND), either provided as a whole diet, or as a prudent breakfast (PB) alone, could influence CVD risk factors in healthy, mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women. Another aim was to describe the nutrient and food composition of the ND, both by using self-reported data and serum biomarkers of dietary fat quality.

    The primary clinical outcome measure was LDL-cholesterol, and other cardiometabolic risk factors were secondary outcomes.

    Two parallel, randomised, controlled intervention studies were conducted in free-living subjects. Clinical and dietary assessments were performed at baseline and at the end of dietary interventions. All foods were provided to subjects randomised to ND, whereas only breakfast items were supplied to subjects randomised to PB. Control groups followed their habitual diet/breakfast.

    Compared with controls, ND reduced body weight and improved several CVD risk factors including LDL-cholesterol, insulin sensitivity and blood pressure. Several, but not all effects were probably partly mediated by diet-induced weight loss. ND accorded with Nordic nutrition recommendations and was defined as “a plant-based diet, where animal products are used sparingly as side dishes”. Compared with average Swedish diet, ND was high in dietary fibre, but low in sodium, meat, high-fat dairy products, sweets and alcohol. A decreased intake of saturated fat and increased intake of n-3 PUFA during ND was partly reflected in serum lipids. Eating a PB without other dietary changes did not improve lipid or glucose metabolism, but decreased markers of visceral fat and inflammation, without influencing body weight.

    This thesis suggests that a whole ND, but not PB alone, promotes weight loss and improves multiple CVD risk factors in healthy subjects after 6 weeks. These results suggest that ND could have a potential role in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.

    List of papers
    1. Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolaemic subjects: a randomized controlled trial (NORDIET)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolaemic subjects: a randomized controlled trial (NORDIET)
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 269, no 2, p. 150-159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a healthy Nordic diet (ND) on cardiovascular risk factors. Design and subjects. In a randomized controlled trial (NORDIET) conducted in Sweden, 88 mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects were randomly assigned to an ad libitum ND or control diet (subjects' usual Western diet) for 6 weeks. Participants in the ND group were provided with all meals and foods. Primary outcome measurements were low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and secondary outcomes were blood pressure (BP) and insulin sensitivity (fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). The ND was rich in high-fibre plant foods, fruits, berries, vegetables, whole grains, rapeseed oil, nuts, fish and low-fat milk products, but low in salt, added sugars and saturated fats. Results. The ND contained 27%, 52%, 19% and 2% of energy from fat, carbohydrate, protein and alcohol, respectively. In total, 86 of 88 subjects randomly assigned to diet completed the study. Compared with controls, there was a decrease in plasma cholesterol (-16%, P < 0.001), LDL cholesterol (-21%, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (-5%, P < 0.01), LDL/HDL (-14%, P < 0.01) and apolipoprotein (apo)B/apoA1 (-1%, P < 0.05) in the ND group. The ND reduced insulin (-9%, P = 0.01) and systolic BP by -6.6 +/- 13.2 mmHg (-5%, P < 0.05) compared with the control diet. Despite the ad libitum nature of the ND, body weight decreased after 6 weeks in the ND compared with the control group (-4%, P < 0.001). After adjustment for weight change, the significant differences between groups remained for blood lipids, but not for insulin sensitivity or BP. There were no significant differences in diastolic BP or triglyceride or glucose concentrations. Conclusions. A healthy ND improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure at clinically relevant levels in hypercholesterolaemic subjects.

    Keywords
    cardiovascular risk factors, cholesterol, diet, Nordic foods, nutrition
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-146074 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02290.x (DOI)000286110100004 ()20964740 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2011-02-15 Created: 2011-02-15 Last updated: 2022-01-28Bibliographically approved
    2. What is a healthy Nordic diet?: Foods and nutrients in the NORDIET study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is a healthy Nordic diet?: Foods and nutrients in the NORDIET study
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 56, p. 18189-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A healthy Nordic diet (ND), a diet based on foods originating from the Nordic countries, improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure and body weight in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Objective: To describe and compare food and nutrient composition of the ND in relation to the intake of a Swedish reference population (SRP) and the recommended intake (RI) and average requirement (AR), as described by the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR). Design: The analyses were based on an estimate of actual food and nutrient intake of 44 men and women (mean age 53 +/- 8 years, BMI 26 +/- 3), representing an intervention arm receiving ND for 6 weeks. Results: The main difference between ND and SRP was the higher intake of plant foods, fish, egg and vegetable fat and a lower intake of meat products, dairy products, sweets and desserts and alcoholic beverages during ND (p<0.001 for all food groups). Intake of cereals and seeds was similar between ND and SRP (p>0.3). The relative intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates during ND was in accordance with RI. Intake of all vitamins and minerals was above AR, whereas sodium intake was below RI. Conclusions: When compared with the food intake of an SRP, ND is primarily a plant-based diet. ND represents a balanced food intake that meets the current RI and AR of NNR 2004 and has a dietary pattern that is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality.

    Keywords
    Nordic foods, nutrient intake, food intake, Swedish reference population, Nordic nutrition recommendations
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-200134 (URN)10.3402/fnr.v56i0.18189 (DOI)000317128500001 ()
    Available from: 2013-05-21 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2018-02-22Bibliographically approved
    3. Influence of a healthy Nordic diet on serum fatty acid composition and associations with blood lipoproteins: results from the NORDIET study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of a healthy Nordic diet on serum fatty acid composition and associations with blood lipoproteins: results from the NORDIET study
    2014 (English)In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 58, p. 24114-Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The fatty acid (FA) composition of serum lipids is related to the quality of dietary fat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a healthy Nordic diet (ND) on the FA composition of serum cholesterol esters (CE-FA) and assess the associations between changes in the serum CE-FA composition and blood lipoproteins during a controlled dietary intervention.

    Methods: The NORDIET trial was a six-week randomised, controlled, parallel-group dietary intervention study that included 86 adults (53±8 years) with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C. Serum CE-FA composition was measured using gas chromatography. Diet history interviews were conducted, and daily intake was assessed using checklists.

    Results: Food and nutrient intake data indicated that there was a reduction in the fat intake from dairy and meat products and an increase in the consumption of fatty fish with the ND, decreasing the levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the diet, slightly decreasing the levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and moderately increasing the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Concomitantly, the levels of CE-SFA 14:0, 15:0 and 18:0, but not 16:0, decreased during the ND, and these changes differed from those observed in the control diet group (p<0.01). In contrast, serum 22:6n-3 increased during the ND compared with the control diet (p<0.01). The changes in CE-SFA 14:0, 15:0 and 18:0 during the intervention correlated positively with those in LDL-C, HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (p<0.01), whereas the changes in CE-PUFA 22:6n-3 were negatively correlated with changes in the corresponding serum lipids.

    Conclusions: The decreased intake of saturated fat and increased intake of n-3 PUFA in a healthy Nordic diet are partly reflected by changes in the serum CE-FA composition, which are associated with an improved serum lipoprotein pattern.

    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-211868 (URN)10.3402/fnr.v58.24114 (DOI)000345968000001 ()25476792 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2013-12-02 Created: 2013-12-02 Last updated: 2018-02-22Bibliographically approved
    4. Role of a prudent breakfast in improving cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Role of a prudent breakfast in improving cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trial
    (English)Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    Background & Aims: It is unclear whether advising a prudent breakfast alone is sufficient to improve blood lipids and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Methods: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a prudent low-fat breakfast (PB) rich in dietary fiber lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with elevated LDL-cholesterol levels. In a parallel, controlled, 12-week study, 79 healthy overweight subjects (all regular breakfast eaters) were randomly allocated to a group that received a PB based on Nordic foods provided ad libitum or a control group that consumed their usual breakfast. The PB was in accordance with national and Nordic nutrition recommendations and included oat bran porridge with low-fat milk or yogurt, bilberry or lingonberry jam, whole grain bread, low-fat spread, poultry or fatty fish, and fruit.

    Results: No differences were found in LDL-C, blood lipids, body weight, or glucose metabolism, but SAD, plasma CRP, and TNF-R2 were lower during PB compared with controls (p<0.05). In the overall diet, PB increased dietary fiber and b-glucan compared with controls (p<0.05).

    Conclusions: Advising a prudent breakfast for 3 months did not influence blood lipids, body weight, or glucose metabolism but reduced markers of visceral fat and inflammation.

     

    Keywords
    Prudent breakfast, LDL-cholesterol, cardiometabolic risk factors, Nordic diet, inflammation, visceral fat
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Research subject
    Nutrition
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-211870 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-12-02 Created: 2013-12-02 Last updated: 2014-01-24Bibliographically approved
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  • 2.
    Adamsson, Viola
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Influence of a healthy Nordic diet on serum fatty acid composition and associations with blood lipoproteins: results from the NORDIET study2014In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 58, p. 24114-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The fatty acid (FA) composition of serum lipids is related to the quality of dietary fat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a healthy Nordic diet (ND) on the FA composition of serum cholesterol esters (CE-FA) and assess the associations between changes in the serum CE-FA composition and blood lipoproteins during a controlled dietary intervention.

    Methods: The NORDIET trial was a six-week randomised, controlled, parallel-group dietary intervention study that included 86 adults (53±8 years) with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C. Serum CE-FA composition was measured using gas chromatography. Diet history interviews were conducted, and daily intake was assessed using checklists.

    Results: Food and nutrient intake data indicated that there was a reduction in the fat intake from dairy and meat products and an increase in the consumption of fatty fish with the ND, decreasing the levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the diet, slightly decreasing the levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and moderately increasing the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Concomitantly, the levels of CE-SFA 14:0, 15:0 and 18:0, but not 16:0, decreased during the ND, and these changes differed from those observed in the control diet group (p<0.01). In contrast, serum 22:6n-3 increased during the ND compared with the control diet (p<0.01). The changes in CE-SFA 14:0, 15:0 and 18:0 during the intervention correlated positively with those in LDL-C, HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (p<0.01), whereas the changes in CE-PUFA 22:6n-3 were negatively correlated with changes in the corresponding serum lipids.

    Conclusions: The decreased intake of saturated fat and increased intake of n-3 PUFA in a healthy Nordic diet are partly reflected by changes in the serum CE-FA composition, which are associated with an improved serum lipoprotein pattern.

    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 3.
    Adamsson, Viola
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Reumark, A.
    Fredriksson, I. -B
    Hammarström, E.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Johansson, G.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Effects of a healthy Nordic diet on cardiovascular risk factors in hypercholesterolaemic subjects: a randomized controlled trial (NORDIET)2011In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 269, no 2, p. 150-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a healthy Nordic diet (ND) on cardiovascular risk factors. Design and subjects. In a randomized controlled trial (NORDIET) conducted in Sweden, 88 mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects were randomly assigned to an ad libitum ND or control diet (subjects' usual Western diet) for 6 weeks. Participants in the ND group were provided with all meals and foods. Primary outcome measurements were low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and secondary outcomes were blood pressure (BP) and insulin sensitivity (fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance). The ND was rich in high-fibre plant foods, fruits, berries, vegetables, whole grains, rapeseed oil, nuts, fish and low-fat milk products, but low in salt, added sugars and saturated fats. Results. The ND contained 27%, 52%, 19% and 2% of energy from fat, carbohydrate, protein and alcohol, respectively. In total, 86 of 88 subjects randomly assigned to diet completed the study. Compared with controls, there was a decrease in plasma cholesterol (-16%, P < 0.001), LDL cholesterol (-21%, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (-5%, P < 0.01), LDL/HDL (-14%, P < 0.01) and apolipoprotein (apo)B/apoA1 (-1%, P < 0.05) in the ND group. The ND reduced insulin (-9%, P = 0.01) and systolic BP by -6.6 +/- 13.2 mmHg (-5%, P < 0.05) compared with the control diet. Despite the ad libitum nature of the ND, body weight decreased after 6 weeks in the ND compared with the control group (-4%, P < 0.001). After adjustment for weight change, the significant differences between groups remained for blood lipids, but not for insulin sensitivity or BP. There were no significant differences in diastolic BP or triglyceride or glucose concentrations. Conclusions. A healthy ND improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure at clinically relevant levels in hypercholesterolaemic subjects.

  • 4.
    Adamsson, Viola
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Reumark, Anna
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    What is a healthy Nordic diet?: Foods and nutrients in the NORDIET study2012In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 56, p. 18189-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A healthy Nordic diet (ND), a diet based on foods originating from the Nordic countries, improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure and body weight in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Objective: To describe and compare food and nutrient composition of the ND in relation to the intake of a Swedish reference population (SRP) and the recommended intake (RI) and average requirement (AR), as described by the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR). Design: The analyses were based on an estimate of actual food and nutrient intake of 44 men and women (mean age 53 +/- 8 years, BMI 26 +/- 3), representing an intervention arm receiving ND for 6 weeks. Results: The main difference between ND and SRP was the higher intake of plant foods, fish, egg and vegetable fat and a lower intake of meat products, dairy products, sweets and desserts and alcoholic beverages during ND (p<0.001 for all food groups). Intake of cereals and seeds was similar between ND and SRP (p>0.3). The relative intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates during ND was in accordance with RI. Intake of all vitamins and minerals was above AR, whereas sodium intake was below RI. Conclusions: When compared with the food intake of an SRP, ND is primarily a plant-based diet. ND represents a balanced food intake that meets the current RI and AR of NNR 2004 and has a dietary pattern that is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality.

  • 5.
    Adamsson, Viola
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Reumark, Anna
    Lantmännen.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Role of a prudent breakfast in improving cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trialArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & Aims: It is unclear whether advising a prudent breakfast alone is sufficient to improve blood lipids and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Methods: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a prudent low-fat breakfast (PB) rich in dietary fiber lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with elevated LDL-cholesterol levels. In a parallel, controlled, 12-week study, 79 healthy overweight subjects (all regular breakfast eaters) were randomly allocated to a group that received a PB based on Nordic foods provided ad libitum or a control group that consumed their usual breakfast. The PB was in accordance with national and Nordic nutrition recommendations and included oat bran porridge with low-fat milk or yogurt, bilberry or lingonberry jam, whole grain bread, low-fat spread, poultry or fatty fish, and fruit.

