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  • 1.
    Adamo, A.
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Astron, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ryon, J. E.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA.;Univ Wisconsin Madison, Dept Astron, Madison, WI USA..
    Messa, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Astron, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kim, H.
    Gemini Observ, La Serena, Chile..
    Grasha, K.
    Univ Massachusetts, Dept Astron, Amherst, MA 01003 USA..
    Cook, D. O.
    CALTECH, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    Calzetti, D.
    Univ Massachusetts, Dept Astron, Amherst, MA 01003 USA..
    Lee, J. C.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA.;CALTECH, Spitzer Sci Ctr, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    Whitmore, B. C.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Elmegreen, B. G.
    IBM Corp, TJ Watson Res Ctr, Div Res, Yorktown Hts, NY USA..
    Ubeda, L.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Smith, L. J.
    European Space Agcy, Space Telescope Sci Inst, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Bright, S. N.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Runnholm, A.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Astron, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Andrews, J. E.
    Univ Arizona, Dept Astron, Tucson, AZ USA..
    Fumagalli, M.
    Univ Durham, Inst Computat Cosmol, Durham, England.;Univ Durham, Ctr Extragalact Astron, Dept Phys, Durham, England..
    Gouliermis, D. A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Inst Theoret Astrophys, Albert Ueberle Str 2, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.;Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Kahre, L.
    New Mexico State Univ, Dept Astron, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA..
    Nair, P.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Thilker, D.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Walterbos, R.
    New Mexico State Univ, Dept Astron, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA..
    Wofford, A.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Astron, Unidad Acad Ensenada, Km 103 Carr Tijuana Ensenada, Ensenada 22860, Baja California, Mexico..
    Aloisi, A.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Ashworth, G.
    Univ Durham, Inst Computat Cosmol, Durham, England.;Univ Durham, Ctr Extragalact Astron, Dept Phys, Durham, England..
    Brown, T. M.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Chandar, R.
    Univ Toledo, Dept Phys & Astron, Toledo, OH 43606 USA..
    Christian, C.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Cignoni, M.
    Univ Pisa, Dept Phys, Largo B Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.;INFN, Largo B Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa, Italy..
    Clayton, G. C.
    Louisiana State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 USA..
    Dale, D. A.
    Univ Wyoming, Dept Phys & Astron, Laramie, WY 82071 USA..
    de Mink, S. E.
    Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Dobbs, C.
    Univ Exeter, Sch Phys & Astron, Exeter, Devon, England..
    Elmegreen, D. M.
    Vassar Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, Poughkeepsie, NY 12601 USA..
    Evans, A. S.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22903 USA.;Natl Radio Astron Observ, Charlottesville, VA USA..
    Gallagher, J. S. , I I I
    Grebel, E. K.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Herrero, A.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Hunter, D. A.
    Lowell Observ, 1400 W Mars Hill Rd, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 USA..
    Johnson, K. E.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22903 USA..
    Kennicutt, R. C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Cambridge, England..
    Krumholz, M. R.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Lennon, D.
    ESA, European Space Astron Ctr, Madrid, Spain..
    Levay, K.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Martin, C.
    CALTECH, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    Nota, A.
    European Space Agcy, Space Telescope Sci Inst, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Ostlin, G.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, Dept Astron, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Pellerin, A.
    SUNY Coll Geneseo, Dept Phys & Astron, Geneseo, NY 14454 USA..
    Prieto, J.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Astrophys Sci, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA..
    Regan, M. W.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Sabbi, E.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Sacchi, E.
    Bologna Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Bologna, Italy.;Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Bologna, Italy..
    Schaerer, D.
    Univ Geneva, Observ Geneve, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Schiminovich, D.
    Columbia Univ, Dept Astron, New York, NY 10027 USA..
    Shabani, F.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Tosi, M.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Bologna, Italy..
    Van Dyk, S. D.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Bologna, Italy..
    Zackrisson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey with The Hubble Space Telescope: Stellar Cluster Catalogs and First Insights Into Cluster Formation and Evolution in NGC 6282017In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 841, no 2, 131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the large effort that is producing comprehensive high-level young star cluster (YSC) catalogs for a significant fraction of galaxies observed with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) Hubble treasury program. We present the methodology developed to extract cluster positions, verify their genuine nature, produce multiband photometry (from NUV to NIR), and derive their physical properties via spectral energy distribution fitting analyses. We use the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 628 as a test case for demonstrating the impact that LEGUS will have on our understanding of the formation and evolution of YSCs and compact stellar associations within their host galaxy. Our analysis of the cluster luminosity function from the UV to the NIR finds a steepening at the bright end and at all wavelengths suggesting a dearth of luminous clusters. The cluster mass function of NGC 628 is consistent with a power-law distribution of slopes similar to-2 and a truncation of a few times 10(5) M-circle dot. After their formation, YSCs and compact associations follow different evolutionary paths. YSCs survive for a longer time frame, confirming their being potentially bound systems. Associations disappear on timescales comparable to hierarchically organized star-forming regions, suggesting that they are expanding systems. We find massindependent cluster disruption in the inner region of NGC 628, while in the outer part of the galaxy there is little or no disruption. We observe faster disruption rates for low mass (<= 10(4) M-circle dot) clusters, suggesting that a massdependent component is necessary to fully describe the YSC disruption process in NGC 628.

  • 2. Adamo, A.
    et al.
    Östlin, G.
    Zackrisson, E.
    Papaderos, P.
    Bergvall, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Rich, R. M.
    Micheva, G.
    Star cluster formation and evolution in Mrk 930: properties of a metal-poor starburst2011In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 415, no 3, 2388-2406 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the analysis of the large population of star clusters in the blue compact galaxy (BCG) Mrk 930. The study has been conducted by means of a photometric analysis of multiband data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We have reconstructed the spectral energy distributions of the star clusters and estimated the age, mass and extinction for a representative sample. Similar to previous studies of star clusters in BCGs, we observe a very young cluster population with 70 per cent of the systems formed less than 10 Myr ago. In Mrk 930, the peak in the star cluster age distribution at 4 Myr is corroborated by the presence of Wolf-Rayet spectral features, and by the observed optical and infrared (IR) line ratios [OIII]/H beta and [Ne III]/[Ne II]. The recovered extinction in these very young clusters shows large variations, with a decrease at older ages. It is likely that our analysis is limited to the optically brightest objects (i.e. systems only partially embedded in their natal cocoons; the deeply embedded clusters being undetected). We map the extinction across the galaxy using low-resolution spectra and the H alpha-to-H beta ratio, as obtained from ground-based narrow band imaging. These results are compared with the extinction distribution recovered from the clusters. We find that the mean optical extinction derived in the starburst regions is close to the averaged value observed in the clusters [more than 80 per cent of the systems have E(B - V) <= 0.2mag], but locally, do not trace the more extinguished clusters. Previous HST studies of BCGs have revealed a population of young and extremely red super star clusters. We detect a considerable fraction of clusters affected by a red excess also in Mrk 930. The nature of the red excess, which turns up at near-IR wavelengths (I band and longwards), remains unknown. We compare the cluster formation history and the star formation history, the latter derived from the fit of spectral population synthesis models to the spectra. We find a general agreement between the two independently estimated quantities. Using the cluster properties, we perform a study of the host environmental properties. We find that the cluster formation efficiency (the fraction of star formation happening in clusters) is significantly higher, suggesting a key role of the environment for the formation of these massive objects.

  • 3.
    Agarwal, Bhaskar
    et al.
    Yale Univ, Dept Astron, 52 Hillhouse Ave,Steinbach Hall, New Haven, CT 06511 USA..
    Johnson, Jarrett L.
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Theoret Div X, Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA..
    Zackrisson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Labbe, Ivo
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands..
    van den Bosch, Frank C.
    Yale Univ, Dept Astron, 52 Hillhouse Ave,Steinbach Hall, New Haven, CT 06511 USA..
    Natarajan, Priyamvada
    Yale Univ, Dept Astron, 52 Hillhouse Ave,Steinbach Hall, New Haven, CT 06511 USA..
    Khochfar, Sadegh
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Detecting direct collapse black holes: making the case for CR72016In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 460, no 4, 4003-4010 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose that one of the sources in the recently detected system CR7 by Sobral et al. through spectrophotometric measurements at z=6.6 harbours a direct collapse black hole (DCBH). We argue that the LW radiation field required for direct collapse in source A is provided by sources B and C.By tracing the LW production history and star formation rate over cosmic time for the halo hosting CR7 in a ACDM universe, we demonstrate that a DCBH could have formed at z similar to 20. The spectrum of source A is well fit by nebular emission from primordial gas around a BH with MBH similar to 4.4x10(6)M(circle dot) accreting at a 40 per cent of the Eddington rate, which strongly supports our interpretation of the data. Combining these lines of evidence, we argue that CR7 might well be the first DCBH candidate.

  • 4. Alecian, E.
    et al.
    Kochukhov, Oleg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Neiner, C.
    Wade, G. A.
    de Batz, B.
    Henrichs, H.
    Grunhut, J. H.
    Bouret, J. -C
    Briquet, M.
    Gagne, M.
    Naze, Y.
    Oksala, M. E.
    Rivinius, T.
    Townsend, R. H. D.
    Walborn, N. R.
    Weiss, W.
    First HARPSpol discoveries of magnetic fields in massive stars2011In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 536, L6- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the framework of the Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS) project, a HARPSpol Large Program at the 3.6m-ESO telescope has recently started to collect high-resolution spectropolarimetric data of a large number of Southern massive OB stars in the field of the Galaxy and in many young clusters and associations. We report on the first discoveries of magnetic fields in two massive stars with HARPSpol - HD 130807 and HD 122451, and confirm the presence of a magnetic field at the surface of HD 105382 that was previously observed with a low spectral resolution device. The longitudinal magnetic field measurements strongly vary for HD 130807 from similar to-100 G to similar to 700 G. Those of HD 122451 and HD 105382 are less variable with values ranging from similar to-40 to -80 G, and from similar to-300 to -600 G, respectively. The discovery and confirmation of three new magnetic massive stars, including at least two He-weak stars, is an important contribution to one of MiMeS objectives: the understanding of the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars and their impact on stellar structure and evolution.

  • 5. Alentiev, D.
    et al.
    Kochukhov, Oleg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Ryabchikova, T.
    Cunha, M.
    Tsymbal, V.
    Weiss, W.
    Discovery of the longest period rapidly oscillating Ap star HD1777652012In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 421, no 1, L82-L86 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the discovery of a long-period, rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) star, HD177765. Using high-resolution time-series observations obtained with the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, we found radial velocity variations with amplitudes 7-150 ms(-1) and a period of 23.6 min, exceeding that of any previously known roAp star. The largest pulsation amplitudes are observed for Eu III, Ce III and for the narrow core of H alpha. We derived the atmospheric parameters and chemical composition of HD177765, showing this star to be similar to other long-period roAp stars. Comparison with theoretical pulsational models indicates an advanced evolutionary state for HD177765. Abundance analyses of this and other roAp stars suggest a systematic variation with age of the rare-earth line anomalies seen in cool Ap stars.

  • 6.
    Amarsi, A. M.
    et al.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia..
    Lind, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy. Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Asplund, M.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia..
    Barklem, Paul S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Collet, R.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Non-LTE line formation of Fe in late-type stars - III. 3D non-LTE analysis of metal-poor stars2016In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 463, no 2, 1518-1533 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As one of the most important elements in astronomy, iron abundance determinations need to be as accurate as possible. We investigate the accuracy of spectroscopic iron abundance analyses using archetypal metal-poor stars. We perform detailed 3D non-LTE radiative transfer calculations based on 3D hydrodynamic STAGGER model atmospheres, and employ a new model atom that includes new quantum-mechanical neutral hydrogen collisional rate coefficients. With the exception of the red giant HD122563, we find that the 3D non-LTE models achieve Fe I/Fe II excitation and ionization balance as well as not having any trends with equivalent width to within modelling uncertainties of 0.05 dex, all without having to invoke any microturbulent broadening; for HD122563 we predict that the current best parallax-based surface gravity is overestimated by 0.5 dex. Using a 3D non-LTE analysis, we infer iron abundances from the 3D model atmospheres that are roughly 0.1 dex higher than corresponding abundances from 1D MARCS model atmospheres; these differences go in the same direction as the non-LTE effects themselves. We make available grids of departure coefficients, equivalent widths and abundance corrections, calculated on 1D MARCS model atmospheres and horizontally and temporally averaged 3D STAGGER model atmospheres.

  • 7.
    Aronson, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Waldén, P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Piskunov, Nikolai
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Using near-infrared spectroscopy for characterization of transiting exoplanets2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 578, A133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. We propose a method for observing transiting exoplanets with near-infrared high-resolution spectrometers. Aims. We aim to create a robust data analysis method for recovering atmospheric transmission spectra from transiting exoplanets over a wide wavelength range in the near-infrared. Methods. By using an inverse method approach, combined with stellar models and telluric transmission spectra, the method recovers the transiting exoplanet's atmospheric transmittance at high precision over a wide wavelength range. We describe our method and have tested it by simulating observations. Results. This method is capable of recovering transmission spectra of high enough accuracy to identify absorption features from molecules such as O-2, CH4, CO2, and H2O. This accuracy is achievable for Jupiter-size exoplanets at S/N that can be reached for 8m class telescopes using high-resolution spectrometers (R > 20 000) during a single transit, and for Earth-size planets and super-Earths transiting late K or M dwarf stars at S/N reachable during observations of less than 10 transits. We also analyse potential error sources to show the robustness of the method. Conclusions. Detection and characterization of atmospheres of both Jupiter-size planets and smaller rocky planets looks promising using this set-up.

  • 8. Bagnulo, S.
    et al.
    Landstreet, J. D.
    Fossati, L.
    Kochukhov, O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Stellar magnetism through the polarized eyes of the FORS1 instrument2012In: American Institute of Physics Conference Series, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2012, Vol. 1429, 57-66 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9. Bagnulo, S.
    et al.
    Landstreet, J. D.
    Fossati, L.
    Kochukhov, Oleg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Magnetic field measurements and their uncertainties: the FORS1 legacy2012In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 538, A129- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. During the last decade, the FORS1 instrument of the ESO Very Large Telescope has been extensively used to study stellar magnetism. A number of interesting discoveries of magnetic fields in several classes of stars have been announced, many of which obtained at a similar to 3 sigma level; some of the discoveries are confirmed by measurements obtained with other instruments, some are not.

    Aims. We investigate the reasons for the discrepancies between the results obtained with FORS1 and those obtained with other instruments.

    Methods. Using the ESO FORS pipeline, we have developed a semi-automatic procedure for magnetic field determination. We have applied this procedure to the full content of circular spectropolarimetric measurements of the FORS1 archive (except for most of the observations obtained in multi-object spectropolarimetric mode). We have devised and applied a number of consistency checks to our field determinations, and we have compared our results to those previously published in the literature.

    Results. We find that for high signal-to-noise ratio measurements, photon noise does not account for the full error bars. We discuss how field measurements depend on the specific algorithm adopted for data reduction, and we show that very small instrument flexures, negligible in most of the instrument applications, may be responsible for some spurious field detections in the null profiles. Finally, we find that we are unable to reproduce some results previously published in the literature. Consequently, we do not confirm some important discoveries of magnetic fields obtained with FORS1 and reported in previous publications.

    Conclusions. Our revised field measurements show that there is no contradiction between the results obtained with the low-resolution spectropolarimeter FORS1 and those obtained with high-resolution spectropolarimeters. FORS1 is an instrument capable of performing reliable magnetic field measurements, provided that the various sources of uncertainties are properly taken into account.

  • 10. Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.
    et al.
    Andrae, R.
    Arcay, B.
    Astraatmadja, T.
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    Berihuete, A.
    Bijaoui, A.
    Carrion, C.
    Dafonte, C.
    Damerdji, Y.
    Dapergolas, A.
    de Laverny, P.
    Delchambre, L.
    Drazinos, P.
    Drimmel, R.
    Fremat, Y.
    Fustes, D.
    Garcia-Torres, M.
    Guede, C.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Janotto, A. -M
    Karampelas, A.
    Kim, D. -W
    Knude, J.
    Kolka, I.
    Kontizas, E.
    Kontizas, M.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    Lebreton, Y.
    Lindstrom, H.
    Liu, C.
    Livanou, E.
    Lobel, A.
    Manteiga, M.
    Martayan, C.
    Ordenovic, Ch.
    Pichon, B.
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Rocca-Volmerange, B.
    Sarro, L. M.
    Smith, K.
    Sordo, R.
    Soubiran, C.
    Surdej, J.
    Thevenin, F.
    Tsalmantza, P.
    Vallenari, A.
    Zorec, J.
    The Gaia astrophysical parameters inference system (Apsis) Pre-launch description2013In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 559, A74- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gaia satellite will survey the entire celestial sphere down to 20th magnitude, obtaining astrometry, photometry, and low resolution spectrophotometry on one billion astronomical sources, plus radial velocities for over one hundred million stars. Its main objective is to take a census of the stellar content of our Galaxy, with the goal of revealing its formation and evolution. Gaia's unique feature is the measurement of parallaxes and proper motions with hitherto unparalleled accuracy for many objects. As a survey, the physical properties of most of these objects are unknown. Here we describe the data analysis system put together by the Gaia consortium to classify these objects and to infer their astrophysical properties using the satellite's data. This system covers single stars, (unresolved) binary stars, quasars, and galaxies, all covering a wide parameter space. Multiple methods are used for many types of stars, producing multiple results for the end user according to different models and assumptions. Prior to its application to real Gaia data the accuracy of these methods cannot be assessed definitively. But as an example of the current performance, we can attain internal accuracies (rms residuals) on F, G, K, M dwarfs and giants at G = 15 (V = 15-17) for a wide range of metallicites and interstellar extinctions of around 100 K in effective temperature (T-eff), 0.1 mag in extinction (A(0)), 0.2 dex in metallicity ([Fe/H]), and 0.25 dex in surface gravity (log g). The accuracy is a strong function of the parameters themselves, varying by a factor of more than two up or down over this parameter range. After its launch in December 2013, Gaia will nominally observe for five years, during which the system we describe will continue to evolve in light of experience with the real data.

  • 11. Bailey, J. D.
    et al.
    Landstreet, J. D.
    Bagnulo, S.
    Fossati, L.
    Kochukhov, Oleg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Paladini, C.
    Silvester, J.
    Wade, G.
    Magnetic field and atmospheric chemical abundances of the magnetic Ap star HD 3181072011In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 535, A25- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. A new generation of powerful and efficient spectropolarimeters has recently been used to provide the first sample of magnetic Ap stars of accurately known ages. Modelling of these data offer the possibility of significant new insights into the physics and main sequence evolution of these remarkable stars.

    Aims. New spectra have been obtained with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter, and are supplemented with unpolarised spectra from the ESO UVES, UVES-FLAMES, and HARPS spectrographs, of the very peculiar large-field magnetic Ap star HD 318107, a member of the open cluster NGC 6405 and thus a star with a well-determined age. The available data provide sufficient material with which to re-analyse the first-order model of the magnetic field geometry and to derive chemical abundances of Si, Ti, Fe, Nd, Pr, Mg, Cr, Mn, O, and Ca.

