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  • 1. A Molarius, A
    et al.
    Granström, F
    Feldman, Inna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Kalander Blomqvist, M
    Pettersson, H
    Ello, S
    Can financial insecurity and condescending treatment explain the higher prevalence of poor self-rated health in women than in men? A population-based cross-sectional study in Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Aalto, Heidi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Föräldrars upplevelser av omvårdnaden av sitt sent underburna barn på BB: En intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sent underburna barn vårdas ofta på BB-avdelning för fullgångna barn. De har högre frekvens av återinläggningar på sjukhus än fullgångna barn. De flesta studier kring underburna barns vistelse på sjukhus är inte gjorda specifikt på sent underburna barn. Syfte: Syftet är att utforska föräldrars upplevelser av omvårdnaden av sent underburna barn på en BB-avdelning i Sverige. I analysen användes det teoretiska begreppet empowerment. Metod: Studien är deskriptiv med en kvalitativ ansats. Telefonintervjuer användes som datainsamlingsmetod. Fem mammor och två pappor deltog i studien. Intervjuerna analyserades med innehållsanalys. Resultat/Slutsats: Föräldrarna upplevde att personalen antingen förmedlade empowerment eller inte. Omvårdnadsåtgärder kring barnet som gjorde föräldrarna mer delaktiga upplevdes mer positivt och omvårdnadsåtgärder som orsakade en separation mellan föräldrar och barn upplevdes mer negativt. Föräldrarna hade svårt att ifrågasätta personal, även om de upplevde att något kring omvårdnadsåtgärden kändes fel. Omvårdnadsåtgärder, utfördes inte alltid i enlighet med vetenskap och beprövad erfarenhet. Personalen kan utbildas mer i att främja empowerment i föräldrarollen och därmed även öka föräldradelaktigheten i barnets omvårdnad och möjligheten att se varje familjs unika behov. Mer forskning behövs om hur detta ska ske.

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  • 3. Aalto, Mikko
    et al.
    Kukka, Antti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, SWEDESD - Sustainability Learning and Research Centre. Gävle sjukhus, Region Gävleborg.
    Elmi, Hassan Abdirahman
    Yared, Solomon
    Viskeraalinen leishmaniaasi tunnistamattomana tappavana tautina: [Visceral leishmaniasis as an unrecognized deadly disease]2023In: Duodecim, ISSN 0012-7183, E-ISSN 2242-3281, Vol. 139, no 11, p. 885-891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a disease caused by Leishmania parasites and transmitted by Phlebotomine sandflies. It affects primarily children and is fatal without treatment but curable with early treatment. Its clinical features are prolonged fever, wasting, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia. Doctors have limited knowledge about its diagnostics. This leads to incorrect diagnoses and deaths, and the disease remains unrecognized. To break this vicious circle, active search of the disease is needed also where environmental factors are conductive to its presence, but it has never been reported. We describe discovering new foci of visceral leishmaniasis in Northern Somalia, Somaliland and Tanzania. 

  • 4. Aaltonen, Pertti
    et al.
    Amory, John K
    Anderson, Richard A
    Behre, Hermann M
    Bialy, Gabriel
    Blithe, Diana
    Bone, Wilhelm
    Bremner, William J
    Colvard, Doug
    Cooper, Trevor G
    Elliesen, Jörg
    Gabelnick, Henry L
    Gu, Yi-Qun
    Handelsman, David J
    Johansson, Elof A B
    Kersemaekers, Wendy
    Liu, Peter
    MacKay, Trent
    Matlin, Stephen
    Mbizvo, Michael
    McLachlan, Robert I
    Meriggiola, Maria Cristina
    Mletzko, Stephan
    Mommers, Ellen
    Muermans, Hilde
    Nieschlag, Eberhard
    Odlind, Viveca
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Page, Stephanie T
    Radlmaier, Albert
    Sitruk-Ware, Regine
    Swerdloff, Ronald
    Wang, Christina
    Wu, Frederick
    Zitzmann, Michael
    10th Summit Meeting consensus: recommendations for regulatory approval for hormonal male contraception.2007In: J of Andrology, vol. 28, No 3 May/June, 2007, p. 362-363Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 5.
    Aarnio, Pauliina
    et al.
    Univ Tampere, Fac Social Sci Global Hlth & Dev, Kalevantie 4, FI-33014 Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Med Sch, Dept Int Hlth, Tampere, Finland.
    Kulmala, Teija
    Univ Tampere, Med Sch, Child Hlth Res Unit, Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Med Sch, Dept Int Hlth, Tampere, Finland.
    Olsson, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Husband's role in handling pregnancy complications in Mangochi District, Malawi: A call for increased focus on community level male involvement2018In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 16, p. 61-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of the current study is to provide information about husbands' role in decision-making and healthcare seeking in cases of pregnancy complications in Mangochi district, Malawi with an analysis of qualitative interviews using the concepts of "capital" and "field" from Bourdieu's social field theory. Study design: Twelve husbands and wives who had experienced pregnancy complications and six key informants from a semi-rural area of Mangochi district were interviewed individually. Thematic analysis was conducted based on the concepts of capital and field in Bourdieu's social field theory. Results: Husbands have significant economic and symbolic capital in decisions about healthcare seeking during instances of pregnancy complications as a result of their roles as father, head of the household and main income earner. Lack of money is the only acceptable reason for husbands to deny their wives healthcare. Husbands have limited access to knowledge of maternal health, which can compromise their decisions about seeking healthcare. Joint decision-making within families can be bypassed to allow for prompt healthcare seeking in emergencies. Conclusions: Husbands are important decision makers regarding seeking healthcare for pregnancy complications because of their economic and symbolic power and despite their limited access to knowledge of maternal health. Maternal healthcare seeking practices would benefit from wives gaining an empowered role as well as improved knowledge of maternal health among husbands.

  • 6.
    Aarnio, Pauliina
    et al.
    Dept for International Health, Medical School, University of Tampere, Finland.
    Olsson, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Chimbiri, Agnes
    Kulmala, Teija
    Male involvement in antenatal HIV counseling and testing: exploring men's perceptions in rural Malawi2009In: AIDS Care, ISSN 0954-0121, E-ISSN 1360-0451, Vol. 21, no 12, p. 1537-1546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antenatal care can act as an excellent tool to improve access to HIV counseling and testing services. This paper investigates an issue that may weaken its potential, namely lack of male involvement. We explored married men's perceptions of HIV in pregnancy and male involvement in antenatal HIV testing and counseling in Southern Malawi through 11 focus group discussions and a cross-sectional survey (n=388). The main findings were that men were largely unaware of available antenatal HIV testing and counseling services, and perceived it overall problematic to attend female-oriented health care. Most men supported provision of antenatal HIV testing. They perceived husbands to participate in the process indirectly through spousal communication, being faithful during pregnancy, and supporting the wife if found HIV-positive. Involvement of husbands was compromised by men's reluctance to learn their HIV status and the threat that HIV poses on marriage. Men stressed the importance of prior spousal agreement of antenatal HIV testing and considered HIV testing without their consent a valid reason for divorce. We suggest that male involvement in antenatal HIV testing requires refocusing of information and health services to include men. To avoid negative social outcomes for women, comprehensive and early involvement of men is essential.

  • 7.
    Aarnio, Riina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Self-sampling for HPV testing in primary cervical screening: Including clinical and health economic aspects2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is a prerequisite for the development of cervical cancer. HPV testing has higher sensitivity for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) than cytology, resulting in more effective screening. As HPV testing also offers an opportunity for self-sampling, it could serve as an even more effective and cost-effective method of cervical screening.

    First, we compared repeated self-sampling for HPV testing with Pap smear cytology in detection of CIN2+ in primary cervical screening for women aged 30–49 years (n=36 390). We found a more than twofold higher detection rate of CIN2+ and a fourfold higher detection rate of CIN2 with self-sampling compared with cytology. However, no difference was seen between the arms in the detection rate of CIN3+. It thus seems that CIN is detected at an earlier stage with self-sampling than with cytology, but the impact of this needs to be further explored.

    Second, as management of HPV-positive women with normal cytology results is a challenge, we wanted to evaluate the proportion of cases of histological CIN2+ in these women. In this prospective study we performed LEEP and found that 15% (6/40) of the women had undetected CIN2+. These findings can be used in counseling women about the risk of cervical cancer and helping clinicians in decisions on management.

    Third, we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis on the same study population as in Study I. Self-sampling for HPV testing resulted in a higher participation rate and more detected cases of CIN2+ at a lower cost and was regarded as more cost-effective than Pap smear cytology in cervical screening. These results can guide policy-makers when planning future screening programs.

    Fourth, we compared self-sampling with sampling by medical professionals for HPV testing in detection of CIN2+, using a combination of an FTA card as storage medium and a PCR-based HPV test (hpVIR) in women aged 30–60 years (n=11 951). No difference in the detection rates of histological CIN2+ was found between the arms.

    Taken together, self-sampling resulted in a higher participation rate than sampling by medical professionals in cervical screening and that triage with repeated self-sampling resulted in high compliance and detection rate of CIN2+. As repeated self-sampling for HPV testing was also cost-effective, it could serve as an attractive alternative in the development of future cervical screening programs. More research is needed on how to refine the management of HPV-positive women by self-sampling only.

    List of papers
    1. Randomised study shows that repeated self-sampling and HPV test has more than two-fold higher detection rate of women with CIN2+ histology than Pap smear cytology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Randomised study shows that repeated self-sampling and HPV test has more than two-fold higher detection rate of women with CIN2+ histology than Pap smear cytology
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: British Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0007-0920, E-ISSN 1532-1827, Vol. 118, no 6, p. 896-904Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    This randomised study compared the detection rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-positive (CIN2+) based on histology in women performing repeated self-sampling of vaginal fluid (VF) for human papillomavirus (HPV) test with a control group following the ordinary screening by Pap smear cytology.

    Methods:

    36390 women aged 30–49 years scheduled for invitation to organised screening were randomised in two groups, one to perform self-sampling of VF for HPV test (n=17 997, HPV arm) and the other group to perform screening by PAP smear cytology (n=18 393, control arm). HPV positive women in the HPV arm repeated the self-sampling and the HPV test on average 4.4 months later and those with two consecutive positive HPV tests were referred to colposcopy. Outcome was CIN2+ based on histology during 18-month follow-up.

    Results:

    Participation rate was 47% in the HPV arm and 39% in the control arm. The HPV prevalence in the first self-sampling was 6.9%, and 71% of these women were HPV positive in their second test. For the per-protocol approach, cumulative prevalence of histological CIN2+ in the HPV arm was 20.2 per 1000 women screened as compared to 10.8 in the control arm. The cumulative prevalence of CIN2+ diagnosed per 1000 years screened was 160.8 in the HPV arm as compared with 25.4 in the control arm.

    Conclusions:

    Repeated self-sampling of VF and HPV test had more than a two-fold higher discovery rate of CIN2+ per 1000 women screened as compared with PAP smear cytology.

    National Category
    Cancer and Oncology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-367087 (URN)10.1038/bjc.2017.485 (DOI)000427945800030 ()29438367 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Cancer SocietySwedish Society for Medical Research (SSMF)
    Available from: 2018-11-28 Created: 2018-11-28 Last updated: 2020-03-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Diagnostic excision of the cervix in women over 40 years with human papilloma virus persistency and normal cytology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diagnostic excision of the cervix in women over 40 years with human papilloma virus persistency and normal cytology
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: European journal of obstetrics & gynecology and reproductive biology: X, ISSN 2590-1613, Vol. 3, article id 100042Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as the main risk factor of cervical cancer. Investigation via cytology and colposcopy have lower sensitivity than HPV testing in the diagnosis of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). Despite normal cytology and colposcopy findings women with persistent HPV infection have an increased risk of CIN2+. The aim of the study was to evaluate the proportion of histologically confirmed CIN2+ in women with persistent HPV infection and normal Pap smears.

    Study design: From April 2013 until March 2016 we prospectively recruited 91 women over 40 years with persistent HPV infection without any abnormalities in cytology. Of these, 40 women attended a gynecological examination including an HPV test, Pap smear, endocervical cytology, colposcopy with biopsies and diagnostic loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Biopsy and LEEP samples were subjected to histological examination.