    Results: No differences were found in LDL-C, blood lipids, body weight, or glucose metabolism, but SAD, plasma CRP, and TNF-R2 were lower during PB compared with controls (p<0.05). In the overall diet, PB increased dietary fiber and b-glucan compared with controls (p<0.05).

    Conclusions: Advising a prudent breakfast for 3 months did not influence blood lipids, body weight, or glucose metabolism but reduced markers of visceral fat and inflammation.

     

  • 6.
    Adamsson, Viola
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Reumark, Anna
    Marklund, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Role of a prudent breakfast in improving cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with hypercholesterolemia: A randomized controlled trial2015In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 20-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS:

    It is unclear whether advising a prudent breakfast alone is sufficient to improve blood lipids and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight hypercholesterolemic subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a prudent low-fat breakfast (PB) rich in dietary fiber lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with elevated LDL-cholesterol levels.

    METHODS:

    In a parallel, controlled, 12-week study, 79 healthy overweight subjects (all regular breakfast eaters) were randomly allocated to a group that received a PB based on Nordic foods provided ad libitum or a control group that consumed their usual breakfast. The primary outcome was plasma LDL-C. Secondary outcomes were other blood lipids, body weight, sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and inflammation markers (C-reactive protein [CRP] and tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 [TNF-R2]), and blood pressure. The PB was in accordance with national and Nordic nutrition recommendations and included oat bran porridge with low-fat milk or yogurt, bilberry or lingonberry jam, whole grain bread, low-fat spread, poultry or fatty fish, and fruit.

    RESULTS:

    No differences were found in LDL-C, other blood lipids, body weight, or glucose metabolism, but SAD, plasma CRP, and TNF-R2 decreased more during PB compared with controls (p < 0.05). In the overall diet, PB increased dietary fiber and β-glucan compared with controls (p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Advising a prudent breakfast for 3 months did not influence blood lipids, body weight, or glucose metabolism but reduced markers of visceral fat and inflammation. The trial was registered in the Current Controlled Trials database (http://www.controlled-trials.com); International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 84550872.

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    fulltext
  • 7.
    Ahmad, Shafqat
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hammar, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Kennedy, Beatrice
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ganna, Andrea
    Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Epidemiology.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Epidemiology. The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney, Australia.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Division of and Primary Care, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet; School of Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University.
    Berne, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Magnusson, Patrik KE
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet.
    Larsson, Susanna C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Medical epidemiology. Unit of Cardiovascular and Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fall, Tove
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology.
    Effect of General Adiposity and Central Body Fat Distribution on the Circulating Metabolome: A Multi-Cohort Nontargeted Metabolomics Observational and Mendelian Randomization Study2022In: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 329-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is associated with adverse health outcomes, but the metabolic effects have not yet been fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the association between adiposity with circulating metabolites and to address causality with Mendelian randomization (MR). Metabolomics data was generated by non-targeted ultra-performance liquid-chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass-spectrometry in plasma and serum from three population-based Swedish cohorts: ULSAM (N=1,135), PIVUS (N=970), and TwinGene (N=2,059). We assessed associations between general adiposity measured as body mass index (BMI) and central body fat distribution measured as waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI) with 210 annotated metabolites. We employed MR analysis to assess causal effects. Lastly, we attempted to replicate the MR findings in the KORA and TwinsUK cohorts (N=7,373), the CHARGE consortium (N=8,631), the Framingham Heart Study (N=2,076) and the DIRECT consortium (N=3,029). BMI was associated with 77 metabolites, while WHRadjBMI was associated with 11 and 3 metabolites in women and men, respectively. The MR analyses in the Swedish cohorts suggested a causal association (p-value <0.05) of increased general adiposity and reduced levels of arachidonic acid, dodecanedioic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine (P-16:0) as well as with increased creatine levels. The replication effort provided support for a causal association of adiposity on reduced levels of arachidonic acid (p-value 0.03). Adiposity is associated with variation of large parts of the circulating metabolome, however causality needs further investigation in well-powered cohorts.

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  • 8. Ajenikoko, Adefunke
    et al.
    Ide, Nicole
    Shivashankar, Roopa
    Ge, Zeng
    Marklund, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Anderson, Cheryl
    Atun, Amy
    Thomson, Alexander
    Henry, Megan E
    Cobb, Laura K
    Core Strategies to Increase the Uptake and Use of Potassium-Enriched Low-Sodium Salt.2021In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 3203-, article id 3203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excess sodium consumption and insufficient potassium intake contribute to high blood pressure and thus increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. In low-sodium salt, a portion of the sodium in salt (the amount varies, typically ranging from 10 to 50%) is replaced with minerals such as potassium chloride. Low-sodium salt may be an effective, scalable, and sustainable approach to reduce sodium and therefore reduce blood pressure and cardiovascular disease at the population level. Low-sodium salt programs have not been widely scaled up, although they have the potential to both reduce dietary sodium intake and increase dietary potassium intake. This article proposes a framework for a successful scale-up of low-sodium salt use in the home through four core strategies: availability, awareness and promotion, affordability, and advocacy. This framework identifies challenges and potential solutions within the core strategies to begin to understand the pathway to successful program implementation and evaluation of low-sodium salt use.

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  • 9. Al-Ani, Amer
    et al.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Säff, Maria
    Neander, Gustaf
    Blomfeldt, Richard
    Ekström, Wilhelmina
    Hedström, Margareta
    Low bone mineral density and fat free mass in young and middle-aged patients with a femoral neck fracture2015In: European Journal of Clinical Investigation, ISSN 0014-2972, E-ISSN 1365-2362, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 800-806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) together with muscle wasting and dysfunction, that is sarcopenia, emerges as a risk factor for hip fracture. The aim of this study was to examine body composition and BMD and their relationship with trauma mechanisms in young and middle-aged patients with femoral neck fracture.

    Materials and methods

    Altogether, 185 patients with femoral neck fracture aged 20–69 were included. BMD, body composition and fat-free mass index (FFMI) were determined by dual-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and trauma mechanisms were registered.

    Results

    Ninety per cent of the whole study population had a femoral neck BMD below the mean for age. In the young patients (< 50 years), 27% had a Z-score of BMD ≤ −2 SD. More than half of the middle-aged patients (50–69 years) had osteopenia, that is T-score −1 to −2·5, and 35% had osteoporosis, that is T-score < −2·5, at the femoral neck. Patients with low-energy trauma, sport injury or high-energy trauma had a median standardised BMD of 0·702, 0·740 vs. 0·803 g/cm2 (= 0·03), and a median FFMI of 15·9, 17·7 vs. 17·5 kg/m2 (< 0·001), respectively. FFMI < 10th percentile of an age- and gender-matched reference population was observed in one-third.

    Conclusions

    A majority had low BMD at the femoral neck, and one-third had reduced FFMI (i.e. sarcopenia). Patients with fracture following low-energy trauma had significantly lower femoral neck BMD and FFMI than patients with other trauma mechanisms. DXA examination of both BMD and body composition could be of value especially in those with low-energy trauma.

  • 10. Al-Ani, Amer N.
    et al.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Saaf, Maria
    Neander, Gustaf
    Blomfeldt, Richard
    Ekstrom, Wilhelmina
    Hedstrom, Margareta
    Low bone mineral density and fat-free mass in younger patients with a femoral neck fracture2015In: European Journal of Clinical Investigation, ISSN 0014-2972, E-ISSN 1365-2362, Vol. 45, no 8, p. 800-806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) together with muscle wasting and dysfunction, that is sarcopenia, emerges as a risk factor for hip fracture. The aim of this study was to examine body composition and BMD and their relationship with trauma mechanisms in young and middle-aged patients with femoral neck fracture. Materials and methods Altogether, 185 patients with femoral neck fracture aged 20-69 were included. BMD, body composition and fat-free mass index (FFMI) were determined by dual-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and trauma mechanisms were registered. Results Ninety per cent of the whole study population had a femoral neck BMD below the mean for age. In the young patients (<50years), 27% had a Z-score of BMD-2 SD. More than half of the middle-aged patients (50-69years) had osteopenia, that is T-score -1 to -25, and 35% had osteoporosis, that is T-score<-25, at the femoral neck. Patients with low-energy trauma, sport injury or high-energy trauma had a median standardised BMD of 0702, 0740 vs. 0803g/cm(2) (P=003), and a median FFMI of 159, 177 vs. 175kg/m(2) (P<0001), respectively. FFMI<10th percentile of an age- and gender-matched reference population was observed in one-third. Conclusions A majority had low BMD at the femoral neck, and one-third had reduced FFMI (i.e. sarcopenia). Patients with fracture following low-energy trauma had significantly lower femoral neck BMD and FFMI than patients with other trauma mechanisms. DXA examination of both BMD and body composition could be of value especially in those with low-energy trauma.

  • 11. Al-Ani, Amer N.
    et al.
    Flodin, Lena
    Söderqvist, Anita
    Ackermann, Paul
    Samnegård, Eva
    Dalén, Nils
    Sääf, Maria
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Hedström, Margareta
    Does Rehabilitation Matter in Patients With Femoral Neck Fracture and Cognitive Impairment?: A Prospective Study of 246 Patients2010In: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0003-9993, E-ISSN 1532-821X, Vol. 91, no 1, p. 51-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To identify factors associated with preserved walking ability and Katz activities of daily living (ADLs) index at 4-month and 12-month follow-up in cognitively impaired patients with femoral neck fracture. Design: Population-based cohort study. Setting: A multicenter study of the Stockholm Hip Fracture Group including 4 university hospitals. Participants: Consecutive patients (N=246) with femoral neck fracture, older than 65 years (mean, 84y; 72% women) with cognitive impairment (known dementia or low [0-2 points] score) in Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire [0-10 points]) and able to walk before the fracture. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Walking ability and ADLs index at 4-month and 12-month follow-up. Results: Significant predictors of preserved walking ability at 12-month follow-up were discharge to rehabilitation unit (odds ratio [OR]=2.83: confidence interval [CI], 1.1-7.26; P=.03) and walking ability before the fracture (OR=8.98; Cl, 3.52-22.93; P<.001), while type of surgery was not (P=.197). Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, fracture type, and surgical method. Corresponding predictors of preserved Katz ADLs index at 12-month follow-up, after adjustment for age and sex, were discharge to rehabilitation unit (OR=5.33; Cl, 1.44-19.65: P=.012) and ADLs index before fracture (OR=2.5; Cl. 1.8-3.5: P<.001), while type of surgery was not (P=.376). Conclusions: Discharge to rehabilitation unit, a factor we can influence, was associated with preserved walking ability and ADLs index in cognitively impaired patients with hip fracture.

  • 12.
    Aldenbäck, Erica
    et al.
    Falun Cent Hosp, Dept Surg, Bariatr Clin, Falun, Sweden..
    Johansson, Hans-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Falun Cent Hosp, Dept Surg, Bariatr Clin, Falun, Sweden..
    Anthropometric Measurements and Correlations to Glucometabolic and Cardiovascular Risk in Obese Patients Undergoing Gastric Bypass Surgery2021In: Journal of Obesity, ISSN 2090-0708, E-ISSN 2090-0716, Vol. 2021, article id 6647328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abdominal obesity is associated with hypertension, increased fasting glucose, HbA1c, and cholesterol. Body mass index (BMI) is frequently used to measure and define obesity and as inclusion criteria for bariatric surgery. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) has been suggested to predict the amount of visceral fat, metabolic traits, and cardiometabolic risk superior to BMI. The aim was to test whether SAD has stronger correlations to glucometabolic traits compared to BMI. One hundred and fifty-five (108 women, 47 men) morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery were evaluated before (baseline), 6 and 12 months after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP). BMI was reduced from 43.7 kg/m2 (baseline) to 31.3 kg/m2 (12 months) and SAD from 32.6 to 23.2 cm (both p < 0.001). SAD correlated with CRP (p=0.04), fasting glucose (p=0.008), HbA1c (p=0.016), triglycerides (p=0.017), systolic blood pressure (p=0.032), and vitamin D (p=0.027). BMI correlated with CRP (p=0.006), triglycerides (p=0.016), vitamin D (p=0.002), and magnesium (p=0.037). Despite RYGBP surgery, vitamin D was significantly increased. Liver enzymes were significantly lowered after RYGBP and the change over time in SAD correlated with gamma-glutamyltransferase. SAD was superior to BMI to predict glucose disturbance and dyslipidemia implying increased use of SAD as it is cost effective and simple to perform in the clinic and could be of value when considering patients for bariatric surgery.

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  • 13.
    Alehagen, Urban
    et al.
    Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden..
    Aaseth, Jan
    Research Department, Innlandet Hospital Trust, N-2381 Brumunddal, Norway..
    Lindahl, Tomas L
    Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden..
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Alexander, Jan
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, N-0403 Oslo, Norway..
    Dietary supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 prevents increase in plasma D-dimer while lowering cardiovascular mortality in an elderly Swedish population.2022In: Nutrition, Exercise, and End-of-LifeDiscussion in the Cardiovascular Field / [ed] Fukumoto Y, Basel: MDPI, 2022, p. 43-56Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A low intake of selenium is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. This could be reduced by supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10. D-dimer, a fragment of fibrin mirroring fibrinolysis, is a biomarker of thromboembolism, increased inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and is associated with cardiovascular mortality in ischemic heart disease. The objective was to examine the impact of selenium and coenzyme Q10 on the level of D-dimer, and its relationship to cardiovascular mortality. D-dimer was measured in 213 individuals at the start and after 48 months of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial with selenium yeast (200 µg/day) and coenzyme Q10 (200 mg/day) (n = 106) or placebo (n = 107). The follow-up time was 4.9 years. All included individuals were low in selenium (mean 67 μg/L, SD 16.8). The differences in D-dimer concentration were evaluated by the use of T-tests, repeated measures of variance and ANCOVA analyses. At the end, a significantly lower D-dimer concentration was observed in the active treatment group in comparison with those on placebo (p = 0.006). Although D-dimer values at baseline were weakly associated with high-sensitive CRP, while being more strongly associated with soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 and sP-selectin, controlling for these in the analysis there was an independent effect on D-dimer. In participants with a D-dimer level above median at baseline, the supplementation resulted in significantly lower cardiovascular mortality compared to those on placebo (p = 0.014). All results were validated with a persisting significant difference between the two groups. Therefore, supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 in a group of elderly low in selenium and coenzyme Q10 prevented an increase in D-dimer and reduced the risk of cardiovascular mortality in comparison with the placebo group. The obtained results also illustrate important associations between inflammation, endothelial function and cardiovascular risk.