    Methods. The models were obtained using ZEEMAN, a program which synthesises spectral line profiles for stars that have magnetic fields. The magnetic field structure was modelled with a low-order colinear multipole expansion, using coefficients derived from the observed variations of the field strength with rotation phase. The abundances of several elements were determined using spectral synthesis. After experiments with a very simple model of uniform abundance on each of three rings of equal width in co-latitude and symmetric about the assumed magnetic axis, we decided to model the spectra assuming uniform abundances of each element over the stellar surface.

    Results. The new magnetic field measurements allow us to refine the rotation period of HD 318107 to P = 9.7088 +/- 0.0007 days. Appropriate magnetic field model parameters were found that very coarsely describe the (apparently rather complex) field moment variations. Spectrum synthesis leads to the derivation of mean abundances for the elements Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Nd, and Pr. All of these elements except for Mg and Ca are strongly overabundant compared to the solar abundance ratios. There is considerable evidence of non-uniformity, for example in the different values of < B(z)> found using lines of different elements.

    Conclusions. The present data set, while limited, is nevertheless sufficient to provide a useful first-order assessment of both the magnetic and surface abundance properties of HD 318107, making it one of the very few magnetic Ap stars of well-known age for which both of these properties have been studied.

  • 12.
    Barklem, Paul S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Excitation and charge transfer in low-energy hydrogen-atom collisions with neutral atoms: Theory, comparisons, and application to Ca2016In: PHYSICAL REVIEW A, ISSN 2469-9926, Vol. 93, no 4, 042705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A theoretical method is presented for the estimation of cross sections and rates for excitation and charge-transfer processes in low-energy hydrogen-atom collisions with neutral atoms, based on an asymptotic two-electron model of ionic-covalent interactions in the neutral atom-hydrogen-atom system. The calculation of potentials and nonadiabatic radial couplings using the method is demonstrated. The potentials are used together with the multichannel Landau-Zener model to calculate cross sections and rate coefficients. The main feature of the method is that it employs asymptotically exact atomic wave functions, which can be determined from known atomic parameters. The method is applied to Li + H, Na + H, and Mg + H collisions, and the results compare well with existing detailed full-quantum calculations. The method is applied to the astrophysically important problem of Ca + H collisions, and rate coefficients are calculated for temperatures in the range 1000-20 000 K.

  • 13.
    Barklem, Paul S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Collet, R.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia.;Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Partition functions and equilibrium constants for diatomic molecules and atoms of astrophysical interest2016In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 588, A96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partition functions and dissociation equilibrium constants are presented for 291 diatomic molecules for temperatures in the range from near absolute zero to 10 000 K, thus providing data for many diatomic molecules of astrophysical interest at low temperature. The calculations are based on molecular spectroscopic data from the book of Huber & Herzberg (1979, Constants of Diatomic Molecules) with significant improvements from the literature, especially updated data for ground states of many of the most important molecules by Irikura (2007, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 36, 389). Dissociation energies are collated from compilations of experimental and theoretical values. Partition functions for 284 species of atoms for all elements from H to U are also presented based on data collected at NIST. The calculated data are expected to be useful for modelling a range of low density astrophysical environments, especially star-forming regions, protoplanetary disks, the interstellar medium, and planetary and cool stellar atmospheres. The input data, which will be made available electronically, also provides a possible foundation for future improvement by the community.

  • 14. Bedding, Timothy R.
    et al.
    Kjeldsen, Hans
    Campante, Tiago L.
    Appourchaux, Thierry
    Bonanno, Alfio
    Chaplin, William J.
    Garcia, Rafael A.
    Martic, Milena
    Mosser, Benoit
    Butler, R. Paul
    Bruntt, Hans
    Kiss, Laszlo L.
    O'Toole, Simon J.
    Kambe, Eiji
    Ando, Hiroyasu
    Izumiura, Hideyuki
    Sato, Bun'ei
    Hartmann, Michael
    Hatzes, Artie
    Barban, Caroline
    Berthomieu, Gabrielle
    Michel, Eric
    Provost, Janine
    Turck-Chieze, Sylvaine
    Lebrun, Jean-Claude
    Schmitt, Jerome
    Bertaux, Jean-Loup
    Benatti, Serena
    Claudi, Riccardo U.
    Cosentino, Rosario
    Leccia, Silvio
    Frandsen, Soren
    Brogaard, Karsten
    Glowienka, Lars
    Grundahl, Frank
    Stempels, Eric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Arentoft, Torben
    Bazot, Michael
    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jorgen
    Dall, Thomas H.
    Karoff, Christoffer
    Lundgreen-Nielsen, Jens
    Carrier, Fabien
    Eggenberger, Patrick
    Sosnowska, Danuta
    Wittenmyer, Robert A.
    Endl, Michael
    Metcalfe, Travis S.
    Hekker, Saskia
    Reffert, Sabine
    A multi-site campaign to measure solar-like oscillations in Procyon. II. mode frequencies2010In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 713, no 2, 935-949 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have analyzed data from a multi-site campaign to observe oscillations in the F5 star Procyon. The data consist of high-precision velocities that we obtained over more than three weeks with 11 telescopes. A new method for adjusting the data weights allows us to suppress the sidelobes in the power spectrum. Stacking the power spectrum in a so-called echelle diagram reveals two clear ridges, which we identify with even and odd values of the angular degree (l = 0 and 2, and l = 1 and 3, respectively). We interpret a strong, narrow peak at 446 mu Hz that lies close to the l = 1 ridge as a mode with mixed character. We show that the frequencies of the ridge centroids and their separations are useful diagnostics for asteroseismology. In particular, variations in the large separation appear to indicate a glitch in the sound-speed profile at an acoustic depth of similar to 1000 s. We list frequencies for 55 modes extracted from the data spanning 20 radial orders, a range comparable to the best solar data, which will provide valuable constraints for theoretical models. A preliminary comparison with published models shows that the offset between observed and calculated frequencies for the radial modes is very different for Procyon than for the Sun and other cool stars. We find the mean lifetime of the modes in Procyon to be 1.29(-0.49)(+0.55) days, which is significantly shorter than the 2-4 days seen in the Sun.

  • 15. Benedict, G. Fritz
    et al.
    McArthur, Barbara E.
    Feast, Michael W.
    Barnes, Thomas G.
    Harrison, Thomas E.
    Bean, Jacob L.
    Menzies, John W.
    Chaboyer, Brian
    Fossati, Luca
    Nesvacil, Nicole
    Smith, Horace A.
    Kolenberg, Katrien
    Laney, C. D.
    Kochukhov, Oleg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Nelan, Edmund P.
    Shulyak, D. V.
    Taylor, Denise
    Freedman, Wendy L.
    Distance scale zero points from galactic RR Lyrae star parallaxes2011In: Astronomical Journal, ISSN 0004-6256, E-ISSN 1538-3881, Vol. 142, no 6, 187- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present new absolute trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions for seven Population II variable stars-five RR Lyr variables: RZ Cep, XZ Cyg, SU Dra, RR Lyr, and UV Oct; and two type 2 Cepheids: VY Pyx and kappa Pav. We obtained these results with astrometric data from Fine Guidance Sensors, white-light interferometers on Hubble Space Telescope. We find absolute parallaxes in milliseconds of arc: RZ Cep, 2.12 +/- 0.16 mas; XZ Cyg, 1.67 +/- 0.17 mas; SU Dra, 1.42 +/- 0.16 mas; RR Lyr, 3.77 +/- 0.13 mas; UV Oct, 1.71 +/- 0.10 mas; VY Pyx, 6.44 +/- 0.23 mas; and. Pav, 5.57 +/- 0.28 mas; an average sigma(pi)/pi = 5.4%. With these parallaxes, we compute absolute magnitudes in V and K bandpasses corrected for interstellar extinction and Lutz-Kelker-Hanson bias. Using these RR Lyrae variable star absolute magnitudes, we then derive zero points for M(V)-[Fe/H] and M(K)-[Fe/H]-log P relations. The technique of reduced parallaxes corroborates these results. We employ our new results to determine distances and ages of several Galactic globular clusters and the distance of the Large Magellanic Cloud. The latter is close to that previously derived from Classical Cepheids uncorrected for any metallicity effect, indicating that any such effect is small. We also discuss the somewhat puzzling results obtained for our two type 2 Cepheids.

  • 16. Bergemann, M.
    et al.
    Ruchti, G. R.
    Serenelli, A.
    Feltzing, S.
    Alves-Brito, A.
    Asplund, M.
    Bensby, T.
    Gruyters, Pieter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Hourihane, A.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Lind, K.
    Marino, A.
    Jofre, P.
    Nordlander, T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Ryde, N.
    Worley, C. C.
    Gilmore, G.
    Randich, S.
    Ferguson, A. M. N.
    Jeffries, R. D.
    Micela, G.
    Negueruela, I.
    Prusti, T.
    Rix, H. -W
    Vallenari, A.
    Alfaro, E. J.
    Allende Prieto, C.
    Bragaglia, A.
    Koposov, S. E.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    Pancino, E.
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Smiljanic, R.
    Walton, N.
    Costado, M. T.
    Franciosini, E.
    Hill, V.
    Lardo, C.
    de Laverny, P.
    Magrini, L.
    Maiorca, E.
    Masseron, T.
    Morbidelli, L.
    Sacco, G.
    Kordopatis, G.
    Tautvaisiene, G.
    The Gaia-ESO Survey: radial metallicity gradients and age-metallicity relation of stars in the Milky Way disk2014In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 565, A89- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the relationship between age, metallicity, and alpha-enhancement of FGK stars in the Galactic disk. The results are based upon the analysis of high-resolution UVES spectra from the Gaia-ESO large stellar survey. We explore the limitations of the observed dataset, i.e. the accuracy of stellar parameters and the selection effects that are caused by the photometric target preselection. We find that the colour and magnitude cuts in the survey suppress old metal-rich stars and young metal-poor stars. This suppression may be as high as 97% in some regions of the age-metallicity relationship. The dataset consists of 144 stars with a wide range of ages from 0.5 Gyr to 13.5 Gyr, Galactocentric distances from 6 kpc to 9.5 kpc, and vertical distances from the plane 0 < vertical bar Z vertical bar < 1.5 kpc. On this basis, we find that i) the observed age-metallicity relation is nearly flat in the range of ages between 0 Gyr and 8 Gyr; ii) at ages older than 9 Gyr, we see a decrease in [Fe/H] and a clear absence of metal-rich stars; this cannot be explained by the survey selection functions; iii) there is a significant scatter of [Fe/H] at any age; and iv) [Mg/Fe] increases with age, but the dispersion of [Mg/Fe] at ages > 9 Gyr is not as small as advocated by some other studies. In agreement with earlier work, we find that radial abundance gradients change as a function of vertical distance from the plane. The [Mg/Fe] gradient steepens and becomes negative. In addition, we show that the inner disk is not only more alpha-rich compared to the outer disk, but also older, as traced independently by the ages and Mg abundances of stars.

  • 17.
    Bergvall, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Star Forming Dwarf Galaxies2012In: DWARF GALAXIES: KEYS TO GALAXY FORMATION AND EVOLUTION: PROCEEDINGS OF SYMPOSIUM 3 OF JENAM 2010, 2012, 175-194 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Star forming dwarf galaxies (SFDGs) have a high gas content and low metallicities, reminiscent of the basic entities in hierarchical galaxy formation scenarios. In the young universe they probably also played a major role in the cosmic reionization. Their abundant presence in the local volume and their youthful character make them ideal objects for detailed studies of the initial stellar mass function (IMF), fundamental star formation processes and its feedback to the interstellar medium. Occasionally we witness SFDGs involved in extreme starbursts, giving rise to strongly elevated production of super star clusters and global superwinds, mechanisms yet to be explored in more detail. SFDGs is the initial state of all dwarf galaxies and the relation to the environment provides us with a key to how different types of dwarf galaxies are emerging. In this review we will put the emphasis on the exotic starburst phase, as it seems less important for present day galaxy evolution but perhaps fundamental in the initial phase of galaxy formation.

  • 18.
    Bergvall, Nils
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Leitet, Elisabet
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Zackrisson, Erik
    Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, Oscar Klein Center, AlbaNova, Stockholm.
    Marquart, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Lyman continuum leaking galaxies: Search strategies and local candidates2013In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 554, A38- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Star-forming dwarf galaxies may have played an important role in the reionization of the Universe, provided that some fraction of their ionizing radiation were able to escape into the intergalactic medium. Local galaxies exhibiting such Lyman-continuum(LyC) leakage could potentially shed light on the escape mechanisms involved, but only two low-redshift cases of LyC leakage have been identified so far. Here, we argue that this meager harvest may be caused by unsuitable selection criteria. Candidates for LyC leakage are normally selected by indicators of starburst activity, one of which is a high equivalent width in H alpha. Such a criterion will guarantee a high production of LyC photons but will also bias the selection in favour of a high column density in the neutral gas, effectively ruling out LyC escape. Aims. In this work we want to investigate whether the lack of local LyC emitters can be caused in part by biased selection criteria, and we present a novel method of selecting targets with high escape fractions. By applying these criteria, we assemble a sample of observation targets to study their basic properties. Methods. We introduce a new selection strategy here where the potential LyC leakers are selected by their blue colours and weak emission lines. The selection is based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We also take a closer look at the properties of 8 LyCleaking candidates at z similar to 0.03 which we have observed with ESO/NTT in broadband B and H alpha. Results. We find that 7 of the 8 target galaxies are involved in interaction with neighbours or show signs of mergers. In 7 cases the young stellar population is clearly displaced relative to the main body of these galaxies, often directly bordering the halo region. In about half of our targets the absorption spectra show young post-starburst signatures. Comparing the scale lengths in H alpha with those of the stellar continua shows that the scale lengths in H alpha typically are 30% smaller, which is characteristic of galaxies influenced by ram pressure stripping. We tentatively identify a few mechanisms that could improve the conditions for leakage: 1) the combined effects of ram pressure stripping with supernova winds from young stars formed in the front, 2) merger events that increase the star formation rate and displace stars from gas, 3) starbursts in the centres of post-starburst galaxies, whose previous activity has cleared channels for leakage into the intergalactic medium, and 4) a low dust content. Although our target galaxies are rare species in the local universe, we argue that related types could have played a major role in producing ionizing radiation at high redshifts.

  • 19.
    Bergvall, Nils
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Marquart, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Way, Michael J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy. NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York 10025, USA.
    Blomqvist, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Holst, Emma
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Östlin, Göran
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Astron, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zackrisson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Local starburst galaxies and their descendants: Statistics from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey2016In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 587, A72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Despite strong interest in the starburst phenomenon in extragalactic astronomy, the concept remains ill-defined. Here we use a strict definition of starburst to examine the statistical properties of starburst galaxies in the local universe. We also seek to establish links between starburst galaxies, post-starburst (hereafter postburst) galaxies, and active galaxies.

    Methods: Data were selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7. We applied a novel method of treating dust attenuation and derive star formation rates, ages, and stellar masses assuming a two-component stellar population model. Dynamical masses are calculated from the width of the H alpha line. These masses agree excellently with the photometric masses. The mass (gas + stars) range is similar to 10(9)-10(11.5) M-circle dot. As a selection criterion for starburst galaxies, we use, the birthrate parameter, b = SFR/< SFR >, requiring that b >= 3. For postburst galaxies, we use, the equivalent width of H delta in absorption with the criterion EWH delta,abs >= 6 angstrom.

    Results: We find that only 1% of star-forming galaxies are starburst galaxies. They contribute 3 6% to the stellar production and are therefore unimportant for the local star formation activity. The median starburst age is 70 Myr roughly independent of mass, indicating that star formation is mainly regulated by local feedback processes. The b-parameter strongly depends on burst age. Values close to b = 60 are found at ages similar to 10 Myr, while almost no starbursts are found at ages >1 Gyr. The median baryonic burst mass fraction of sub-L* galaxies is 5% and decreases slowly towards high masses. The median mass fraction of the recent burst in the postburst sample is 5-10%. A smaller fraction of the postburst galaxies, however, originates in non-bursting galaxies. The age-mass distribution of the postburst progenitors (with mass fractions >3%) is bimodal with a break at log M (M-circle dot) similar to 10.6, above which the ages are doubled. The starburst and postburst luminosity functions (LFs) follow each other closely until M-r similar to -21, when active galactic nuclei (AGNs) begin to dominate. The postburst LF continues to follow the AGN LF, while starbursts become less significant. This suggests that the number of luminous starbursts is underestimated by about one dex at high luminosities, because of having large amounts of dust and/or being outshone by an AGN. It also indicates that the starburst phase preceded the AGN phase. Finally, we look at the conditions for global gas outflow caused by stellar feedback and find that massive starburst galaxies are susceptible to such outflows.

  • 20. Bessell, Michael S.
    et al.
    Collet, Remo
    Keller, Stefan C.
    Frebel, Anna
    Heger, Alexander
    Casey, Andrew R.
    Masseron, Thomas
    Asplund, Martin
    Jacobson, Heather R.
    Lind, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Marino, Anna F.
    Norris, John E.
    Yong, David
    Da Costa, Gary
    Chan, Conrad
    Magic, Zazralt
    Schmidt, Brian
    Tisserand, Patrick
    Nucleosynthesis in a Primordial Supernova: Carbon and Oxygen Abundances in SMSS J031300.36-670839.32015In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 806, no 1, L16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SMSS J031300.36-670839.3 (hereafter SM0313-6708) is a sub-giant halo star, with no detectable Fe lines and large overabundances of C and Mg relative to Ca. We obtained Very Large Telescope-Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) spectra extending to 3060 angstrom showing strong OH A-X band lines enabling an oxygen abundance to be derived. The OH A-X band lines in SM0313-6708 are much stronger than the CH C-X band lines. Spectrum synthesis fits indicate an [O/C] ratio of 0.02 +/- 0.175. Our high signal-to-noise ratio UVES data also enabled us to lower the Fe abundance limit to [Fe/H](< 3D >,NLTE) < -7.52 (3 sigma). These data support our previous suggestion that the star formed from the iron-poor ejecta of a single massive star Population III supernova.

  • 21.
    Binggeli, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Simulating the spectra of galaxies in the reionization epoch: Constraining the escape fraction of ionizing photons2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The cosmic reionization represents a fundamental yet poorly understood phase transition in the evolution of our universe. The most promising theory is that the ionizing radiation from young hot stars in star-forming galaxies drove reionization, but much information about the number of galaxies and the escape fraction of ionizing radiation from galaxies is still missing. In this thesis, I discuss a technique for estimating the escape fraction of hydrogen ionizing radiation from galaxies in the reionization epoch. The method utilizes the power law slope of the UV continuum and the equivalent width of the Balmer beta emission line to try to estimate the escape fraction of a galaxy from its spectrum without ever directly observing any ionizing radiation. The technique is applied to simulated galaxies from large scale cosmological simulations.I find that the method works for estimates of the escape fraction of dust free simulated galaxies. It is possible to distinguish between galaxies with escape fractions 0.0, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 when no dust is added to the galaxies. I also show that the method works regardless of choice of numerical assumptions and assumptions about stellar evolution in the models. Lastly, I show that the addition of dust to the galaxies can introduce an ambiguity to the estimated escape fraction, and that this may reduce the estimation into just being between high or low escape fractions. The results also show that equivalent widths of the Balmer beta emission line larger than approximately 100 Ångströms are seen only in galaxies with escape fractions consistent with zero. The addition of dust and its effect on the spectral features used in the technique allows for an estimation of the average dust content. I find that the galaxies contain low amounts of dust, with a highest average dust attenuation in the visual of A=0.4-0.6 magnitudes.