    Results: CIN2+ was verified by histological examination of the LEEP sample in 6/40 (15%) of the women. All the cytological samples were normal and none of the biopsies confirmed CIN2+. Only 19/40 women still had a persistent HPV infection at the study visit. None of the 21/40 women who had cleared their HPV infection at the study visit had CIN2+ in histology of the LEEP sample.

    Conclusions: A persistent HPV infection needs to be monitored despite normal Pap smears, since 6/40 (15%) women older than 40 years, was revealed to have an undiagnosed CIN2+ when LEEP was performed. Counseling women regarding the risk of cervical cancer and the expected effect of an eventual LEEP can help them to make an optimal informed choice.

    Keywords
    Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, Colposcopy, Human papillomavirus, Loop electrical excision procedure, Transformation zone
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-400770 (URN)10.1016/j.eurox.2019.100042 (DOI)31404426 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2020-01-02 Created: 2020-01-02 Last updated: 2020-03-18Bibliographically approved
    3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of repeated self-sampling for HPV testing in primary cervical screening: a randomized study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost-effectiveness analysis of repeated self-sampling for HPV testing in primary cervical screening: a randomized study
    Show others...
    2020 (English)In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 645Article in journal (Other academic) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is recommended in primary cervical screening to improve cancer prevention. An advantage of HPV testing is that it can be performed on self-samples, which could increase population coverage and result in a more efficient strategy to identify women at risk of developing cervical cancer. Our objective was to assess whether repeated self-sampling for HPV testing is cost-effective in comparison with Pap smear cytology for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more (CIN2+) in increasing participation rate in primary cervical screening.

    Methods

    A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) was performed on data from a previously published randomized clinical study including 36 390 women aged 30–49 years. Participants were randomized either to perform repeated self-sampling of vaginal fluid for HPV testing (n = 17 997, HPV self-sampling arm) or to midwife-collected Pap smears for cytological analysis (n = 18 393, Pap smear arm).

    Results

    Self-sampling for HPV testing led to 1633 more screened women and 107 more histologically diagnosed CIN2+ at a lower cost vs. midwife-collected Pap smears (€ 228 642 vs. € 781 139). 

    Conclusions

    This study projected that repeated self-sampling for HPV testing increased participation and detection of CIN2+ at a lower cost than midwife-collected Pap smears in primary cervical screening. Offering women a home-based self-sampling may therefore be a more cost-effective alternative than clinic-based screening.

     

    Keywords
    Self-sampling, HPV testing, primary cervical screening, cost-effectiveness, CIN2+, precancerous lesion, cervical cancer
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Research subject
    Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-405549 (URN)10.1186/s12885-020-07085-9 (DOI)000552814200003 ()32660432 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2015-02711Swedish Cancer Society, 19 0008Pj 01 H
    Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2020-10-01Bibliographically approved
    4. Comparison of vaginal self-sampling and cervical sampling by medical professionals for the detection of HPV and CIN2+: a randomized study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of vaginal self-sampling and cervical sampling by medical professionals for the detection of HPV and CIN2+: a randomized study
    Show others...
    2021 (English)In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 148, no 12, p. 3051-3059Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Primary screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) test is more effective in reducing cervical cancer incidence than cytology and it also offers the opportunity to self-sample. We conducted a randomized study to compare vaginal self-sampling with cervical sampling by medical professionals for HPV testing concerning prevalence of HPV and detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) or grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) in primary screening. In total, 11 951 women aged 30-60 years were randomized into two groups, 5961 for self-sampling (SS arm) and 5990 for sampling by medical professionals (SMP arm). Sampling was performed with a RoversViba-brush in the SS arm and a cytobrush in the SMP arm. All samples were applied to an indicating FTA elute card and analyzed for HPV using a clinically validated real-time PCR test (hpVIR). All HPV-positive women performed repeated sampling about 6 months later using the same procedure as used initially. All HPV-positive women in the second sampling were referred to colposcopy. The prevalence of HPV in the first test did not differ between the SS arm (6.8%, 167/2466) and the SMP arm (7.8%, 118/1519) (P = .255). The prevalence of CIN2+ per 1000 screened women was 17 (43/2466 × 1000) (95%CI 13-24) in the SS arm and 21 (32/1519 × 1000) (95%CI 15-30) in the SMP arm. For CIN3+, the prevalence per 1000 screened women was 14 (35/2466 × 1000) (95%CI 10-20) in the SS arm and 15 (23/1519 × 1000) (95%CI 10-23) in the SMP arm. In conclusion, self-sampling and sampling by medical professionals showed the same prevalence of HPV and detection rate of CIN2+ and CIN3+ in histology.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2021
    Keywords
    Self-sampling, HPV test, Primary cervical screening
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Research subject
    Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-405547 (URN)10.1002/ijc.33482 (DOI)000618718900001 ()33497465 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2020-02-28 Created: 2020-02-28 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
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  • 8.
    Aarnio, Riina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Isacson, Isabella
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Sanner, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Gustavsson, Inger M.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Gyllensten, Ulf B.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Olovsson, Matts
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Comparison of vaginal self-sampling and cervical sampling by medical professionals for the detection of HPV and CIN2+: a randomized study2021In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 148, no 12, p. 3051-3059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Primary screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) test is more effective in reducing cervical cancer incidence than cytology and it also offers the opportunity to self-sample. We conducted a randomized study to compare vaginal self-sampling with cervical sampling by medical professionals for HPV testing concerning prevalence of HPV and detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) or grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) in primary screening. In total, 11 951 women aged 30-60 years were randomized into two groups, 5961 for self-sampling (SS arm) and 5990 for sampling by medical professionals (SMP arm). Sampling was performed with a RoversViba-brush in the SS arm and a cytobrush in the SMP arm. All samples were applied to an indicating FTA elute card and analyzed for HPV using a clinically validated real-time PCR test (hpVIR). All HPV-positive women performed repeated sampling about 6 months later using the same procedure as used initially. All HPV-positive women in the second sampling were referred to colposcopy. The prevalence of HPV in the first test did not differ between the SS arm (6.8%, 167/2466) and the SMP arm (7.8%, 118/1519) (P = .255). The prevalence of CIN2+ per 1000 screened women was 17 (43/2466 × 1000) (95%CI 13-24) in the SS arm and 21 (32/1519 × 1000) (95%CI 15-30) in the SMP arm. For CIN3+, the prevalence per 1000 screened women was 14 (35/2466 × 1000) (95%CI 10-20) in the SS arm and 15 (23/1519 × 1000) (95%CI 10-23) in the SMP arm. In conclusion, self-sampling and sampling by medical professionals showed the same prevalence of HPV and detection rate of CIN2+ and CIN3+ in histology.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Aarnio, Riina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Wikström, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Gustavsson, Inger M.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Gyllensten, Ulf B.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Olovsson, Matts
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Diagnostic excision of the cervix in women over 40 years with human papilloma virus persistency and normal cytology2019In: European journal of obstetrics & gynecology and reproductive biology: X, ISSN 2590-1613, Vol. 3, article id 100042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as the main risk factor of cervical cancer. Investigation via cytology and colposcopy have lower sensitivity than HPV testing in the diagnosis of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). Despite normal cytology and colposcopy findings women with persistent HPV infection have an increased risk of CIN2+. The aim of the study was to evaluate the proportion of histologically confirmed CIN2+ in women with persistent HPV infection and normal Pap smears.

    Study design: From April 2013 until March 2016 we prospectively recruited 91 women over 40 years with persistent HPV infection without any abnormalities in cytology. Of these, 40 women attended a gynecological examination including an HPV test, Pap smear, endocervical cytology, colposcopy with biopsies and diagnostic loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). Biopsy and LEEP samples were subjected to histological examination.

    Results: CIN2+ was verified by histological examination of the LEEP sample in 6/40 (15%) of the women. All the cytological samples were normal and none of the biopsies confirmed CIN2+. Only 19/40 women still had a persistent HPV infection at the study visit. None of the 21/40 women who had cleared their HPV infection at the study visit had CIN2+ in histology of the LEEP sample.

    Conclusions: A persistent HPV infection needs to be monitored despite normal Pap smears, since 6/40 (15%) women older than 40 years, was revealed to have an undiagnosed CIN2+ when LEEP was performed. Counseling women regarding the risk of cervical cancer and the expected effect of an eventual LEEP can help them to make an optimal informed choice.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Aarnio, Riina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Östensson, Ellinor
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Olovsson, Matts
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Gustavsson, Inger M.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Gyllensten, Ulf B.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Cost-effectiveness analysis of repeated self-sampling for HPV testing in primary cervical screening: a randomized study2020In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 645Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is recommended in primary cervical screening to improve cancer prevention. An advantage of HPV testing is that it can be performed on self-samples, which could increase population coverage and result in a more efficient strategy to identify women at risk of developing cervical cancer. Our objective was to assess whether repeated self-sampling for HPV testing is cost-effective in comparison with Pap smear cytology for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more (CIN2+) in increasing participation rate in primary cervical screening.

    Methods

    A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) was performed on data from a previously published randomized clinical study including 36 390 women aged 30–49 years. Participants were randomized either to perform repeated self-sampling of vaginal fluid for HPV testing (n = 17 997, HPV self-sampling arm) or to midwife-collected Pap smears for cytological analysis (n = 18 393, Pap smear arm).

    Results

    Self-sampling for HPV testing led to 1633 more screened women and 107 more histologically diagnosed CIN2+ at a lower cost vs. midwife-collected Pap smears (€ 228 642 vs. € 781 139). 

    Conclusions

    This study projected that repeated self-sampling for HPV testing increased participation and detection of CIN2+ at a lower cost than midwife-collected Pap smears in primary cervical screening. Offering women a home-based self-sampling may therefore be a more cost-effective alternative than clinic-based screening.

     

  • 11.
    Aarnivala, Henri
    et al.
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Dept Children & Adolescents, Oulu, Finland.;Univ Oulu, PEDEGO Res Unit, Oulu, Finland..
    Harila-Saari, Arja H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatric oncological and neurological research.
    Niinimaki, Riitta
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Dept Children & Adolescents, Oulu, Finland.;Univ Oulu, PEDEGO Res Unit, Oulu, Finland..
    Reply to Ian J. Cohen2022In: Supportive Care in Cancer, ISSN 0941-4355, E-ISSN 1433-7339, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 1901-1902Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Aarnivala, Henri
    et al.
    Univ Oulu, Oulu Univ Hosp, Dept Children & Adolescents, Kajaanintie 52, SF-90220 Oulu, Finland;Univ Oulu, PEDEGO Res Unit, Kajaanintie 52, SF-90220 Oulu, Finland.
    Pokka, Tytti
    Univ Oulu, Oulu Univ Hosp, Dept Children & Adolescents, Kajaanintie 52, SF-90220 Oulu, Finland;Univ Oulu, PEDEGO Res Unit, Kajaanintie 52, SF-90220 Oulu, Finland.
    Soininen, Riina
    Univ Oulu, Oulu Univ Hosp, Dept Children & Adolescents, Kajaanintie 52, SF-90220 Oulu, Finland;Univ Oulu, PEDEGO Res Unit, Kajaanintie 52, SF-90220 Oulu, Finland.
    Mottonen, Merja
    Univ Oulu, Oulu Univ Hosp, Dept Children & Adolescents, Kajaanintie 52, SF-90220 Oulu, Finland;Univ Oulu, PEDEGO Res Unit, Kajaanintie 52, SF-90220 Oulu, Finland.
    Harila-Saari, Arja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology.
    Niinimaki, Riitta
    Univ Oulu, Oulu Univ Hosp, Dept Children & Adolescents, Kajaanintie 52, SF-90220 Oulu, Finland;Univ Oulu, PEDEGO Res Unit, Kajaanintie 52, SF-90220 Oulu, Finland.
    Trends in age- and sex-adjusted body mass index and the prevalence of malnutrition in children with cancer over 42 months after diagnosis: a single-center cohort study2020In: European Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0340-6199, E-ISSN 1432-1076, Vol. 179, no 1, p. 91-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adequate nutritional status of pediatric cancer patients is particularly important to enable them to cope with the demands of the disease and its treatment and to maintain normal growth. Malnutrition and obesity have both been associated with reduced survival and increased drug toxicity. We investigated trends in the age- and sex-adjusted body mass index (ISO-BMI) and the prevalence of malnutrition in a Finnish cohort of 139 consecutive children receiving chemotherapy for cancer, with a follow-up period of 42 months after diagnosis. In total, 28% (39/139) of the patients experienced malnutrition (ISO-BMI < 17 or > 10% weight loss), and 12% (16/139) had a nasogastric tube or underwent gastrostomy. Patients with acute or chronic myeloid leukemia (5/10), central nervous system (CNS) tumors (5/13), or solid tumors (13/31) most frequently suffered from malnutrition. There was a significant increase in the ISO-BMI of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (+ 2.1 kg/m(2)) and lymphomas (+ 2.4 kg/m(2)) during the first 6 months, and the ISO-BMI of patients with ALL remained higher at 42 months compared to baseline (+ 1.9 kg/m(2)). Conclusion: The cumulative incidence of malnutrition in Finnish pediatric cancer patients is comparable to that reported in other populations. The nutritional status of patients with acute myeloid leukemia, CNS tumors, or solid tumors should be monitored with extra care to facilitate early intervention in the case of impending malnutrition.