  • 14.
    Alsharari, Zayed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Leander, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Carlsson, Axel
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    de Faire, Ulf
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Cardiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hellenius, Mai-Lis
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Cardiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Marklund, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Association between carbohydrate intake and fatty acids in the de novo lipogenic pathway in serum phospholipids and adipose tissue in a population of Swedish men2020In: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 2089-2097Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Fatty acid composition in blood and adipose tissue (AT) is a useful biomarker of dietary fat quality. However, circulating saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) have been proposed to also reflect carbohydrate-induced de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity. We aimed to test the hypothesis that high carbohydrate intake is related to SFA and MUFA in serum or AT in a Swedish population. Methods Fatty acid composition was measured in serum phospholipids (PL) and AT by gas chromatography in 63-year-old men (n = 299). Carbohydrate and alcohol intake was assessed (validated 7-day food records) in relation to total SFA, 16:0 (palmitate), 16:1 (palmitoleate), and estimated SCD activity (16:1n-7/16:0-ratio) in serum PL and in AT, respectively. Results Total carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with 16:0 in PL (P = 0.005), independently of BMI. Disaccharides were non-linearly (restricted cubic splines) and weakly associated with 16:1 and SCD activity in PL (nonlinear trend,P <= 0.02) but not AT. Carbohydrate intake and SCD expression were not associated (P >= 0.08,n = 81). Alcohol intake was, however, linearly associated with 16:0 in PL (P < 0.001), and with 16:1 (P < 0.001) and SCD activity (P <= 0.005) in both PL and AT. Conclusions Higher carbohydrate intake from sugar-rich foods or beverages was not clearly reflected by higher SFA or SCD activity in serum PL or AT. Alcohol was, however, associated with higher SFA and MUFA.

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  • 15.
    Alsharari, Zayed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Marklund, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Hellenius, Mai-Lis
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Laguzzi, Federica
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gigante, Bruna
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Leander, Karen
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    de Faire, Ulf
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Serum Biomarkers of Dietary Fatty Acids are Associated with Abdominal Obesity Measures in a Large Population-based Cohort of Men and Women2015In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 29, no 1 SupplementArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Alsharari, Zayed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Leander, Karin
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Family Med, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Vikstrom, Max
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Laguzzi, Federica
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gigante, Bruna
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Danderyds Hosp, Div Cardiovasc Med, Dept Clin Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    De Faire, Ulf
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Cardiovasc Epidemiol, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Cardiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hellenius, Mai-Lis
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Med, Cardiol Unit, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Marklund, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Serum Fatty Acids, Desaturase Activities and Abdominal Obesity - A Population-Based Study of 60-Year Old Men and Women2017In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 1, article id e0170684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abdominal obesity is a key contributor of metabolic disease. Recent trials suggest that dietary fat quality affects abdominal fat content, where palmitic acid and linoleic acid influence abdominal obesity differently, while effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are less studied. Also, fatty acid desaturation may be altered in abdominal obesity. We aimed to investigate cross-sectional associations of serum fatty acids and desaturases with abdominal obesity prevalence in a population-based cohort study. Serum cholesteryl ester fatty acids composition was measured by gas chromatography in 60-year old men (n = 1883) and women (n = 2015). Cross-sectional associations of fatty acids with abdominal obesity prevalence and anthropometric measures (e.g., sagittal abdominal diameter) were evaluated in multivariable-adjusted logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Similar models were employed to investigate relations between desaturase activities (estimated by fatty acid ratios) and abdominal obesity. In logistic regression analyses, palmitic acid, stearoyl-CoA- desaturase and Delta 6-desaturase indices were associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for highest versus lowest quartiles were 1.45 (1.19-1.76), 4.06 (3.27-5.05), and 3.07 (2.51-3.75), respectively. Linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, docohexaenoic acid, and Delta 5-desaturase were inversely associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.39 (0.32-0.48), 0.74 (0.61-0.89), 0.76 (0.62-0.93), and 0.40 (0.33-0.49), respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid was not associated with abdominal obesity. Similar results were obtained from linear regression models evaluating associations with different anthropometric measures. Sex-specific and linear associations were mainly observed for n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, while associations of the other exposures were generally non-linear and similar across sexes. In accordance with findings from short-term trials, abdominal obesity was more common among individuals with relatively high proportions of palmitic acid, whilst the contrary was true for linoleic acid. Further trials should examine the potential role of linoleic acid and its main dietary source, vegetable oils, in abdominal obesity prevention.

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  • 17.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Tengblad, Siv
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf
    Landberg, Rikard
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Åman, Per
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Whole-grain foods do not affect insulin sensitivity or markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation in healthy, moderately overweight subjects2007In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 137, no 6, p. 1401-1407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High intakes of whole grain foods are inversely related to the incidence of coronary heart diseases and type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of a diet rich in whole grains compared with a diet containing the same amount of refined grains on insulin sensitivity and markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation. In a randomized crossover study, 22 women and 8 men (BMI 28 +/- 2) were given either whole-grain or refined-grain products (3 bread slices, 2 crisp bread slices, 1 portion muesli, and 1 portion pasta) to include in their habitual daily diet for two 6-wk periods. Peripheral insulin sensitivity was determined by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp tests. 8-Iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) (8-iso PGF(2alpha)), an F(2)-isoprostane, was measured in the urine as a marker of lipid peroxidation, and highly sensitive C-reactive protein and IL-6 were analyzed in plasma as markers of inflammation. Peripheral insulin sensitivity [mg glucose . kg body wt(-1) . min(-1) per unit plasma insulin (mU/L) x 100] did not improve when subjects consumed whole-grain products (6.8 +/- 3.0 at baseline and 6.5 +/- 2.7 after 6 wk) or refined products (6.4 +/- 2.9 and 6.9 +/- 3.2, respectively) and there were no differences between the 2 periods. Whole-grain consumption also did not affect 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) in urine, IL-6 and C-reactive protein in plasma, blood pressure, or serum lipid concentrations. In conclusion, substitution of whole grains (mainly based on milled wheat) for refined-grain products in the habitual daily diet of healthy moderately overweight adults for 6-wk did not affect insulin sensitivity or markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation.

  • 18. Andersson, Daniel P.
    et al.
    Thorell, Anders
    Lofgren, Patrik
    Wiren, Mikael
    Toft, Eva
    Qvisth, Veronica
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Berglund, Lars
    Naslund, Erik
    Bringman, Sven
    Thorne, Anders
    Arner, Peter
    Hoffstedt, Johan
    Omentectomy in addition to gastric bypass surgery and influence on insulin sensitivity: A randomized double blind controlled trial2014In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 991-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & aims: Accumulation of visceral adipose tissue is associated with insulin resistance and cardio-vascular disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether removal of a large amount of visceral fat by omentectomy in conjunction with Roux en-Y gastric bypass operation (RYGB) results in enhanced improvement of insulin sensitivity compared to gastric bypass surgery alone. Methods: Eighty-one obese women scheduled for RYGB were included in the study. They were randomized to RYGB or RYGB in conjunction with omentectomy. Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp before operation and sixty-two women were also reexamined 2 years post-operatively. The primary outcome measure was insulin sensitivity and secondary outcome measures included cardio-metabolic risk factors. Results: Two-year weight loss was profound but unaffected by omentectomy. Before intervention, there were no clinical or metabolic differences between the two groups. The difference in primary outcome measure, insulin sensitivity, was not significant between the non-omentectomy (6.7 +/- 1.6 mg/kg body weight/minute) and omentectomy groups (6.6 +/- 1.5 mg/kg body weight/minute) after 2 years. Nor did any of the cardio-metabolic risk factors that were secondary outcome measures differ significantly. Conclusion: Addition of omentectomy to gastric bypass operation does not give an incremental effect on long term insulin sensitivity or cardio-metabolic risk factors. The clinical usefulness of omentectomy in addition to gastric bypass operation is highly questionable.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Fredén, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Petersson, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Öhrvall, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Zethelius, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    A two-year clinical lifestyle intervention program for weight loss in obesity2008In: Food & nutrition research, ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 52, p. 1656-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In recent randomised prospective studies, lifestyle intervention induced a weight loss of approximately 5%. OBJECTIVE: To describe and evaluate a 2-year on-going group intervention program in clinical practice in terms of weight loss and changes in metabolic risk factors, i.e. sagital abdominal diameter (SAD), triglycerides, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure. DESIGN: The aim of the intervention program was to motivate lifestyle changes concerning food intake and physical activity. The emphasis was on lifestyle modification, followed up at regular visits during 2 years. Subjects evaluated were 100 women with mean BMI 37.6 kg/m(2) and 26 men with mean BMI 36.5 kg/m(2). RESULTS: One hundred of 151 enrolled women and 26 of 36 men completed the program. Mean weight decreased by 3.8 kg in women (from 103.5 to 99.7, p<0.001) and 4.4 kg in men (from 116.5 to 112.1, p<0.05), respectively. SAD decreased by 5% (p=0.001 in women, p=0.01 in men), and triglycerides by 16% in women (p=0.01) and 24% in men (p=0.001), however systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased slightly but significantly. CONCLUSION: It is possible to perform a clinical lifestyle intervention program for outpatients on an ongoing basis with weight loss, lowered SAD and triglycerides, and a similar or lower dropout rate compared to clinical trials.

  • 20. Andersson, P
    et al.
    Bratt, J
    Heimburger, M
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Palmblad, J
    Inhibition of neutrophil dependent cytotoxicity for human endothelial cells by ACE inhibitors2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0300-9475, E-ISSN 1365-3083, Vol. 80, no 5, p. 339-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) have immunomodulating properties and have been suggested to protect against endothelial injury, for example myocardial infarction and reperfusion injury. We tested whether two ACEi (captopril and enalapril), differing in a thiol group, protected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) from cytotoxicity induced by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in vitro, when cells were activated by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) or the arachidonate derivative lipoxin-A4 (LXA4), using separate cytotoxicity pathways. When 51Cr labelled HUVEC were treated with captopril (0–500 μm) or enalapril (0–100 μm) for 2 h and then activated by TNFα (100 ng/ml) for 24 h, a significant, dose-dependent reduction of 51Cr release was observed. Similarly, captopril reduced 51Cr release when LXA4 (0.1 μm) was used to stimulate PMN for 4 h. Among previously defined mechanisms of significance for the cytotoxic reaction, expression of ICAM-1, but not intracellular Ca2+ changes in PMN or PMN adherence to HUVEC, were reduced by ACEi treatment. Moreover, both ACEi inhibited HUVEC surface expression of TNFα receptor I (but not II). Thus, these ACEi, particularly captopril, interfere with PMN-induced cytotoxicity for endothelial cells by modulating pro-inflammatory surface receptors, which is a novel effect that might be explored for further therapeutic approaches.

  • 21. Aro, Antti
    et al.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Improving nutrition in Finland.2010In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 13, no 6A, p. 899-900Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Aro, Antti
    et al.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Pedersen, Jan I.
    Trans fatty acids in the Nordic countries2006In: Scandinavian journal of Food and Nutrition, ISSN 1748-2976, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 151-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) comprise a variety of positional isomers, mainly with 18 carbon atoms and one double bond (C18:1). They are found in foods of ruminant animal origin and in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. The isomeric composition of TFA in animal and vegetable foods differs, but no definite differences have been documented between the metabolic and health effects of the different isomers. In the Nordic countries the intake of TFA has declined during the past 1015 years, mainly through reduced use of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. TFA are mainly found in foods that contain far higher amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA). The proportion of SFA plus TFA should be kept to one-third of total dietary fatty acids. The problem of excessive consumption of these unfavourable fatty acids should be managed with food-based dietary guidelines in agreement with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations.

  • 23. Asplund, Kjell
    et al.
    Axelsen, Mette
    Berglund, Göran
    Berne, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Lindblom, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology.
    Norlund, Anders
    Rosén, Måns
    Ränzlöv, Ewalotte
    Täljedal, Inge-Bert
    Wolk, Alicja
    Mat vid diabetes:  En systematisk litteraturöversikt2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24. Astrup, Arne
    et al.
    Dyerberg, Jorn
    Elwood, Peter
    Hermansen, Kjeld
    Hu, Frank B.
    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre
    Kok, Frans J.
    Krauss, Ronald M.
    Lecerf, Jean Michel
    LeGrand, Philippe
    Nestel, Paul
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Sanders, Tom
    Sinclair, Andrew
    Stender, Steen
    Tholstrup, Tine
    Willett, Walter C.
    The role of reducing intakes of saturated fat in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: where does the evidence stand in 2010?2011In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 93, no 4, p. 684-688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current dietary recommendations advise reducing the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but recent findings question the role of SFAs. This expert panel reviewed the evidence and reached the following conclusions: the evidence from epidemiologic, clinical, and mechanistic studies is consistent in finding that the risk of CHD is reduced when SFAs are replaced with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In populations who consume a Western diet, the replacement of 1% of energy from SFAs with PUFAs lowers LDL cholesterol and is likely to produce a reduction in CHD incidence of >= 2-3%. No clear benefit of substituting carbohydrates for SFAs has been shown, although there might be a benefit if the carbohydrate is unrefined and has a low glycemic index. Insufficient evidence exists to judge the effect on CHD risk of replacing SFAs with MUFAs. No clear association between SFA intake relative to refined carbohydrates and the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes has been shown. The effect of diet on a single biomarker is insufficient evidence to assess CHD risk. The combination of multiple biomarkers and the use of clinical end-points could help substantiate the effects on CHD. Furthermore, the effect of particular foods on CHD cannot be predicted solely by their content of total SFAs because individual SFAs may have different cardiovascular effects and major SFA food sources contain other constituents that could influence CHD risk. Research is needed to clarify the role of SFAs compared with specific forms of carbohydrates in CHD risk and to compare specific foods with appropriate alternatives.