  • 22.
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    et al.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac, France..
    Soubiran, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac, France..
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Do Open Clusters Have Distinguishable Chemical Signatures?2015In: Milky Way Unravelled By Gaia: Great Science From The Gaia Data Releases, 2015, 133-136 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past studies have already shown that stars in open clusters are chemically homogeneous (e.g. De Silva et al. 2006, 2007 and 2009). These results support the idea that stars born from the same giant molecular cloud should have the same chemical composition. In this context, the chemical tagging technique was proposed by Freeman et al. (2002). The principle is to recover disrupted stellar clusters by looking only to the stellar chemical composition. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this approach, it is necessary to test if we can distinguish between stars born from different molecular clouds. For this purpose, we studied the chemical composition of stars in 32 old and intermediate-age open clusters, and we applied machine learning algorithms to recover the original cluster by only considering the chemical signatures.

  • 23. Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    et al.
    Soubiran, C.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Asplund, M.
    Carraro, G.
    Costado, M. T.
    Feltzing, S.
    Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. I.
    Jimenez-Esteban, F.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Marino, A. F.
    Montes, D.
    San Roman, I.
    Tabernero, H. M.
    Tautvaisiene, G.
    Testing the chemical tagging technique with open clusters2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 577, A47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Stars are born together from giant molecular clouds and, if we assume that the priors were chemically homogeneous and well-mixed, we expect them to share the same chemical composition. Most of the stellar aggregates are disrupted while orbiting the Galaxy and most of the dynamic information is lost, thus the only possibility of reconstructing the stellar formation history is to analyze the chemical abundances that we observe today. Aims. The chemical tagging technique aims to recover disrupted stellar clusters based merely on their chemical composition. We evaluate the viability of this technique to recover co-natal stars that are no longer gravitationally bound. Methods. Open clusters are co-natal aggregates that have managed to survive together. We compiled stellar spectra from 31 old and intermediate-age open clusters, homogeneously derived atmospheric parameters, and 17 abundance species, and applied machine learning algorithms to group the stars based on their chemical composition. This approach allows us to evaluate the viability and efficiency of the chemical tagging technique. Results. We found that stars at different evolutionary stages have distinct chemical patterns that may be due to NLTE effects, atomic diffusion, mixing, and biases. When separating stars into dwarfs and giants, we observed that a few open clusters show distinct chemical signatures while the majority show a high degree of overlap. This limits the recovery of co-natal aggregates by applying the chemical tagging technique. Nevertheless, there is room for improvement if more elements are included and models are improved.

  • 24. Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    et al.
    Soubiran, C.
    Jofre, P.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    The Gaia FGK benchmark stars High resolution spectral library2014In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 566, A98- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. An increasing number of high-resolution stellar spectra is available today thanks to many past and ongoing spectroscopic surveys. Consequently, numerous methods have been developed to perform an automatic spectral analysis on a massive amount of data. When reviewing published results, biases arise and they need to be addressed and minimized. Aims. We are providing a homogeneous library with a common set of calibration stars (known as the Gaia FGK benchmark stars) that will allow us to assess stellar analysis methods and calibrate spectroscopic surveys. Methods. High-resolution and signal-to-noise spectra were compiled from different instruments. We developed an automatic process to homogenize the observed data and assess the quality of the resulting library. Results. We built a high-quality library that will facilitate the assessment of spectral analyses and the calibration of present and future spectroscopic surveys. The automation of the process minimizes the human subjectivity and ensures reproducibility. Additionally, it allows us to quickly adapt the library to specific needs that can arise from future spectroscopic analyses.

  • 25. Brewer, John M.
    et al.
    Fischer, Debra A.
    Basu, Sarbani
    Valenti, Jeff A.
    Piskunov, Nikolai
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Accurate Gravities of F, G, and K Stars from High Resolution Spectra Without External Constraints2015In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 805, no 2, 126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a new procedure to derive accurate and precise surface gravities from high resolution spectra without the use of external constraints. Our analysis utilizes Spectroscopy Made Easy with robust spectral line constraints and uses an iterative process to mitigate degeneracies in the fitting process. We adopt an updated radiative transfer code, a new treatment for neutral perturber broadening, a line list with multiple gravity constraints and separate fitting for global stellar properties and abundance determinations. To investigate the sources of temperature dependent trends in determining log g noted in previous studies, we obtained Keck HIRES spectra of 42 Kepler asteroseismic stars. In comparison to asteroseismically determined log g our spectroscopic analysis has a constant offset of 0.01 dex with a rms scatter of 0.05 dex. We also analyzed 30 spectra which had published surface gravities determined using the a/R-* technique from planetary transits and found a constant offset of 0.06 dex and rms scatter of 0.07 dex. The two samples covered effective temperatures between 5000 and 6700 K with log g between 3.7 and 4.6.

  • 26.
    Brewer, John M.
    et al.
    Yale Univ, Dept Astron, New Haven, CT 06511 USA.;260 Whitney Ave, New Haven, CT 06511 USA..
    Fischer, Debra A.
    Yale Univ, Dept Astron, New Haven, CT 06511 USA.;260 Whitney Ave, New Haven, CT 06511 USA..
    Valenti, Jeff A.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA.;3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Piskunov, Nikolai
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Spectral Properties Of Cool Stars: Extended Abundance Analysis Of 1,617 Planet-Search Stars2016In: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, ISSN 0067-0049, E-ISSN 1538-4365, Vol. 225, no 2, 32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a catalog of uniformly determined stellar properties and abundances for 1,617 F, G, and K stars using an automated spectral synthesis modeling procedure. All stars were observed using the HIRES spectrograph at Keck Observatory. Our procedure used a single line list to fit model spectra to observations of all stars to determine effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, projected rotational velocity, and the abundances of 15 elements (C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Y). Sixty percent of the sample had Hipparcos parallaxes and V-band photometry, which we combined with the spectroscopic results to obtain mass, radius, and luminosity. Additionally, we used the luminosity, effective temperature, metallicity and alpha-element enhancement to interpolate in the Yonsei-Yale isochrones to derive mass, radius, gravity, and age ranges for those stars. Finally, we determined new relations between effective temperature and macroturbulence for dwarfs and subgiants. Our analysis achieved precisions of 25 K in T-eff, 0.01. dex in [M/H], 0.028. dex for log g,. and 0.5 km s(-1) in v sin i based on multiple observations of the same stars. The abundance results were similarly precise, between similar to 0.01 and similar to 0.04. dex, though trends with respect to T-eff remained for which we derived empirical corrections. The trends, though small, were much larger than our uncertainties and are shared with published abundances. We show that changing our model atmosphere grid accounts for most of the trend in [M/H] between 5000 and 5500 K, indicating a possible problem with the atmosphere models or opacities.

  • 27.
    Brown, A. G. A.
    et al.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Vallenari, A.
    Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Prusti, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    de Bruijne, J. H. J.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Mignard, F.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Drimmel, R.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Babusiaux, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bastian, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Biermann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Evans, D. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Eyer, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Jansen, F.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Operat Dept, Mission Operat Div, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Jordi, C.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Katz, D.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Klioner, S. A.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Lammers, U.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo dell Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Lindegren, L.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Luri, X.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    O'Mullane, W.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo dell Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Panem, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Pourbaix, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.;FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Randich, S.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Sartoretti, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Siddiqui, H. I.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Soubiran, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Valette, V.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    van Leeuwen, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Walton, N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Aerts, C.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, Dept Astrophys, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Arenou, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Cropper, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England..
    Hog, E.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark..
    Lattanzi, M. G.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Grebel, E. K.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Holland, A. D.
    Open Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Ctr Elect Imaging, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England..
    Huc, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Passot, X.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Perryman, M.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Bramante, L.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Cacciari, C.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Castaneda, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Chaoul, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Cheek, N.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    De Angeli, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Fabricius, C.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Guerra, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo dell Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Hernandez, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo dell Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Masana, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Mowlavi, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Ordonez-Blanco, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Panuzzo, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Portell, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Richards, P. J.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England..
    Riello, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England..
    Tanga, P.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Thevenin, F.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Torra, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Els, S. G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.;ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Gracia-Abril, G.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.;ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Comoretto, G.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Garcia-Reinaldos, M.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo dell Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Lock, T.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo dell Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Mercier, E.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.;ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Altmann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.;UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Andrae, R.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Astraatmadja, T. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    Benson, K.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England..
    Berthier, J.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Blomme, R.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Busso, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Carry, B.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France.;UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Cellino, A.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Clementini, G.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Cowell, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Creevey, O.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France.;Univ Paris XI, CNRS, Inst Astrophys Spatiale, UMR 8617, Batiment 121, F-91405 Orsay, France..
    Cuypers, J.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Davidson, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    De Ridder, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    de Torres, A.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Delchambre, L.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Dell'Oro, A.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Ducourant, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Fremat, Y.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Garcia-Torres, M.
    Univ Pablo de Olavide, Area Lenguajes & Sistemas Informat, Ctra Utrera,Km 1, Seville 41013, Spain..
    Gosset, E.
    FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Halbwachs, J. -L
    Hambly, N. C.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Harrison, D. L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Cambridge, Kavli Inst Cosmol, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Hauser, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hestroffer, D.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Hodgkin, S. T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Huckle, H. E.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England..
    Hutton, A.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Jasniewicz, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Jordan, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Kontizas, M.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Korn, Andreas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Sez Astrofis, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.;Osserv Astrofis Catania, INAF, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Manteiga, M.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Muinonen, K.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland..
    Osinde, J.
    ESA ESAC, Isdefe, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Pancino, E.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.;ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Petit, J. -M
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Robin, A. C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Sarro, L. M.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan del Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Siopis, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Smith, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England..
    Smith, K. W.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sozzetti, A.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Thuillot, W.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    van Reeven, W.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Viala, Y.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Abbas, U.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Aramburu, A. Abreu
    ESA ESAC, Elecnor Deimos Space, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Accart, S.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Aguado, J. J.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan del Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Allan, P. M.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England..
    Allasia, W.
    EURIX Srl, Via Carcano 26, I-10153 Turin, Italy..
    Altavilla, G.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Alvarez, M. A.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Alves, J.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria..
    Anderson, R. I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, 3400 N Charles St, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Andrei, A. H.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.;ON MCTI BR, Rua Gal Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.;OV UFRJ BR, Ladeira Pedro Antonio 43, BR-20080090 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..
    Varela, E. Anglada
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;ESA ESAC, Isdefe, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Antiche, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Antoja, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Anton, S.
    Univ Porto, Fac Ciencias, Dept Matemat, Rua Campo Alegre 687, P-4169007 Oporto, Portugal.;Univ Lisbon, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, Fac Ciencias, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Arcay, B.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Bach, N.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Baker, S. G.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England..
    Balaguer-Nunez, L.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Barache, C.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Barata, C.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Barbier, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Barblan, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Barrado y Navascues, D.
    ESA ESAC, Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Barros, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Barstow, M. A.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Becciani, U.
    Osserv Astrofis Catania, INAF, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Bellazzini, M.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Garcia, A. Bello
    Univ Oviedo, Campus Univ, Gijon 33203, Spain..
    Belokurov, V.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Bendjoya, P.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Berihuete, A.
    Univ Cadiz, Avd Univ, Cadiz 11002, Spain..
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX Srl, Via Carcano 26, I-10153 Turin, Italy..
    Bienayme, O.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Billebaud, F.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Blagorodnova, N.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Boch, T.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Bombrun, A.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Borrachero, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Bouquillon, S.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Bourda, G.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Bouy, H.
    ESA ESAC, Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Bragaglia, A.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Breddels, M. A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Brouillet, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Bruesemeister, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bucciarelli, B.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Burgess, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Burgon, R.
    Open Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Ctr Elect Imaging, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England..
    Burlacu, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Busonero, D.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Buzzi, R.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Caffau, E.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Cambras, J.
    Univ Catalunya, Consorci Serv, C Gran Capita 2-4 3rd Floor, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Campbell, H.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Cancelliere, R.
    Univ Turin, Dept Comp Sci, Corso Svizzera 185, I-10149 Turin, Italy..
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Carlucci, T.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Carrasco, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Castellani, M.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Charlot, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Charnas, J.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Chiavassa, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Clotet, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Cocozza, G.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Collins, R. S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Costigan, G.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Crifo, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Cross, N. J. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Crosta, M.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Crowley, C.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Dafonte, C.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Damerdji, Y.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.;CRAAG, Route Observ,BP 63 Bouzareah, Algiers 16340, Algeria..
    Dapergolas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    David, P.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    David, M.
    Univ Antwerp, Onderzoeksgrp Toegepaste Wiskunde, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium..
    De Cat, P.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    de Felice, F.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    de laverny, P.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    De Luise, F.
    Osservatorio Astron Teramo, INAF, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    De March, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    de Martino, D.
    Osserv Astron Capodimonte, INAF, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    de Souza, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao,1226 Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Debosscher, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    del Pozo, E.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Delbo, M.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Delgado, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Delgado, H. E.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan del Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Di Matteo, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Diakite, S.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Distefano, E.
    Osserv Astrofis Catania, INAF, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Dolding, C.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England..
    Dos Anjos, S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao,1226 Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Drazinos, P.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Duran, J.
    ESA ESAC, Isdefe, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Dzigan, Y.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Geosci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.;Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, POB 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Edvardsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Enke, H.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Evans, N. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Bontemps, G. Eynard
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Fabre, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, ATOS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Fabrizio, M.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;Osservatorio Astron Teramo, INAF, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    Faigler, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Falcao, A. J.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal..
    Casas, M. Farras
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Federici, L.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Fedorets, G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Fernandez-Hernandez, J.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Fernique, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Fienga, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Geoazur, UMR 7329, CNRS,Observ Cote dAzur, 250 Rue A Einstein, F-06560 Valbonne, France..
    Figueras, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Filippi, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Findeisen, K.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Fonti, A.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Fraile, E.
    ESA ESAC, RHEA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Fraser, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Fuchs, J.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic..
    Gai, M.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Galleti, S.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Galluccio, L.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Garabato, D.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Garcia-Sedano, F.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan del Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Garofalo, A.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Garralda, N.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Gavras, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Gerssen, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Geyer, R.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Girona, S.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, Centro Nacl Supercomp, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Giuffrida, G.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Gomes, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Gonzalez-Marcos, A.
    Univ La Rioja, Dept Mech Engn, C San Jose de Calasanz 31, Logrono 26004, La Rioja, Spain..
    Gonzalez-Nunez, J.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Univ Vigo, ETSE Telecomunicac, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo 36310, Galicia, Spain..
    Gonzalez-Vidal, J. J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Granvik, M.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Guerrier, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Guillout, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Guiraud, J.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Gurpide, A.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Guy, L. P.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Haigron, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Hatzidimitriou, D.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Haywood, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Helmi, A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Hobbs, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Hofmann, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Holl, B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Holland, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Hunt, J. A. S.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England..
    Hypki, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Icardi, V.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Irwin, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    de Fombelle, G. Jevardat
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Jofre, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Jonker, P. G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, Dept Astrophys, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.;SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Jorissen, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Julbe, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Karampelas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Kochoska, A.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Kohley, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo dell Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Kolenberg, K.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Univ Antwerp, Dept Phys, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium.;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Kontizas, E.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    Koposov, S. E.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Kordopatis, G.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France.;Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Koubsky, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic..
    Krone-Martins, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Kudryashova, M.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Kull, I.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Bachchan, R. K.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Lacoste-Seris, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Lanza, A. F.
    Osserv Astrofis Catania, INAF, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Lavigne, J. -B
    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Lebreton, Y.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Univ Rennes 1, Inst Phys Rennes, F-35042 Rennes, France..
    Lebzelter, T.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria..
    Leccia, S.
    Osserv Astron Capodimonte, INAF, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Leclerc, N.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lecoeur-Taibi, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Lemaitre, V.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Lenhardt, H.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Leroux, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Liao, S.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.;Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China..
    Licata, E.
    EURIX Srl, Via Carcano 26, I-10153 Turin, Italy..
    Lindstrom, H. E. P.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark.;CSC Danmark AS, Retortvej 8, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark..
    Lister, T. A.
    Las Cumbres Observ Global Telescope Network Inc, 6740 Cortona Dr,Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 USA..
    Livanou, E.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Lobel, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Loeffler, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lopez, M.
    ESA ESAC, Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Lorenz, D.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria..
    MacDonald, I.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Fernandes, T. Magalhacs
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal..
    Managau, S.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Mann, R. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Mantelet, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marchal, O.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Marchant, J. M.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Marconi, M.
    Osserv Astron Capodimonte, INAF, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Marinoni, S.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Marrese, P. M.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Marschalko, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.;Univ Szeged, Baja Observ, Szegedi Ut 3-70, H-6500 Baja, Hungary..
    Marshall, D. J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CEA Saclay, CEA DSM CNRS, IRFU,Serv Astrophys,Lab AIM, Bat 709, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Martin-Fleitas, J. M.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Martino, M.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Mary, N.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Matijevic, G.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Mazeh, T.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    McMillan, P. J.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Messina, S.
    Osserv Astrofis Catania, INAF, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Michalik, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Millar, N. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Miranda, B. M. H.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Molina, D.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Molinaro, R.
    Osserv Astron Capodimonte, INAF, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Molinaro, M.
    Osserv Astron Trieste, INAF, Via GB Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Molnar, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Moniez, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CNRS IN2P3, Univ Paris Sud, Lab Accelerateur Lineaire, F-91898 Orsay, France..
    Montegriffo, P.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Mor, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Mora, A.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Morbidelli, R.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Morgenthaler, S.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, SB MATHAA STAP, MA B1 473,Batiment MA,Stn 8, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Morris, D.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Mulone, A. F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Muraveva, T.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Musella, I.
    Osserv Astron Capodimonte, INAF, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Narbonne, J.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Nelemans, G.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, Dept Astrophys, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Nicastro, L.
    INAF IASF Bologna, Via P Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Noval, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Ordenovic, C.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Ordieres-Mere, J.
    Tech Univ Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006, Spain..
    Osborne, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Pagani, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Pagano, I.
    Osserv Astrofis Catania, INAF, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Pailler, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Palacin, H.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Palaversa, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Parsons, P.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Pecoraro, M.
    EURIX Srl, Via Carcano 26, I-10153 Turin, Italy..
    Pedrosa, R.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, EQUERT Int, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Pentikainen, H.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Pichon, B.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Piersimoni, A. M.
    Osservatorio Astron Teramo, INAF, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    Pincau, F. -X
    Plachy, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Plum, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Poujoulet, E.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, AKKA, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Prsa, A.
    Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA..
    Pulone, L.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Ragaini, S.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Rago, S.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Rambaux, N.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Ramos-Lerate, M.
    ESA ESAC, Vitrociset Belgium, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Ranalli, P.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Rauw, G.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Read, A.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Regibo, S.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Reyle, C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Ribeiro, R. A.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal..
    Rimoldini, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Ripepi, V.
    Osserv Astron Capodimonte, INAF, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Riva, A.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Rixon, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Roelens, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Romero-Gomez, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Rowell, N.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Royer, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ruiz-Dern, L.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Sadowski, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Selles, T. Sagrista
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahlmann, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo dell Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Salgado, J.
    ESA ESAC, Isdefe, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Salguero, E.
    ESA ESAC, Isdefe, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Sarasso, M.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Savietto, H.
    Fork Res, Rua Cruzado Osberno,Lt 1,9 Esq, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Schultheis, M.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Sciacca, E.
    Osserv Astrofis Catania, INAF, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Segol, M.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Segovia, J. C.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Segransan, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Shih, I. -C
    Smareglia, R.
    Osserv Astron Trieste, INAF, Via GB Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Smart, R. L.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Solano, E.
    ESA ESAC, Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Spanish Virtual Observ, Granada, Spain..
    Solitro, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Sordo, R.
    Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Nieto, S. Soria
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Souchay, J.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Spagna, A.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Spoto, F.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Stampa, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Steele, I. A.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Steidelmueller, H.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Stephenson, C. A.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Stoev, H.
    INAF, Fdn Galileo Galilei, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Brena Baja 38712, Santa Cruz De T, Spain..
    Suess, F. F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Suveges, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Surdej, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Szabados, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Szegedi-Elek, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Tapiador, D.
    ESA ESAC, INSA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Arquitectura Comp & Automat, Fac Informat, C Prof Jose Garcia Santesmases S-N, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Taris, F.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Tauran, G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Taylor, M. B.
    Univ Bristol, HH Wills Phys Lab, Tyndall Ave, Bristol BS8 1TL, Avon, England..
    Teixeira, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao,1226 Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Terrett, D.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England..
    Tingley, B.
    Aarhus Univ, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Dept Phys & Astron, 120 Ny Munkegade,Bldg 1520, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Trager, S. C.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Turon, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ulla, A.
    Univ Vigo, Dept Appl Phys, Vigo 36310, Spain..
    Utrilla, E.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Valentini, G.
    Osservatorio Astron Teramo, INAF, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    van Elteren, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Van Hemelryck, E.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    van Leeuwen, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Varadi, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Vecchiato, A.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Veljanoski, J.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Via, T.
    Univ Catalunya, Consorci Serv, C Gran Capita 2-4 3rd Floor, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Vicente, D.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, Centro Nacl Supercomp, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Vogt, S.
    ESA ESTEC, HE Space Operat BV, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Voss, H.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Votruba, V.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic..
    Voutsinas, S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Walmsley, G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Weiler, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Weingrill, K.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Wevers, T.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, Dept Astrophys, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Yoldas, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Zerjal, M.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Zucker, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Geosci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Zurbach, C.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Zwitter, T.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Alecu, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Allen, M.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Prieto, C. Allende
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England.;Inst Astrofis Canarias, Tenerife 38205, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife 38206, Spain..
    Amorim, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Anglada-Escude, G.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Arsenijevic, V.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Azaz, S.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Balm, P.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Beck, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Bernstein, H. -H
    Bigot, L.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Bijaoui, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Blasco, C.
    ESA ESTEC, RHEA, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Bonfigli, M.
    Osservatorio Astron Teramo, INAF, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    Bono, G.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Boudreault, S.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England.;Max Planck Inst Solar Syst Res, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy..
    Brown, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Brunet, P. -M
    Bunclark, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Buonanno, R.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Butkevich, A. G.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Carret, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, EQUERT Int, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Carrion, C.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan del Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Chemin, L.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.;Minist Ciencia Tecnol, Inst Nacl Pesquisas Espaciais, Ave Astronautas 1758, BR-12227010 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Chereau, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Corcione, L.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Darmigny, E.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    de Boer, K. S.
    Univ Bonn, Argelander Inst Astron, Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany..
    de Teodoro, P.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    de Zeeuw, P. T.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.;European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Delle Luche, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Domingues, C. D.
    Univ Lisbon, Lab Opt Lasers & Syst, Fac Sci, Campus Lumiar,Estr Paco Lumiar 22, P-1649038 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Dubath, P.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Fodor, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Frezouls, B.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Fries, A.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Fustes, D.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Fyfe, D.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Gallardo, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Gallegos, J.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Gardiol, D.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Gebran, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.;Notre Dame Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, POB 72, Zouk Mikael, Lebanon..
    Gomboc, A.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.;Univ Nova Gorica, Vipavska 13, Nova Gorica 5000, Slovenia..
    Gomez, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Grux, E.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Gueguen, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;OPINAS, Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbachstr, D-85741 Garching, Germany..
    Heyrovsky, A.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Hoar, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo dell Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Iannicola, G.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Parache, Y. Isasi
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Janotto, A. -M
    Joliet, E.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;CALTECH, NASA IPAC Infrared Sci Arch, Mail Code 100-22,770 South Wilson Ave, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    Jonckheere, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Keil, R.
    Univ Bremen, Ctr Appl Space Technol & Micrograv ZARM, Fallturm 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;ESA ESOC, RHEA Syst, Robert Bosch Str 5, D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany..
    Kim, D. -W
    Klagyivik, P.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Klar, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Knude, J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark..
    Kochukhov, Oleg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Kolka, I.
    Tartu Observ, EE-61602 Toravere, Estonia..
    Kos, J.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.;Univ Sydney, Sch Phys A28, Sydney Inst Astron, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Kutka, A.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic.;Slovak Org Space Activ, Zamocka 18, Bratislava 85101, Slovakia..
    Lainey, V.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    LeBouquin, D.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Liu, C.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ, Beijing 100012, Peoples R China..
    Loreggia, D.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Makarov, V. V.
    US Naval Observ, Astrometry Dept, 3450 Massachusetts Ave NW, Washington, DC 20392 USA..
    Marseille, M. G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Martayan, C.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.;European Southern Observ, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago De Chi, Chile..
    Martinez-Rubi, O.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Massart, B.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France.;CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.;Airbus Def & Space SAS, 31 Rue Cosmonautes, F-31402 Toulouse 4, France..
    Meynadier, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Mignot, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Munari, U.
    Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Nguyen, A. -T
    Nordlander, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Ocvirk, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.;Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    O'Flaherty, K. S.
    ESA ESTEC, EJR Quartz BV, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Sanz, A. Olias
    ESA ESAC, Server Labs, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Ortiz, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Osorio, J.
    Univ Porto, Fac Ciencias, Dept Matemat, Rua Campo Alegre 687, P-4169007 Oporto, Portugal..
    Oszkiewicz, D.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Fac Phys, Astron Observ Inst, Ul Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland..
    Ouzounis, A.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Palmer, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Park, P.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Pasquato, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Peltzer, C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Peralta, J.
    Peturaud, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Pieniluoma, T.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Pigozzi, E.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Poels, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Prat, G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CS Syst Informat, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Prod'homme, T.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.;European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Raison, F.
    OPINAS, Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbachstr, D-85741 Garching, Germany.;ESA ESAC, Praesepe BV, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Rebordao, J. M.
    Univ Lisbon, Lab Opt Lasers & Syst, Fac Sci, Campus Lumiar,Estr Paco Lumiar 22, P-1649038 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Risquez, D.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Rocca-Volmerange, B.
    UPMC, Sorbonne Univ, F-75014 Paris, France.;Inst Astrophys Paris, CNRS, UMR7095, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Rosen, S.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England.;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Russo, F.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Sembay, S.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Vizcaino, I. Serraller
    ESA ESAC, GMV, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Short, A.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Siebert, A.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.;Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Silva, H.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal..
    Sinachopoulos, D.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    Slezak, E.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Soffel, M.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Sosnowska, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Straizys, V.
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, Sauletekio Al 3, LT-10222 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    ter Linden, M.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;S&T Corp, POB 608, NL-2600 AP Delft, Netherlands..
    Terrell, D.
    Southwest Res Inst SwRI, Dept Space Studies, 1050 Walnut St,Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 USA..
    Theil, S.
    Inst Space Syst, Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt, Fallturm 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany..
    Tiede, C.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Appl Sci Munich, Karlstr 6, D-80333 Munich, Germany..
    Troisi, L.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento Fis, Via Ric Sci 1, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Tsalmantza, P.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Tur, D.
    Univ Catalunya, Consorci Serv, C Gran Capita 2-4 3rd Floor, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Vaccari, M.
    Univ Western Cape, Dept Phys & Astron, Robert Sobukwe Rd, ZA-7535 Cape Town, South Africa.;INAF Ist Radioastron, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Vachier, F.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Valles, P.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Van Hamme, W.
    Florida Int Univ, Dept Phys, 11200 SW 8th St, Miami, FL 33199 USA..
    Veltz, L.
    Univ Paris XI, CNRS, Inst Astrophys Spatiale, UMR 8617, Batiment 121, F-91405 Orsay, France.;Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Virtanen, J.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland..
    Wallut, J. -M
    Wichmann, R.
    Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg, Germany..
    Wilkinson, M. I.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Ziaeepour, H.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Zschocke, S.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Gaia Data Release 1 Summary of the astrometric, photometric, and survey properties2016In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 595, A2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. At about 1000 days after the launch of Gaia we present the first Gaia data release, Gaia DR1, consisting of astrometry and photometry for over 1 billion sources brighter than magnitude 20.7. Aims. A summary of Gaia DR1 is presented along with illustrations of the scientific quality of the data, followed by a discussion of the limitations due to the preliminary nature of this release. Methods. The raw data collected by Gaia during the first 14 months of the mission have been processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) and turned into an astrometric and photometric catalogue. Results. Gaia DR1 consists of three components: a primary astrometric data set which contains the positions, parallaxes, and mean proper motions for about 2 million of the brightest stars in common with the HIPPARCOS and Tycho-2 catalogues - a realisation of the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) - and a secondary astrometric data set containing the positions for an additional 1.1 billion sources. The second component is the photometric data set, consisting of mean G-band magnitudes for all sources. The G-band light curves and the characteristics of similar to 3000 Cepheid and RR Lyrae stars, observed at high cadence around the south ecliptic pole, form the third component. For the primary astrometric data set the typical uncertainty is about 0.3 mas for the positions and parallaxes, and about 1 mas yr(-1) for the proper motions. A systematic component of similar to 0.3 mas should be added to the parallax uncertainties. For the subset of similar to 94 000 HIPPARCOS stars in the primary data set, the proper motions are much more precise at about 0.06 mas yr(-1). For the secondary astrometric data set, the typical uncertainty of the positions is similar to 10 mas. The median uncertainties on the mean G-band magnitudes range from the mmag level to similar to 0.03 mag over the magnitude range 5 to 20.7. Conclusions. Gaia DR1 is an important milestone ahead of the next Gaia data release, which will feature five-parameter astrometry for all sources. Extensive validation shows that Gaia DR1 represents a major advance in the mapping of the heavens and the availability of basic stellar data that underpin observational astrophysics. Nevertheless, the very preliminary nature of this first Gaia data release does lead to a number of important limitations to the data quality which should be carefully considered before drawing conclusions from the data.