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  • 13.
    Aarts, Clara
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Exclusive breastfeeding-Does it make a difference?: A longitudinal, prospective study of daily feeding practices, health and growth in a sample of Swedish infants2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of exclusive breastfeeding in relation to daily feeding practices and to health and growth of infants in an affluent society was examined. In a descriptive longitudinal prospective study 506 mother-infant pairs were followed from birth through the greater part of the first year. Feeding was recorded daily, and health and growth were recorded fortnightly.

    Large individual variations were seen in breastfeeding patterns. A wide discrepancy between the exclusive breastfeeding rates obtained from "current status" data and data "since birth" was found.

    Using a strict definition of exclusive breastfeeding from birth and taking into account the reasons for giving complementary feeding, the study showed that many exclusively breastfed infants had infections early in life, the incidence of which increased with age, despite continuation of exclusive breastfeeding. However, truly exclusively breastfed infants seem less likely to suffer infections than infants who receive formula in addition to breast milk. Increasing formula use was associated with an increasing likelihood of suffering respiratory illnesses. The growth of exclusively breastfed infants was similar to that of infants who were not exclusively breastfed.

    The health of newborn infants during the first year of life was associated with factors other than feeding practices alone. Some of these factors may be prenatal, since increasing birth weight was associated with an increasing likelihood of having respiratory symptoms, even in exclusively breastfed infants. However, exclusive breastfeeding was shown to be beneficial for the health of the infant even in an affluent society.

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  • 14.
    Aarts, Clara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Hornell, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Hofvander, Yngve
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Gebre-Medhin, Mehari
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Breastfeeding patterns in relation to thumb sucking and pacifier use1999In: Pediatrics, Vol. 104, p. 50-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Aarts, Clara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Hofvander, Yngve
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Gebre-Medhin, Meharigm
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Growth under privileged conditions of healthy Swedish infants exclusively breastfed from birth to 4-6 months:  a longitudinal prospective study based on daily records of feeding2003In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 145-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    In most studies the methodology used to study growth in relation to breastfeeding patterns cannot ensure that exclusive breastfeeding has in fact occurred since birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth of healthy infants in Sweden in whom exclusive breastfeeding for the first 4–6 mo was ascertained through daily feeding records and to compare the results with the World Health Organization (WHO) “12-month breastfed pooled data set” and the Euro-Growth references for exclusively breastfed infants, as well as with the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO reference.

    Methods:

    147 exclusively breastfed infants and 325 non-exclusively breastfed Swedish infants, with a birthweight of ≥3 kg, were included. The mothers had previous breastfed at least one infant for at least 4 mo. Weight was recorded fortnightly and length monthly.

    Results:

    Infants exclusively breastfed since birth showed similar growth in weight and height to that of the non-exclusively breastfed infants. During the first 6 mo of life the growth of exclusively breastfed infants was also similar to that of the infants regularly receiving formula at 12–16 wk of age, mostly in addition to breast milk. The monthly growth increments were fairly similar to those of the “WHO pooled breastfed data set” and the Euro-Growth references for exclusively breastfed infants.

    Conclusion:

    In an affluent society truly exclusively breastfed infants seem to have the same growth during the first half year of life as non-exclusively breastfed infants with a high breastfeeding rate.

  • 16.
    Aarts, Clara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Hornell, A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Hofvander, Yngve
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Gebre-Medhin, Mehari
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Greiner, Ted
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    How exclusive is exclusive breastfeeding? A comparison of data since birth with current status data:  2000In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 1041-1046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    There is no accepted and widely used indicator for exclusive breastfeeding since birth. Indeed, the difference between 'current status' data on exclusive breastfeeding and data on 'exclusive breastfeeding since birth' is rarely recognized. We used data from a longitudinal study to examine this issue.

    METHODS:

    A descriptive longitudinal, prospective study design was used in which 506 mother-infant pairs were included. The mothers completed daily recordings on infant feeding during the first nine months after birth. A research assistant conducted fortnightly home visits with structured interviews. The resulting data on breastfeeding patterns are presented in two different ways: analysis of 'current status' data based on a single 24-hour recording of infant feeding at 2, 4 and 6 months of age, and analysis of data 'since birth', i.e. data on infant feeding for every day, starting from birth until the ages of 2, 4 and 6 months.

    RESULTS:

    A wide discrepancy between the results obtained from the two analyses was found. The difference in the exclusive breastfeeding rate was over 40 percentage points at both 2 and 4 months of age (92% versus 51% at 2 months and 73% versus 30% at 4 months) and 9 percentage points at 6 months (11% versus 1.8%).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Current status indicators based on a 24-hour period may be inadequate and even misleading for many purposes. We propose that in many studies an indicator called 'exclusive breastfeeding since birth' could be added.

  • 17.
    Abacan, MaryAnn
    et al.
    Univ Philippines Manila, Inst Human Genet, NIH, Manila, Philippines.
    Alsubaie, Lamia
    KASCH, King Abdulaziz Med City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Barlow-Stewart, Kristine
    Univ Sydney, Fac Med & Hlth, Northern Clin Sch, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Caanen, Beppy
    Maastricht Univ, Dept Clin Genet, Med Ctr, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Cordier, Christophe
    SYNLAB Genet, Dept Genet, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Courtney, Eliza
    Natl Canc Ctr, Div Med Oncol, Canc Genet Serv, Singapore, Singapore.
    Davoine, Emeline
    Lausanne Univ Hosp CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Edwards, Janice
    Univ South Carolina, Genet Counseling Program, Transnat Alliance Genet Counseling, Columbia, SC USA.
    Elackatt, Niby J.
    Cloudnine Hosp, Org Rare Dis India, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
    Gardiner, Kate
    LifeLabs Genet, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Guan, Yue
    Emory Univ, Rollins Sch Publ Hlth, Atlanta, GA USA.
    Huang, Lian-Hua
    China Med Univ, Sch Nursing, Taichung, Taiwan;Natl Taiwan Univ, Coll Med, Sch Nursing, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Ingvoldstad, Charlotta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Lifestyle and rehabilitation in long term illness. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Karolinska Univ Hosp, Ctr Fetal Med & Clin Genet, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kejriwal, Sahil
    Univ Washington, Inst Publ Hlth Genet, Seattle, WA USA.
    Kim, Hyon J.
    Ajou Univ, Med Sch, Suwon, South Korea;Konyang Univ, Grad Sch, Suwon, South Korea.
    Lambert, Deborah
    Natl Rare Dis Off, Dublin, Ireland.
    Lantigua-Cruz, Paulina Araceli
    Univ Med Sci Havana, Havana, Cuba.
    Lee, Juliana M. H.
    Natl Univ Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Lodahl, Marianne
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Rigshosp, Dept Clin Genet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lunde, Ashild
    Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway.
    Macaulay, Shelley
    Univ Witwatersrand, Fac Hlth Sci, Div Human Genet, Johannesburg, South Africa;Natl Hlth Lab Serv, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Macciocca, Ivan
    Victorian Clin Genet Serv, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Margarit, Sonia
    Clin Alemana Univ Desarrollo, Fac Med, Ctr Genet & Genom, Santiago, Chile.
    Middleton, Anna
    Soc & Eth Res Connecting Sci, Wellcome Genome Campus, Cambridge, England;Univ Cambridge, Fac Educ, Cambridge, England.
    Moldovan, Ramona
    Babes Bolyai Univ, Dept Psychol, Cluj Napoca, Romania.
    Ngeow, Joanne
    Natl Canc Ctr, Div Med Oncol, Canc Genet Serv, Singapore, Singapore.
    Obregon-Tito, Alexandra J.
    Univ Arkansas Med Sci, Little Rock, AR 72205 USA.
    Ormond, Kelly E.
    Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Dept Genet, Stanford, CA USA;Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Stanford Ctr Biomed Eth, Stanford, CA USA;Stanford Univ, Sch Med, 300 Pasteur Dr,MC 5208, Stanford, CA USA.
    Paneque, Milena
    Univ Porto, CGPP Ctr Predict & Prevent Genet, I3S, Porto, Portugal;Univ Porto, IBMC Inst Mol & Cell Biol, Porto, Portugal.
    Powell, Karen
    Cone Hlth Canc Ctr, Greensboro, NC USA.
    Sanghavi, Kunal
    Jackson Lab Genom Med, Farmington, CT USA.
    Scotcher, Diana
    Manchester Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, St Marys Hosp, Manchester Ctr Genom Med, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Scott, Jenna
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Juhe, Clara Serra
    Univ Pompeu Fabra, Dept Ciencies Expt & Salut, Inst Hosp Mar Invest Med, Ctr Invest Biomed Red Enfermedades Raras, Barcelona, Spain.
    Shkedi-Rafid, Shiri
    Hadassah Hebrew Univ, Med Ctr, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Wessels, Tina-Marie
    Univ Cape Town, Div Human Genet, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Yoon, Sook-Yee
    Natl Univ Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;Canc Res, Subang Jaya, Malaysia;Univ Malaya, Med Ctr, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Wicklund, Catherine
    Northwestern Univ, Feinberg Sch Med, Chicago, IL 60611 USA.
    The Global State of the Genetic Counseling Profession2019In: European Journal of Human Genetics, ISSN 1018-4813, E-ISSN 1476-5438, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 183-197Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The profession of genetic counseling (also called genetic counselling in many countries) began nearly 50 years ago in the United States, and has grown internationally in the past 30 years. While there have been many papers describing the profession of genetic counseling in individual countries or regions, data remains incomplete and has been published in diverse journals with limited access. As a result of the 2016 Transnational Alliance of Genetic Counseling (TAGC) conference in Barcelona, Spain, and the 2017 World Congress of Genetic Counselling in the UK, we endeavor to describe as fully as possible the global state of genetic counseling as a profession. We estimate that in 2018 there are nearly 7000 genetic counselors with the profession established or developing in no less than 28 countries.

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  • 18. Abdelmagid, Nada
    et al.
    Southgate, Rosamund J
    Alhaffar, Mervat
    Ahmed, Matab
    Bani, Hind
    Mounier-Jack, Sandra
    Dahab, Maysoon
    Checchi, Francesco
    Sabahelzain, Majdi M
    Nor, Barni
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration.
    Rao, Bhargavi
    Singh, Neha S
    The Governance of Childhood Vaccination Services in Crisis Settings: A Scoping Review2023In: Vaccines, E-ISSN 2076-393X, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 1853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The persistence of inadequate vaccination in crisis-affected settings raises concerns about decision making regarding vaccine selection, timing, location, and recipients. This review aims to describe the key features of childhood vaccination intervention design and planning in crisis-affected settings and investigate how the governance of childhood vaccination is defined, understood, and practised. We performed a scoping review of 193 peer-reviewed articles and grey literature on vaccination governance and service design and planning. We focused on 41 crises between 2010 and 2021. Following screening and data extraction, our analysis involved descriptive statistics and applying the governance analysis framework to code text excerpts, employing deductive and inductive approaches. Most documents related to active outbreaks in conflict-affected settings and to the mass delivery of polio, cholera, and measles vaccines. Information on vaccination modalities, target populations, vaccine sources, and funding was limited. We found various interpretations of governance, often implying hierarchical authority and regulation. Analysis of governance arrangements suggests a multi-actor yet fragmented governance structure, with inequitable actor participation, ineffective actor collaboration, and a lack of a shared strategic vision due to competing priorities and accountabilities. Better documentation of vaccination efforts during emergencies, including vaccination decision making, governance, and planning, is needed. We recommend empirical research within decision-making spaces.