  • 25.
    Augustin, Livia S. A.
    et al.
    Ist Nazl Tumori IRCCS Fdn G Pascale, Epidemiol & Biostat Unit, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Aas, Anne-Marie
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Div Med, Sect Nutr & Dietet, Dept Clin Serv, N-0424 Oslo, Norway.;Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, N-0318 Oslo, Norway..
    Astrup, Arnie
    Univ Copenhagen, Exercise & Sports NEXS Fac Sci, Dept Nutr, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Atkinson, Fiona S.
    Univ Sydney, Sch Life & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Charles Perkins Ctr, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Baer-Sinnott, Sara
    Oldways, Boston, MA 02116 USA..
    Barclay, Alan W.
    Accredited Practising Dietitian, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Brand-Miller, Jennie C.
    Brighenti, Furio
    Univ Parma, Dept Food & Drug, I-43120 Parma, Italy..
    Bullo, Monica
    Univ Rovira Virgili, Dept Bioquim & Biotecnol, Unitat Nutr, Reus 43201, Spain.;Univ Hosp St Joan Reus, Inst Invest Sanitaria Pere Virgili IISPV, Human Nutr Unit, Reus 43201, Spain.;Inst Hlth Carlos III, CIBEROBN, Madrid 28029, Spain..
    Buyken, Anette E.
    Univ Paderborn, Inst Nutr Consumpt & Hlth, Fac Nat Sci, D-33098 Paderborn, Germany..
    Ceriello, Antonio
    IRCCS MultiMed, Dept Diabet, I-20099 Milan, Italy..
    Ellis, Peter R.
    Kings Coll London, Fac Life Sci Med, Dept Biochem & Nutrit Sci, Biopolymers Grp, Franklin Wilkins Bldg,150 Stamford St, London SE1 9NH, ON, Canada..
    Ha, Marie-Ann
    Spinney Nutr, Barnstaple EX31 4JR, Devon, England..
    Henry, Jeyakumar C.
    Singapore Inst Clin Sci, Clin Nutr Res Ctr, Singapore 637551, Singapore..
    Kendall, Cyril W. C.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Nutr Sci, Fac Med, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Dept Med, Fac Med, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada.;St Michaels Hosp, Clin Nutr & Risk Factor Modificat Ctr, Toronto, ON M5C 2T2, Canada.;Univ Saskatchewan, Coll Pharm & Nutr, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B5, Canada..
    La Vecchia, Carlo
    Univ Studi Milano, Dept Clin Sci & Community Hlth, I-201330 Milan, Italy..
    Liu, Simin
    Brown Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Med, Providence, RI 02912 USA..
    Livesey, Geoffrey
    Independent Nutr Log Ltd, 21 Bellrope Lane, Wymondham NR180QX, England..
    Poli, Andrea
    Nutr Fdn Italy, Viale Tunisia 38, I-20124 Milan, Italy..
    Salas-Salvado, Jordi
    Riccardi, Gabriele
    Univ Naples Federico II, Dept Clin Med & Surg, I-80147 Naples, Italy..
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Rizkalla, Salwa W.
    Hop La Pitie Salpetriere, Inst Cardiometab & Nutr, ICAN, F-75013 Paris, France..
    Sievenpiper, John L.
    St Michaels Hosp, Div Endocrinol & Metab, Dept Med, Toronto, ON M5C 2T2, Canada..
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    St Michaels Hosp, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Inst, Toronto, ON M5C 2T2, Canada.;Hellen Hlth Fdn, Alexandroupoleos 23, Athens 11527, Greece..
    Usic, Kathy
    Glycem Index Fdn, Sydney, NSW 2037, Australia..
    Wolever, Thomas M. S.
    Willett, Walter C.
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Jenkins, David J. A.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Nutr Sci, Fac Med, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Dept Med, Fac Med, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada.;St Michaels Hosp, Clin Nutr & Risk Factor Modificat Ctr, Toronto, ON M5C 2T2, Canada.;Univ Saskatchewan, Coll Pharm & Nutr, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5B5, Canada..
    Dietary Fibre Consensus from the International Carbohydrate Quality Consortium (ICQC)2020In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 12, no 9, article id 2553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary fibre is a generic term describing non-absorbed plant carbohydrates and small amounts of associated non-carbohydrate components. The main contributors of fibre to the diet are the cell walls of plant tissues, which are supramolecular polymer networks containing variable proportions of cellulose, hemicelluloses, pectic substances, and non-carbohydrate components, such as lignin. Other contributors of fibre are the intracellular storage oligosaccharides, such as fructans. A distinction needs to be made between intrinsic sources of dietary fibre and purified forms of fibre, given that the three-dimensional matrix of the plant cell wall confers benefits beyond fibre isolates. Movement through the digestive tract modifies the cell wall structure and may affect the interactions with the colonic microbes (e.g., small intestinally non-absorbed carbohydrates are broken down by bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, absorbed by colonocytes). These aspects, combined with the fibre associated components (e.g., micronutrients, polyphenols, phytosterols, and phytoestrogens), may contribute to the health outcomes seen with the consumption of dietary fibre. Therefore, where possible, processing should minimise the degradation of the plant cell wall structures to preserve some of its benefits. Food labelling should include dietary fibre values and distinguish between intrinsic and added fibre. Labelling may also help achieve the recommended intake of 14 g/1000 kcal/day.

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  • 26.
    Ax, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Dietary Patterns: Identification and Health Implications in the Swedish Population2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We eat foods not nutrients. What is more, we eat them in combinations. Consequently, capturing our complex food habits is likely an advantage in nutrition research. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was therefore to investigate dietary patterns in the Swedish population –nutrient intakes, nutritional biomarkers and health aspects.

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the developed world. However, the impact of dietary factors on disease risk is largely unknown. In Study I we investigated the association between a Mediterranean- and a Low-carbohydrate-high-protein dietary pattern and prostate cancer risk, in a cohort of elderly Swedish men. The latter (but not the former) was associated, inversely, with prostate cancer risk when taking validity in food records into account.

    Diet is one of our main exposure routes to environmental contaminants. Hence, such exposure could act as a mediating factor in the relation between diet and health. In Study II we investigated the association between; a Mediterranean- and a Low-carbohydrate-high-protein dietary pattern, as well as the official dietary recommendations, and circulating levels of environmental contaminants, in an elderly Swedish population. The first two patterns were positively related to levels of both persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals, whilst the dietary recommendations were inversely associated to dioxin and lead.

    Finally, although dietary patterns are likely to influence health, little is known about current dietary patterns in Sweden. In Study III we used a data-reduction method to identify dietary patterns in a nationwide sample of the Swedish population. Two major patterns were derived; a Healthy pattern of foods generally considered healthy (e.g. vegetables, fruits, fish and vegetable-oils) and a Swedish traditional pattern (with e.g. meats, potatoes, sauces, non-Keyhole milk-products, sweet-bakery products and margarine). Derived patterns were associated to population characteristics and the Healthy dietary pattern was inversely associated to anthropometric variables in Study IV. Dietary characteristics of the patterns were well reflected in correlations to nutrient intake and (to a lesser extent) in nutritional biomarkers.

    In conclusion dietary patterns for overall health should be considered, as well as other lifestyle-factors, when interpreting results in nutrition epidemiology and establishing dietary recommendations.

    List of papers
    1. Dietary Patterns and Prostate Cancer Risk: Report from the Population Based ULSAM Cohort Study of Swedish Men
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary Patterns and Prostate Cancer Risk: Report from the Population Based ULSAM Cohort Study of Swedish Men
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    2014 (English)In: Nutrition and Cancer, ISSN 0163-5581, E-ISSN 1532-7914, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 77-87Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary pattern analyses have increased the possibilities to detect associations between diet and disease. However, studies on dietary pattern and prostate cancer are scarce. Food intake data in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men cohort was determined by 7-day food records. Adherence to a modified Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS) and a low carbohydrate-high protein (LCHP) score were grouped as low, medium, or high in the whole study population (n = 1,044) and in those identified as adequate reporters of energy intake (n = 566), respectively. Prostate cancer risk was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard regression (median follow-up 13years) and competing risk of death was considered. There were no associations between dietary patterns and prostate cancer (n = 133) in the whole study population. Among adequate reporters the mMDS was not associated with prostate cancer (n = 72). The LCHP score was inversely related to prostate cancer in adequate reporters, adjusted hazard ratios; 0.55 (0.32-0.96) for medium and 0.47 (0.21-1.04) for high compared to low adherent participants (P-for-trend 0.04). Risk relations were not attributable to competing risk of death. In this study, a LCHP diet was associated with lower prostate cancer incidence. Relations emerged in adequate reporters, underscoring the importance of high-quality dietary data.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-217622 (URN)10.1080/01635581.2014.851712 (DOI)000329141100009 ()
    Available from: 2014-02-06 Created: 2014-02-04 Last updated: 2018-02-22Bibliographically approved
    2. Circulating levels of environmental contaminants are associated with dietary patterns in older adults
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Circulating levels of environmental contaminants are associated with dietary patterns in older adults
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 75, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Food intake contributes substantially to our exposure to environmental contaminants. Still, little is known about our dietary habits' contribution to exposure variability.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of environmental contaminants in relation to predefined dietary patterns in an elderly Swedish population.

    METHODS: Dietary data and serum concentrations of environmental contaminants were obtained from 844 70-year-old Swedish subjects (50% women) in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Dietary data from 7-day food records was used to assess adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, a low carbohydrate-high protein diet and the WHO dietary recommendations. Circulating levels of 6 polychlorinated biphenyl markers, 3 organochlorine pesticides, 1 dioxin and 1 polybrominated diphenyl ether, the metals cadmium, lead, mercury and aluminum and serum levels of bisphenol A and 4 phthalate metabolites were investigated in relation to dietary patterns in multivariate linear regression models.

    RESULTS: A Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with levels of several polychlorinated biphenyls (118, 126, 153, and 209), trans-nonachlor and mercury. A low carbohydrate-high protein diet was positively associated with polychlorinated biphenyls 118 and 153, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mercury and lead. The WHO recommended diet was negatively related to levels of dioxin and lead, and borderline positively to polychlorinated biphenyl 118 and trans-nonachlor.

    CONCLUSION: Dietary patterns were associated in diverse manners with circulating levels of environmental contaminants in this elderly Swedish population. Following the WHO dietary recommendations seems to be associated with a lower burden of environmental contaminants.

    National Category
    Occupational Health and Environmental Health
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-248607 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2014.11.008 (DOI)000348746600009 ()25461418 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-04-02 Created: 2015-04-02 Last updated: 2021-01-20Bibliographically approved
    3. Dietary patterns in Swedish adults: results from a national dietary survey
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary patterns in Swedish adults: results from a national dietary survey
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    2016 (English)In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 95-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary patterns derived by statistical procedures is a way to identify overall dietary habits in specific populations. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise dietary patterns in Swedish adults using data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten adults 2010–11 (952 women, 788 men). Principal component analyses were used and two patterns were identified in both sexes: a healthy pattern loading positively on vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, and vegetable oils, and negatively on refined bread and fast food, and a Swedish traditional pattern loading positively on potatoes, meat and processed meat, full-fat milk products, sweet bakery products, sweet condiments and margarine. In addition, a light-meal pattern was identified in women with positive loadings on fibre-rich bread, cheese, rice, pasta and food grain dishes, substitute products for meat and dairy products, candies and tea. The healthy pattern was positively correlated to dietary fibre (r 0·51–0·58) and n-3 (r 0·25–0·31) (all P<0·0001), and had a higher nutrient density of folate, vitamin D and Se. The Swedish traditional and the light-meal pattern were positively correlated to added sugar (r 0·20–0·25) and the Swedish traditional also to SFA (r 0·13–0·21) (all P<0·0001); both patterns were in general negatively correlated to micronutrients. Dietary pattern scores were associated with, for example, age, physical activity, education and income. In conclusion, we identified three major dietary patterns among Swedish adults. The patterns can be further used for examining the association between whole diet and health outcomes.

    Keywords
    Dietary pattern, Food habits, National survey, Principal component analysis, Total diet quality, Sweden
    National Category
    Nutrition and Dietetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-249160 (URN)10.1017/S0007114515004110 (DOI)000367234800012 ()26490112 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2011-1166
    Available from: 2015-04-11 Created: 2015-04-11 Last updated: 2018-02-22Bibliographically approved
    4. Dietary patterns in relation to anthropometry,inflammation, and nutritional biomarkers in a nationwide population of Swedish adults
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dietary patterns in relation to anthropometry,inflammation, and nutritional biomarkers in a nationwide population of Swedish adults
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Keywords
    Dietary pattern, Body mass index, waist circumference, C-reactive protein, nutritional biomarkers, Sweden
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Nutrition; Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-249161 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-04-13 Created: 2015-04-11 Last updated: 2015-05-12
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    errata
  • 27.
    Ax, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Becker, Wulf
    Andersson, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    Ridefelt, Peter
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fung, Teresa T.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Dietary patterns in relation to anthropometry,inflammation, and nutritional biomarkers in a nationwide population of Swedish adultsManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Ax, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Garmo, Hans
    Regional Cancer Center , Uppsala University Hospital , Uppsala , Sweden.
    Grundmark, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Bill-Axelson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Zethelius, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Dietary Patterns and Prostate Cancer Risk: Report from the Population Based ULSAM Cohort Study of Swedish Men2014In: Nutrition and Cancer, ISSN 0163-5581, E-ISSN 1532-7914, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 77-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary pattern analyses have increased the possibilities to detect associations between diet and disease. However, studies on dietary pattern and prostate cancer are scarce. Food intake data in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men cohort was determined by 7-day food records. Adherence to a modified Mediterranean Diet Score (mMDS) and a low carbohydrate-high protein (LCHP) score were grouped as low, medium, or high in the whole study population (n = 1,044) and in those identified as adequate reporters of energy intake (n = 566), respectively. Prostate cancer risk was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard regression (median follow-up 13years) and competing risk of death was considered. There were no associations between dietary patterns and prostate cancer (n = 133) in the whole study population. Among adequate reporters the mMDS was not associated with prostate cancer (n = 72). The LCHP score was inversely related to prostate cancer in adequate reporters, adjusted hazard ratios; 0.55 (0.32-0.96) for medium and 0.47 (0.21-1.04) for high compared to low adherent participants (P-for-trend 0.04). Risk relations were not attributable to competing risk of death. In this study, a LCHP diet was associated with lower prostate cancer incidence. Relations emerged in adequate reporters, underscoring the importance of high-quality dietary data.