  • 28. Brown, A.
    et al.
    Korhonen, H.
    Berdyugina, S.
    Tofany, B.
    Ayres, T. R.
    Kowalski, A.
    Hawley, S.
    Harper, G.
    Piskunov, Nikolai
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Starspot variability and evolution from modeling Kepler photometry of active late-type stars2011In: IAU Symposium 273 (The Physics of Sun and Star Spots), 2011, Vol. 273, 78-82 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kepler satellite provides a unique opportunity to study the detailed optical photometric variability of late-type stars with unprecedentedly long (several year) continuous monitoring and sensitivity to very small-scale variations. We are studying a sample of over two hundred cool (mid-A - late-K spectral type) stars using Kepler long-cadence (30 minute sampling) observations. These stars show a remarkable range of photometric variability, but in this paper we concentrate on rotational modulation due to starspots and flaring. Modulation at the 0.1% level is readily discernable. We highlight the rapid timescales of starspot evolution seen on solar-like stars with rotational periods between 2 and 7 days.

  • 29. Brown, A.
    et al.
    Korhonen, H.
    Berdyugina, S.
    Walkowicz, L.
    Kowalski, A.
    Hawley, S.
    Neff, J.
    Ramsey, L.
    Redman, S.
    Saar, S.
    Furesz, G.
    Piskunov, Nikolai
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Harper, G.
    Ayres, T.
    Tofany, B.
    Kepler Observations of Starspot Evolution, Differential Rotation, and Flares on Late-Type Stars2011In: American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts #218, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kepler satellite is providing spectacular optical photometric light-curves of unprecedented precision and duration that routinely allow detailed studies of stellar magnetic activity on late-type stars that were difficult, if not impossible, to attempt previously. Rotational modulation due to starspots is commonly seen in the Kepler light-curves of late-type stars, allowing detailed study of the surface distribution of their photospheric magnetic activity. Kepler is providing multi-year duration light-curves that allow us to investigate how activity phenomena – such as the growth, migration, and decay of starspots, differential rotation, activity cycles, and flaring – operate on single and binary stars with a wide range of mass and convection zone depth. We present the first results from detailed starspot modeling using newly-developed light-curve inversion codes for a range of GALEX-selected stars with typical rotation periods of a few days, that we have observed as part of our 200 target Kepler Cycle 1/2 Guest Observer programs. The physical properties of the stars have been measured using high resolution optical spectroscopy, which allows the Kepler results to be placed within the existing framework of knowledge regarding stellar magnetic activity. These results demonstrate the powerful diagnostic capability provided by tracking starspot evolution essentially continuously for more than 16 months. The starspots are clearly sampling the stellar rotation rate at different latitudes, enabling us to measure the differential rotation and starspot lifetimes. As would be expected, stars with few day rotation show frequent flaring that is easily seen as ”white-light” flares in Kepler light-curves. We compare the observed flare rates and occurrence with the starspot properties. This work contains results obtained using the NASA Kepler satellite and from the Apache Point Observatory, the MMT (using NOAO community access time), and the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Funding is provided by NASA Kepler grants NNX10AC51G and NNX11AC79G.

  • 30.
    Casey, A. R.
    et al.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Ruchti, G.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Masseron, T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Randich, S.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Lind, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy. Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Kennedy, G. M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Koposov, S. E.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Hourihane, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Franciosini, E.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Lewis, J. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Magrini, L.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Morbidelli, L.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Sacco, G. G.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Worley, C. C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Feltzing, S.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Jeffries, R. D.
    Keele Univ, Astrophys Grp, Keele ST5 5BG, Staffs, England..
    Vallenari, A.
    Padova Observ, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Bensby, T.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Bragaglia, A.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Flaccomio, E.
    Osserv Astron Palermo, INAF, Piazza Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo, Italy..
    Francois, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Korn, Andreas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Lanzafame, A.
    Univ Catania, Sez Astrofis, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Pancino, E.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.;ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observ Cote Azur, Lab Lagrange,UMR7293, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Smiljanic, R.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Dept Astrophys, Ul Rabianska 8, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Carraro, G.
    European Southern Observ, Alonso Cordova 3107 Vitacura, Santiago, Chile..
    Costado, M. T.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Apdo 3004, E-18080 Granada, Spain..
    Damiani, F.
    Osserv Astron Palermo, INAF, Piazza Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo, Italy..
    Donati, P.
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Frasca, A.
    Osserv Astrofis Catania, INAF, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Jofre, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Lardo, C.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    de Laverny, P.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observ Cote Azur, Lab Lagrange,UMR7293, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Monaco, L.
    Univ Andres Bello, Dept Ciencias Fis, Republ 220, Santiago, Chile..
    Prisinzano, L.
    Osserv Astron Palermo, INAF, Piazza Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo, Italy..
    Sbordone, L.
    Millennium Inst Astrophys, Av Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile.;Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Av Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile..
    Sousa, S. G.
    Univ Porto, CAUP, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Oporto, Portugal..
    Tautvaisiene, G.
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, A Gostauto 12, LT-01108 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Zaggia, S.
    Padova Observ, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Zwitter, T.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Delgado Mena, E.
    Univ Porto, CAUP, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Oporto, Portugal..
    Chorniy, Y.
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, A Gostauto 12, LT-01108 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Martell, S. L.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Aguirre, V. Silva
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Miglio, A.
    Univ Birmingham, Sch Phys & Astron, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England..
    Chiappini, C.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Montalban, J.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron G Galilei, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, Quartier Agora, Bat B5c,Allee 6 Aout 19c, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Valentini, M.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    The Gaia-ESO Survey: revisiting the Li-rich giant problem2016In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 461, no 3, 3336-3352 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discovery of lithium-rich giants contradicts expectations from canonical stellar evolution. Here we report on the serendipitous discovery of 20 Li-rich giants observed during the Gaia-ESO Survey, which includes the first nine Li-rich giant stars known towards the CoRoT fields. Most of our Li-rich giants have near-solar metallicities and stellar parameters consistent with being before the luminosity bump. This is difficult to reconcile with deep mixing models proposed to explain lithium enrichment, because these models can only operate at later evolutionary stages: at or past the luminosity bump. In an effort to shed light on the Li-rich phenomenon, we highlight recent evidence of the tidal destruction of close-in hot Jupiters at the sub-giant phase. We note that when coupled with models of planet accretion, the observed destruction of hot Jupiters actually predicts the existence of Li-rich giant stars, and suggests that Li-rich stars should be found early on the giant branch and occur more frequently with increasing metallicity. A comprehensive review of all known Li-rich giant stars reveals that this scenario is consistent with the data. However, more evolved or metal-poor stars are less likely to host close-in giant planets, implying that their Li-rich origin requires an alternative explanation, likely related to mixing scenarios rather than external phenomena.

  • 31. Chew, Yilen Gomez Maqueo
    et al.
    Stassun, Keivan G.
    Prsa, Andrej
    Stempels, Eric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Hebb, Leslie
    Barnes, Rory
    Heller, Rene
    Mathieu, Robert D.
    Luminosity Discrepancy in the Equal-Mass, Pre-Main-Sequence Eclipsing Binary Par 1802: Non-Coevality or Tidal Heating?2012In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 745, no 1, 58- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parenago 1802, a member of the similar to 1 Myr Orion Nebula Cluster, is a double-lined, detached eclipsing binary in a 4.674 day orbit, with equal-mass components (M-2/M-1 = 0.985 +/- 0.029). Here we present extensive VI(C)JHK(S) light curves (LCs) spanning similar to 15 yr, as well as a Keck/High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer (HIRES) optical spectrum. The LCs evince a third light source that is variable with a period of 0.73 days, and is also manifested in the high-resolution spectrum, strongly indicating the presence of a third star in the system, probably a rapidly rotating Classical T Tauri star. We incorporate this third light into our radial velocity and LC modeling of the eclipsing pair, measuring accurate masses (M-1 = 0.391 +/- 0.032 and M-2 = 0.385 +/- 0.032 M-circle dot), radii (R-1 = 1.73 +/- 0.02 and R-2 = 1.62 +/- 0.02 R-circle dot), and temperature ratio (T-eff,T-1/T-eff,T-2 = 1.0924 +/- 0.0017). Thus, the radii of the eclipsing stars differ by 6.9% +/- 0.8%, the temperatures differ by 9.2% +/- 0.2%, and consequently the luminosities differ by 62% +/- 3%, despite having masses equal to within 3%. This could be indicative of an age difference of similar to 3 x 10(5) yr between the two eclipsing stars, perhaps a vestige of the binary formation history. We find that the eclipsing pair is in an orbit that has not yet fully circularized, e = 0.0166 +/- 0.003. In addition, we measure the rotation rate of the eclipsing stars to be 4.629 +/- 0.006 days; they rotate slightly faster than their 4.674 day orbit. The non-zero eccentricity and super-synchronous rotation suggest that the eclipsing pair should be tidally interacting, so we calculate the tidal history of the system according to different tidal evolution theories. We find that tidal heating effects can explain the observed luminosity difference of the eclipsing pair, providing an alternative to the previously suggested age difference.