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  • 19.
    Abdelmenan, Semira
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Addis Continental Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Univ Gondar, Inst Publ Hlth, Coll Med & Hlth Sci, Gondar, Ethiopia..
    Berhane, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Addis Continental Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr & Behav Sci, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Turner, Christopher
    Fac Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Populat Hlth, London, England..
    Worku, Alemayehu
    Addis Continental Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Ekholm Selling, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Berhane, Yemane
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Addis Continental Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Perception of affordable diet is associated with pre-school children's diet diversity in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: the EAT Addis survey2024In: BMC Nutrition, E-ISSN 2055-0928, Vol. 10, article id 47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite improvements in food access and nutrition security over the last few decades, malnutrition remains a major public health problem. One of the significant contributors to these problems is affordability of nutritious food. This study aimed to examine the association between perceived food affordability and pre-school children's diet diversity in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Methods: Cross-sectional data from 2017 to 18 were used for the analysis. A 24-hour dietary recall assessment was done to assess children's dietary diversity (DD). We used a modified operational definition of affordability indicator called perceived affordability of dietary diversity (afford-DD) to evaluate the impact of the food environment in terms of affordability at the household level. A sample (n 4,898) of children aged 6-59 months representative of households in Addis Ababa was randomly selected using a multistage sampling procedure including all districts in the city. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to assess the association between children's DD and afford-DD.

    Results: The survey revealed that the mean (standard deviation [SD]) of children's DD was 3.9 [±1.4] while the mean [SD] of afford-DD was 4.6 [±2.1]. Overall, 59.8% of children met the minimum dietary diversity (≥ 4 food groups). White roots and tubers were the most commonly consumed food groups regardless of their affordability. Considerable variations were observed between households that reported the food item affordable and not affordable in consumption of Vitamin A rich vegetables and fruits, meat and fish, egg, and dairy. The children's DD was positively associated with afford-DD after adjusting for maternal education, household wealth status and other relevant confounding. Higher maternal education modified the association between affordability and children's diet diversity.

    Conclusions: This study suggests higher perceived food affordability was associated with better diet diversity in children. A higher level of maternal education had the potential to mitigate affordability challenges in meeting the children's dietary diversity needs. Our study emphasizes the need for inclusive food programs and nutrition interventions addressing social differences, intensifying efforts to make nutrient-rich diets affordable for the less privileged, and highlights the potential benefits of targeting maternal education in addressing child dietary diversity.

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  • 20.
    Abdelmenan, Semira
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, 26751/1000 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, 196 Gondar, Ethiopia.
    Berhane, Hanna Y.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, 26751/1000 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Jirström, Magnus
    Trenholm, Jill
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration.
    Worku, Alemayehu
    Ekström, Eva-Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, 26751/1000 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Berhane, Yemane
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, 26751/1000 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    The Social Stratification of Availability, Affordability, and Consumption of Food in Families with Preschoolers in Addis Ababa: The EAT Addis Study in Ethiopia2020In: Nutrients, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 12, no 10, article id 3168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to understand the quality of diet being consumed among families in Addis Ababa, and to what extent social stratification and perceptions of availability and affordability affect healthy food consumption. Data were collected from 5467 households in a face-to-face interview with mothers/caretakers and analyzed using mixed effect logistic regression models. All family food groups, except fish were perceived to be available by more than 90% of the participants. The food groups cereals/nuts/seeds, other vegetables, and legumes were considered highly affordable (80%) and were the most consumed (>75%). Households with the least educated mothers and those in the lowest wealth quintile had the lowest perception of affordability and also consumption. Consumption of foods rich in micronutrients and animal sources were significantly higher among households with higher perceived affordability, the highest wealth quintile, and with mothers who had better education. Households in Addis Ababa were generally seen to have a monotonous diet, despite the high perceived availability of different food groups within the food environment. There is a considerable difference in consumption of nutrient-rich foods across social strata, hence the cities food policies need to account for social differences in order to improve the nutritional status of the community.

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  • 21.
    Abdi Ali Ahmed, Yousra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Factors associated with utilization of Antenatal Care in Zambia.: A secondary analysis of 2018 Zambia Demographic Health Survey2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    ANC comprises of trainings and treatments provided to promote a healthy pregnancy, labour and child delivery. Any complications or issues with pregnancy are identified during ANC visits. The aim of this study is to identify and analyse the factors which affect the basic antenatal care utilization by women in Zambia and to give an overall view of the status of women in the country with the 2018 Zambia Demographic Health Survey (ZDHS).

    Method

    After the correlations were found, bivariate logistic regression was done with all exposure variables against the dependent variable. A multivariate analysis was conducted with significant variable against the dependent variable, in order to find the association between the variables.

    Result

    The type of place of residence was significant as well as education which showed lower education was associated with lower basic ANC use. Wealth also demonstrated a negative association to basic ANC visits for poor and for the middle class. Working women had a higher likelihood of attending basic ANC along with those who attended ANC with a doctor and nurse or midwife. To not have a health insurance showed a lower likelihood to attend basic ANC visits

    Conclusion

    The study found that factors such as type of place of residence, education, wealth, occupation, health insurance coverage and ANC with doctor, midwife or nurse are associated with utilization of basic ANC in Zambia among women aged between 15-49.

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  • 22.
    Abdi Poljarevic, Maimun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Outcome of Ultrasound Guided Sclerosis in Treatment of Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy (CAT) is a common sports injury that affects a substantial portion of the population. One of the clinical treatments of CAT is ultrasound guided sclerosis (UGS), the efficacy of which is both supported and contested in a numberof previous reports. 

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess current and former CAT diagnosed patients’ experiences of stiffness, pain and function of the Achilles tendon (AT) before and after UGS, in order to determine the treatment efficacy.

    Methods: A retrospective study based on a modified Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment – Achilles – Survey (VISA-A-S). VISA-A-S questionnaire, with 123 study participants, allof whom were treated at Uppsala University Hospital between 2016-2020 and who had experienced stiffness, pain, and dysfunction of AT before and after UGS. Statistical analysis was performed Wilcoxon Signed-Rank tests.

    Results: The response rate to the survey questionnaire was 62%. In total, 80% of all study participants reported that they were satisfied with the treatment. After UGS, 74% reported shorter period of morning stiffness, 85% had less pain and 84% experienced improved function, as compared to before the treatment (P<0.0001 for all).

    Conclusion: The results of this study were both statistically and clinically significant. Based on the results of this retrospective study, it is reasonable to conclude that UGS is an effective clinical procedure in treating CAT. This means that this study confirms conclusions of a part of previous studies on the effectiveness of the UGS treatment, which had indicated that UGS is an effective treatment of CAT.

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  • 23.
    Abdul Fatah, Naderah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Oskarsson, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Preventivmedelsanvändning bland kvinnor med utvecklingsstörning – en litteraturöversikt2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Individer med utvecklingsstörning har under en stor del av historien betraktats som mindervärdiga eller som icke-mänskliga varelser och har under lång tid förvägrats grundläggande mänskliga rättigheter. Exempelvis hade man i Sverige fram till 1976 ett juridiskt stöd för att tvångssterilisera personer med utvecklingsstörning. Under senare tid har dock inställningen att personer med utvecklingsstörning ska ha samma möjligheter och levnadsomständigheter som andra personer vuxit fram i stora delar av västvärlden. Detta har bland annat lett till en mer personcentrerad vård där personer med utvecklingsstörning fått mer makt att bestämma över sina egna liv. Mot denna bakgrund är syftet med denna litteraturöversikt att ta fram ett kunskapsunderlag för att designa en lättläst broschyr om preventivmedel anpassad för kvinnor med utvecklingsstörning. Metoden som används är en litteraturöversikt där databaserna PubMed, Google Scholar och PsycINFO har genomsökts. Efter granskning och analys valdes 18 artiklar ut att inkluderas i resultatet. Resultatet visade att kvinnor med utvecklingsstörning har begränsad kunskap om preventivmedel och reproduktion. Valet av preventivmedel påverkades av olika faktorer som begränsad kunskap om preventivmedelsanvändning, brist på lättläst informationsmaterial samt läkarens begränsade kunskap och erfarenhet av att ge preventivmedelsrådgivning till kvinnor med utvecklingsstörning. För att ytterligare förbättra situationen för dessa kvinnor behöver ett flertal förändringar ske. Framförallt behöver kvinnor med utvecklingsstörning få en ökad kunskap om sex, samlevnad och preventivmedel. Dessutom behöver kunskapen om dessa kvinnors särskilda behov stärkas bland förskrivande barnmorskor och läkare.

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  • 24.
    Abdulah, Deldar Morad
    et al.
    Univ Duhok, Coll Nursing, Community & Matern Hlth Nursing Unit, Duhok, Iraq..
    Suleman, Sherzad Khudeida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatric oncology research with a special focus on side effects. Univ Duhok, Coll Nursing, Psychiat & Pediat Nursing Unit, Duhok, Iraq..
    The effect of insomnia and shift working on psychological well-being among general public hospital nurses2023In: KONTAKT-JOURNAL OF NURSING AND SOCIAL SCIENCES RELATED TO HEALTH AND ILLNESS, ISSN 1212-4117, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 3-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There are few studies on the association between insomnia and categories of psychological well-being among nurses in clinical settings. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to explore the effect of insomnia and shift working on psychological well-being among nurses in public hospitals.

    Methods: A total of 107 nurses (20-44 years old) were included using a non-random technique. The nurses were selected from four public hospitals in Iraqi Kurdistan in 2019.

    Results: The mean age of the nurses was 29.94 (20-44 years). They had diploma (48.6%) and bachelor's degrees (51.4%), worked morning (36.4%), evening (19.6%), and night shifts (14.0%), and some (29.9%) were shift rotators. Most nurses worked in the public sector (56.1%) or both sectors (43.9%). The mean sleep score of the nurses was 10.68 out of a total of 24. The prevalence of insomnia among nurses was 80.4%. The mean value of general psychological well-being was 26.64 out of a total 36. Working morning shifts and having a high level of insomnia were predictors of worse psychological well-being. Nurses who worked in the morning or as shift rotators were more likely to feel unable to overcome difficulties. They were also less likely to enjoy normal day-to-day activities, less likely to feel reasonably happy, and more likely to lose confidence in their lives. The level of facing up to one's problems increased according to the severity of insomnia.

    Conclusions: The study showed that nurses with insomnia had worse psychological well-being than nurses without insomnia in public hospitals.