  • 29.
    Ax, Erika Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Grundmark, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Bill-Axelson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Zethelius, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Garmo, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Dietary Patterns and prostate cancer risk: a population based cohort study in elderly Swedish men2013In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 27, no S1, p. 847.8-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Ax, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lampa, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Salihovic, Samira
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    van Bavel, Bert
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lind, P Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Circulating levels of environmental contaminants are associated with dietary patterns in older adults2015In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 75, p. 93-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Food intake contributes substantially to our exposure to environmental contaminants. Still, little is known about our dietary habits' contribution to exposure variability.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of environmental contaminants in relation to predefined dietary patterns in an elderly Swedish population.

    METHODS: Dietary data and serum concentrations of environmental contaminants were obtained from 844 70-year-old Swedish subjects (50% women) in the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Dietary data from 7-day food records was used to assess adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet, a low carbohydrate-high protein diet and the WHO dietary recommendations. Circulating levels of 6 polychlorinated biphenyl markers, 3 organochlorine pesticides, 1 dioxin and 1 polybrominated diphenyl ether, the metals cadmium, lead, mercury and aluminum and serum levels of bisphenol A and 4 phthalate metabolites were investigated in relation to dietary patterns in multivariate linear regression models.

    RESULTS: A Mediterranean-like diet was positively associated with levels of several polychlorinated biphenyls (118, 126, 153, and 209), trans-nonachlor and mercury. A low carbohydrate-high protein diet was positively associated with polychlorinated biphenyls 118 and 153, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene and p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mercury and lead. The WHO recommended diet was negatively related to levels of dioxin and lead, and borderline positively to polychlorinated biphenyl 118 and trans-nonachlor.

    CONCLUSION: Dietary patterns were associated in diverse manners with circulating levels of environmental contaminants in this elderly Swedish population. Following the WHO dietary recommendations seems to be associated with a lower burden of environmental contaminants.

  • 31.
    Ax, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Warensjö-Lemming, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Becker, Wulf
    Andersson, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Sjögren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Fung, Teresa T.
    Dietary patterns in Swedish adults: results from a national dietary survey2016In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 115, no 1, p. 95-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dietary patterns derived by statistical procedures is a way to identify overall dietary habits in specific populations. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise dietary patterns in Swedish adults using data from the national dietary survey Riksmaten adults 2010–11 (952 women, 788 men). Principal component analyses were used and two patterns were identified in both sexes: a healthy pattern loading positively on vegetables, fruits, fish and seafood, and vegetable oils, and negatively on refined bread and fast food, and a Swedish traditional pattern loading positively on potatoes, meat and processed meat, full-fat milk products, sweet bakery products, sweet condiments and margarine. In addition, a light-meal pattern was identified in women with positive loadings on fibre-rich bread, cheese, rice, pasta and food grain dishes, substitute products for meat and dairy products, candies and tea. The healthy pattern was positively correlated to dietary fibre (r 0·51–0·58) and n-3 (r 0·25–0·31) (all P<0·0001), and had a higher nutrient density of folate, vitamin D and Se. The Swedish traditional and the light-meal pattern were positively correlated to added sugar (r 0·20–0·25) and the Swedish traditional also to SFA (r 0·13–0·21) (all P<0·0001); both patterns were in general negatively correlated to micronutrients. Dietary pattern scores were associated with, for example, age, physical activity, education and income. In conclusion, we identified three major dietary patterns among Swedish adults. The patterns can be further used for examining the association between whole diet and health outcomes.

  • 32. Baer, David J
    et al.
    Althouse, Andrew
    Hermann, Mindy
    Johnson, Janice
    Maki, Kevin C
    Marklund, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Vogt, Liffert
    Wesson, Donald
    Stallings, Virginia A
    Targeting the Dietary Na: K Ratio-Considerations for Design of an Intervention Study to Impact Blood Pressure.2021In: Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), ISSN 2156-5376, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 225-233, article id nmab099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite medical, dietary, and lifestyle recommendations and drug advancements, hypertension persists as among the most prevalent noncommunicable diseases in the US population, and control remains elusive. Uncontrolled hypertension may increase the risk of serious illness from various other health challenges, including cardiovascular and renal responses. Adoption of a healthy diet is a consistent core element of lifestyle modifications that are recommended for mitigation of hypertension. The dietary sodium-to-potassium ratio is recognized as having promising potential in the regulation of blood pressure. In fact, the understanding of the relation between this ratio and blood pressure was documented as a key evidence gap in the 2019 National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine report that revised recommended intake levels for both sodium and potassium. Although notable animal and human evidence supports this point, fundamental to developing a specific dietary recommendation for a sodium-to-potassium ratio is a well-designed human intervention trial. The successful translatability of such a trial will require careful consideration of study elements, including the study population, duration, blood pressure measurement, and dietary intervention, among other factors. This paper addresses these decision points and serves as supporting documentation for a research group or organization with the interest and means to address this important data gap, which will undoubtedly be foundational for advancing dietary guidance and would inform the next iteration of Dietary Reference Intakes for sodium and potassium.

  • 33.
    Bahat, Gulistan
    et al.
    Istanbul Univ, Istanbul Med Sch, Dept Internal Med, Div Geriatr, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Erdogan, Tugba
    Istanbul Univ, Istanbul Med Sch, Dept Internal Med, Div Geriatr, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Karolinska Univ Hosp, Theme Ageing, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Paving the way for applying GLIM criteria in clinical practice and research: how to define mild to moderate and severe reduced muscle mass2022In: European Geriatric Medicine, ISSN 1878-7649, E-ISSN 1878-7657, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 611-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key summary pointsAim To report grade 1 and grade 2 reduced muscle mass cut-offs for skeletal muscle mass (SMM) adjusted by body mass index (BMI) to increase the applicability of the GLIM criteria. Findings Grade 1 vs. grade 2 low muscle mass (LMM) thresholds were 1.189 and 0.954 kg/BMI vs. 1.049 and 0.823 kg/BMI in males and females, respectively. Message While validation studies are needed to evaluate their predictive ability, our approach presented here seems applicable and the cut-off values acceptable for use until population-specific values in different populations or global generic cut-offs are identified. Purpose Among approaches to adjust skeletal muscle mass (SMM) for body size, adjustment for body mass index (BMI) correlated better with functional measures. To enhance applicability of GLIM criteria, we report grade 1 and grade 2 reduced muscle mass cut-offs for SMM adjusted by BMI. Methods 301 young, healthy adults involving students, patient relatives and staff working in the university hospital were included. SMM was estimated by bio-impedance analysis (BIA). SMM index (BMI) [SMMI(BMI)] was calculated as SMM/BMI. Grade 1 low muscle mass (LMM) was defined as "mean young SMMI(BMI)-one standard deviation" and grade 2 LMM as "mean young SMMI(BMI)-two standard deviations". Results Mean age was 26.5 +/- 4.6 (62.1% male). Grade 1 vs grade 2 LMM thresholds were 1.189 and 0.954 kg/BMI vs 1.049 and 0.823 kg/BMI in males and females, respectively. Conclusion This is the first report identifying stage 1 and stage 2 LMM thresholds for SMMI adjusted by BMI. Studies are needed to evaluate their predictive validity.

  • 34.
    Bajahzer, Mohammed F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Jazan University.
    Influence of dietary carbohydrates on plasma fatty acid composition: Results from interventional and observational studies2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Given reporting bias in dietary questionnaires, biomarkers offer objective assessments. Measuring circulating fatty acid (FA) composition is an established method for evaluating dietary fat quality. However, the influence of carbohydrates and sugars on plasma FA composition is less clear. This thesis investigates how carbohydrates impact circulating FAs synthesized through de novo lipogenesis (DNL). We assessed palmitate and other FAs in circulating lipids. The hypothesis was that increased dietary carbohydrate intake elevates plasma palmitate levels. In Paper I, a randomized crossover study (with all meals provided) investigated the impact of three diets varying in carbohydrate amount and type on plasma palmitate levels in healthy adults. Results showed no influence of either carbohydrate quantity or quality on plasma palmitate. However, palmitoleate increased in higher-carbohydrate diets, and carbohydrate quality affected myristate levels. In Paper II, a parallel-groups study explored the impact of high intake of sugar-sweetened soda (SS) and semi-skimmed milk (milk) on plasma palmitate among Danish adults. Both SS and milk increased palmitate in phospholipids (PL) compared with water. Excessive SS, but not milk, increased palmitoleate in all lipid fractions. In Paper III, a prospective study in Swedish children found no association between plasma palmitate in PL and incident overweight. Palmitate did not correlate with carbohydrate or sugar intake. Only stearate was associated with overweight incidence. Again, stearate was not associated with carbohydrate or sugar intake. In Paper IV, a cross-sectional study in older men found no association between serum palmitate and carbohydrate or sucrose intake, even after considering BMI or insulin sensitivity. Instead, stearate was positively associated with carbohydrate and sucrose intake, while oleate was inversely associated with sucrose and fiber intake. In conclusion, this thesis suggests that moderate changes in carbohydrate quantity or quality do not alter plasma palmitate, although overfeeding with liquid sugar causes higher palmitate in plasma PL. Stearate, but not palmitate, was linked to incident overweight in children, but none of these FAs reflected higher carbohydrate or sugar intake. Overall, palmitoleate seems to be more responsive to increased carbohydrate intake than palmitate, whereas the latter does not appear as a useful biomarker of high carbohydrate intake in Nordic populations.

    List of papers
    1. Effects of sugar-sweetened soda on plasma saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in individuals with obesity: A randomized study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of sugar-sweetened soda on plasma saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in individuals with obesity: A randomized study
    Show others...
    2022 (English)In: Frontiers in Nutrition, E-ISSN 2296-861X, Vol. 9, article id 936828Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: High carbohydrate, i.e., sugars, intake potentially drives the liver into a lipogenic state leading to elevated plasma fatty acids. Excessive intake of saturated fat and sugar-sweetened soda induces liver fat accumulation, but studying the effect of high intake from sugar-sweetened soda on the de novo lipogenesis (DNL) fatty acids in long-term randomized trials is lacking. Objective: To study the effect of consuming 1 L/day of sugar-sweetened soda, semi-skimmed milk (milk), aspartame-sweetened soda or water over 24 weeks on DNL-derived fatty acids (i.e., palmitate (primary outcome) and other saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids), and markers of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity (SCD1) in plasma phospholipids (PL), cholesteryl esters (CE), and triglycerides (TG). Design and methods: A randomized parallel study was conducted simultaneously at Aarhus University Hospital and Copenhagen University, Denmark, including (n = 41) individuals aged 20-50 years, with BMI of 26-40 kg/m(2), and without diabetes. The groups consisted of 9 individuals in the sugar-sweetened soda, 10 in the milk, 11 in the aspartame-sweetened soda, and 11 in the water. The change at 24 weeks was assessed and compared across the groups using ANCOVA and mixed-effects models. Correlations of fatty acid changes with liver fat accumulation (magnetic resonance imaging) were explored. Results: After 24 weeks, the groups differed in palmitate proportions in PL, oleate in CE and PL, and palmitoleate and SCD1 in all fractions (p < 0.05). Compared with water, the relative proportion of palmitate in PL increased by approximately 1% during both sugar-sweetened soda (p = 0.011) and milk (p = 0.006), whereas oleate and palmitoleate increased only during sugar-sweetened soda (CE 2.77%, p < 0.001; PL 1.51%, p = 0.002 and CE 1.46%, PL 0.24%, TG 1.31%, all p < 0.001, respectively). Liver fat accumulation correlated consistently with changes in palmitoleate, whereas correlations with palmitate and oleate were inconsistent across lipid fractions. Conclusions: Although both sugar-sweetened soda and milk increased palmitate in PL, only excess intake of sugar-sweetened soda increased palmitoleate in all lipid fractions and correlated with liver fat. In contrast, isocaloric milk intake did not increase plasma monounsaturated fatty acids.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Frontiers Media S.A.FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2022
    Keywords
    sugar-sweetened beverages, carbohydrate intake, de novo lipogenesis, plasma fatty acid composition, saturated, monounsaturated, liver fat, biomarkers
    National Category
    Nutrition and Dietetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-492110 (URN)10.3389/fnut.2022.936828 (DOI)000892174200001 ()36118751 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Heart Lung FoundationEXODIAB - Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden
    Available from: 2023-01-31 Created: 2023-01-31 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
    2. Contrasting Carbohydrate Quantity and Quality and the Effects on Plasma Saturated and Monounsaturated Fatty Acids in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Contrasting Carbohydrate Quantity and Quality and the Effects on Plasma Saturated and Monounsaturated Fatty Acids in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    Show others...
    2023 (English)In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 153, no 3, p. 683-690Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is unclear whether moderate differences in dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality influence plasma FAs in the lipogenic pathway in healthy adults.

    Objectives: We investigated the effects of different carbohydrate quantities and quality on plasma palmitate concentrations (primary outcome) and other saturated and MUFAs in the lipogenic pathway.

    Methods: Twenty healthy participants were randomly assigned, and 18 (50% women; age: 22-72 y; BMI: 18.2-32.7 kg/m2 and BMI was measured in kg/m2) started the cross-over intervention. During each 3-wk period (separated by a 1-wk washout period), 3 diets were consumed (all foods provided) in random order: low-carbohydrate (LC) (38% energy (E) carbohydrates, 25-35 g fiber/d, 0% E added sugars); high-carbohydrate/high-fiber (HCF) (53% E carbohydrates, 25-35 g fiber/d, 0% E added sugars); and high-carbohydrate/high-sugar (HCS) (53% E carbohydrates, 19-21 g fiber/d, 15% E added sugars). Individual FAs were measured proportionally to total FAs by GC in plasma cholesteryl esters, phospholipids, and TGs. False discovery rate-adjusted repeated measures ANOVA [ANOVA-false discovery rate (FDR)] was used to compare outcomes.