  • 32.
    Clementini, G.
    et al.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Eyer, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Ripepi, V.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Marconi, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Muraveva, T.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Garofalo, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.;Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Piero Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Sarro, L. M.
    UNED, Dpto Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Palmer, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Luri, X.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Molinaro, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Rimoldini, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Szabados, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklosut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Musella, I.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Anderson, R. I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, 3400 N Charles St, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Prusti, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    de Bruijne, J. H. J.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Brown, A. G. A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Vallenari, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Babusiaux, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bastian, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Biermann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Evans, D. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Jansen, F.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Mission Operat Div, Operat Dept, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Jordi, C.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Klioner, S. A.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Lammers, U.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Lindegren, L.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Mignard, F.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Panem, C.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Pourbaix, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.;FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Randich, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Sartoretti, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Siddiqui, H. I.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Soubiran, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Valette, V.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    van Leeuwen, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Walton, N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Aerts, C.
    Arenou, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Cropper, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Drimmel, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Hog, E.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Manes Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Katz, D.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lattanzi, M. G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    O'Mullane, W.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Grebel, E. K.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Holland, A. D.
    Open Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Ctr Elect Imaging, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England..
    Huc, C.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Passot, X.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Perryman, M.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Bramante, L.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Cacciari, C.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Castaneda, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Chaoul, L.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Cheek, N.
    Serco Gestion Negocios, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    De Angeli, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Fabricius, C.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Guerra, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Hernandez, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Masana, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Mowlavi, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Ordonez-Blanco, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Panuzzo, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Portell, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Richards, P. J.
    STFC, Rutherford Appleton Lab, Didcot, Oxon, England..
    Riello, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Tanga, P.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Thevenin, F.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Torra, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Els, S. G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.;ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Gracia-Abril, G.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.;ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Comoretto, G.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Garcia-Reinaldos, M.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Lock, T.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Mercier, E.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.;ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Altmann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.;UPMC, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, SYRTE,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Univ, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Andrae, R.
    Astraatmadja, T. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    Benson, K.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Berthier, J.
    UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, IMCCE,PSL Res Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Blomme, R.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Busso, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Carry, B.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France.;UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, IMCCE,PSL Res Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Cellino, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Cowell, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Creevey, O.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France.;Univ Paris XI, CNRS, Inst Astrophys Spatiale, UMR 8617, Batiment 121, F-91405 Orsay, France..
    Cuypers, J.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Davidson, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    De Ridder, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    de Torres, A.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Delchambre, L.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Dell'Oro, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Ducourant, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Fremat, Y.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Garcia-Torres, M.
    Univ Pablo Olavide, Area Lenguajes & Sistemas Informat, Ctra Utrera,Km 1, Seville 141013, Spain..
    Gosset, E.
    FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Halbwachs, J. -L
    Hambly, N. C.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Harrison, D. L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England.;Univ Cambridge, Kavli Inst Cosmol, Madingley Rd, Cambride CB3 OHA, England..
    Hauser, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hestroffer, D.
    UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, IMCCE,PSL Res Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Hodgkin, S. T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Huckle, H. E.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Hutton, A.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Jasniewicz, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Jordan, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Kontizas, M.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Korn, Anders J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Sezione Astrofis, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.;INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Manteiga, M.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Muinonen, K.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.;Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland..
    Osinde, J.
    Isdefe, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Pancino, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.;ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Petit, J. -M
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Robin, A. C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Siopis, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Smith, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Smith, K. W.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sozzetti, A.
    Thuillot, W.
    UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, IMCCE,PSL Res Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    van Reeven, W.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Viala, Y.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Abbas, U.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Abreu Aramburu, A.
    Elecnor Deimos Space, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Accart, S.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Aguado, J. J.
    UNED, Dpto Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Allan, P. M.
    STFC, Rutherford Appleton Lab, Didcot, Oxon, England..
    Allasia, W.
    EURIX Srl, Via Carcano 26, I-10153 Turin, Italy..
    Altavilla, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Alvarez, M. A.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Alves, J.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria..
    Andrei, A. H.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;UPMC, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, SYRTE,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Univ, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.;ON MCTI BR, Rua Gal Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.;OV UFRJ BR, Ladeira Pedro Antonio 43, BR-20080090 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..
    Anglada Varela, E.
    Serco Gestion Negocios, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Isdefe, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Antiche, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Antojal, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Anton, S.
    Univ Porto, Dept Matemat Aplicada, Fac Ciencias, Rua Campo Alegre 687, P-4169007 Oporto, Portugal.;Univ Nova, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, Fac Ciencias, P-PT1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Arcay, B.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Bach, N.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Baker, S. G.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Balaguer-Nunez, L.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Barache, C.
    UPMC, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, SYRTE,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Univ, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Barata, C.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Barbier, A.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Barblan, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Barrado y Navascues, D.
    Ctr Astrobiol, Dept Astrofis, CSIC INTA, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Barros, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Barstow, M. A.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Becciani, U.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Bellazzini, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Bello Garcia, A.
    Univ Oviedo, Campus Univ, Gijon 33203, Spain..
    Belokurov, V.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Bendjoya, P.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Berihuete, A.
    Univ Cadiz, Avd Univ, Cadiz 11002, Spain..
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX Srl, Via Carcano 26, I-10153 Turin, Italy..
    Bienayme, O.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astronom Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Billebaud, F.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Blagorodnova, N.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Boch, T.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astronom Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Bombrun, A.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Borrachero, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Bouquillon, S.
    UPMC, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, SYRTE,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Univ, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Bourda, G.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Breddels, M. A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Brouillet, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Bruesemeister, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bucciarelli, B.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Burgess, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Burgon, R.
    Open Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Ctr Elect Imaging, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England..
    Burlacu, A.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Busonero, D.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Buzzi, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Caffau, E.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Cambras, J.
    Univ Catalunya, Consorci Serv, C Gran Capita,2-4 3rd floor, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Campbell, H.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Cancelliere, R.
    Univ Turin, Dept Comp Sci, Corso Svizzera 185, I-10149 Turin, Italy..
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Carlucci, T.
    UPMC, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, SYRTE,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Univ, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Carrasco, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Castellani, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Charlot, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Charnas, J.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Chiavassa, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Clotet, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Cocozza, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Collins, R. S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Costigan, G.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Crifo, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Cross, N. J. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Crosta, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Crowley, C.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Dafonte, C.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Damerdji, Y.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.;CRAAG, Route Observ BP 63 Bouzareah, Algiers 16340, Algeria..
    Dapergolas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    David, P.
    UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, IMCCE,PSL Res Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    David, M.
    Univ Antwerp, Onderzoeksgroep Toegepaste Wiskunde, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium..
    De Cat, P.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    de Felice, F.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    de Laverny, P.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    De Luise, F.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    De March, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    de Souza, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron, Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Debosscher, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    del Pozo, E.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Delbo, M.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Delgado, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Delgado, H. E.
    UNED, Dpto Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Di Matteo, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Diakite, S.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Distefano, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Dolding, C.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Dos Anjos, S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron, Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Drazinos, P.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Duran, J.
    Isdefe, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Dzigan, Y.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Geosci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.;Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, POB 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Edvardsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Enke, H.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Der Stern warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Evans, N. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Bontemps, G. Eynard
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Fabre, C.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, ATOS, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Fabrizio, M.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;INAF, Osservatorio Astron Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    Falcao, A. J.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal..
    Farras Casas, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Federici, L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Fedorets, G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland..
    Fernandez-Hernandez, J.
    Serco Gestion Negocios, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal..
    Fernique, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astronom Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Fienga, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Lab Geoazur, UMR 7329,Observ Cote Azur, 250 Rue A Einstein, F-06560 Valbonne, France..
    Figueras, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Filippi, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Findeisen, K.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Fonti, A.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Fraile, E.
    ESA ESAC, RHEA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Fraser, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Fuchs, J.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondiejov 25165, Czech Republic..
    Gai, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Galleti, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Galluccio, L.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Garabato, D.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Garcia-Sedano, F.
    UNED, Dpto Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Garralda, N.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Gavras, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Gerssen, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Der Stern warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Geyer, R.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Girona, S.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, Ctr Nacl Super Computac, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Giuffrida, G.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Gomes, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Gonzalez-Marcos, A.
    Univ La Rioja, Dept Mech Engn, C San Jose Calasanz 31, La Rioja 26004, Spain..
    Gonzalez-Nunez, J.
    Serco Gestion Negocios, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Univ Vigo, ETSE Telecomunicac, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo 36310, Spain..
    Gonzalez-Vidal, J. J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Granvik, M.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland..
    Guerrier, A.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Guillout, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astronom Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Guiraud, J.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Gurpide, A.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Guy, L. P.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Haigron, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Hatzidimitriou, D.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Haywood, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Helmi, A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Hobbs, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Hofmann, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Holl, B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Holland, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Hunt, J. A. S.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Hypki, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Icardi, V.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Irwin, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    de Fombelle, G. Jevardat
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Jofre, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England.;Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Jonker, P. G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.;SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Jorissen, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Julbe, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Karampelas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Kochoska, A.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Kohley, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Kolenberg, K.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Univ Antwerp, Phys Dept, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium.;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Kontizas, E.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    Koposov, S. E.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Kordopatis, G.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France.;Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Der Stern warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Koubsky, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondiejov 25165, Czech Republic..
    Krone-Martins, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Kudryashova, M.
    UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, IMCCE,PSL Res Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Bachchan, R. K.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Lacoste-Seris, F.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Lanza, A. F.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Lavigne, J. -B
    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.
    UPMC, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, SYRTE,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Univ, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Lebreton, Y.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Univ Rennes 1, Inst Phys Rennes, F-35042 Rennes, France..
    Lebzelter, T.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria..
    Leccia, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Leclerc, N.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lecoeur-Taibi, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Lemaitre, V.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Lenhardt, H.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Leroux, F.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Liao, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.;Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China..
    Licata, E.
    EURIX Srl, Via Carcano 26, I-10153 Turin, Italy..
    Lindstrom, H. E. P.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Manes Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.;CSC Danmark A S, Retortvej 8, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark..
    Lister, T. A.
    Las Cumbres Observ, Global Telescope Network Inc, 6740 Cortona Dr,Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 USA..
    Livanou, E.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Lobel, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Loeffler, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lopez, M.
    Ctr Astrobiol, Dept Astrofis, CSIC INTA, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Lorenz, D.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria..
    MacDonald, I.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Magalhaes Fernandes, T.
    Managau, S.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Mann, R. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Mantelet, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marchal, O.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Marchant, J. M.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Marinoni, S.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Marrese, P. M.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Marschalko, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklosut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.;Univ Szeged, Baja Observ, Szegedi 3-70, H-6500 Baja, Hungary..
    Marsha, D. J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CEA Saclay, Serv Astrophys, Lab AIM,IRFU,CEA DSM,CNRS,Bat 709, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Martin-Fleitas, J. M.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Martino, M.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Mary, N.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Matijevic, G.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Der Stern warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    McMillan, P. J.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Messina, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Michalik, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Millar, N. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Miranda, B. M. H.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Molina, D.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Molinaro, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Trieste, Via GB Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Molnar, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklosut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Monicz, M.
    Univ Paris 11, Univ Paris Saclay, Lab Accelerateur Lineaire, CNRS IN2P3, F-91898 Orsay, France..
    Montegriffo, P.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Mor, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Mora, A.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Morbidelli, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Morgenthaler, S.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, SB MATHAA STAP, MA B1 473 Batiment MA,Stn 8, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Morris, D.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Mulone, A. F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Narbonne, J.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Nelemans, G.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Nicastro, L.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Noval, L.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Ordenovic, C.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Ordieres-Mere, J.
    Tech Univ Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006, Spain..
    Osborne, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Pagani, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Pagano, I.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Pailler, F.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Palacin, H.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Palaversa, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Parsons, P.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Pecoraro, M.
    EURIX Srl, Via Carcano 26, I-10153 Turin, Italy..
    Pedrosa, R.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, EQUERT Int, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Pentikainen, H.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland..
    Pichon, B.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Piersimoni, A. M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    Pineau, F. -X
    Plachy, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklosut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Plum, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Poujoulet, E.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, AKKA, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Prsa, A.
    Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA..
    Pulone, L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Ragaini, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Rago, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Rambaux, N.
    UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, IMCCE,PSL Res Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Ramos-Lerate, M.
    Vitrociset Belgium, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Ranalli, P.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Rauw, G.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Read, A.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Regibo, S.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Reyle, C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Ribeiro, R. A.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal..
    Riva, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Rixon, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Roelens, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Romero-Gomez, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Rowell, N.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Royer, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ruiz-Dern, L.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Sadowski, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Selles, T. Sagrista
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahlmann, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Salgado, J.
    Isdefe, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Salguero, E.
    Isdefe, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Sarasso, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Savietto, H.
    Fork Res, Rua Cruzado Osberno,Lt 1,9 Esq, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Schultheis, M.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Sciacca, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Segol, M.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS, Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Segovia, J. C.
    Serco Gestion Negocios, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Segransan, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Shih, I-C
    Smareglia, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Trieste, Via GB Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Smart, R. L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Solano, E.
    Ctr Astrobiol, Dept Astrofis, CSIC INTA, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Spanish Virtual Observ, San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain..
    Solitro, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Sordo, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Soria Nieto, S.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Souchay, J.
    UPMC, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, SYRTE,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Univ, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Spagna, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Spoto, F.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Stampa, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Steele, I. A.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Steidelmueller, H.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Stephenson, C. A.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Stoev, H.
    INAF, Fdn Galileo Galilei, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Brefia Baja 38712, Santa Cruz Tene, Spain..
    Suess, F. F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Suveges, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Surdej, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Szegedi-Elek, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklosut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Tapiador, D.
    ESA ESAC, INSA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, Dpto Arquitectura Comp & Automat, Fac Informat, C-Prof Jose Garcia Santesmases S-N, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Taris, F.
    Tauran, G.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Taylor, M. B.
    Univ Bristol, HH Wills Phys Lab, Tyndall Ave, Bristol BS8 1TL, Avon, England..
    Teixeira, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron, Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Terrett, D.
    STFC, Rutherford Appleton Lab, Didcot, Oxon, England..
    Tingley, B.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, 120 Ny Munkegade,Bldg 1520, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
    Trager, S. C.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Turon, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ulla, A.
    Univ Vigo, Appl Phys Dept, Vigo 36310, Spain..
    Utrilla, E.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Valentini, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    van Elteren, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Van Hemelryck, E.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    van Leeuwen, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Varadi, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklosut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Vecchiato, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Veljanoski, J.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Via, T.
    Univ Catalunya, Consorci Serv, C Gran Capita,2-4 3rd floor, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Vicente, D.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, Ctr Nacl Super Computac, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Vogt, S.
    HE Space Operat BV, ESA ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Voss, H.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Votruba, V.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondiejov 25165, Czech Republic..
    Voutsinas, S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Walmsley, G.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Weiler, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Weingrill, K.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Der Stern warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Wevers, T.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England.;Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Yoldas, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Zerjal, M.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Zucker, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Geosci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Zurbach, C.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Zwitter, T.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Alecu, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Allen, M.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Allende Prieto, C.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.;Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38205, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, San Cristobal la Laguna 38206, Tenerife, Spain..
    Amorim, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Anglada-Escude, G.
    Arsenijevic, V.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Azaz, S.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Balm, P.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Beck, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Bernsteint, H. -H
    Bigot, L.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Bijaoui, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Blasco, C.
    ESA, ESTEC, RHEA, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Bonfigli, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    Bono, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Boudreault, S.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.;Max Planck Inst Solar Syst Res, Justus Von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy..
    Brown, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Brunet, P. -M
    Bunclark, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Buonanno, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Butkevich, A. G.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Carret, C.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, EQUERT Int, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Carrion, C.
    UNED, Dpto Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Chemin, L.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N, F-33615 Pessac, France.;Inst Nacl Pesquisas Espaciais, Minist Ciencia Tecnol, Ave Astronautas 1758, BR-12227010 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Chereau, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Corcione, L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Darmigny, E.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    de Boer, K. S.
    Univ Bonn, Argelander Inst Astron, Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany..
    de Teodoro, P.
    Serco Gestion Negocios, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    de Zeeuw, P. T.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.;ESO, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Delle Luche, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Domingues, C. D.
    Univ Lisbon, Fac Sci, Lab Opt Lasers & Syst, Estr Paco Lumiar 22, P-1649038 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Dubath, P.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Fodor, F.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Frezouls, B.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Fries, A.
    Fustes, D.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Fyfe, D.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Gallardo, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Gallegos, J.
    Serco Gestion Negocios, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Gardiol, D.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Gebran, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.;Notre Dame Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, POB 72, Zouk Mikael, Lebanon..
    Gomboc, A.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.;Univ Nova Gorica, Vipayska 13, Nova Gorica 5000, Slovenia..
    Gomez, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Grux, E.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Gueguen, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, OPINAS, Giessenbachstr, D-85741 Garching, Germany..
    Heyrovsky, A.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Hoar, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Iannicola, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Parache, Y. Isasi
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Janotto, A. -M
    Joliet, E.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;CALTECH, NASA IPAC Infrared Sci Arch, Mail Code 100-22,770 South Wilson Ave, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    Jonckheere, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Keil, R.
    Univ Bremen, Ctr Appl Space Technol & Micrograv ZARM, Am Fallturm 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;ESA, ESOC, RHEA Syst, Robert Bosch Str 5, D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany..
    Kim, D. -W
    Klagyivik, P.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklosut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Klar, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Der Stern warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Knude, J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Manes Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kochukhov, Oleg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Kolka, I.
    Tartu Observ, EE-61602 Toravere, Estonia..
    Kos, J.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.;Univ Sydney, Sch Phys A28, Sydney Inst Astron, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Kutka, A.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondiejov 25165, Czech Republic.;Slovak Org Space Activ, Zamocka 18, Bratislava 85101, Slovakia..
    Lainey, V.
    UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, IMCCE,PSL Res Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    LeBouquin, D.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Liu, C.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ, Beijing 100012, Peoples R China..
    Loreggia, D.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Makarov, V. V.
    US Naval Observ, Astrometry Dept, 3450 Massachusetts Ave, Washington, DC 20392 USA..
    Marseille, M. G.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Martayan, C.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.;ESO, Alonso Cordova 3107,Casilla 19001, Santiago, Chile..
    Martinez-Rubi, O.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Massart, B.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France.;Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.;Airbus Def & Space SAS, 31 Rue Cosmonautes, F-31402 Toulouse 4, France..
    Meynadier, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;UPMC, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, SYRTE,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Univ, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Mignot, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Munari, U.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Nguyen, A. -T
    Nordlander, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    O'Flaherty, K. S.
    ESA ESTEC, EJR Quartz BV, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Ocvirk, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astronom Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.;Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Der Stern warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Olias Sanz, A.
    ESA ESAC, Server Labs, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid, Spain..
    Ortiz, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Osorio, J.
    Univ Porto, Dept Matemat Aplicada, Fac Ciencias, Rua Campo Alegre 687, P-4169007 Oporto, Portugal..
    Oszkiewicz, D.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.;Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Fac Phys, Astron Observ Inst, Ul Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland..
    Ouzounis, A.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Park, P.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Pasquato, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Peltzer, C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Peralta, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Peturaud, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Pieniluoma, T.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland..
    Pigozzi, E.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Poels, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Prat, G.
    CS Syst Informat CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Prod'homme, T.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.;European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Raison, F.
    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, OPINAS, Giessenbachstr, D-85741 Garching, Germany.;ESA ESAC, Praesepe BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Rebordao, J. M.
    Univ Lisbon, Fac Sci, Lab Opt Lasers & Syst, Estr Paco Lumiar 22, P-1649038 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Risquez, D.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Rocca-Volmerange, B.
    Sorbonne Univ UPMC, CNRS, UMR7095, Inst Astrophys Paris, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Rosen, S.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Russo, F.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Serraller Vizcaino, I.
    ESA ESAC, GMV, Camino bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Short, A.
    Siebert, A.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astronom Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.;Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Der Stern warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Silva, H.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal..
    Sinachopoulos, D.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    Slezak, E.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Soffel, M.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Sosnowska, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Straizys, V.
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, Sauletekio 3, LT-10222 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    ter Linden, M.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;S&T Corp, POB 608, NL-2600 AP Delft, Netherlands..
    Terrell, D.
    Southwest Res Inst SwRI, Dept Space Studies, 1050 Walnut St,Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 USA..
    Theil, S.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt, Inst Space Syst, Fallturm 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany..
    Tiede, C.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Appl Sci Munich, Karlstr 6, D-80333 Munich, Germany..
    Troisi, L.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento Fis, Via Ric Sci 1, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Tsalmantza, P.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Tur, D.
    Univ Catalunya, Consorci Serv, C Gran Capita,2-4 3rd floor, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Vaccari, M.
    Univ Western Cape, Dept Phys & Astron, Robert Sobukwe Rd, ZA-7535 Cape Town, South Africa.;INAF, Ist Radioastron, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Vachier, F.
    UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, IMCCE,PSL Res Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Valles, P.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Van Hamme, W.
    Florida Int Univ, Dept Phys, 11200 SW 8th St, Miami, FL 33199 USA..
    Veltz, L.
    Univ Paris XI, CNRS, Inst Astrophys Spatiale, UMR 8617, Batiment 121, F-91405 Orsay, France.;Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Der Stern warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Virtanen, J.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.;Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland..
    Wallut, J. -M
    Wichmann, R.
    Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg, Germany..
    Wilkinson, M. I.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England.;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Ziaeepour, H.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Zschocke, S.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Testing parallaxes with local Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars2017In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 605, A79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Parallaxes for 331 classical Cepheids, 31 Type II Cepheids, and 364 RR Lyrae stars in common between Gaia and the HIPPARCOS and Tycho-2 catalogues are published in Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) as part of the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS). Aims. In order to test these first parallax measurements of the primary standard candles of the cosmological distance ladder, which involve astrometry collected by Gaia during the initial 14 months of science operation, we compared them with literature estimates and derived new period-luminosity (PL), period-Wesenheit (PW) relations for classical and Type II Cepheids and infrared PL, PL-metallicity (PLZ), and optical luminosity-metallicity (MV-[Fe/H]) relations for the RR Lyrae stars, with zero points based on TGAS.