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  • 25.
    Abdulcadir, Jasmine
    et al.
    Outpatient Clinic for Women with FGM/C, Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Geneva University Hospitals.
    Abdulcadir, Omar
    Referral Centre for Preventing and Curing Female Genital Mutilation, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy.
    Caillet, Martin
    Outpatient Clinic for Women with FGM/C, Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Geneva University Hospitals.
    Catania, Lucrezia
    Referral Centre for Preventing and Curing Female Genital Mutilation, Department of Maternal and Child Health, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy.
    Cuzin, Béatrice
    Division of Urology and Transplantation, Edouard Herriot Hospital, Lyon, France.
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration.
    Foldès, Pierre
    Institute of Reproductive Health, Saint Germain en Laye, Paris, France.
    Johnsdotter, Sara
    Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista
    Refugee Women's Health Clinic, Obstetrics & Gynecology, Maricopa Integrated Health System.
    Nour, Nawal
    Global Ob/Gyn and African Women's Health Center, Ambulatory Obstetrics, Office for Multicultural Careers, Division of Global Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brigham and Women's Hospital.
    Ouedraogo, Charlemagne
    University Hospital Yalgado Ouedraogo of Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.
    Warren, Nicole
    Department of Community Public Health Nursing, John Hopkins School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Wylomanski, Sophie
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Nantes University Hospital, Nantes, France.
    Clitoral Surgery After Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting2017In: Aesthetic surgery journal, ISSN 1090-820X, E-ISSN 1527-330X, Vol. 37, no 9, p. NP113-NP115Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Abdulcadir, Jasmine
    et al.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Ahmadu, Fuambai Sia
    Catania, Lucrezia
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration.
    Gruenbaum, Ellen
    Johnsdotter, Sara
    Johnson, Michelle C.
    Johnson-Agbakwu, Crista
    Kratz, Corinne
    Sulkin, Carlos Londoño
    McKinley, Michelle
    Njambi, Wairimu
    Rogers, Juliet
    Shell-Duncan, Bettina
    Shweder, Richard A.
    Human Development, University of Chicago, Illinois.
    Seven things to know about female genital surgeries in Africa2012In: The Hastings center report, ISSN 0093-0334, E-ISSN 1552-146X, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 19-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Abeid, Muzdalifat
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania.
    Improving Health-seeking Behavior and Care among Sexual Violence Survivors in Rural Tanzania2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis was to assess the effects of providing community education and training to healthcare workers to improve community response, healthcare and support for rape survivors in the Kilombero district of Tanzania. The overall design of the project was to begin with an exploratory study (Paper I) to establish the community’s perceptions towards sexual violence and their perceived recommendations to address this issue. Using a structured questionnaire, the community’s knowledge and attitudes towards sexual violence were determined along with their associations with demographic factors (Paper II). Papers III and IV assessed the effect of healthcare workers’ training and a community information package, respectively, using a controlled quasi-experimental design. The findings highlighted the social norms and variety of barriers that impacted negatively on the survivors’ care-seeking from support services and health outcomes. Increasing age and higher education were associated with better knowledge and less accepting attitudes towards sexual violence. Training on the management of sexual violence was effective in improving healthcare workers’ knowledge and practice but not attitude. Knowledge on sexual violence among the communities in the intervention and comparison areas increased significantly over the study period; from 57.3% to 80.6% in the intervention area and from 55.5% to 71.9% in the comparison area. In the intervention area, women had significantly less knowledge than men at baseline (53% Vs 64%, p<.001).There was a reduction, though not significantly, in acceptance attitudes from 28.1% to 21.8% in favor of women. In conclusion, the current intervention provides evidence that healthcare workers’ training and community education is effective in improving knowledge but not attitudes towards sexual violence. The findings have potential implications for interventions aimed at preventing and responding to violence. The broader societal norms that hinder rape disclosure need to be re-addressed.

    List of papers
    1. Community perceptions of rape and child sexual abuse: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Community perceptions of rape and child sexual abuse: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania
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    2014 (English)In: BMC International Health and Human Rights, E-ISSN 1472-698X, Vol. 14, p. 23-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rape of women and children is recognized as a health and human rights issue in Tanzania and internationally. Exploration of the prevailing perceptions in rural areas is needed in order to expand the understanding of sexual violence in the diversity of Tanzania's contexts. The aim of this study therefore was to explore and understand perceptions of rape of women and children at the community level in a rural district in Tanzania with the added objective of exploring those perceptions that may contribute to perpetuating and/or hindering the disclosure of rape incidences. Methods: A qualitative design was employed using focus group discussions with male and female community members including religious leaders, professionals, and other community members. The discussions centered on causes of rape, survivors of rape, help-seeking and reporting, and gathered suggestions on measures for improvement. Six focus group discussions (four of single gender and two of mixed gender) were conducted. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. Results: The participants perceived rape of women and children to be a frequent and hidden phenomenon. A number of factors were singled out as contributing to rape, such as erosion of social norms, globalization, poverty, vulnerability of children, alcohol/drug abuse and poor parental care. Participants perceived the need for educating the community to raise their knowledge of sexual violence and its consequences, and their roles as preventive agents. Conclusions: In this rural context, social norms reinforce sexual violence against women and children, and hinder them from seeking help from support services. Addressing the identified challenges may promote help-seeking behavior and improve care of survivors of sexual violence, while changes in social and cultural norms are needed for the prevention of sexual violence.

    Keywords
    Child sexual abuse, Community perceptions, Focus group discussions, Rape, Rural, Sexual violence, Tanzania
    National Category
    Occupational Health and Environmental Health
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-232600 (URN)10.1186/1472-698X-14-23 (DOI)000340801600001 ()
    Available from: 2014-09-23 Created: 2014-09-22 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Knowledge and attitude towards rape and child sexual abuse - a community-based cross-sectional study in Rural Tanzania
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knowledge and attitude towards rape and child sexual abuse - a community-based cross-sectional study in Rural Tanzania
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 428Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Violence against women and children is globally recognized as a social and human rights concern. In Tanzania, sexual violence towards women and children is a public health problem. The aim of this study was to determine community knowledge of and attitudes towards rape and child sexual abuse, and assess associations between knowledge and attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken between May and June 2012. The study was conducted in the Kilombero and Ulanga rural districts in the Morogoro Region of Tanzania. Men and women aged 18-49 years were eligible for the study. Through a three-stage cluster sampling strategy, a household survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes about gender roles and violence, and knowledge on health consequences of rape. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 21. Main outcome measures were knowledge of and attitudes towards sexual violence. Multivariate analyses were used to assess associations between socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge of and attitudes towards sexual violence.

    RESULTS: A total of 1,568 participants were interviewed. The majority (58.4%) of participants were women. Most (58.3%) of the women respondents had poor knowledge on sexual violence and 63.8% had accepting attitudes towards sexual violence. Those who were married were significantly more likely to have good knowledge on sexual violence compared to the divorced/separated group (AOR = 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1-2.2)) but less likely to have non-accepting attitudes towards sexual violence compared to the single group (AOR = 1.8 (95%CI: 1.4-2.3)). Sex of respondents, age, marital status and level of education were associated with knowledge and attitudes towards sexual violence.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that these rural communities have poor knowledge on sexual violence and have accepting attitudes towards sexual violence. Increasing age and higher education were associated with better knowledge and less accepting attitudes towards sexual violence. The findings have potentially important implications for interventions aimed at preventing violence. The results highlight the challenges associated with changing attitudes towards sexual violence, particularly as the highest levels of support for such violence were found among women.

    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-253212 (URN)10.1186/s12889-015-1757-7 (DOI)000353941200001 ()25927715 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
    3. Evaluation of a training program for health care workers to improve the quality of care for rape survivors: a quasi-experimental design study in Morogoro, Tanzania
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of a training program for health care workers to improve the quality of care for rape survivors: a quasi-experimental design study in Morogoro, Tanzania
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    2016 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 9, article id 31735Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Sexual violence against women and children in Tanzania and globally is a human rights violation and a developmental challenge.

    OBJECTIVE:

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of training health professionals on rape management. The specific objectives were to evaluate the changes of knowledge and attitudes toward sexual violence among a selected population of health professionals at primary health care level.

    DESIGN:

    A quasi-experimental design using cross-sectional surveys was conducted to evaluate health care workers' knowledge, attitude, and clinical practice toward sexual violence before and after the training program. The study involved the Kilombero (intervention) and Ulanga (comparison) districts in Morogoro region. A total of 151 health professionals at baseline (2012) and 169 in the final assessment (2014) participated in the survey. Data were collected using the same structured questionnaire. The amount of change in key indicators from baseline to final assessment in the two areas was compared using composite scores in the pre- and post-interventions, and the net intervention effect was calculated by the difference in difference method.

    RESULTS:

    Overall, there was improved knowledge in the intervention district from 55% at baseline to 86% and a decreased knowledge from 58.5 to 36.2% in the comparison area with a net effect of 53.7% and a p-value less than 0.0001. The proportion of participants who exhibited an accepting attitude toward violence declined from 15.3 to 11.2% in the intervention area but increased from 13.2 to 20.0% in the comparison area.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Training on the management of sexual violence is feasible and the results indicate improvement in healthcare workers' knowledge and practice but not attitudes. Lessons learned from this study for successful replication of such an intervention in similar settings require commitment from those at strategic level within the health service to ensure that adequate resources are made available.

    Keywords
    healthcare worker, training, quasi-experimental, rape, sexual violence, Tanzania
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Research subject
    Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261889 (URN)10.3402/gha.v9.31735 (DOI)000381095700001 ()27435570 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
    Available from: 2015-09-05 Created: 2015-09-04 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    4. A community-based intervention for improving health-seeking behavior among sexual violence survivors: A controlled before and after design study in rural Tanzania
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A community-based intervention for improving health-seeking behavior among sexual violence survivors: A controlled before and after design study in rural Tanzania
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 8, article id 28608Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite global recognition that sexual violence is a violation of human rights, evidence still shows it is a pervasive problem across all societies. Promising community intervention studies in the low- and middle-income countries are limited.

    Objective: This study assessed the impact of a community-based intervention, focusing on improving the community’s knowledge and reducing social acceptability of violence against women norms with the goal to prevent and respond to sexual violence.

    Design: The strategies used to create awareness included radio programs, information, education communication materials and advocacy meetings with local leaders. The intervention took place in Morogoro region in Tanzania. The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design including cross-sectional surveys at baseline (2012) and endline (2014) with men and women aged 18-49. Main outcome measures were number of reported rape cases at health facilities and the community’s knowledge and attitudes towards sexual violence.

    Results: The number of reported rape events increased by more than 50% at health facilities during the intervention. Knowledge on sexual violence increased significantly in both areas over the study period (from 57.3% to 80.6% in the intervention area and from 55.5% to 71.9% in the comparison area; p<.001), and the net effect of the intervention between the two areas was statistically significant (6.9, 95% CI 0.2–13.5, p= 0.03). There was significant improvement in most of attitude indicators in the intervention area, but not in the comparison area. However, the intervention had no significant effect in the overall scores of acceptance attitudes in the final assessment when comparing the two areas (-2.4, 95%CI: -8.4 – 3.6, p= 0.42).

    Conclusions: The intervention had an effect on some indicators on knowledge and attitudes towards sexual violence even after a short period of intervention. This finding informs the public health practitioners of the importance of combined strategies in achieving changes.

    Keywords
    sexual violence, evaluation, community intervention, Tanzania
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
    Research subject
    Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261900 (URN)10.3402/gha.v8.28608 (DOI)000361749600001 ()
    Funder
    Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
    Available from: 2015-09-05 Created: 2015-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
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  • 28.
    Abeid, Muzdalifat
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania .
    Muganyizi, Projestine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania .
    Massawe, Siriel
    Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Mpembeni, Rose
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway .
    Knowledge and attitude towards rape and child sexual abuse - a community-based cross-sectional study in Rural Tanzania2015In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Violence against women and children is globally recognized as a social and human rights concern. In Tanzania, sexual violence towards women and children is a public health problem. The aim of this study was to determine community knowledge of and attitudes towards rape and child sexual abuse, and assess associations between knowledge and attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken between May and June 2012. The study was conducted in the Kilombero and Ulanga rural districts in the Morogoro Region of Tanzania. Men and women aged 18-49 years were eligible for the study. Through a three-stage cluster sampling strategy, a household survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes about gender roles and violence, and knowledge on health consequences of rape. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 21. Main outcome measures were knowledge of and attitudes towards sexual violence. Multivariate analyses were used to assess associations between socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge of and attitudes towards sexual violence.

    RESULTS: A total of 1,568 participants were interviewed. The majority (58.4%) of participants were women. Most (58.3%) of the women respondents had poor knowledge on sexual violence and 63.8% had accepting attitudes towards sexual violence. Those who were married were significantly more likely to have good knowledge on sexual violence compared to the divorced/separated group (AOR = 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1-2.2)) but less likely to have non-accepting attitudes towards sexual violence compared to the single group (AOR = 1.8 (95%CI: 1.4-2.3)). Sex of respondents, age, marital status and level of education were associated with knowledge and attitudes towards sexual violence.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that these rural communities have poor knowledge on sexual violence and have accepting attitudes towards sexual violence. Increasing age and higher education were associated with better knowledge and less accepting attitudes towards sexual violence. The findings have potentially important implications for interventions aimed at preventing violence. The results highlight the challenges associated with changing attitudes towards sexual violence, particularly as the highest levels of support for such violence were found among women.

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  • 29.
    Abeid, Muzdalifat
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania.
    Muganyizi, Projestine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania.
    Mpembeni, Rose
    Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Tanzania.
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    A community-based intervention for improving health-seeking behavior among sexual violence survivors: A controlled before and after design study in rural Tanzania2015In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 8, article id 28608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite global recognition that sexual violence is a violation of human rights, evidence still shows it is a pervasive problem across all societies. Promising community intervention studies in the low- and middle-income countries are limited.