    Results: The self-reported intakes of carbohydrates and added-and free sugars were; 30.6% E and 7.4% E in LC, 41.4% E and 6.9% E in HCF, and 45.7% E and 10.3% in HCS. Plasma palmitate did not differ between the diet periods (ANOVA FDR P > 0.43, n = 18). After HCS, myristate concentrations in cholesterol esters and phospholipids were >= 19% higher than LC and >= 22% higher than HCF (P = 0.005). After LC, palmitoleate in TG was 6% lower compared with HCF and 7% compared with HCS (P = 0.041). Body weight differed (<= 0.75 kg) between diets before FDR correction.

    Conclusions: Different carbohydrate quantity and quality do not influence plasma palmitate concentrations after 3 wk in healthy Swedish adults, whereas myristate increased after the moderately higher intake of carbohydrate/high-sugar, but not carbohydrate/high-fiber. Whether plasma myristate is more responsive than palmitate to differences in carbohydrate intake requires further study, especially considering that participants deviated from the planned dietary targets.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2023
    Keywords
    carbohydrate intake, palmitate, palmitoleate, plasma fatty acids, randomized controlled trial
    National Category
    Nutrition and Dietetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-500594 (URN)10.1016/j.tjnut.2023.01.005 (DOI)000957498100001 ()36797136 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-01639Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareErnfors FoundationDr P Håkanssons stiftelseEXODIAB - Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden
    Available from: 2023-04-21 Created: 2023-04-21 Last updated: 2023-12-05Bibliographically approved
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  • 35.
    Bajahzer, Mohammed F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Jazan Univ, Fac Appl Med Sci, Dept Clin Nutr, Jazan, Saudi Arabia..
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Fridén, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Iggman, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Pingel, Ronnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Marklund, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. UNSW Sydney, George Inst Global Hlth, Fac Med, Sydeny, NSW, Australia.;Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Contrasting Carbohydrate Quantity and Quality and the Effects on Plasma Saturated and Monounsaturated Fatty Acids in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial2023In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 153, no 3, p. 683-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is unclear whether moderate differences in dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality influence plasma FAs in the lipogenic pathway in healthy adults.

    Objectives: We investigated the effects of different carbohydrate quantities and quality on plasma palmitate concentrations (primary outcome) and other saturated and MUFAs in the lipogenic pathway.

    Methods: Twenty healthy participants were randomly assigned, and 18 (50% women; age: 22-72 y; BMI: 18.2-32.7 kg/m2 and BMI was measured in kg/m2) started the cross-over intervention. During each 3-wk period (separated by a 1-wk washout period), 3 diets were consumed (all foods provided) in random order: low-carbohydrate (LC) (38% energy (E) carbohydrates, 25-35 g fiber/d, 0% E added sugars); high-carbohydrate/high-fiber (HCF) (53% E carbohydrates, 25-35 g fiber/d, 0% E added sugars); and high-carbohydrate/high-sugar (HCS) (53% E carbohydrates, 19-21 g fiber/d, 15% E added sugars). Individual FAs were measured proportionally to total FAs by GC in plasma cholesteryl esters, phospholipids, and TGs. False discovery rate-adjusted repeated measures ANOVA [ANOVA-false discovery rate (FDR)] was used to compare outcomes.

    Results: The self-reported intakes of carbohydrates and added-and free sugars were; 30.6% E and 7.4% E in LC, 41.4% E and 6.9% E in HCF, and 45.7% E and 10.3% in HCS. Plasma palmitate did not differ between the diet periods (ANOVA FDR P > 0.43, n = 18). After HCS, myristate concentrations in cholesterol esters and phospholipids were >= 19% higher than LC and >= 22% higher than HCF (P = 0.005). After LC, palmitoleate in TG was 6% lower compared with HCF and 7% compared with HCS (P = 0.041). Body weight differed (<= 0.75 kg) between diets before FDR correction.

    Conclusions: Different carbohydrate quantity and quality do not influence plasma palmitate concentrations after 3 wk in healthy Swedish adults, whereas myristate increased after the moderately higher intake of carbohydrate/high-sugar, but not carbohydrate/high-fiber. Whether plasma myristate is more responsive than palmitate to differences in carbohydrate intake requires further study, especially considering that participants deviated from the planned dietary targets.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36. Barazzoni, R
    et al.
    Deutz, N E P
    Biolo, G
    Bischoff, S
    Boirie, Y
    Cederholm, T
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Cuerda, C
    Delzenne, N
    Leon Sanz, M
    Ljungqvist, O
    Muscaritoli, M
    Pichard, C
    Preiser, J C
    Sbraccia, P
    Singer, P
    Tappy, L
    Thorens, B
    Van Gossum, A
    Vettor, R
    Calder, P C
    Carbohydrates and insulin resistance in clinical nutrition: Recommendations from the ESPEN expert group.2017In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 355-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing evidence underscores the important role of glycemic control in health and recovery from illness. Carbohydrate ingestion in the diet or administration in nutritional support is mandatory, but carbohydrate intake can adversely affect major body organs and tissues if resulting plasma glucose becomes too high, too low, or highly variable. Plasma glucose control is especially important for patients with conditions such as diabetes or metabolic stress resulting from critical illness or surgery. These patients are particularly in need of glycemic management to help lessen glycemic variability and its negative health consequences when nutritional support is administered. Here we report on recent findings and emerging trends in the field based on an ESPEN workshop held in Venice, Italy, 8-9 November 2015. Evidence was discussed on pathophysiology, clinical impact, and nutritional recommendations for carbohydrate utilization and management in nutritional support. The main conclusions were: a) excess glucose and fructose availability may exacerbate metabolic complications in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver and can result in negative clinical impact; b) low-glycemic index and high-fiber diets, including specialty products for nutritional support, may provide metabolic and clinical benefits in individuals with obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes; c) in acute conditions such as surgery and critical illness, insulin resistance and elevated circulating glucose levels have a negative impact on patient outcomes and should be prevented through nutritional and/or pharmacological intervention. In such acute settings, efforts should be implemented towards defining optimal plasma glucose targets, avoiding excessive plasma glucose variability, and optimizing glucose control relative to nutritional support.

  • 37.
    Barazzoni, Rocco
    et al.
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, Internal Med, Trieste, Italy;Azienda Sanit Univ Integrata Trieste ASUITS, Trieste, Italy.
    Bischoff, Stephan
    Univ Hohenheim, Dept Nutr Med, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Boirie, Yves
    Univ Clermont Auvergne, UNH, INRA, Unite Nutr Humaine,CRNH Auvergne, Clermont Ferrand, France;CHU Clermont Ferrand, Serv Nutr Clin, Clermont Ferrand, France.
    Busetto, Luca
    Univ Padua, Dept Med, Padua, Italy;Padova Univ Hosp, Ctr Study & Integrated Management Obes EASO COM, Padua, Italy.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Dicker, Dror
    Hasharon Hosp, Rabin Med Ctr, Dept Internal Med, Petah Tiqwa, Israel;Hasharon Hosp, Rabin Med Ctr, Obes Clin, Petah Tiqwa, Israel;Tel Aviv Univ, Sackler Fac Med, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Toplak, Hermann
    Med Univ Graz, Dept Med, Graz, Austria.
    Van Gossum, Andre
    Free Univ Brussels, Hop Erasme, Dept Gastroenterol, Clin Intestinal Dis & Nutr Support, Brussels, Belgium.
    Yumuk, Volkan
    Istanbul Univ, Cerrahpasa Med Fac, Div Endocrinol Metab & Diabet, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Vettor, Roberto
    Univ Padua, Dept Med, Padua, Italy;Padova Univ Hosp, Ctr Study & Integrated Management Obes EASO COM, Padua, Italy.
    Sarcopenic Obesity: Time to Meet the Challenge2018In: Obesity Facts, ISSN 1662-4025, E-ISSN 1662-4033, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 294-305Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide due to increasingly pervasive obesogenic lifestyle changes. Obesity poses unprecedented individual, social, and multidisciplinary medical challenges by increasing the risk for metabolic diseases, chronic organ failures, and cancer as well as complication rates in the presence of acute disease conditions. Whereas reducing excess adiposity remains the fundamental pathogenic treatment for obese individuals, complex metabolic and lifestyle abnormalities as well as weight reduction therapies per se may also compromise the ability to preserve muscle function and mass, especially when chronic disease co-exists with obesity. Emerging evidence indicates that low muscle mass and quality have a strong negative prognostic impact in obese individuals and may lead to frailty, disability, and increased morbidity and mortality. Awareness of the importance of skeletal muscle maintenance in obesity is however low among clinicians and scientists. The term 'sarcopenic obesity' has been proposed to identify obesity with low skeletal muscle function and mass, but its utilization is largely limited to the aging patient population, and consensus on its definition and diagnostic criteria remains insufficient. Knowledge on prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in various clinical conditions and patient subgroups, on its clinical impacts in patient risk stratification, and on effective prevention and treatment strategies remain therefore dramatically inadequate. In particular, optimal dietary options and medical nutritional support strategies to preserve muscle mass in obese individuals remain largely undefined. The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) and the European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO) recognize and indicate obesity with altered body composition due to low skeletal muscle function and mass (sarcopenic obesity) as a scientific and clinical priority for researchers and clinicians. ESPEN and EASO therefore call for coordinated action aimed at reaching consensus on its definition, diagnostic criteria, and optimal treatment with particular regard to nutritional therapy. We are convinced that achievement of these goals has a strong potential to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality in the rapidly increasing obese patient population.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38.
    Barazzoni, Rocco
    et al.
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, Internal Med, Trieste, Italy.;Azienda Sanit Univ Integrata Trieste ASUITS, Trieste, Italy..
    Bischoff, Stephan C.
    Univ Hohenheim, Dept Nutr Med, Stuttgart, Germany..
    Boirie, Yves
    Univ Clermont Auvergne, INRA, UNH, CRNH Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont Ferrand, France.;CHU Clermont Ferrand, Serv Nutr Clin, F-63000 Clermont Ferrand, France..
    Busetto, Luca
    Univ Padua, Dept Med, Padua, Italy.;Padova Univ Hosp, Ctr Study & Integrated Management Obes EASO COM, Padua, Italy..
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Dicker, Dror
    Tel Aviv Univ, Rabin Med Ctr, Internal Med Dept, Hasharon Hosp,Sackler Fac Med, Tel Aviv, Israel.;Tel Aviv Univ, Rabin Med Ctr, Obes Clin, Hasharon Hosp,Sackler Fac Med, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Toplak, Hermann
    Med Univ Graz, Dept Med, Graz, Austria..
    Van Gossum, Andre
    Free Univ Brussels, Dept Gastroenterol, Clin Intestinal Dis & Nutr Support, Hop Erasme, Brussels, Belgium..
    Yumuk, Volkan
    Istanbul Univ, Div Endocrinol Metab & Diabet, Cerrahpasa Med Fac, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Vettor, Roberto
    Univ Padua, Dept Med, Padua, Italy.;Padova Univ Hosp, Ctr Study & Integrated Management Obes EASO COM, Padua, Italy..
    Sarcopenic obesity: Time to meet the challenge2018In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 1787-1793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide due to increasingly pervasive obesogenic lifestyle changes. Obesity poses unprecedented individual, social and multi-disciplinary medical challenges by increasing the risk for metabolic diseases, chronic organ failures and cancer, as well as complication rates in the presence of acute disease conditions. Whereas reducing excess adiposity remains the fundamental pathogenetic treatment for obese individuals, complex metabolic and lifestyle abnormalities as well as weight-reduction therapies per se may also compromise the ability to preserve muscle function and mass, especially when chronic disease co-exists with obesity. Emerging evidence indicates that low muscle mass and quality have a strong negative prognostic impact in obese individuals and may lead to frailty, disability and increased morbidity and mortality. Awareness of the importance of skeletal muscle maintenance in obesity is however low among clinicians and scientists. The term "sarcopenic obesity" has been proposed to identify obesity with low skeletal muscle function and mass, but its utilization is largely limited to the aging patient population, and consensus on its definition and diagnostic criteria remains insufficient. Knowledge on prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in various clinical conditions and patient subgroups, on its clinical impacts in patient risk stratification and on effective prevention and treatment strategies remain therefore dramatically inadequate. In particular, optimal dietary options and medical nutritional support strategies to preserve muscle mass in obese individuals remain largely undefined. The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) and the European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO) recognize and indicate obesity with altered body composition due to low skeletal muscle function and mass (sarcopenic obesity) as a scientific and clinical priority for researchers and clinicians. ESPEN and EASO therefore call for coordinated action aimed at reaching consensus on its definition, diagnostic criteria and optimal treatment with particular regard to nutritional therapy. We are convinced that achievement of these goals has strong potential to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality in the rapidly increasing obese patient population. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  • 39. Barazzoni, Rocco
    et al.
    Bischoff, Stephan C.
    Busetto, Luca
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Chourdakis, Michael
    Cuerda, Cristina
    Delzenne, Nathalie
    Genton, Laurence
    Schneider, Stephane
    Singer, Pierre
    Boirie, Yves
    Nutritional management of individuals with obesity and COVID-19: ESPEN expert statements and practical guidance2022In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 41, no 12, p. 2869-2886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemics has created unprecedented challenges and threats to patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Acute respiratory complications that require intensive care unit (ICU) management are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Among other important risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes, obesity has emerged along with undernutrition-malnutrition as a strong predictor of disease risk and severity. Obesity-related excessive body fat may lead to respiratory, metabolic and immune derangements potentially favoring the onset of COVID-19 complications. In addition, patients with obesity may be at risk for loss of skeletal muscle mass, reflecting a state of hidden malnutrition with a strong negative health impact in all clinical settings. Also importantly, obesity is commonly associated with micronutrient deficiencies that directly influence immune function and infection risk. Finally, the pandemic-related lockdown, deleterious lifestyle changes and other numerous psychosocial consequences may worsen eating behaviors, sedentarity, body weight regulation, ultimately leading to further increments of obesity-associated metabolic complications with loss of skeletal muscle mass and higher non-communicable disease risk. Therefore, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies should be routinely included in the management of COVID-19 patients in the presence of obesity; lockdown-induced health risks should also be specifically monitored and prevented in this population. In the current document, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) aims at providing clinical practice guidance for nutritional management of COVID-19 patients with obesity in various clinical settings.