    Methods. Classical Cepheids were carefully selected in order to discard known or suspected binary systems. The final sample comprises 102 fundamental mode pulsators with periods ranging from 1.68 to 51.66 days (of which 33 with sigma(omega)/omega < 0 : 5). The Type II Cepheids include a total of 26 W Virginis and BL Herculis stars spanning the period range from 1.16 to 30.00 days (of which only 7 with sigma(omega)/omega 0 : 5). The RR Lyrae stars include 200 sources with pulsation period ranging from 0.27 to 0.80 days (of which 112 with sigma(omega)/omega < 0 : 5). The new relations were computed using multi- band (V; I; J; K-s) photometry and spectroscopic metal abundances available in the literature, and by applying three alternative approaches: (i) linear least-squares fitting of the absolute magnitudes inferred from direct transformation of the TGAS parallaxes; (ii) adopting astrometry-based luminosities; and (iii) using a Bayesian fitting approach. The last two methods work in parallax space where parallaxes are used directly, thus maintaining symmetrical errors and allowing negative parallaxes to be used. The TGAS-based PL; PW; PLZ, and MV [Fe/H] relations are discussed by comparing the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud provided by different types of pulsating stars and alternative fitting methods.

    Results. Good agreement is found from direct comparison of the parallaxes of RR Lyrae stars for which both TGAS and HST measurements are available. Similarly, very good agreement is found between the TGAS values and the parallaxes inferred from the absolute magnitudes of Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars analysed with the Baade-Wesselink method. TGAS values also compare favourably with the parallaxes inferred by theoretical model fitting of the multi-band light curves for two of the three classical Cepheids and one RR Lyrae star, which were analysed with this technique in our samples. The K-band PL relations show the significant improvement of the TGAS parallaxes for Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars with respect to the HIPPARCOS measurements. This is particularly true for the RR Lyrae stars for which improvement in quality and statistics is impressive.

    Conclusions. TGAS parallaxes bring a significant added value to the previous HIPPARCOS estimates. The relations presented in this paper represent the first Gaia-calibrated relations and form a work-in-progress milestone report in the wait for Gaia-only parallaxes of which a first solution will become available with Gaia Data Release 2 (DR2) in 2018.

  • 33. Creevey, O. L.
    et al.
    Thevenin, F.
    Berio, P.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    von Braun, K.
    Mourard, D.
    Bigot, L.
    Boyajian, T. S.
    Kervella, P.
    Morel, P.
    Pichon, B.
    Chiavassa, A.
    Nardetto, N.
    Perraut, K.
    Meilland, A.
    Mc Alister, H. A.
    ten Brummelaar, T. A.
    Farrington, C.
    Sturmann, J.
    Sturmann, L.
    Turner, N.
    Benchmark stars for Gaia Fundamental properties of the Population II star HD 140283 from interferometric, spectroscopic, and photometric data2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 575, A26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal-poor halo stars are important astrophysical laboratories that allow us to unravel details about many aspects of astrophysics, including the chemical conditions at the formation of our Galaxy, understanding the processes of diffusion in stellar interiors, and determining precise effective temperatures and calibration of colour-effective temperature relations. To address any of these issues the fundamental properties of the stars must first be determined. HD140283 is the closest and brightest metal-poor Population II halo star (distance = 58 pc and V = 7.21), an ideal target that allows us to approach these questions, and one of a list of 34 benchmark stars defined for Gaia astrophysical parameter calibration. In the framework of characterizing these benchmark stars, we determined the fundamental properties of HD140283 (radius, mass, age, and effective temperature) by obtaining new interferometric and spectroscopic measurements and combining them with photometry from the literature. The interferometric measurements were obtained using the visible interferometer VEGA on the CHARA array and we determined a 1D limb-darkened angular diameter of theta(1D) = 0.353 +/- 0.013 milliarcsec. Using photometry from the literature we derived the bolometric flux in two ways: a zero reddening solution (A(V) = 0.0 mag) of F-bol of 3.890 +/- 0.066 x 10(-8) erg s(-1) cm(-2),and a maximum of A(V) = 0.1 mag solution of 4.220 +/- 0.067 x 10(-8) erg s(-1) cm(-2). The interferometric T-eff is thus between 5534 +/- 103 K and 5647 +/- 105 K and its radius is R = 2.21 +/- 0.08 R-circle dot. Spectroscopic measurements of HD140283 were obtained using HARPS, NARVAL, and UVES and a 1D LTE analysis of Ha line wings yielded T-effspec = 5626 +/- 75 K. Using fine-tuned stellar models including diffusion of elements we then determined the mass M and age t of HD140283. Once the metallicity has been fixed, the age of the star depends on M, initial helium abundance Y-i, and mixing-length parameter alpha, only two of which are independent. We derive simple equations to estimate one from the other two. We need to adjust a to much lower values than the solar one (similar to 2) in order to fit the observations, and if A(V) = 0.0 mag then 0.5 <= alpha <= 1. We give an equation to estimate t from M, Y-i (alpha), and A(V). Establishing a reference alpha = 1.00 and adopting Y-i = 0.245 we derive a mass and age of HD140283: M = 0.780 +/- 0.010 M-circle dot and t = 13.7 +/- 0.7 Gyr (A(V) = 0.0 mag), or M = 0.805 +/- 0.010 M-circle dot and t = 12.2 +/- 0.6 Gyr (A(V) = 0.1 mag). Our stellar models yield an initial (interior) metal-hydrogen mass fraction of [Z/X](i) = -1.70 and log g = 3.65 +/- 0.03. Theoretical advances allowing us to impose the mixing-length parameter would greatly improve the redundancy between M, Y-i, and age, while from an observational point of view, accurate determinations of extinction along with asteroseismic observations would provide critical information allowing us to overcome the current limitations in our results.

  • 34. Creevey, O. L.
    et al.
    Thevenin, F.
    Boyajian, T. S.
    Kervella, P.
    Chiavassa, A.
    Bigot, L.
    Merand, A.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Morel, P.
    Pichon, B.
    Mc Alister, H. A.
    ten Brummelaar, T. A.
    Collet, R.
    van Belle, G. T.
    du Foresto, V. Coude
    Farrington, C.
    Goldfinger, P. J.
    Sturmann, J.
    Sturmann, L.
    Turner, N.
    Fundamental properties of the Population II fiducial stars HD 122563 and Gmb 1830 from CHARA interferometric observations2012In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 545, A17- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have determined the angular diameters of two metal-poor stars, HD 122563 and Gmb 1830, using CHARA and Palomar Testbed Interferometer observations. For the giant star HD 122563, we derive an angular diameter theta(3D) = 0.940 +/- 0.011 milliarcseconds (mas) using limb-darkening from 3D convection simulations and for the dwarf star Gmb 1830 (HD 103095) we obtain a 1D limb-darkened angular diameter theta(1D) = 0.679 +/- 0.007 mas. Coupling the angular diameters with photometry yields effective temperatures with precisions better than 55 K (T-eff = 4598 +/- 41 K and 4818 +/- 54 K - for the giant and the dwarf star, respectively). Including their distances results in very well-determined luminosities and radii (L = 230 +/- 7 L-circle dot, R = 24.1 +/- 1.1 R-circle dot and L = 0.213 +/- 0.002 L-circle dot, R = 0.665 +/- 0.014 R-circle dot, respectively). We used the CESAM2k stellar structure and evolution code in order to produce models that fit the observational data. We found values of the mixing-length parameter alpha (which describes 1D convection) that depend on the mass of the star. The masses were determined from the models with precisions of < 3% and with the well-measured radii excellent constraints on the surface gravity are obtained (log g = 1.60 +/- 0.04, 4.59 +/- 0.02 dex, respectively). The very small errors on both log g and T-eff provide stringent constraints for spectroscopic analyses given the sensitivity of abundances to both of these values. The precise determination of T-eff for the two stars brings into question the photometric scales for metal-poor stars.

  • 35.
    Cremonese, G.
    et al.
    Astron Observ Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Simioni, E.
    Astron Observ Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;UOS Padova LUXOR, CNR IFN, Via Trasea 7, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Ragazzoni, R.
    Astron Observ Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Bertini, I.
    Univ Padua, Ctr Studies & Activ Space CISAS G Colombo, Via Venezia 15, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    La Forgia, F.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Vic Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Pajola, M.
    Univ Padua, Ctr Studies & Activ Space CISAS G Colombo, Via Venezia 15, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Oklay, N.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Fornasier, S.
    Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris Diderot, Univ Sorbonne,CNRS,PSL Res Univ,Observ Paris,LESI, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Lazzarin, M.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Vic Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lucchetti, A.
    Astron Observ Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Ctr Studies & Activ Space CISAS G Colombo, Via Venezia 15, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Sierks, H.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Barbieri, C.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Vic Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lamy, P.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS LAM, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Rodrigo, R.
    CSIC INTA, Ctr Astrobiol, Madrid 28850, Spain.;Int Space Sci Inst, Hallerstr 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Koschny, D.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA, Sci Support ffi, Keplerlaan 1,Postbus 299, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Rickman, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy. PAS Space Res Ctr, Bartycka 18A, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Keller, H. U.
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Geophys & Estraterr Phys, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    A'Hearn, M. F.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Agarwal, J.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Barucci, M. A.
    Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Univ Paris Diderot, Univ Sorbonne,CNRS,PSL Res Univ,Observ Paris,LESI, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Bertaux, J. -L
    Da Deppo, V.
    UOS Padova LUXOR, CNR IFN, Via Trasea 7, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Davidsson, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    De Cecco, M.
    Univ Trento, Via Sommarive 9, I-38123 Trento, Italy..
    Debei, S.
    Univ Padua, Dept Ind Engn, Via Venezia 1, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Fulle, M.
    Osserv Astron Trieste, INAF, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34014 Trieste, Italy..
    Groussin, O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS LAM, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Guettler, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Gutierrez, P. J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Hviid, S. F.
    Inst fur Planetenforsch, Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Ip, W. -H
    Jorda, L.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS LAM, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Knollenberg, J.
    Inst fur Planetenforsch, Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kramm, J. -R
    Kueppers, M.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA, Operat Dept, POB 78, Madrid 28691, Spain..
    Kuert, E.
    Inst fur Planetenforsch, Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lara, L. M.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Magrin, S.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Vic Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lopez Moreno, J. J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Marzari, F.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Vic Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Mottola, S.
    Inst fur Planetenforsch, Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Naletto, G.
    Univ Trento, Via Sommarive 9, I-38123 Trento, Italy.;Univ Padua, Dept Informat Engn, Via Gradenigo 6-B, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Preusker, F.
    Inst fur Planetenforsch, Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Scholten, F.
    Inst fur Planetenforsch, Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Thomas, N.
    Univ Bern, Inst Phys, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Tubiana, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Vincent, J-B
    Photometry of dust grains of comet 67P and connection with nucleus regions2016In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 588, A59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. Multiple pairs of high-resolution images of the dust coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko have been collected by OSIRIS onboard Rosetta allowing extraction and analysis of dust grain tracks. Methods. We developed a quasi automatic method to recognize and to extract dust tracks in the Osiris images providing size, FWHM and photometric data. The dust tracks characterized by a low signal-to-noise ratio were checked manually. We performed the photometric analysis of 70 dust grain tracks observed on two different Narrow Angle Camera images in the two filters F24 and F28, centered at lambda = 480.7 nm and at lambda = 743.7 nm, respectively, deriving the color and the reddening of each one. We then extracted several images of the nucleus observed with the same filters and with the same phase angle to be compared with the dust grain reddening. Results. Most of the dust grain reddening is very similar to the nucleus values, confirming they come from the surface or subsurface layer. The histogram of the dust grain reddening has a secondary peak at negative values and shows some grains with values higher than the nucleus, suggesting a different composition from the surface grains. One hypothesis comes from the negative values point at the presence of hydrated minerals in the comet.

  • 36.
    Cruzalebes, P.
    et al.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, F-06189 Nice, France..
    Jorissen, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Brussels, Belgium..
    Rabbia, Y.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, F-06189 Nice, France..
    Chiavassa, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, F-06189 Nice, France..
    Paladini, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Brussels, Belgium..
    Sacuto, Stéphane
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Siopis, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Brussels, Belgium..
    Sadowski, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, Brussels, Belgium..
    Spang, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, F-06189 Nice, France..
    Chesneau, O.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, F-06189 Nice, France..
    Brightness Asymmetries of Cool Giants and Supergiants Measured with VLTI-AMBER2015In: WHY GALAXIES CARE ABOUT AGB STARS III: A CLOSER LOOK IN SPACE AND TIME, ASTRONOMICAL SOC PACIFIC , 2015, Vol. 497, 109-110 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a search for asymmetries on the photospheres of 16 giants and supergiants. We found that all targets have surface-brightness asymmetries, but the most prominent ones are found along the upper AGB.

  • 37. Cruzalebes, P.
    et al.
    Jorissen, A.
    Rabbia, Y.
    Chiavassa, A.
    Paladini, C.
    Sacuto, Stéphane
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Siopis, C.
    Sadowski, G.
    Spang, A.
    Chesneau, O.
    Measuring deviation from centrosymmetry for a source brightness distribution observed by spectro-interferometry2014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 443, no 4, 3550-3563 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the testing of the centrosymmetry parameter (CSP), an indicator of deviation from centrosymmetry of a source brightness distribution. This indicator is derived from the spectral distribution of the triple product measured over three baselines of an optical interferometer. Numerical simulations using parametric toy-models (separated or transiting binary, one-spot model), generated with the SPIDAST software, are applied to the VLTI/AMBER facility in the K band (2.2 mu m). The simulations show that, in case of centrosymmetry, the CSP parameter is in agreement with the usual phase of the spectral mean of the triple product (called GCP, global closure phase). To justify the preferential use of CSP rather than GCP, we show situations with asymmetric geometries for which GCP diagnoses centrosymmetry, while CSP does not. Using realistic Roche lobe-filling binary and hydrodynamic convective models, we show that CSP can also be used as an indicator for geometric similarity between physical and toy-models. Thus, dealing with real data, the toy-model parameters can be fitted on the measured CSP values, in order to assess the input-parameter values of the most suitable complex physical model that will be used to interpret the data.