    Objective: This study assessed the impact of a community-based intervention, focusing on improving the community’s knowledge and reducing social acceptability of violence against women norms with the goal to prevent and respond to sexual violence.

    Design: The strategies used to create awareness included radio programs, information, education communication materials and advocacy meetings with local leaders. The intervention took place in Morogoro region in Tanzania. The evaluation used a quasi-experimental design including cross-sectional surveys at baseline (2012) and endline (2014) with men and women aged 18-49. Main outcome measures were number of reported rape cases at health facilities and the community’s knowledge and attitudes towards sexual violence.

    Results: The number of reported rape events increased by more than 50% at health facilities during the intervention. Knowledge on sexual violence increased significantly in both areas over the study period (from 57.3% to 80.6% in the intervention area and from 55.5% to 71.9% in the comparison area; p<.001), and the net effect of the intervention between the two areas was statistically significant (6.9, 95% CI 0.2–13.5, p= 0.03). There was significant improvement in most of attitude indicators in the intervention area, but not in the comparison area. However, the intervention had no significant effect in the overall scores of acceptance attitudes in the final assessment when comparing the two areas (-2.4, 95%CI: -8.4 – 3.6, p= 0.42).

    Conclusions: The intervention had an effect on some indicators on knowledge and attitudes towards sexual violence even after a short period of intervention. This finding informs the public health practitioners of the importance of combined strategies in achieving changes.

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  • 30.
    Abeid, Muzdalifat
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). MUHAS, Dept Obstet Gynecol, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Muganyizi, Projestine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). MUHAS, Dept Obstet Gynecol, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Mpembeni, Rose
    MUHAS, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Publ Hlth & Gen Practice, Trondheim, Norway.
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Evaluation of a training program for health care workers to improve the quality of care for rape survivors: a quasi-experimental design study in Morogoro, Tanzania2016In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 9, article id 31735Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Sexual violence against women and children in Tanzania and globally is a human rights violation and a developmental challenge.

    OBJECTIVE:

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of training health professionals on rape management. The specific objectives were to evaluate the changes of knowledge and attitudes toward sexual violence among a selected population of health professionals at primary health care level.

    DESIGN:

    A quasi-experimental design using cross-sectional surveys was conducted to evaluate health care workers' knowledge, attitude, and clinical practice toward sexual violence before and after the training program. The study involved the Kilombero (intervention) and Ulanga (comparison) districts in Morogoro region. A total of 151 health professionals at baseline (2012) and 169 in the final assessment (2014) participated in the survey. Data were collected using the same structured questionnaire. The amount of change in key indicators from baseline to final assessment in the two areas was compared using composite scores in the pre- and post-interventions, and the net intervention effect was calculated by the difference in difference method.

    RESULTS:

    Overall, there was improved knowledge in the intervention district from 55% at baseline to 86% and a decreased knowledge from 58.5 to 36.2% in the comparison area with a net effect of 53.7% and a p-value less than 0.0001. The proportion of participants who exhibited an accepting attitude toward violence declined from 15.3 to 11.2% in the intervention area but increased from 13.2 to 20.0% in the comparison area.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Training on the management of sexual violence is feasible and the results indicate improvement in healthcare workers' knowledge and practice but not attitudes. Lessons learned from this study for successful replication of such an intervention in similar settings require commitment from those at strategic level within the health service to ensure that adequate resources are made available.

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  • 31.
    Abeid, Muzdalifat
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Muganyizi, Projestine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Olsson, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Community perceptions of rape and child sexual abuse: a qualitative study in rural Tanzania2014In: BMC International Health and Human Rights, E-ISSN 1472-698X, Vol. 14, p. 23-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Rape of women and children is recognized as a health and human rights issue in Tanzania and internationally. Exploration of the prevailing perceptions in rural areas is needed in order to expand the understanding of sexual violence in the diversity of Tanzania's contexts. The aim of this study therefore was to explore and understand perceptions of rape of women and children at the community level in a rural district in Tanzania with the added objective of exploring those perceptions that may contribute to perpetuating and/or hindering the disclosure of rape incidences. Methods: A qualitative design was employed using focus group discussions with male and female community members including religious leaders, professionals, and other community members. The discussions centered on causes of rape, survivors of rape, help-seeking and reporting, and gathered suggestions on measures for improvement. Six focus group discussions (four of single gender and two of mixed gender) were conducted. The focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. Results: The participants perceived rape of women and children to be a frequent and hidden phenomenon. A number of factors were singled out as contributing to rape, such as erosion of social norms, globalization, poverty, vulnerability of children, alcohol/drug abuse and poor parental care. Participants perceived the need for educating the community to raise their knowledge of sexual violence and its consequences, and their roles as preventive agents. Conclusions: In this rural context, social norms reinforce sexual violence against women and children, and hinder them from seeking help from support services. Addressing the identified challenges may promote help-seeking behavior and improve care of survivors of sexual violence, while changes in social and cultural norms are needed for the prevention of sexual violence.

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  • 32.
    Abrahamsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Gothenburg.
    Forestier, Erik
    Heldrup, Jesper
    Jahnukainen, Kirsi
    Jónsson, Olafur G.
    Lausen, Birgitte
    Palle, Josefine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Zeller, Bernward
    Hasle, Henrik
    Aarhus University Hospital Skejby, Aarhus.
    Response-Guided Induction Therapy in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Excellent Remission Rate2011In: Journal of Clinical Oncology, ISSN 0732-183X, E-ISSN 1527-7755, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 310-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To evaluate the early treatment response in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a response-guided induction strategy that includes idarubicin in the first course.

    Patients and Methods

    All Nordic children with AML younger than 15 years (n = 151) were treated on the Nordic Society for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology (NOPHO) AML 2004 protocol. After the first course of idarubicin, cytarabine, etoposide, and 6-thioguanin, patients with good response were allowed hematologic recovery before the second course, whereas patients with a poor (>= 15% blasts) or intermediate (5% to 14.9% blasts) were recommended to proceed immediately with therapy. Patients not in remission after the second course received fludarabine, cytarabine, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Poor responders received allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT) as consolidation.

    Results

    Seventy-four percent of patients had good response, 17% had intermediate response, and 7% had poor response after the first course. The overall remission frequency was 97.4%, with 92% in remission after the second course. The rate of induction death was 1.3%. Patients with an intermediate response had a lower event-free survival of 35% compared with good (61%) and poor responders (82%).

    Conclusion

    The NOPHO-AML 2004 induction strategy gives an excellent remission rate with low toxic mortality in an unselected population. Outcome is worse in patients with intermediate response but may be improved by intensifying consolidation in this group using SCT.

  • 33.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ahlund, Lovisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ahrin, Elsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Video-based CBT-E improves eating patterns in obese patients with eating disorder: A single case multiple baseline study2018In: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, ISSN 0005-7916, E-ISSN 1873-7943, Vol. 61, p. 104-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is effective for treating eating disorders but it may be difficult to reach patients living far from urban centers. Mobile video-based psychotherapy may potentially improve service reach but has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mobile video-based CBT for eating disorder and to explore the feasibility to use this technology in clinical care.

    METHODS:

    A controlled single case multiple baseline design was used which allowed for statistical analyses with randomization tests and non-overlap of all pairs (NAP). Five patients in the first stage of eating disorder treatment were included and the main outcome variable was daily meal frequency. Secondary outcome variables included eating disorder symptoms, psychological distress and treatment satisfaction.

    RESULTS:

    The treatment resulted in a significant (p < .01) increase in daily meal frequency with medium to large effect sizes (combined NAP = .89). Four participants reported reliable improvements in eating disorder symptoms and three reported improvements in mood. The participants reported high satisfaction with the treatment and with the mobile video-application despite some technical problems.

    LIMITATIONS:

    Self-reported data on eating behavior is prone to be biased and the results of single case studies may have limited generalizability.

    CONCLUSION:

    CBT can be delivered effectively via a mobile video application and, despite some technological issues, can be well received by patients. All participants in this study had previous low access to mental health services and reported high satisfaction with the treatment format.

  • 34. Abrams, P
    et al.
    Cardozo, L
    Fall, M
    Griffiths, D
    Rosier, P
    Ulmsten, U
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Van Kerrebroeck, P
    Victor, A
    Wein, A
    The standardisation of terminology in lower urinary tract function: reportfrom the standardisation sub-committee of the International ContinenceSociety.2003In: Urology, Vol. 61, p. 37-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Abrams, P
    et al.
    Cardozo, L
    Fall, M
    Griffiths, D
    Rosier, P
    Ulmsten, U
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    van Kerrebroeck, P
    Victor, A
    Wein, A
    The standardisation of terminology of lower urinary tract function: Report from the standardistation sub-committee of the International Continence Society.2002In: Neurourology and Urodynamics, Vol. 21, p. 167-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Absetz, Pilvikki
    et al.
    Collaborat Care Syst Finland, Helsinki 00270, Finland..
    Van Olmen, Josefien
    Univ Antwerp, Dept Primary & Interdisciplinary Care, B-2000 Antwerp, Belgium.;Inst Trop Med, Dept Publ Hlth, B-2000 Antwerp, Belgium..
    Guwatudde, David
    Makerere Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Blostat, Sch Publ Hlth, Kampala, Uganda..
    Puoane, Thandi
    Univ Western Cape, Sch Publ Hlth, Fac Community & Hlth Sci, ZA-7535 Bellville, South Africa..
    Alvesson, Helle Molsted
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, S-17165 Solna, Sweden..
    Delobelle, Peter
    Univ Western Cape, Sch Publ Hlth, Fac Community & Hlth Sci, ZA-7535 Bellville, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, Chron Dis Initiat Africa, Dept Med, Fac Hlth Sci, ZA-7701 Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Mayega, Roy
    Makerere Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Blostat, Sch Publ Hlth, Kampala, Uganda..
    Kasujja, Francis
    Makerere Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Blostat, Sch Publ Hlth, Kampala, Uganda..
    Naggayi, Gloria
    Makerere Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Blostat, Sch Publ Hlth, Kampala, Uganda..
    Timm, Linda
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, S-17165 Solna, Sweden..
    Hassen, Mariam
    Univ Western Cape, Sch Publ Hlth, Fac Community & Hlth Sci, ZA-7535 Bellville, South Africa..
    Aweko, Juliet
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, S-17165 Solna, Sweden..
    De Man, Jeroen
    Univ Antwerp, Dept Primary & Interdisciplinary Care, B-2000 Antwerp, Belgium.;Inst Trop Med, Dept Publ Hlth, B-2000 Antwerp, Belgium..
    Ahlgren, Jhon Alvarez
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, S-17165 Solna, Sweden..
    Annerstedt, Kristi Sidney
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, S-17165 Solna, Sweden..
    Daivadanam, Meena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food Studies, Nutrition and Dietetics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition. Karolinska Inst, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, S-17165 Solna, Sweden..
    SMART2D-development and contextualization of community strategies to support self-management in prevention and control of type 2 diabetes in Uganda, South Africa, and Sweden2020In: Translational Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1869-6716, E-ISSN 1613-9860, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 25-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications are increasing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries, as well as among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations in high-income countries. Support for healthy lifestyle and self-management is paramount but not well implemented in health systems, and there is need for knowledge on how to design and implement interventions that are contextualized and patient centered and address special needs of disadvantaged population groups. The SMART2D project implements and evaluates a lifestyle and self-management intervention for participants recently diagnosed with or being at increased risk for T2D in rural communities in Uganda, an urban township in South Africa, and socioeconomically disadvantaged urban communities in Sweden. Our aim was to develop an intervention with shared key functions and a good fit with the local context, needs, and resources. The intervention program design was conducted in three steps facilitated by a coordinating team: (a) situational analysis based on the SMART2D Self-Management Framework and definition of intervention objectives and core strategies; (b) designing generic tools for the strategies; and (c) contextual translation of the generic tools and their delivery. This article focuses on community strategies to strengthen support from the social and physical environment and to link health care and community support. Situational analyses showed that objectives and key functions addressing mediators from the SMART2D framework could be shared. Generic tools ensured retaining of functions, while content and delivery were highly contextualized. Phased, collaborative approach and theoretical framework ensured that key functions were not lost in contextualization, also allowing for cross-comparison despite flexibility with other aspects of the intervention between the sites.