  • 40.
    Barazzoni, Rocco
    et al.
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, Internal Med, Trieste, Italy.;Azienda Sanit Univ Integrata Trieste ASUITS, Trieste, Italy.;Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, Str Fiume 447, I-34149 Trieste, Italy..
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zanetti, Michela
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, Internal Med, Trieste, Italy.;Azienda Sanit Univ Integrata Trieste ASUITS, Trieste, Italy..
    Cappellari, Gianluca Gortan
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, Internal Med, Trieste, Italy.;Azienda Sanit Univ Integrata Trieste ASUITS, Trieste, Italy..
    Defining and diagnosing sarcopenia: Is the glass now half full?2023In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, ISSN 0026-0495, E-ISSN 1532-8600, Vol. 143, article id 155558Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low muscle mass and function exert a substantial negative impact on quality of life, health and ultimately survival, but their definition, identification and combination to define sarcopenia have suffered from lack of universal consensus. Methodological issues have also contributed to incomplete agreement, as different approaches, techniques and potential surrogate measures inevitably lead to partly different conclusions. As a consequence: 1) awareness of sarcopenia and implementation of diagnostic procedures in clinical practice have been limited; 2) patient identification and evaluation of therapeutic strategies is largely incomplete. Significant progress has however recently occurred after major diagnostic algorithms have been developed, with common features and promising perspectives for growing consensus. At the same time, the need for further refinement of the sarcopenia concept has emerged, to address its increasingly recognized clinical heterogeneity. This includes potential differential underlying mechanisms and clinical features for age-and disease-driven sarcopenia, and the emerging challenge of sarcopenia in persons with obesity. Here, we will review existing algorithms to diagnose sarcopenia, and major open methodological issues to assess skeletal muscle mass and function under different clinical conditions, in order to highlight similarities and differences. Potential for consensus on sarcopenia diagnosis as well as emerging new challenges will be discussed.

  • 41.
    Barazzoni, Rocco
    et al.
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, Str Fiume 447, I-34149 Trieste, Italy..
    Jensen, Gordon L.
    Univ Vermont, Larner Coll Med, Dept Med, Deans Off, Burlington, VT USA..
    Correia, Maria Isabel T. D.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Med Sch, Dept Surg, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Gonzalez, Maria Cristina
    Univ Catolica Pelotas, Postgrad Program Hlth & Behav, Pelotas, RS, Brazil..
    Higashiguchi, Takashi
    Yonaha Okanoue Hosp, Kuwana, Japan..
    Shi, Han Ping
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing Shijitan Hosp, Dept Gastrointestinal Surg, Key Lab Canc FSMP State Market Regulat, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Capital Med Univ, Beijing Shijitan Hosp, Dept Clin Nutr, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Bischoff, Stephan C.
    Univ Hohenheim, Dept Nutr Med, Stuttgart, Germany..
    Boirie, Yves
    Univ Clermont Auvergne, Clin Nutr Dept, Unite Nutr Humaine, CRNH Auvergne,INRAE,CHU Clermont Ferrand, Clermont Ferrand, France..
    Carrasco, Fernando
    Univ Chile, Fac Med, Nutr & Bariatr Surg Ctr, Dept Nutr,Clin Las Condes, Santiago, Chile..
    Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso
    Hosp Univ Ramon y Cajal IRYCIS, Serv Geriatria, Madrid, Spain..
    Fuchs-Tarlovsky, Vanessa
    Hosp Gen Mexico City, Clin Nutr Dept, Ciudad De Mexico, Mexico..
    Fukushima, Ryoji
    Teikyo Univ, Teikyo Heisei Univ, Sch Med Hlth & Dietet, Dept Surg, Tokyo, Japan..
    Heymsfield, Steve
    Louisiana State Univ, Pennington Biomed Res Ctr, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 USA..
    Mourtzakis, Marina
    Univ Waterloo, Dept Kinesiol & Hlth Sci, Waterloo, ON, Canada..
    Muscaritoli, Maurizio
    Sapienza Univ Rome, Dept Translat & Precis Med, Rome, Italy..
    Norman, Kristina
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Freie Univ Berlin, Humboldt Univ Berlin, Dept Geriatr & Med Gerontol,Berlin Inst Hlth, Berlin, Germany.;German Inst Human Nutr Potsdam Rehbrucke, Dept Nutr & Gerontol, Nuthetal, Germany..
    Nyulasi, Ibolya
    Alfred Hosp, Nutr Dept, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;La Trobe Univ, Dept Dietet Nutr & Sport, Bundoora, Vic, Australia.;Monash Univ, Cent Clin Sch, Dept Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Pisprasert, Veeradej
    Khon Kaen Univ, Fac Med, Dept Med, Khon Kaen, Thailand..
    Prado, Carla
    Univ Alberta, Dept Agr Food & Nutr Sci, Human Nutr Res Unit, Edmonton, AB, Canada..
    de van der Schuren, Marian
    HAN Univ Appl Sci, Sch Allied Hlth, Dept Nutr Dietet & Lifestyle, Nijmegen, Netherlands.;Wageningen Univ & Res Human Nutr & Hlth, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Yoshida, Sadao
    Chuzan Hosp, Dept Rehabil, Okinawa City, Okinawa, Japan..
    Yu, Yanchun
    Chinese Acad Med Sci, Peking Union Med Coll Hosp, Dept Gen Surg, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics. Karolinska Univ Hosp, Theme Inflammat & Ageing, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Compher, Charlene
    Univ Penn, Sch Nursing, Dept Biobehav Hlth Sci, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Guidance for assessment of the muscle mass phenotypic criterion for the Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) diagnosis of malnutrition2022In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 1425-1433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Global Leadership Initiative on Malnutrition (GLIM) provides consensus criteria for the diagnosis of malnutrition that can be widely applied. The GLIM approach is based on the assessment of three phenotypic (weight loss, low body mass index, and low skeletal muscle mass) and two etiologic (low food intake and presence of disease with systemic inflammation) criteria, with diagnosis confirmed by any combination of one phenotypic and one etiologic criterion fulfilled. Assessment of muscle mass is less commonly performed than other phenotypic malnutrition criteria, and its interpretation may be less straightforward, particularly in settings that lack access to skilled clinical nutrition practitioners and/or to body composition methodologies. In order to promote the widespread assessment of skeletal muscle mass as an integral part of the GLIM diagnosis of malnutrition, the GLIM consortium appointed a working group to provide consensus-based guidance on assessment of skeletal muscle mass. When such methods and skills are available, quantitative assessment of muscle mass should be measured or estimated using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, computerized tomography, or bioelectrical impedance analysis. For settings where these resources are not available, then the use of anthropometric measures and physical examination are also endorsed. Validated ethnic-and sex-specific cutoff values for each measurement and tool are recommended when available. Measurement of skeletal muscle function is not advised as surrogate measurement of muscle mass. However, once malnutrition is diagnosed, skeletal muscle function should be investigated as a relevant component of sarcopenia and for complete nutrition assessment of persons with malnutrition. (c) 2022 Elsevier Ltd. and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. All rights reserved.

  • 42.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    F2-isoprostane induced prostaglandin formation in the rabbit2006In: Free radical research, ISSN 1071-5762, E-ISSN 1029-2470, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 273-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    F2-isoprostanes, non-enzymatic free radical mediated products of arachidonic acid, have shown to form during various oxidant stress status and have potent biological effects. This study investigates to what extent 8-iso-PGF (a major F2-isoprostane), a bioactive product of lipid peroxidation can modify endogenous prostaglandin F (PGF) formation since prostaglandins are inflammatory as well as potent vasoregulatory substances that modulate diverse important physiological functions, and also form during acute and chronic inflammation. An immediate appearance and disappearance of 8-iso-PGF was seen in both plasma and urine within a short interval after i.v. administration of 43 μg/kg of 8-iso-PGF to the rabbits. A successive but differential formation of PGF resulted in a rapid and pulsatile increase of plasma 15-keto-dihydro-PGF, a major metabolite of primary PGF. Later, this compound was excreted efficiently as intact compound into the urine during the 3 h of experiment. A 8-fold increase of PGF metabolite in plasma at 10 min and 12-fold increase in the urine at 30–60 after the i.v. administration of 8-iso-PGF was observed which continued throughout the 3 h of experiment. This observation suggests that pharmacologically administered or endogenously produced 8-iso-PGF during oxidant stress induces prostaglandin formation presumbly through the classical cyclooxygenase-catalysed arachidonic acid oxidation which might be inflammatory itself to the cells and exerts further vasoconstrictive effects.

  • 43.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    F2-isoprostanes in human health and diseases: from molecular mechanisms to clinical implications2008In: Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, ISSN 1523-0864, E-ISSN 1557-7716, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1405-1434Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxidative stress is implicated as one of the major underlying mechanisms behind many acute and chronic diseases, and involved in normal aging. However, the measurement of free radicals or their end products is complicated. Thus, proof of association of free radicals in pathologic conditions has been absent. Isoprostanes are prostaglandin-like bioactive compounds that are biosynthesized in vivo independent of cyclooxygenases, principally through free-radical catalyzation of arachidonic acid. Isoprostanes are now considered to be reliable biomarkers of oxidative stress, as evidenced by an autonomous study organized recently by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States. A number of these compounds have potent biologic activities such as vasoconstrictive and certain inflammatory properties. Isoprostanes are involved in many human diseases. Additionally, elevated levels of F2-isoprostanes have been seen in normal human pregnancy and after intake of some fatty acids, but their physiologic assignments have not yet been distinctive. This evidence indicates that measurement of bioactive F2-isoprostanes in body fluids offers a unique noninvasive analytic utensil to study the role of free radicals in physiology, oxidative stress–related diseases, experimental acute or chronic inflammatory conditions, and also in the assessment of various antioxidants, radical scavengers, and drugs.

  • 44.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Novel cyclooxygenase-catalyzed bioactive prostaglandin F-2 alpha from physiology to new principles in inflammation2007In: Medicinal research reviews (Print), ISSN 0198-6325, E-ISSN 1098-1128, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 435-468Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostaglandin F2 (PGF2), a foremost stable vasoactive cyclooxygenase (COX)-catalyzed prostaglandin, regulates a number of key physiological functions such as luteolysis, ovarian function, luteal maintenance of pregnancy, and parturition as a constitutive part of ongoing reproductive processes of the body. It has recently been implicated in the regulation of intricate pathophysiological processes, such as acute and chronic inflammation, cardiovascular and rheumatic diseases. Since the discovery of a second isoform of COXs, it has been shown that PGF2 can be formed in vivo from arachidonic acid through both isoforms of COXs, namely cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Being synthesized in various parts of the body, it metabolizes instantly to a number of rather inactive metabolites mainly in the lungs, liver, kidney, and efficiently excretes into the urine. 15-Keto-dihydro-PGF2, a major stable metabolite of PGF2 that reflects in vivo PGF2 biosynthesis, is found in larger quantities than its parent compound in the circulation and urine in basal physiological conditions, with short-lived pulses during luteolysis, induced termination of pregnancy and parturition, and is increased in tissues and various body fluids during acute, sub-chronic, and severe chronic inflammation. Further, the close relationship of PGF2 with a number of risk factors for atherosclerosis indicates its major role in inflammation pathology. This review addresses multiple aspects of PGF2 in addition to its emerging role in physiology to inflammation.

  • 45.
    Basu, Samar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Liu, Xiaoli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Nozari, Ala
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Rubertsson, Sten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Miclescu, Adriana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Wiklund, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Evidence for Time-dependent Maximum Increase ofFree Radical Damage and Eicosanoid Formation in theBrain as Related to Duration of Cardiac Arrest andCardio-pulmonary Resuscitation2003In: Free radical research, ISSN 1071-5762, E-ISSN 1029-2470, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 251-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recovery of neurological function in patients following cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a complex event. Free radical induced oxidative stress is supposed to be involved in this process. We studied levels of 8-iso-PGF2alpha (indicating oxidative injury) and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2alpha (indicating inflammatory response) in venous plasma obtained from the jugular bulb in a porcine model of experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) where 2, 5, 8, 10 or 12 min of ventricular fibrillation (VF) was followed by 5 or 8 min of closed-chest CPR. A significant increase of 8-iso-PGF2alpha was observed immediately following restoration of spontaneous circulation in all experiments of various duration of VF and CPR. No such increase was seen in a control group. When compared between the groups there was a duration-dependent maximum increase of 8-iso-PGF2alpha which was greatest in animals subjected to the longest period (VF12 min + CPR8 min) of no or low blood flow. In contrast, the greatest increase of 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2alpha was observed in the 13 min group (VF8 min + CPR5 min). Thus, a time-dependent cerebral oxidative injury occurs in conjunction which cardiac arrest and CPR.