  • 38.
    De Beck, E.
    et al.
    Chalmers, Onsala Space Observ, Dept Earth & Space Sci, S-43992 Onsala, Sweden..
    Decin, L.
    Inst Sterrenkunde, Dept Nat Kunde & Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Heverlee, Belgium.;Univ Amsterdam, Sterrenkundig Inst Anton Pannekoek, Sci Pk 904, NL-1098 Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Ramstedt, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Olofsson, H.
    Chalmers, Onsala Space Observ, Dept Earth & Space Sci, S-43992 Onsala, Sweden..
    Menten, K. M.
    Max Planck Inst Radioastron, Hugel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany..
    Patel, N. A.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St,MS78, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Vlemmings, W. H. T.
    Chalmers, Onsala Space Observ, Dept Earth & Space Sci, S-43992 Onsala, Sweden..
    Search for aluminium monoxide in the winds of oxygen-rich AGB stars2017In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 598, A53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Aluminium monoxide (AlO) is likely efficiently depleted from the gas around oxygen-rich evolved stars to form alumina (Al2O3) clusters and dust seeds. The presence of AlO gas in the extended atmospheres of evolved stars has been derived from optical spectroscopy. More recently, AlO gas was also detected at long wavelengths around the supergiant VY CMa and the oxygenrich asymptotic giant branch star o Cet (Mira A). The central role aluminium might play in dust formation and wind driving, in combination with these first detections of AlO at long wavelengths, shows the need for a wider search for this molecule in the winds of evolved stars. Aims. The detection at long wavelengths of emission in rotational transitions of AlO towards asymptotic giant branch stars can help constrain the presence and location of AlO gas in the outflows and ultimately also the efficiency of the depletion process. Methods. In search of AlO, we mined data obtained with APEX, the IRAM 30m telescope, Herschel / HIFI, SMA, and ALMA, which were primarily aimed at studying other species around asymptotic giant branch stars. We report here on observations of AlO towards a sample of eight oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch stars in different rotational transitions, up to seven for some stars. Results. We present definite detections of one rotational transition of AlO for o Cet and R Aqr, and tentative detections of one transition for R Dor and o Cet and two transitions for IK Tau and W Hya. The presented spectra of WX Psc, R Cas, and TX Cam show no signature of AlO. For o Cet, R Aqr, and IK Tau, we find that the AlO (N = 9 8) emission likely traces the inner parts of the wind, out to only a few tens of AU, where the gas has not yet been accelerated to its terminal velocity. This is in agreement with recently published results from a detailed study on o Cet. Conclusions. The conclusive detections of AlO emission in the case of o Cet and R Aqr confirm the presence of AlO in the gas phase in outflows of asymptotic giant branch stars. The tentative detections further support this. Since most of the observations presented in this study were obtained with stronger emission from other species than AlO in mind, observations with higher sensitivity in combination with high angular resolution will improve our understanding of the presence and behaviour of AlO. From the current data sets we cannot firmly conclude whether there is a direct correlation between the wind properties and the detection rate of AlO emission. We hope that this study can serve as a stimulus to perform sample studies in search of AlO in oxygen-rich outflows.

  • 39. De Jong, R. S.
    et al.
    Bellido-Tirado, O.
    Chiappini, C.
    Depagne, É.
    Haynes, R.
    Johl, D.
    Schnurr, O.
    Schwope, A.
    Walcher, J.
    Dionies, F.
    Haynes, D.
    Kelz, A.
    Kitaura, F. S.
    Lamer, G.
    Minchev, I.
    Müller, V.
    Nuza, S. E.
    Olaya, J. -C
    Piffl, T.
    Popow, E.
    Steinmetz, M.
    Ural, U.
    Williams, M.
    Winkler, R.
    Wisotzki, L.
    Ansorge, W. R.
    Banerji, M.
    Solares, E. G.
    Irwin, M.
    Kennicutt Jr., R. C.
    King, D.
    McMahon, R.
    Koposov, S.
    Parry, I. R.
    Sun, D.
    Walton, N. A.
    Finger, G.
    Iwert, O.
    Krumpe, M.
    Lizon, J. -L
    Vincenzo, M.
    Amans, J. -P
    Bonifacio, P.
    Cohen, M.
    Francois, P.
    Jagourel, P.
    Mignot, S. B.
    Royer, F.
    Sartoretti, P.
    Bender, R.
    Grupp, F.
    Hess, H. -J
    Lang-Bardl, F.
    Muschielok, B.
    Böhringer, H.
    Boller, T.
    Bongiorno, A.
    Brusa, M.
    Dwelly, T.
    Merloni, A.
    Nandra, K.
    Salvato, M.
    Pragt, J. H.
    Navarro, R.
    Gerlofsma, G.
    Roelfsema, R.
    Dalton, G. B.
    Middleton, K. F.
    Tosh, I. A.
    Boeche, C.
    Caffau, E.
    Christlieb, N.
    Grebel, E. K.
    Hansen, C.
    Koch, A.
    Ludwig, H. -G
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Sbordone, L.
    Seifert, W.
    Thimm, G.
    Trifonov, T.
    Helmi, A.
    Trager, S. C.
    Feltzing, S.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Boland, W.
    4MOST - 4-metre multi-object spectroscopic telescope2012In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2012, 84460T- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 4MOST consortium is currently halfway through a Conceptual Design study for ESO with the aim to develop a wide-field (>3 square degree, goal >5 square degree), high-multiplex (>1500 fibres, goal 3000 fibres) spectroscopic survey facility for an ESO 4m-class telescope (VISTA). 4MOST will run permanently on the telescope to perform a 5 year public survey yielding more than 20 million spectra at resolution R∼5000 (λ=390-1000 nm) and more than 2 million spectra at R∼20,000 (395-456.5 nm & 587-673 nm). The 4MOST design is especially intended to complement three key all-sky, space-based observatories of prime European interest: Gaia, eROSITA and Euclid. Initial design and performance estimates for the wide-field corrector concepts are presented. Two fibre positioner concepts are being considered for 4MOST. The first one is a Phi-Theta system similar to ones used on existing and planned facilities. The second one is a new R-Theta concept with large patrol area. Both positioner concepts effectively address the issues of fibre focus and pupil pointing. The 4MOST spectrographs are fixed configuration two-arm spectrographs, with dedicated spectrographs for the high- and low-resolution fibres. A full facility simulator is being developed to guide trade-off decisions regarding the optimal field-of-view, number of fibres needed, and the relative fraction of high-to-low resolution fibres. The simulator takes mock catalogues with template spectra from Design Reference Surveys as starting point, calculates the output spectra based on a throughput simulator, assigns targets to fibres based on the capabilities of the fibre positioner designs, and calculates the required survey time by tiling the fields on the sky. The 4MOST consortium aims to deliver the full 4MOST facility by the end of 2018 and start delivering high-level data products for both consortium and ESO community targets a year later with yearly increments.

  • 40. de Jong, Roelof S.
    et al.
    Barden, Sam
    Bellido-Tirado, Olga
    Brynnel, Joar
    Chiappini, Cristina
    Depagne, Eric
    Haynes, Roger
    Johl, Diane
    Phillips, Daniel P.
    Schnurr, Olivier
    Schwope, Axel
    Walcher, Jakob
    Bauer, Svend-Marian
    Cescutti, Gabriele
    Cioni, Maria-Rosa
    Dionies, Frank
    Enke, Harry
    Haynes, Dionne
    Kelz, Andreas
    Kitaura, Francisco S.
    Lamer, Georg
    Minchev, Ivan
    Mueler, Volker
    Nuza, Sebastian E.
    Olaya, Jean-Christophe
    Piffl, Tilman
    Popow, Emil
    Saviauk, Allar
    Steinmetz, Matthias
    Ural, Ugur
    Valentini, Monica
    Winkler, Roland
    Wisotzki, Lutz
    Ansorge, Wolfgang R.
    Banerji, Manda
    Solares, Eduardo Gonzalez
    Irwin, Mike
    Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.
    King, David
    McMahon, Richard
    Koposov, Sergey
    Parry, Ian R.
    Sun, Xiaowei
    Walton, Nicholas A.
    Finger, Gert
    Iwert, Olaf
    Krumpe, Mirko
    Lizon, Jean-Louis
    Mainieri, Vincenzo
    Amans, Jean-Philippe
    Bonifacio, Piercarlo
    Cohen, Mathieu
    Francois, Patrick
    Jagourel, Pascal
    Mignot, Shan B.
    Royer, Frederic
    Sartoretti, Paola
    Bender, Ralf
    Hess, Hans-Joachim
    Lang-Bardl, Florian
    Muschielok, Bernard
    Schlichter, Jorg
    Bohringer, Hans
    Boller, Thomas
    Bongiorno, Angela
    Brusa, Marcella
    Dwelly, Tom
    Merloni, Andrea
    Nandra, Kirpal
    Salvato, Mara
    Pragt, Johannes H.
    Navarro, Ramon
    Gerlofsma, Gerrit
    Roelfsema, Ronald
    Dalton, Gavin B.
    Middleton, Kevin F.
    Tosh, Ian A.
    Boeche, Corrado
    Caffau, Elisabetta
    Chistlieb, Norbert
    Grebel, Eva K.
    Hansen, Camilla J.
    Koch, Andreas
    Ludwig, Hans-G.
    Mandel, Holger
    Quirrenbach, Andreas
    Sbordone, Luca
    Seifert, Walter
    Thimm, Guido
    Helmi, Amina
    Trager, Scott C.
    Bensby, Thomas
    Feltzing, Sofia
    Ruchti, Gregory
    Edvardsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Lind, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Boland, Wilfried
    Colless, Matthew
    Frost, Gabriella
    Gilbert, James
    Gillingham, Peter
    Lawrence, Jon
    Legg, Neville
    Saunders, Will
    Sheinis, Andrew
    Driver, Simon
    Robotham, Aaron
    Bacon, Roland
    Caillier, Patrick
    Kosmalski, Johan
    Laurent, Florence
    Richard, Johan
    4MOST-4-metre Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope2014In: GROUND-BASED AND AIRBORNE INSTRUMENTATION FOR ASTRONOMY V, 2014, Vol. 9147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    4MOST is a wide-field, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility under development for the VISTA telescope of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Its main science drivers are in the fields of galactic archeology, high-energy physics, galaxy evolution and cosmology. 4MOST will in particular provide the spectroscopic complements to the large area surveys coming from space missions like Gaia, eROSITA, Euclid, and PLATO and from ground-based facilities like VISTA, VST, DES, LSST and SKA. The 4MOST baseline concept features a 2.5 degree diameter field-of-view with similar to 2400 fibres in the focal surface that are configured by a fibre positioner based on the tilting spine principle. The fibres feed two types of spectrographs; similar to 1600 fibres go to two spectrographs with resolution R> 5000 (lambda similar to 390-930 nm) and similar to 800 fibres to a spectrograph with R> 18,000 (lambda similar to 392-437 nm & 515-572 nm & 605-675 nm). Both types of spectrographs are fixed-configuration, three-channel spectrographs. 4MOST will have an unique operations concept in which 5 year public surveys from both the consortium and the ESO community will be combined and observed in parallel during each exposure, resulting in more than 25 million spectra of targets spread over a large fraction of the southern sky. The 4MOST Facility Simulator (4FS) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of this observing concept. 4MOST has been accepted for implementation by ESO with operations expected to start by the end of 2020. This paper provides a top-level overview of the 4MOST facility, while other papers in these proceedings provide more detailed descriptions of the instrument concept[1], the instrument requirements development[2], the systems engineering implementation[3], the instrument model[4], the fibre positioner concepts[5], the fibre feed[6], and the spectrographs[7].

  • 41.
    de Jong, Roelof S.
    et al.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Barden, Samuel C.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Bellido-Tirado, Olga
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Brynnel, Joar G.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Frey, Steffen
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Giannone, Domenico
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Haynes, Roger
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.;InnoFSPEC, Potsdam, Germany..
    Johl, Diana
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Phillips, Daniel
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Schnurr, Olivier
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Walcher, Jakob C.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Winkler, Roland
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Ansorge, Wolfgang R.
    RAMS CON Management Consultants, Assling, Germany..
    Feltzing, Sofia
    Lund Observ, Lund, Sweden..
    McMahon, Richard G.
    Univ Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England..
    Baker, Gabriella
    Australian Astron Observ, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Caillier, Patrick
    Ctr Rech Astrophys Lyon, Lyon, France..
    Dwelly, Tom
    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Munich, Germany..
    Gaessler, Wolfgang
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Iwer, Olaf
    European Southern Observ, Garching, Germany..
    Mandel, Holger G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Piskunov, Nikolai
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Pragt, Johan H.
    NOVA ASTRON, Dwingeloo, Netherlands..
    Walton, Nicholas A.
    Univ Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England..
    Bensby, Thomas
    Lund Observ, Lund, Sweden..
    Bergemann, Maria
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Chiappini, Cristina
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Christlieb, Norbert
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Driver, Simon
    Univ Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia..
    Finoguenov, Alexis
    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Munich, Germany..
    Helmi, Amina
    Kapteyn Astron Inst, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Irwin, Michael J.
    Univ Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England..
    Kitaur, Francisco-Shu
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Kneib, Jean-Paul
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Liske, Jochen
    Univ Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany. Univ Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany. Univ Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB, Herts, England..
    Merloni, Andrea
    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Munich, Germany..
    Minchev, Ivan
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Richard, Johan
    Ctr Rech Astrophys Lyon, Lyon, France..
    Starkenburg, Else
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    4MOST: the 4-metre Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope project at preliminary design review2016In: GROUND-BASED AND AIRBORNE INSTRUMENTATION FOR ASTRONOMY VI / [ed] Christopher J Evans, 2016, Vol. 9908, UNSP 99081OConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an overview of the 4MOST project at the Preliminary Design Review. 4MOST is a major new wide-field, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility under development for the VISTA telescope of ESO. 4MOST has a broad range of science goals ranging from Galactic Archaeology and stellar physics to the high-energy physics, galaxy evolution, and cosmology. Starting in 2021, 4MOST will deploy 2436 fibres in a 4.1 square degree field-of-view using a positioner based on the tilting spine principle. The fibres will feed one high-resolution (R similar to 20,000) and two medium-resolution (R similar to 5000) spectrographs with fixed 3-channel designs and identical 6k x 6k CCD detectors. 4MOST will have a unique operations concept in which 5-year public surveys from both the consortium and the ESO community will be combined and observed in parallel during each exposure. The 4MOST Facility Simulator (4FS) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of this observing concept, showing that we can expect to observe more than 25 million objects in each 5-year survey period and will eventually be used to plan and conduct the actual survey.

  • 42.
    de la Cruz Rodríguez, J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Socas-Navarro, H.
    Carlsson, M.
    Leenaarts, J.
    Chromospheric Magnetic Fields: Observations, Simulations and their Interpretation2012In: Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, 2012, Vol. 463Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The magnetic field of the quiet-Sun chromosphere remains a mystery for solar physicists. The reduced number of chromospheric lines are intrinsically hard to model and only a few of them are magnetically sensitive. In this work, we use a 3D numerical simulation of the outer layers of the solar atmosphere, to asses the reliability of non-LTE inversions, in this case applied to the Ca II λ8542 Å line. We show that NLTE inversions provide realistic estimates of physical quantities from synthetic observations.

  • 43.
    De Nutte, R.
    et al.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Astron, Celestijnenlaan 200D B2401, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Decin, L.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Astron, Celestijnenlaan 200D B2401, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, POB 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Olofsson, H.
    Chalmers, Onsala Space Observ, Dept Earth & Space Sci, S-43992 Onsala, Sweden..
    Lombaert, R.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Astron, Celestijnenlaan 200D B2401, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Chalmers, Onsala Space Observ, Dept Earth & Space Sci, S-43992 Onsala, Sweden..
    de Koter, A.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Astron, Celestijnenlaan 200D B2401, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, POB 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Karakas, A.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia.;Monash Univ, Monash Ctr Astrophys, Sch Phys & Astron, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Milam, S.
    NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Astrochem Lab, Code 691-0, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Ramstedt, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Stancliffe, R. J.
    Univ Bonn, Argelander Inst Astron, Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany..
    Homan, W.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Astron, Celestijnenlaan 200D B2401, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Van de Sande, M.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Astron, Celestijnenlaan 200D B2401, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Nucleosynthesis in AGB stars traced by oxygen isotopic ratios I. Determining the stellar initial mass by means of the O-17/O-18 ratio2017In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 600, A71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. We seek to investigate the O-17/O-18 ratio for a sample of AGB stars containing M-, S-, and C-type stars. These ratios are evaluated in relation to fundamental stellar evolution parameters: the stellar initial mass and pulsation period.

    Methods. Circumstellar (CO)-C-13-O-16, (CO)-C-12-O-17, and (CO)-C-12-O-18 line observations were obtained for a sample of nine stars with various single-dish long-wavelength facilities. Line intensity ratios are shown to relate directly to the surface O-17/O-18 abundance ratio.

    Results. Stellar evolution models predict the O-17/O-18 ratio to be a sensitive function of initial mass and to remain constant throughout the entire TP-AGB phase for stars initially less massive than 5 M-circle dot. This makes the measured ratio a probe of the initial stellar mass.

    Conclusions. Observed O-17/O-18 ratios are found to be well in the range predicted by stellar evolution models that do not consider convective overshooting. From this, accurate initial mass estimates are calculated for seven sources. For the remaining two sources, there are two mass solutions, although there is a larger probability that the low-mass solution is correct. Finally, we present hints at a possible separation between M/S- and C-type stars when comparing the O-17/O-18 ratio to the stellar pulsation period.

  • 44. De Silva, G. M.
    et al.
    Freeman, K. C.
    Bland-Hawthorn, J.
    Martell, S.
    de Boer, E. Wylie
    Asplund, M.
    Keller, S.
    Sharma, S.
    Zucker, D. B.
    Zwitter, T.
    Anguiano, B.
    Bacigalupo, C.
    Bayliss, D.
    Beavis, M. A.
    Bergemann, M.
    Campbell, S.
    Cannon, R.
    Carollo, D.
    Casagrande, L.
    Casey, A. R.
    Da Costa, G.
    D'Orazi, V.
    Dotter, A.
    Duong, L.
    Heger, A.
    Ireland, M. J.
    Kafle, P. R.
    Kos, J.
    Lattanzio, J.
    Lewis, G. F.
    Lin, J.
    Lind, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Munari, U.
    Nataf, D. M.
    O'Toole, S.
    Parker, Q.
    Reid, W.
    Schlesinger, K. J.
    Sheinis, A.
    Simpson, J. D.
    Stello, D.
    Ting, Y. -S
    Traven, G.
    Watson, F.
    Wittenmyer, R.
    Yong, D.
    Zerjal, M.
    The GALAH survey: scientific motivation2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 449, no 3, 2604-2617 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Galactic Archaeology with HERMES (GALAH) survey is a large high-resolution spectroscopic survey using the newly commissioned High Efficiency and Resolution Multi-Element Spectrograph (HERMES) on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The HERMES spectrograph provides high-resolution (R similar to 28 000) spectra in four passbands for 392 stars simultaneously over a 2 deg field of view. The goal of the survey is to unravel the formation and evolutionary history of the Milky Way, using fossil remnants of ancient star formation events which have been disrupted and are now dispersed throughout the Galaxy. Chemical tagging seeks to identify such dispersed remnants solely from their common and unique chemical signatures; these groups are unidentifiable from their spatial, photometric or kinematic properties. To carry out chemical tagging, the GALAH survey will acquire spectra for a million stars down to V similar to 14. The HERMES spectra of FGK stars contain absorption lines from 29 elements including light proton-capture elements, alpha-elements, odd-Z elements, iron-peak elements and n-capture elements from the light and heavy s-process and the r-process. This paper describes the motivation and planned execution of the GALAH survey, and presents some results on the first-light performance of HERMES.