  • 37.
    Abuelgasim, Khalda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
     “Who do I turn to?” The experiences of Sudanese women and Eritrean refugee women when trying to access healthcare services in Sudan after being subject to gender-based violence2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To explore the experiences of Sudanese women and Eritrean refugee women in Sudan when seeking healthcare after being subject to gender-based violence.

    Background: In Sudan there is a general assumption that anyone who is subject violence, including gender-based violence, must first go to the police department to file a report and be given “Form Eight”, a legal document, which they must present to the healthcare provider before they receive any care. Without this form healthcare providers are, supposedly, by law not allowed to treat the person. This complicates an already vague system of services for women subject to gender-based violence.

    Methods: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews of eight Sudanese women and seven Eritrean refugee women. Data was analyzed through a framework analysis (a form of thematic analysis).

    Results: Women had to bring Form Eight before they received any help, this led to a delay in the time to receive care. There was a general lack of cooperation by police officers. Some women feared the consequences of help seeking, apparent amongst those subject to domestic violence and the Eritrean refugee women. Generally, the healthcare provided to these women was inadequate.

    Conclusion: This study concludes the experiences of all the women in this study when seeking healthcare after being subject to gender-based violence were far from international standards. A lot needs to be done in order for women to know the clear answer to the question posed in the title of this study; “Who do I turn to?”.

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  • 38.
    Abujrais, Sandy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Olovsson, Matts
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Reproductive biology.
    Ahnoff, Martin
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Carl Skottbergs gata 22B, SE-41319 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Rasmusson, Annica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical pharmacogenomics and osteoporosis.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Kultima, Kim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    A sensitive method detecting trace levels of levonorgestrel using LC-HRMS.2019In: Contraception, ISSN 0010-7824, E-ISSN 1879-0518, Vol. 100, no 3, p. 247-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) method to quantify levonorgestrel (LNG) in serum.

    STUDY DESIGN: Levonorgestrel was extracted using solid phase extraction and measured using liquid chromatography (LC) HRMS.

    RESULTS: Low limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 25pg/mL and low limit of detection (LLOD) was 12.5pg/mL. Precision and accuracy bias were<10%. LNG in serum samples from Mirena® users ranged between 37 to 219pg/mL (n=12). In eight out of 22 patients with suspected intrauterine device (IUD) expulsion LNG was detected (26 to 1272pg/mL).

    CONCLUSION: A sensitive, fast and simple LC-HRMS method was developed to detect trace levels of LNG.

  • 39.
    Acuña Mora, Mariela
    et al.
    Institute of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås , Borås , Sweden.
    Bratt, Ewa-Lena
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University;of Gothenburg , Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Saarijärvi, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Healthcare Sciences and e-Health. Gothenburg Centre for Person-Centred Care (GPCC), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Taking Charge of Your Health: Enabling Patient Empowerment in Cardiovascular Care2024In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Guidelines and consensus in cardiovascular care in recent years have called for patients to be more involved in their care, which can be achieved by becoming more empowered. Yet, there is little clarity on how healthcare professionals can help the patients achieve this goal. The present paper defines patient empowerment, its benefits and the different strategies that can be used in healthcare to empower them. Moreover, potential barriers in the empowering process are also discussed.

  • 40.
    Adaikina, Alena
    et al.
    Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Derraik, José G. B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Auckland, New Zealand.;Chiang Mai Univ, Res Inst Hlth Sci, Environm Occupat Hlth Sci & Noncommunicable Dis Re, Chiang Mai, Thailand..
    Hofman, Paul L.
    Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Gusso, Silmara
    Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Auckland, New Zealand.;Univ Auckland, Exercise Sci Dept, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Vibration therapy in young children with mild to moderate cerebral palsy: does frequency and treatment duration matter? A randomised-controlled study2023In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 23, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Vibration therapy (VT) has been increasingly studied in children with cerebral palsy (CP) over the last years, however, optimal therapeutic VT protocols are yet to be determined. The present study compared the effects of side-alternating VT protocols varying in frequency and treatment duration on the health of young children with mild-to-moderate CP.

    Methods: Thirty-four participants aged 6.0 to 12.6 years with CP acted as their own controls and underwent two consecutive study periods: a 12-week lead-in (control) period prior to the intervention period of 20-week side-alternating VT (9 min/session, 4 days/week), with the frequency either 20 Hz or 25 Hz, determined by randomisation. Participants had 4 assessment visits: baseline, after the control period, after 12-week VT (12VT), and after further 8 weeks of VT (20VT). Assessments included 6-minute walk test (6MWT); dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; gross motor function; muscle function testing on the Leonardo mechanography plate and by hand-held dynamometry, and a quality-of-life questionnaire (CP QOL). Analysis was carried out using linear mixed models based on repeated measures.

    Results: Side-alternating VT was well-tolerated, with occasional mild itchiness reported. The median compliance level was 99%. VT led to improvements in 6MWT (+ 23 m; p = 0.007 after 20VT), gross motor function in standing skills (+ 0.8 points; p = 0.008 after 12VT; and + 1.3 points; p = 0.001 after 20VT) and in walking, running and jumping skills (+ 2.5 points; p < 0.0001 after 12VT; and + 3.7 points; p < 0.0001 after 20VT), spine bone mineral density z-score (+ 0.14; p = 0.015 after 20VT), velocity rise maximum of the chair rising test (+ 0.14 m/s; p = 0.021 after 20VT), force maximum of the single two-leg jump test (+ 0.30 N/kg; p = 0.0005 after 12VT; and + 0.46 N/kg; p = 0.022 after 20VT) and in the health module of CP QOL (+ 7 points; p = 0.0095 after 20VT). There were no observed differences between the two VT frequencies (i.e., 20 Hz vs 25 Hz) on study outcomes.

    Conclusions: The study confirms that side-alternating VT has positive effects on mobility, gross motor function, body composition, muscle function, and quality of life, independent of VT frequencies tested. Long-term, 20VT appears to be a more efficient treatment duration than a short-term, 12VT.

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  • 41.
    Adaikina, Alena
    et al.
    Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Derraik, José G. B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research. Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Auckland, New Zealand.;Univ Auckland, Sch Med, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Paediat Child & Youth Hlth, Auckland, New Zealand.;Chiang Mai Univ, Res Inst Hlth Sci, Environm Occupat Hlth Sci & Noncommunicable Dis Re, Chiang Mai, Thailand..
    Mcmillan, Janene
    Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Colle, Patricia
    Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Hofman, Paul L.
    Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Gusso, Silmara
    Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Auckland, New Zealand.;Univ Auckland, Exercise Sci Dept, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Feasibility study on a longer side-alternating vibration therapy protocol (15 min per session) in children and adolescents with mild cerebral palsy2023In: Frontiers in Pediatrics , E-ISSN 2296-2360, Vol. 11, article id 1231068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Previous studies on side-alternating vibration therapy (sVT) have usually used a 9 min intervention protocol. We performed a feasibility study aimed at assessing the safety, acceptability, and potential effectiveness of a longer sVT protocol (15 min per session) in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP).

    Methods: Fifteen participants aged 5.2-17.4 years (median = 12.4 years) with CP GMFCS level II underwent 20 weeks of sVT consisting of 15 min sessions 4 days/week. Participants were assessed at baseline and after the intervention period, including mobility (six-minute walk-test; 6MWT), body composition (whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans), and muscle function (force plate).

    Results: Adherence level to the 15 min VT protocol was 83% on average. There were no adverse events reported. After 20 weeks, there was some evidence for an increase in the walking distance covered in 6MWT (+43 m; p = 0.0018) and spine bone mineral density (+0.032 g/cm(2); p = 0.012) compared to baseline.

    Conclusions: The 15 min sVT protocol is feasible and well tolerated. The results also suggest potential benefits of this protocol to mobility and bone health. Randomized controlled trials are needed to reliably ascertain the potential effectiveness of a longer sVT protocol on physical function and body composition in young people with CP.

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  • 42.
    Adaikina, Alena
    et al.
    Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Auckland, New Zealand.;Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Bldg 505 level 2, 85 Pk Rd, Auckland 1042, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Derraik, José G. B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Perinatal, Neonatal and Pediatric Cardiology Research. Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Auckland, New Zealand.;Chiang Mai Univ, Res Inst Hlth Sci, NCD Ctr Excellence, Chiang Mai, Thailand..
    Taylor, Janice
    Starship Childrens Hosp, Child Dev Unit, Auckland, New Zealand.;Starship Childrens Hosp, Newborn Serv, Auckland, New Zealand..
    O'Grady, Gina L.
    Starship Childrens Hosp, Paediat Neurol Dept, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Hofman, Paul L.
    Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Gusso, Silmara
    Univ Auckland, Liggins Inst, Auckland, New Zealand.;Univ Auckland, Exercise Sci Dept, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Vibration Therapy as an Early Intervention for Children Aged 2-4 Years with Cerebral Palsy: A Feasibility Study2023In: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, ISSN 0194-2638, E-ISSN 1541-3144, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 564-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of vibration therapy (VT) in preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) and obtain preliminary data on its potential effectiveness.

    Methods: Nine children aged 2.5-4.8 years (4 boys) with CP GMFCS levels I-III participated in a single-group feasibility study, undergoing a 12-week control period without intervention, followed by 12 weeks of home-based VT (four times/week, 9 min/day, frequency 20 Hz). We assessed adherence to VT protocol, adverse events, and family acceptability of VT. Clinical assessments included motor function (GMFM-66), body composition (DXA), mobility (10-meter walk/run test), and health-related quality of life (PedsQL).

    Results: VT was well tolerated and acceptable to families, with high adherence levels reported (mean = 93%). There were no observed between-period differences (Delta Control vs Delta VT) except for an improvement in the PedsQL "Movement & Balance" dimension with VT (p = 0.044). Nonetheless, changes after the VT but not the Control period were suggestive of potential treatment benefits for mobility, gross motor function, and body composition (lean mass and legs bone mineral density).

    Conclusion: Home-based VT is feasible and acceptable for preschool children with CP. Our preliminary data suggest potential health benefits from VT for these children, supporting larger randomized trials to assess its effectiveness properly.

  • 43.
    Adam, Sumaiya
    et al.
    Univ Pretoria, Fac Hlth Sci, Sch Med, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Pretoria, South Africa.;Univ Pretoria, Fac Hlth Sci, Diabet Res Ctr, Pretoria, South Africa..
    McIntyre, Harold David
    Univ Queensland, Mater Hlth, Mater Hlth Campus, South Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Tsoi, Kit Ying
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Dept Med & Therapeut, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Kapur, Anil
    World Diabet Fdn, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Ma, Ronald C.
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Dept Med & Therapeut, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.;Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong Inst Diabet & Obes, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Dias, Stephanie
    South African Med Res Council, Biomed Res & Innovat Platform BRIP, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Okong, Pius
    St Francis Hosp Nsambya, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Kampala, Uganda..
    Hod, Moshe
    Helen Schneider Hosp Women, Rabin Med Ctr, Petah Tiqwa, Israel.;Tel Aviv Univ, Sackler Fac Med, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Poon, Liona C.
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Prince Wales Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Smith, Graeme N.
    Queens Univ, Kingston Hlth Sci Ctr, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Kingston, ON, Canada..
    Bergman, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Clinical Obstetrics. Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Clin Sci, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Gothenburg, Sweden; Stellenbosch Univ, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Algurjia, Esraa
    World Assoc Trainees Obstet & Gynecol WATOG, Paris, France.;Elwya Matern Hosp, Baghdad, Iraq..
    O'Brien, Patrick
    UCL, Inst Womens Hlth, London, England..
    Medina, Virna P.
    Univ Valle, Univ Libre, Fac Hlth, Dept Obstet & Gynecol,Clin Imbanaco Quiron Salud, Cali, Colombia..
    Maxwell, Cynthia, V
    Univ Toronto, Maternal Fetal Med, Sinai Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Womens Coll Hosp, Ontario, ON, Canada..
    Regan, Lesley
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Rosser, Mary L.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Irving Med Ctr, New York, NY USA..
    Jacobsson, Bo
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Genet & Bioinformat, Domain Hlth Data & Digitalisat, Oslo, Norway..
    Hanson, Mark A.
    Univ Hosp Southampton, Inst Dev Sci, Southampton, Hants, England.;Univ Southampton, NIHR Southampton Biomed Res Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England..
    O'Reilly, Sharleen L.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Natl Matern Hosp, UCD Perinatal Res Ctr, Sch Med, Dublin, Ireland.;Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Agr & Food Sci, Dublin, Ireland..
    McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Natl Matern Hosp, UCD Perinatal Res Ctr, Sch Med, Dublin, Ireland..
    Pregnancy as an opportunity to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus: FIGO Best Practice Advice2023In: International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, ISSN 0020-7292, E-ISSN 1879-3479, Vol. 160, no S1, p. 56-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gestational diabetes (GDM) impacts approximately 17 million pregnancies worldwide. Women with a history of GDM have an 8-10-fold higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and a 2-fold higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with women without prior GDM. Although it is possible to prevent and/or delay progression of GDM to type 2 diabetes, this is not widely undertaken. Considering the increasing global rates of type 2 diabetes and CVD in women, it is essential to utilize pregnancy as an opportunity to identify women at risk and initiate preventive intervention. This article reviews existing clinical guidelines for postpartum identification and management of women with previous GDM and identifies key recommendations for the prevention and/or delayed progression to type 2 diabetes for global clinical practice.