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  • 46. Bauer, Juergen
    et al.
    Biolo, Gianni
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cesari, Matteo
    Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J.
    Morley, John E.
    Phillips, Stuart
    Sieber, Cornel
    Stehle, Peter
    Teta, Daniel
    Visvanathan, Renuka
    Volpi, Elena
    Boirie, Yves
    Evidence-Based Recommendations for Optimal Dietary Protein Intake in Older People: A Position Paper From the PROT-AGE Study Group2013In: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1525-8610, E-ISSN 1538-9375, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 542-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New evidence shows that older adults need more dietary protein than do younger adults to support good health, promote recovery from illness, and maintain functionality. Older people need to make up for age-related changes in protein metabolism, such as high splanchnic extraction and declining anabolic responses to ingested protein. They also need more protein to offset inflammatory and catabolic conditions associated with chronic and acute diseases that occur commonly with aging. With the goal of developing updated, evidence-based recommendations for optimal protein intake by older people, the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS), in cooperation with other scientific organizations, appointed an international study group to review dietary protein needs with aging (PROT-AGE Study Group). To help older people (>65 years) maintain and regain lean body mass and function, the PROT-AGE study group recommends average daily intake at least in the range of 1.0 to 1.2 g protein per kilogram of body weight per day. Both endurance-and resistance-type exercises are recommended at individualized levels that are safe and tolerated, and higher protein intake (ie, >= 1.2 g/kg body weight/d) is advised for those who are exercising and otherwise active. Most older adults who have acute or chronic diseases need even more dietary protein (ie, 1.2-1.5 g/kg body weight/d). Older people with severe kidney disease (ie, estimated GFR <30 mL/min/1.73m(2)), but who are not on dialysis, are an exception to this rule; these individuals may need to limit protein intake. Protein quality, timing of ingestion, and intake of other nutritional supplements may be relevant, but evidence is not yet sufficient to support specific recommendations. Older people are vulnerable to losses in physical function capacity, and such losses predict loss of independence, falls, and even mortality. Thus, future studies aimed at pinpointing optimal protein intake in specific populations of older people need to include measures of physical function.

  • 47.
    Bauer, Juergen M.
    et al.
    Heidelberg Univ, Ctr Geriatr Med, Agaples Bethanien Krankenhaus Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Mikusova, Lucia
    Danone Nutricia Res, Nutricia Adv Med Nutr, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Verlaan, Sjors
    Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, VU, Dept Internal Med,Sect Gerontol & Geriatr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Bautmans, Ivan
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Frailty Ageing Res Grp FRIA, Brussels, Belgium.
    Brandt, Kirsten
    Newcastle Univ, Inst Ageing, Sch Agr Food & Rural Dev, Human Nutr Res Ctr, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England.
    Donini, Lorenzo M.
    Sapienza Univ Rome, Dept Expt Med, Sect Med Pathophysiol Endocrinol & Human Nutr, Rome, Italy.
    Maggio, Marcello
    Univ Parma, Sect Geriatr, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Parma, Italy.
    Mets, Tony
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Frailty Ageing Res Grp FRIA, Brussels, Belgium.
    Wijers, Sander L. J.
    Danone Nutricia Res, Nutricia Adv Med Nutr, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Garthoff, Jossie A.
    Danone Food Safety Ctr, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Luiking, Yvette
    Danone Nutricia Res, Nutricia Adv Med Nutr, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Sieber, Cornel
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Safety and tolerability of 6-month supplementation with a vitamin D, calcium and leucine-enriched whey protein medical nutrition drink in sarcopenic older adults2020In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 1501-1514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims Safety and tolerability of prolonged supplementation with a vitamin D, calcium and leucine-enriched whey protein medical nutrition drink (WP-MND) was evaluated in sarcopenic older adults.

    Methods A 13-week double-blinded, randomized, isocaloric placebo-controlled trial (PROVIDE study;n = 380) was extended with a voluntary 13-week open-label extension (OLE). OLE participants were randomized to receive daily 1 or 2 servings of WP-MND (21 g protein, 3 g leucine, 10 mu g vitD and 500 mg calcium per serving). Gastro-intestinal tolerability, kidney function and serum levels of calcidiol, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium were evaluated at week 0, 13 and 26.

    Results and discussion In response to the high daily protein intake (median1.5; IQR: 1.3, 1.7 g/kg BW/day), the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) increased in the test group during the RCT (p = 0.013). The same trend was observed for those participants with moderate chronic kidney disease. During OLE no eGFR change was observed in any of the groups. Serum calcidiol and calcium reached a plateau after 13-week WP-MND supplementation. As expected, PTH significantly changed in the opposite direction, decreasing during RCT in the test group (T vs C:p < 0.001) and during OLE in former control groups. During RCT, 20/366 participants with normal baseline calcidiol reached levels >= 100 nmol/L (T:n = 18; C:n = 2) and 6 developed albumin-corrected calcium levels > 2.55 mmol/L (T:n = 3; C:n = 3), without associated adverse events.

    Conclusion A 6 months intervention with up to 2 servings of WP-MND did neither result in kidney function deterioration nor symptoms of vitamin D or calcium toxicity. The product was overall well tolerated.

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  • 48.
    Bauer, Juergen M.
    et al.
    Carl von Ossietzky Univ Oldenburg, Dept Geriatr Med, D-26133 Oldenburg, Germany..
    Verlaan, Sjors
    Nutricia Adv Med Nutr, Nutricia Res, Utrecht, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Dept Internal Med, Sect Gerontol & Geriatr, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Bautmans, Ivan
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Frailty Ageing Res Grp FRIA, Brussels, Belgium..
    Brandt, Kirsten
    Newcastle Univ, Inst Ageing, Sch Agr Food & Rural Dev, Human Nutr Res Ctr, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Donini, Lorenzo M.
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Sect Med Pathophysiol Endocrinol & Human Nutr, Dept Expt Med, I-00185 Rome, Italy..
    Maggio, Marcello
    Univ Parma, Univ Hosp, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Sect Geriatr,Movement Disorders & Prevent Disabil, I-43100 Parma, Italy.;Univ Parma, Univ Hosp, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Sect Geriatr,Food Sci Unit, I-43100 Parma, Italy.;Univ Parma, Univ Hosp, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Sect Geriatr,Endocrinol Aging Unit, I-43100 Parma, Italy..
    McMurdo, Marion E. T.
    Univ Dundee, Ninewells Hosp & Med Sch, Ninewells Hosp, Ageing & Hlth, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland..
    Mets, Tony
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Frailty Ageing Res Grp FRIA, Brussels, Belgium..
    Seal, Chris
    Newcastle Univ, Inst Ageing, Sch Agr Food & Rural Dev, Human Nutr Res Ctr, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Wijers, Sander L.
    Nutricia Adv Med Nutr, Nutricia Res, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Ceda, Gian Paolo
    Univ Parma, Univ Hosp, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Sect Geriatr,Movement Disorders & Prevent Disabil, I-43100 Parma, Italy.;Univ Parma, Univ Hosp, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Sect Geriatr,Food Sci Unit, I-43100 Parma, Italy.;Univ Parma, Univ Hosp, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Sect Geriatr,Endocrinol Aging Unit, I-43100 Parma, Italy..
    De Vito, Giuseppe
    Univ Coll Dublin, Inst Sport & Hlth, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Donders, Gilbert
    Femicare, Clin Res Women, Tienen, Belgium..
    Drey, Michael
    Klinikum Univ Munchen LMU, Schwerpunkt Akutgeriatrie, Med Klin & Poliklin 4, Munich, Germany..
    Greig, Carolyn
    Univ Birmingham, Sch Sport Exercise & Rehabil Sci, Birmingham, W Midlands, England.;Univ Birmingham, Ctr Musculoskeletal Ageing Res, Birmingham, W Midlands, England..
    Holmbäck, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Narici, Marco
    Univ Nottingham, Royal Derby Hosp, MRC ARUK Ctr Musculoskeletal Ageing Res, Fac Med, Derby, England..
    McPhee, Jamie
    Manchester Metropolitan Univ, Sch Healthcare Sci, All Saints, Manchester M15 6BH, Lancs, England..
    Poggiogalle, Eleonora
    Univ Roma La Sapienza, Sect Med Pathophysiol Endocrinol & Human Nutr, Dept Expt Med, I-00185 Rome, Italy..
    Power, Dermot
    Mater Misericordiae Univ Hosp, Dept Med Older Persons, Dublin, Ireland.;Univ Coll Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Scafoglieri, Aldo
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Frailty Ageing Res Grp FRIA, Brussels, Belgium..
    Schultz, Ralf
    St Marien Hosp, Clin Geriatr, Cologne, Germany..
    Sieber, Cornel C.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Inst Biomed Ageing, Nurnberg, Germany..
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Effects of a Vitamin D and Leucine-Enriched Whey Protein Nutritional Supplement on Measures of Sarcopenia in Older Adults, the PROVIDE Study: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial2015In: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, ISSN 1525-8610, E-ISSN 1538-9375, Vol. 16, no 9, p. 740-747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Age-related losses of muscle mass, strength, and function (sarcopenia) pose significant threats to physical performance, independence, and quality of life. Nutritional supplementation could positively influence aspects of sarcopenia and thereby prevent mobility disability. Objective: To test the hypothesis that a specific oral nutritional supplement can result in improvements in measures of sarcopenia. Design: A multicenter, randomized, controlled, double-blind, 2 parallel-group trial among 380 sarcopenic primarily independent-living older adults with Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB; 0-12) scores between 4 and 9, and a low skeletal muscle mass index. The active group (n = 184) received a vitamin D and leucine-enriched whey protein nutritional supplement to consume twice daily for 13 weeks. The control group (n = 196) received an iso-caloric control product to consume twice daily for 13 weeks. Primary outcomes of handgrip strength and SPPB score, and secondary outcomes of chair-stand test, gait speed, balance score, and appendicular muscle mass (by DXA) were measured at baseline, week 7, and week 13 of the intervention. Results: Handgrip strength and SPPB improved in both groups without significant between-group differences. The active group improved more in the chair-stand test compared with the control group, between-group effect (95% confidence interval): -1.01 seconds (-1.77 to -0.19), P = .018. The active group gained more appendicular muscle mass than the control group, between-group effect: 0.17 kg (0.004-0.338), P = .045. Conclusions: This 13-week intervention of a vitamin D and leucine-enriched whey protein oral nutritional supplement resulted in improvements in muscle mass and lower-extremity function among sarcopenic older adults. This study shows proof-of-principle that specific nutritional supplementation alone might benefit geriatric patients, especially relevant for those who are unable to exercise. These results warrant further investigations into the role of a specific nutritional supplement as part of a multimodal approach to prevent adverse outcomes among older adults at risk for disability.

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  • 49.
    Becker, W
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Bruce, A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    mattisson, I
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Sohlström, Annica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Kostråden är desamma trots olika utgångspunkter2007In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 104, no 49, p. 3786-3787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Göran Berglund och Livsmedelsverket landar i samma kostråd, trots olika utgångspunkter.

    Ökat intag av frukt och grönt och kostfibrer med samtidig energibalans innebär en fördelning mellan fett, protein och kolhydrater som anges i nuvarande näringsrekommendationer.

    Nya välgjorda studier visar att sambanden mellan fettintag, intag av olika fettsyror och hjärt–kärlsjukdom är mer komplexa än vad tidigare studier kunnat visa.

    Livsmedelsverkets inställning är att den kommande revideringen av rekommendationerna bör ske på ett än mer öppet, transparent och systematiskt sätt för att säkerställa kvaliteten.

  • 50.
    Bendavid, Itai
    et al.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sackler Sch Med, Beilinson Hosp, Rabin Med Ctr,Dept Gen Intens Care, Tel Aviv, Israel.;Tel Aviv Univ, Sackler Sch Med, Beilinson Hosp, Rabin Med Ctr,Inst Nutr Res, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Lobo, Dileep N.
    Nottingham Univ Hosp NHS Trust, Nottingham Biomed Res Ctr, Natl Inst Hlth Res NIHR, Gastrointestinal Surg,Nottingham Digest Dis Ctr, Nottingham NG7 2UH, England.;Univ Nottingham, Queens Med Ctr, Nottingham NG7 2UH, England.;Univ Nottingham, Queens Med Ctr, Sch Life Sci, MRC Versus Arthrit Ctr Musculoskeletal Ageing Res, Nottingham NG7 2UH, England..
    Barazzoni, Rocco
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, Trieste, Italy..
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Karolinska Univ Hosp, Theme Ageing, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Coeffier, Moise
    Rouen Univ Hosp, Dept Nutr, CIC1404, Rouen, France.;Normandie Univ, UNIROUEN, Inserm UMR1073, Rouen, France..
    de van der Schueren, Marian
    HAN Univ Appl Sci, Dept Nutr & Dietet, Sch Allied Hlth, Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Fontaine, Eric
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, LBFA, INSERM U1055, Grenoble, France..
    Hiesmayr, Michael
    Med Univ Vienna, Div Cardiac Thorac Vasc Anesthesia & Intens Care, Waehringerguertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna, Austria..
    Laviano, Alessandro
    Sapienza Univ, Dept Translat & Precis Med, Rome, Italy..
    Pichard, Claude
    Geneva Univ Hosp, Clin Nutr, Rue Gabrielle Perret Gentil 4, CH-12111 Geneva 4, Switzerland..
    Singer, Pierre
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sackler Sch Med, Beilinson Hosp, Rabin Med Ctr,Dept Gen Intens Care, Tel Aviv, Israel.;Tel Aviv Univ, Sackler Sch Med, Beilinson Hosp, Rabin Med Ctr,Inst Nutr Res, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    The centenary of the Harris-Benedict equations: How to assess energy requirements best? Recommendations from the ESPEN expert group2021In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 690-701Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & aims: The year 2019 marked the centenary of the publication of the Harris and Benedict equations for estimation of energy expenditure. In October 2019 a Scientific Symposium was organized by the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) in Vienna, Austria, to celebrate this historical landmark, looking at what is currently known about the estimation and measurement of energy expenditure.

    Methods: Current evidence was discussed during the symposium, including the scientific basis and clinical knowledge, and is summarized here to assist with the estimation and measurement of energy requirements that later translate into energy prescription.

    Results: In most clinical settings, the majority of predictive equations have low to moderate performance, with the best generally reaching an accuracy of no more than 70%, and often lead to large errors in estimating the true needs of patients. Generally speaking, the addition of body composition measurements did not add to the accuracy of predictive equations. Indirect calorimetry is the most reliable method to measure energy expenditure and guide energy prescription, but carries inherent limitations, greatly restricting its use in real life clinical practice.

    Conclusions: While the limitations of predictive equations are clear, their use is still the mainstay in clinical practice. It is imperative to recognize specific patient populations for whom a specific equation should be preferred. When available, the use of indirect calorimetry is advised in a variety of clinical settings, aiming to avoid under-as well as overfeeding.

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