  • 45. de Val-Borro, M.
    et al.
    Gahm, G. F.
    Stempels, Henricus C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Peplinski, A.
    Modelling circumbinary gas flows in close T Tauri binaries star2011In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 413, no 4, 2679-2688 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young close binaries open central gaps in the surrounding circumbinary accretion disc, but the stellar components may still gain mass from gas crossing through the gap. It is not well understood how this process operates and how the stellar components are affected by such inflows. Our main goal is to investigate how gas accretion takes place and evolves in close T Tauri binary systems. In particular, we model the accretion flows around two close T Tauri binaries, V4046 Sgr and DQ Tau, both showing periodic changes in emission lines, although their orbital characteristics are very different. In order to derive the density and velocity maps of the circumbinary material, we employ two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations with a locally isothermal equation of state. The flow patterns become quasi-stable after a few orbits in the frame corotating with the system. Gas flows across the circumbinary gap through the corotating Lagrangian points, and local circumstellar discs develop around both components. Spiral density patterns develop in the circumbinary disc that transport angular momentum efficiently. Mass is preferentially channelled towards the primary and its circumstellar disc is more massive than the disc around the secondary. We also compare the derived density distribution to observed line profile variability. The line profile variability tracing the gas flows in the central cavity shows clear similarities with the corresponding observed line profile variability in V4046 Sgr, but only when the local circumstellar disc emission was excluded. Closer to the stars normal magnetospheric accretion may dominate, while further out the dynamic accretion process outlined here dominates. Periodic changes in the accretion rates on to the stars can explain the outbursts of line emission observed in eccentric systems such as DQ Tau.

  • 46. Distefano, E.
    et al.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    Lanza, A. F.
    Messina, S.
    Korn, Andreas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Cuypers, J.
    Determination of rotation periods in solar-like stars with irregular sampling: the Gaia case2012In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 421, no 4, 2774-2785 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study on the determination of rotation periods (P) of solar-like stars from the photometric irregular time sampling of the European Space Agency Gaia mission, currently scheduled for launch in 2013, taking into account its dependence on ecliptic coordinates. We examine the case of solar twins as well as thousands of synthetic time series of solar-like stars rotating faster than the Sun. In the case of solar twins, we assume that the Gaia unfiltered photometric passband G will mimic the variability of the total solar irradiance as measured by the Variability of solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations (VIRGO) experiment. For stars rotating faster than the Sun, light curves are simulated using synthetic spectra for the quiet atmosphere, the spots and the faculae combined by applying semi-empirical relationships relating the level of photospheric magnetic activity to the stellar rotation and the Gaia instrumental response. The capabilities of the Deeming, LombScargle and phase dispersion minimization methods in recovering the correct rotation periods are tested and compared. The false alarm probability is computed using Monte Carlo simulations and compared with analytical formulae. The Gaia scanning law makes the rate of correct detection of rotation periods strongly dependent on the ecliptic latitude (beta). We find that for P? 1 d, the rate of correct detection increases with beta from 2030 per cent at beta? 0 to a peak of 70 per cent at beta= 45 degrees; then it abruptly falls below 10 per cent at beta > 45 degrees. For P > 5 d, the rate of correct detection is quite low and for solar twins is only 5 per cent on average.

  • 47.
    Dorn, Reinhold J.
    et al.
    European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Follert, Roman
    Thuringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg, Germany..
    Bristow, Paul
    European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Cumani, Claudio
    European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Eschbaumer, Siegfried
    European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Grunhut, Jason
    European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Haimerl, Andreas
    European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Hatzes, Artie
    Thuringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg, Germany..
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Hinterschuster, Renate
    European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ives, Derek J.
    European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Jung, Yves
    European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kerber, Florian
    European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Klein, Barbara
    European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Lavail, Alexis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy. European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Lizon, Jean Louis
    European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Loewinger, Tom
    Thuringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg, Germany..
    Molina-Conde, Ignacio
    European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Nicholson, Belinda
    European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Marquart, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Oliva, Ernesto
    INAF Arcetri Osservatorio, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Origlia, Livia
    INAF Bologna Observ, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Pasquini, Luca
    European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Paufique, Jerome
    European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Piskunov, Nikolai
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Reiners, Ansgar
    Univ Gottingen, Inst Astrophys, Friedrich Hund Pl 1, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Seemann, Ulf
    Univ Gottingen, Inst Astrophys, Friedrich Hund Pl 1, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Stegmeier, Jorg
    European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Stempels, Eric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Tordo, Sebastien
    European Org Astron Res Southern Hemisphere, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    The " plus " for CRIRES: enabling better science at infrared wavelength and high spectral resolution at the ESO VLT2016In: GROUND-BASED AND AIRBORNE INSTRUMENTATION FOR ASTRONOMY VI / [ed] Christopher J Evans, 2016, Vol. 9908, 99080IConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adaptive optics (AO) assisted CRIRES instrument was a IR (0.92 - 5.2 mu m) high-resolution spectrograph in operation from 2006 to 2014 at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) observatory. CRIRES was a unique instrument, accessing a parameter space (wavelength range and spectral resolution) up to now largely uncharted. It consisted of a single-order spectrograph providing long-slit (40 arcsecond) spectroscopy with a resolving power up to R=100 000. However the setup was limited to a narrow, single-shot, spectral range of about 1/70 of the central wavelength, resulting in low observing efficiency for many scientific programmes requiring a broad spectral coverage. The CRIRES upgrade project, CRIRES, transfouns this VLT instrument into a cross-dispersed spectrograph to increase the simultaneously covered wavelength range by a factor of ten. A new and larger detector focal plane array of three Hawaii 2RG detectors with 5.3 mu m cut-off wavelength will replace the existing detectors. For advanced wavelength calibration, custom-made absorption gas cells and an etalon system will be added. A spectro-polarimetric unit will allow the recording of circular and linear polarized spectra. This upgrade will be supported by dedicated data reduction software allowing the community to take full advantage of the new capabilities. CRIRES has now entered its assembly and integration phase and will return with all new capabilities by the beginning of 2018 to the Very Large Telescope in Chile. This article will provide the reader with an update of the current status of the instrument as well as the remaining steps until final installation at the Paranal Observatory.

  • 48. Doronin, M.
    et al.
    Dubernet, M. L.
    Walton, N.
    Mason, N.
    Rixon, G.
    Sidaner, P. L.
    Schlemmer, S.
    Piskunov, N.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Tennyson, J.
    Akram, A.
    Endres, C.
    Hill, C.
    Marquart, T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Nenadovic, L.
    Smith, K.
    Consortium, Vamdc
    “Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre” and Astrophysics: Level 2 Release2012In: Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XXI, 2012, Vol. 461Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC, \lta href=’http://www.vamdc.eu/’\gthttp://www.vamdc.eu/\lt/a\gt) is a consortium between groups involved in the generation, evaluation, and use of atomic and molecular data, funded by the European Union. VAMDC aims to build a reliable, open, flexible and interoperable e-science interface to existing atomic and molecular data. The project will cover establishing the core consortium, the development and deployment of the infrastructure and the development of interfaces to the existing atomic and molecular databases. This paper describes the organisation of the project and the achievements at the end of its second year.

  • 49.
    Dubernet, M. L.
    et al.
    Univ Paris 06, Univ Sorbonne, CNRS, LERMA,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ, 5 Pl Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Antony, B. K.
    Indian Sch Mines, Dept Appl Phys, Dhanbad 826004, Bihar, India..
    Ba, Y. A.
    Univ Paris 06, Univ Sorbonne, CNRS, LERMA,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ, 5 Pl Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Babikov, Yu L.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Atmospher Opt, Zuev Sq 1, Tomsk 634021, Russia.;Tomsk State Univ, Tomsk 634050, Russia..
    Bartschat, K.
    Drake Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Des Moines, IA 50311 USA..
    Boudon, V.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, UMR 6303, Lab Interdisciplinaire Carnot Bourgogne, 9 Ave Alain Savary,BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon, France..
    Braams, B. J.
    IAEA, Vienna Int Ctr, Div Phys & Chem Sci, Nucl Data Sect, A-1400 Vienna, Austria..
    Chung, H-K
    IAEA, Vienna Int Ctr, Div Phys & Chem Sci, Nucl Data Sect, A-1400 Vienna, Austria..
    Daniel, F.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Delahaye, F.
    Univ Paris 06, Univ Sorbonne, CNRS, LERMA,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ, 5 Pl Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Del Zanna, G.
    Ctr Math Sci, DAMTP, Wilberforce Rd, Cambridge CB3 0WA, England..
    de Urquijo, J.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Ciencias Fis, POB 48-3, Cuernavaca 62251, Morelos, Mexico..
    Dimitrijevic, M. S.
    Univ Paris 06, Univ Sorbonne, CNRS, LERMA,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ, 5 Pl Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Astron Observ, Volgina 7, Belgrade 11060, Serbia..
    Domaracka, A.
    UCN, ENSICAEN, CNRS, CIMAP,UMR 6252,CEA, Bd Henri Becquerel,BP 5133, F-14070 Caen 5, France..
    Doronin, M.
    Univ Paris 06, Univ Sorbonne, CNRS, LERMA,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ, 5 Pl Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Drouin, B. J.
    CALTECH, Jet Prop Lab, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA..
    Endres, C. P.
    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbachstr, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Fazliev, A. Z.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Atmospher Opt, Zuev Sq 1, Tomsk 634021, Russia..
    Gagarin, S. V.
    Russian Fed Nucl Ctr All Russian Inst Tech Phys R, Snezhinsk, Russia..
    Gordon, I. E.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Atom & Mol Phys Div, MS50,60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Gratier, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Florac, France.;CNRS, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Florac, France..
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Hill, C.
    UCL, Dept Phys & Astron, Mortimer St, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Jevremovic, D.
    Astron Observ, Volgina 7, Belgrade 11060, Serbia..
    Joblin, C.
    Univ Toulouse, UPS OMP, CNRS, Inst Rech Astrophys & Planetol, 9 Av Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse 4, France..
    Kasprzak, A.
    Observ Paris, SRCV, 61 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Krishnakumar, E.
    Tata Inst Fundamental Res, Dept Nucl & Atom Phys, Homi Bhabha Rd, Bombay 400005, Maharashtra, India..
    Leto, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Loboda, P. A.
    Russian Fed Nucl Ctr All Russian Inst Tech Phys R, Snezhinsk, Russia.;Natl Res Nucl Univ, Moscow Engn Phys Inst MEPhI, Moscow, Russia..
    Louge, T.
    Univ Toulouse, UPS OMP, CNRS, Inst Rech Astrophys & Planetol, 9 Av Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse 4, France..
    Maclot, S.
    UCN, ENSICAEN, CNRS, CIMAP,UMR 6252,CEA, Bd Henri Becquerel,BP 5133, F-14070 Caen 5, France.;Univ Caen Normandie, Esplanade Paix, CS 14032, F-14032 Caen 5, France..
    Marinkovic, B. P.
    Univ Belgrade, Inst Phys Belgrade, POB 57, Belgrade 11001, Serbia..
    Markwick, A.
    Univ Manchester, Sch Phys & Astron, Jodrell Bank Ctr Astrophys, Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England..
    Marquart, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Mason, H. E.
    Ctr Math Sci, DAMTP, Wilberforce Rd, Cambridge CB3 0WA, England..
    Mason, N. J.
    Open Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England..
    Mendoza, C.
    IVIC, Ctr Fis, POB 20632, Caracas 1020A, Venezuela..
    Mihajlov, A. A.
    Univ Belgrade, Inst Phys Belgrade, POB 57, Belgrade 11001, Serbia..
    Millar, T. J.
    Queens Univ Belfast, Sch Math & Phys, Univ Rd, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland..
    Moreau, N.
    Univ Paris 06, Univ Sorbonne, CNRS, LERMA,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ, 5 Pl Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Mulas, G.
    Univ Toulouse, UPS OMP, CNRS, Inst Rech Astrophys & Planetol, 9 Av Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse 4, France.;Osservatorio Astron Cagliari, Ist Nazl AstroFis, Via Sci 5, I-09047 Selargius, CA, Italy..
    Pakhomov, Yu
    RAS, Inst Astron, Pyatnitskaya 48, Moscow 119017, Russia..
    Palmeri, P.
    Univ Mons, Phys Atom & Astrophys, B-7000 Mons, Belgium..
    Pancheshnyi, S.
    ABB Corp Res, Segelhofstr 1K, CH-5405 Baden, Switzerland..
    Perevalov, V. I.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Atmospher Opt, Zuev Sq 1, Tomsk 634021, Russia..
    Piskunov, Nikolai
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Postler, J.
    Univ Innsbruck, Inst Ion Phys & Appl Phys, Technikerstr 25-3, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Quinet, P.
    Univ Mons, Phys Atom & Astrophys, B-7000 Mons, Belgium.;Univ Liege, IPNAS, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Quintas-Sanchez, E.
    Univ Paris 06, Univ Sorbonne, CNRS, LERMA,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ, 5 Pl Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ralchenko, Yu
    NIST, Atom Spect Grp, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 USA..
    Rhee, Y-J
    Korea Atom Energy Res Inst, Nucl Data Ctr, Taejon 305353, South Korea..
    Rixon, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Rothman, L. S.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, Atom & Mol Phys Div, MS50,60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Roueff, E.
    Univ Paris 06, Univ Sorbonne, CNRS, LERMA,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ, 5 Pl Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ryabchikova, T.
    RAS, Inst Astron, Pyatnitskaya 48, Moscow 119017, Russia..
    Sahal-Brechot, S.
    Univ Paris 06, Univ Sorbonne, CNRS, LERMA,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ, 5 Pl Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Scheier, P.
    Univ Innsbruck, Inst Ion Phys & Appl Phys, Technikerstr 25-3, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria..
    Schlemmer, S.
    Univ Cologne, Inst Phys 1, zulpicher Str 77, D-50937 Kln, Germany..
    Schmitt, B.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France..
    Stempels, Eric H. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Tashkun, S.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Atmospher Opt, Zuev Sq 1, Tomsk 634021, Russia..
    Tennyson, J.
    UCL, Dept Phys & Astron, Mortimer St, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Tyuterev, Vl G.
    Univ Reims, GSMA, UMR CNRS 7331, Reims, France..
    Vujcic, V.
    Astron Observ, Volgina 7, Belgrade 11060, Serbia.;Univ Belgrade, Fac Org Sci, Jove Ilica 33, Belgrade 11000, Serbia..
    Wakelam, V.
    Univ Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Florac, France.;CNRS, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Florac, France..
    Walton, N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Zatsarinny, O.
    Drake Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Des Moines, IA 50311 USA..
    Zeippen, C. J.
    Univ Paris 06, Univ Sorbonne, CNRS, LERMA,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ, 5 Pl Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Zwoelf, C. M.
    Univ Paris 06, Univ Sorbonne, CNRS, LERMA,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ, 5 Pl Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    The virtual atomic and molecular data centre (VAMDC) consortium2016In: Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, ISSN 0953-4075, E-ISSN 1361-6455, Vol. 49, no 7, 074003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) Consortium is a worldwide consortium which federates atomic and molecular databases through an e-science infrastructure and an organisation to support this activity. About 90% of the inter-connected databases handle data that are used for the interpretation of astronomical spectra and for modelling in many fields of astrophysics. Recently the VAMDC Consortium has connected databases from the radiation damage and the plasma communities, as well as promoting the publication of data from Indian institutes. This paper describes how the VAMDC Consortium is organised for the optimal distribution of atomic and molecular data for scientific research. It is noted that the VAMDC Consortium strongly advocates that authors of research papers using data cite the original experimental and theoretical papers as well as the relevant databases.

  • 50.
    Duval, Florent
    et al.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778582, Japan.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Astron, Oscar Klein Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Östlin, Göran
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Astron, Oscar Klein Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hayes, Matthew
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Astron, Oscar Klein Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zackrisson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Verhamme, Anne
    Univ Geneva, Observ Geneve, 51 Ch Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Orlitova, Ivana
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Astron, Bocni 2-1401, Prague 14100, Czech Republic..
    Adamo, Angela
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Astron, Oscar Klein Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Guaita, Lucia
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Astron, Oscar Klein Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;INAF Observ Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, RM, Italy..
    Melinder, Jens
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Astron, Oscar Klein Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Cannon, John M.
    Macalester Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, 1600 Grand Ave, St Paul, MN 55105 USA..
    Laursen, Peter
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Dark Cosmol Ctr, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Rivera-Thorsen, Thoger
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Astron, Oscar Klein Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Herenz, E. Christian
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam, AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Gruyters, Pieter
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Astron, Oscar Klein Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Miguel Mas-Hesse, J.
    Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofs, POB 78, Villanueva De La Canada 28691, Spain..
    Kunth, Daniel
    Inst Astrophys, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Sandberg, Andreas
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Astron, Oscar Klein Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Schaerer, Daniel
    Univ Geneva, Observ Geneve, 51 Ch Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;CNRS, IRAP, 14 Ave E Belin, F-31400 Toulouse, France..
    Månsson, Tore
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Astron, Oscar Klein Ctr, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The Lyman alpha reference sample VI. Lyman alpha escape from the edge-on disk galaxy Mrk 14862016In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 587, A77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Recent numerical simulations suggest that the strength of the Lyman alpha (Ly alpha) line of star-forming disk galaxies strongly depends on the inclination at which they are observed: from edge-on to face-on, we expect to see a change from a strongly attenuated Ly alpha line to a strong Ly alpha emission line.

    Aims: We aim to understand how a strong Ly alpha emission line is able to escape from the low-redshift highly inclined (edge-on) disk galaxy Mrk 1486 (z similar to 0.0338). To our knowledge, this work is the first observational study of Ly alpha transport inside an edge-on disk galaxy.

    Methods: Using a large set of HST imaging and spectroscopic data, we investigated the interstellar medium (ISM) structure and the dominant source of Ly alpha radiation inside Mrk 1486. Moreover, using a 3D Monte Carlo Ly alpha radiation transfer code, we studied the radiative transfer of Ly alpha and UV continuum photons inside a 3D geometry of neutral hydrogen (HI) and dust that models the ISM structure at the galaxy center. Our numerical simulations predicted the Ly alpha line profile that we then compared to the one observed in the HST/COS spectrum of Mrk 1486.

    Results: While a pronounced Ly alpha absorption line emerges from the disk of Mrk 1486, very extended Ly alpha structures are observed at large radii from the galaxy center: a large Ly alpha-halo and two very bright Ly alpha regions located slightly above and below the disk plane. The analysis of IFU H alpha spectroscopic data of Mrk 1486 indicates the presence of two bipolar outflowing halos of HI gas at the same location as these two bright Ly alpha regions. Comparing different diagnostic diagrams (such as [OIII](5007)/H beta versus [OI](6300)/H alpha) to photo-and shock-ionization models, we find that the Ly alpha production of Mrk 1486 is dominated by photoionization inside the galaxy disk. From this perspective, our numerical simulations succeed in reproducing the strength and shape of the observed Ly alpha emission line of Mrk 1486 by assuming a scenario in which the Ly alpha photons are produced inside the galaxy disk, travel along the outflowing halos, and scatter on cool HI materials toward the observer.

    Conclusions: Extended bipolar galactic winds are frequently observed from star-forming disk galaxies. Given the advantage Ly alpha photons take of such outflowing HI materials to easily escape from Mrk 1486, this mechanism may explain the origin of strong Ly alpha emission lines frequently observed from highly inclined galaxies at high-redshift. This therefore challenges the robustness of the expected viewing-angle effect on the Ly alpha properties of star-forming disk galaxies.

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