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  • 44.
    Adams, Emma A.
    et al.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, NTNU, Dept Publ Hlth & Nursing, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway;Ontario Shores Ctr Mental Hlth Sci, Strateg Initiat, Whitby, ON, Canada.
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration. Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, NTNU, Dept Publ Hlth & Nursing, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway;St Olavs Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Trondheim, Norway.
    Wijewardene, Kumudu
    Univ Sri Jayewardenepura, Fac Med Sci, Dept Community Med Hlth, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka.
    Infanti, Jennifer J.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, NTNU, Dept Publ Hlth & Nursing, NO-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Perceptions on the sexual harassment of female nurses in a state hospital in Sri Lanka: a qualitative study2019In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 1560587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Sexual harassment occurs within the nursing profession globally, challenging the health and safety of nurses and the quality and efficiency of health systems. In Sri Lanka, no studies have explored this issue in the health sector; however, female employees face sexual harassment in other workplace settings.

    Objective:

    To explore female nurses' perceptions of workplace sexual harassment in a large state hospital in Sri Lanka.

    Methods:

    This is a qualitative study conducted in an urban, mainly Buddhist and Singhalese context. We invited all female senior and ward nurses working in the hospital to participate in the study. We conducted individual in-depth interviews with four senior nurses and focus group discussions with 29 nurses in three groups.

    Results:

    The nurses described a variety of perceived forms of sexual harassment in the hospital. They discussed patient-perpetrated incidents as the most threatening and the clearest to identify compared with incidents involving doctors and other co-workers. There was significant ambiguity regarding sexual consent and coercion in relationships between female nurses and male doctors, which were described as holding potential for exploitation or harassment. The nurses reported that typical reactions to sexual harassment were passive. Alternatively, they described encountering inaction or victim blaming when they attempted to formally report incidents. They perceived that workplace sexual harassment has contributed to negative societal attitudes about the nursing profession and discussed various informal strategies, such as working in teams, to protect themselves from sexual harassment in the hospital.

    Conclusions:

    Sexual harassment was a perceived workplace concern for nurses in this hospital. To develop effective local prevention and intervention responses, further research is required to determine the magnitude of the problem and explore differences in responses to and consequences of sexual harassment based on perpetrator type and intent, and personal vulnerabilities of the victims, among other factors.

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  • 45.
    Adane, Abyot
    et al.
    Ethiopian Pharmaceut Supply Agcy, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Adege, Tewabe M.
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Ahmed, Mesoud M.
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Anteneh, Habtamu A.
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Ayalew, Emiamrew S.
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Berhanu, Della
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Dis Control, London, England..
    Berhanu, Netsanet
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Beyene, Misrak G.
    Ethiopian Publ Hlth Inst, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Bhattacharya, Antoinette
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Dis Control, London, England..
    Bishaw, Tesfahun
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Cherinet, Eshetu
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Dereje, Mamo
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Desta, Tsega H.
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Dibabe, Abera
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Firew, Heven S.
    Ethiopian Publ Hlth Inst, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Gebrehiwot, Freweini
    Ethiopian Publ Hlth Inst, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Gebreyohannes, Etenesh
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Gella, Zenebech
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Girma, Addis
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Halefom, Zuriash
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Jama, Sorsa F.
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Kemal, Binyam
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Kiflom, Abyi
    Ethiopian Pharmaceut Supply Agcy, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Källestål, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Dis Control, London, England..
    Lemma, Seblewengel
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Dis Control, London, England..
    Mazengiya, Yidnekachew D.
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Mekete, Kalkidan
    Ethiopian Publ Hlth Inst, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Mengesha, Magdelawit
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Nega, Meresha W.
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Otoro, Israel A.
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Schellenberg, Joanna
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Dis Control, London, England..
    Taddele, Tefera
    Ethiopian Publ Hlth Inst, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Tefera, Gulilat
    Ethiopian Pharmaceut Supply Agcy, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Teketel, Admasu
    Ethiopian Pharmaceut Supply Agcy, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Tesfaye, Miraf
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Tsegaye, Tsion
    Ethiopian Pharmaceut Supply Agcy, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Woldesenbet, Kidist
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Wondarad, Yakob
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Yosuf, Zemzem M.
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Zealiyas, Kidist
    Ethiopian Publ Hlth Inst, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Zeweli, Mebratom H.
    Minist Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Dis Control, London, England..
    Janson, Annika
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Dis Control, London, England.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Routine health management information system data in Ethiopia: consistency, trends, and challenges2021In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 1868961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ethiopia is investing in the routine Health Management Information System. Improved routine data are needed for decision-making in the health sector.

    Objective: To analyse the quality of the routine Health Management Information System data and triangulate with other sources, such as the Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Methods: We analysed national Health Management Information System data on 19 indicators of maternal health, neonatal survival, immunization, child nutrition, malaria, and tuberculosis over the 2012-2018 time period. The analyses were conducted by 38 analysts from the Ministry of Health, Ethiopia, and two government agencies who participated in the Operational Research and Coaching for Analysts (ORCA) project between June 2018 and June 2020. Using a World Health Organization Data Quality Review toolkit, we assessed indicator definitions, completeness, internal consistency over time and between related indicators, and external consistency compared with other data sources.

    Results: Several services reported coverage of above 100%. For many indicators, denominators were based on poor-quality population data estimates. Data on individual vaccinations had relatively good internal consistency. In contrast, there was low external consistency for data on fully vaccinated children, with the routine Health Management Information System showing 89% coverage but the Demographic and Health Survey estimate at 39%. Maternal health indicators displayed increasing coverage over time. Indicators on child nutrition, malaria, and tuberculosis were less consistent. Data on neonatal mortality were incomplete and operationalised as mortality on day 0-6. Our comparisons with survey and population projections indicated that one in eight early neonatal deaths were reported in the routine Health Management Information System. Data quality varied between regions.

    Conclusions: The quality of routine data gathered in the health system needs further attention. We suggest regular triangulation with data from other sources. We recommend addressing the denominator issues, reducing the complexity of indicators, and aligning indicators to international definitions.

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  • 46.
    Adel, Rabie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Challenges facing Pro-life and Pro-choice organisations within Warsaw, Poland2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 47.
    Adelholt, Denise
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    The Effects of Cell Culture Medium and Supplements on the Differentiation of Boundary Cap Neural Crest Stem Cells2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Boundary cap neural crest stem cells (bNCSCs) are multipotent cells that form a barrier between CNS and PNS, playing an important role in ingrowth of neurites into the spinal cord during development. Because of the stemness and multipotency of bNCSCs, they self-renew and can be used directly for transplantation or as a source of matured neural cells. It is important that cells used for cell therapy differentiate and develop into the mature cells that the recipient needs. To ensure this, cells are guided towards specific cell fates, and one way of doing this is with medium supplements. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of three different media with supplements on the differentiation of bNCSCs. Two cell lineages of bNCSCs expressing green- and red fluorescent protein were treated with different media for differentiation. The effects of the media supplements neurotrophic glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), cilinary neurotrophic factor (CTNF) and fetal bovine serum (FBS) were compared, with one medium containing no additional factors. It was found that when GDNF and CTNF are supplemented in the differentiation media, bNCSCs are guided towards astrocytes. Interestingly, the medium containing no additional factors gave rise to an even amount of neurons and astrocytes. FBS had an inhibitory effect on overall differentiation of bNCSCs, giving rise to the smallest amount of neurons and astrocytes. The bNCSCs are promising for cell therapy, as their differentiation can be guided with the use of medium supplements.

  • 48. Adeniran, Abosede
    et al.
    Likaka, Andrew
    Knutsson, Anneka
    Costello, Anthony
    Daelmans, Bernadette
    Maliqi, Blerta
    Burssa, Daniel
    Freer, Joseph
    Askew, Ian
    Bowen, Lisa
    Kak, Lily
    McDougall, Lori
    Zaka, Nabila
    Tunçalp, Özge
    Tenhoope-Bender, Petra
    Syed, Shamsuzzoha Babar
    Swartling Peterson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Luchesi, Thiago
    Zeck, Willibald
    Were, Wilson
    Barker, Pierre
    Naimy, Zainab
    Leadership, action, learning and accountability to deliver quality care for women, newborns and children.2018In: Bulletin of the World Health Organization, ISSN 0042-9686, E-ISSN 1564-0604, Vol. 96, no 3, p. 222-224Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Adjorlolo, Samuel
    et al.
    Department of Mental Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health Sciences University of Ghana Accra Ghana;Research and Grant Institute of Ghana Accra Ghana.
    Awortwe, Victoria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Healthcare Sciences and e-Health.
    Anum, Adote
    Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, College of Humanities University of Ghana Accra Ghana.
    Huang, Keng‐Yen
    Department of Population Health New York University School of Medicine New York NY USA;Child and Adolescent Psychiatry New York University School of Medicine New York NY USA.
    Mamah, Daniel
    Department of Psychiatry Washington University Medical School St. Louis MO USA.
    Psychotic‐like experiences and adverse life events in young people: Does gender matter?2023In: Child and Adolescent Mental Health, ISSN 1475-357X, E-ISSN 1475-3588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and adverse life events (ALEs) are highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa where gendered practices are also common. There is, however, a paucity of data on how the relationship between PLEs and life adversities is influenced by gender. The current study addressed this gap.

    Method

    Data were collected from 1886 school-based young people (1174 females) in Ghana, West Africa using a cross-sectional survey methodology and analyzed using Chi-square, independent t-test, Pearson correlation, and multivariate regression.

    Results

    The results showed that victimization experiences, school stress and having a family member with mental illness were significantly associated with PLEs in both males and females. In contrast, substance misuse and experiences of head trauma correlated significantly with PLEs in females only.

    Conclusion

    Life adversities constitute major risk factors for PLEs among school-based young people in Ghana, who could benefit from gender neutral and gender-sensitive intervention programming to remediate the effects of life adversities on PLEs.

  • 50.
    Adolphson, Katja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Högberg, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Midwives' experiences of working conditions, perceptions of professional role and attitudes towards mothers in Mozambique2016In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 40, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: low- and middle-income countries still have a long way to go to reach the fifth Millennium Development Goal of reducing maternal mortality. Mozambique has accomplished a reduction of maternal mortality since the 1990s, but still has among the highest in the world. A key strategy in reducing maternal mortality is to invest in midwifery. AIM: the objective was to explore midwives' perspectives of their working conditions, their professional role, and perceptions of attitudes towards mothers in a low-resource setting. SETTING: midwives in urban, suburban, village and remote areas; working in central, general and rural hospitals as well as health centres and health posts were interviewed in Maputo City, Maputo Province and Gaza Province in Mozambique. METHOD: the study had a qualitative research design. Nine semi-structured interviews and one follow-up interview were conducted and analysed with qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: two main themes were found; commitment/devotion and lack of resources. All informants described empathic care-giving, with deep engagement with the mothers and highly valued working in teams. Lack of resources prevented the midwives from providing care and created frustration and feelings of insufficiency. CONCLUSIONS: the midwives perceptions were that they tried to provide empathic, responsive care on their own within a weak health system which created many difficulties. The great potential the midwives possess of providing quality care must be valued and nurtured for their competency to be used more effectively.

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