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  • 1.
    Adibekyan, V.
    et al.
    Univ Porto, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, CAUP, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Oporto, Portugal..
    Delgado-Mena, E.
    Univ Porto, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, CAUP, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Oporto, Portugal..
    Feltzing, S.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund, Sweden..
    Gonzalez Hernandez, J. I.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Hinkel, N. R.
    Arizona State Univ, Sch Earth & Space Explorat, Tempe, AZ USA.;Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Nashville, TN 37235 USA..
    Korn, Andreas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Asplund, M.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Weston, ACT, Australia..
    Beck, P. G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Ctr Saclay, Lab AIM, CEA,DRF,CNRS,IRFU,SAp, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Deal, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, LUPM, UMR 5299, Montpellier, France.;CNRS, IRAP, Toulouse, France..
    Gustafsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. NORDITA, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Honda, S.
    Univ Hyogo, Ctr Astron, Nishi Harima Astron Observ, Sayo, Hyogo, Japan..
    Lind, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Max Planck Inst Astron, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Nissen, P. E.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Spina, L.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Astron IAG, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Sun-like stars unlike the Sun: Clues for chemical anomalies of cool stars2017In: Astronomical Notes - Astronomische Nachrichten, ISSN 0004-6337, E-ISSN 1521-3994, Vol. 338, no 4, 442-452 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a summary of the splinter session Sun-like stars unlike the Sun that was held on June 9, 2016, as part of the Cool Stars 19 conference (Uppsala, Sweden), in which the main limitations (in the theory and observations) in the derivation of very precise stellar parameters and chemical abundances of Sun-like stars were discussed. The most important and most debated processes that can produce chemical peculiarities in solar-type stars were outlined and discussed. Finally, in an open discussion between all the participants, we tried to identify new pathways and prospects toward future solutions of the currently open questions.

  • 2. Adén, D.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Feltzing, S.
    Grebel, E. K.
    Koch, A.
    Wilkinson, M. I.
    An abundance study of red-giant-branch stars in the Hercules dwarf spheroidal galaxy2011In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 525, A153- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are some of the most metal-poor, and least luminous objects known. Detailed elemental abundance analysis of stars in these faint objects is key to our understanding of star formation and chemical enrichment in the early universe, and may provide useful information on how larger galaxies form. Aims. Our aim is to provide a determination of [Fe/H] and [Ca/H] for confirmed red-giant branch member stars of the Hercules dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Based on this we explore the ages of the prevailing stellar populations in Hercules, and the enrichment history from supernovae. Additionally, we aim to provide a new simple metallicity calibration for Stromgren photometry for metal-poor, red giant branch stars. Methods. High-resolution, multi-fibre spectroscopy and Stromgren photometry are combined to provide as much information on the stars as possible. From this we derive abundances by solving the radiative transfer equations through marcs model atmospheres. Results. We find that the red-giant branch stars of the Hercules dSph galaxy are more metal-poor than estimated in our previous study that was based on photometry alone. From this, we derive a new metallicity calibration for the Stromgren photometry. Additionally, we find an abundance trend such that [Ca/Fe] is higher for more metal-poor stars, and lower for more metal-rich stars, with a spread of about 0.8 dex. The [Ca/Fe] trend suggests an early rapid chemical enrichment through supernovae of type II, followed by a phase of slow star formation dominated by enrichment through supernovae of type Ia. A comparison with isochrones indicates that the red giants in Hercules are older than 10 Gyr.

  • 3.
    Agarwal, Jessica
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus Von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    A'Hearn, M. F.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Vincent, J. -B
    Guettler, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus Von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Hoefner, S.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus Von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Sierks, H.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus Von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Tubiana, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus Von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Barbieri, C.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron G Galilei, Vic Osservat 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lamy, P. L.
    Aix Marseille Univ, Lab Astrophys Marseille, CNRS, UMR 7326, 38 Rue Frederic Joliot Curie, F-13388 Marseille 13, France..
    Rodrigo, R.
    CSIC, Ctr Astrobiol, INTA, European Space Agcy,ESAC, POB 78, E-28691 Madrid, Spain.;Int Space Sci Inst, Hallerstr 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Koschny, D.
    European Space Agcy, Res & Sci Support Dept, NL-2201 Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Rickman, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. PAS Space Res Ctr, Poland..
    Barucci, M. A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, LESIA,Observ Paris, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Bertaux, J. -L
    Bertini, I.
    Univ Padua, Ctr Ateneo Studi Attivita Spaziali Giuseppe Colom, Via Venezia 15, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Boudreault, S.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus Von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Cremonese, G.
    INAF Osservat Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservat 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Da Deppo, V.
    CNR IFN UOS Padova LUXOR, Via Trasea 7, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Davidsson, B.
    Jet Prop Lab, M-S 183-301,4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA..
    Debei, S.
    Univ Padua, Dept Ind Engn, Via Venezia 1, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    De Cecco, M.
    Univ Trento, Via Sommarive 9, I-38123 Trento, Italy..
    Deller, J.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus Von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Fornasier, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, LESIA,Observ Paris, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Fulle, M.
    INAF Osservat Astron Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Gicquel, A.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus Von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Groussin, O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, LAM, CNRS, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Gutierrez, P. J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Hofmann, M.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus Von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Hviid, S. F.
    DLR, Inst Planetary Res, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Ip, W. -H
    Jorda, L.
    Aix Marseille Univ, LAM, CNRS, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Keller, H. U.
    TU Braunschweig, Inst Geophys & Extraterr Phys, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Knollenberg, J.
    DLR, Inst Planetary Res, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kramm, J. -R
    Kuehrt, E.
    DLR, Inst Planetary Res, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kueppers, M.
    ESA ESAC, POB 78, E-28691 Villanueva De La Cananda, Spain..
    Lara, L. M.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Lazzarin, M.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron G Galilei, Vic Osservat 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lopez Moreno, J. J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Marzari, F.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron G Galilei, Vic Osservat 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Naletto, G.
    Univ Padua, Ctr Ateneo Studi Attivita Spaziali Giuseppe Colom, Via Venezia 15, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;CNR IFN UOS Padova LUXOR, Via Trasea 7, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Dept Informat Engn, Via Gradenigo 6-B, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Oklay, N.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus Von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Shi, X.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus Von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Thomas, N.
    Univ Bern, Phys Inst, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Acceleration of individual, decimetre-sized aggregates in the lower coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2016In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 462, S78-S88 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present observations of decimetre-sized, likely ice-containing aggregates ejected from a confined region on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The images were obtained with the narrow angle camera of the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System on board the Rosetta spacecraft in 2016 January when the comet was at 2 au from the Sun outbound from perihelion. We measure the acceleration of individual aggregates through a 2 h image series. Approximately 50 per cent of the aggregates are accelerated away from the nucleus, and 50 per cent towards it, and likewise towards either horizontal direction. The accelerations are up to one order of magnitude stronger than local gravity, and are most simply explained by the combined effect of gas drag accelerating all aggregates upwards, and the recoil force from asymmetric outgassing, either from rotating aggregates with randomly oriented spin axes and sufficient thermal inertia to shift the temperature maximum away from an aggregate's subsolar region, or from aggregates with variable ice content. At least 10 per cent of the aggregates will escape the gravity field of the nucleus and feed the comet's debris trail, while others may fall back to the surface and contribute to the deposits covering parts of the Northern hemisphere. The rocket force plays a crucial role in pushing these aggregates back towards the surface. Our observations show the future back fall material in the process of ejection, and provide the first direct measurement of the acceleration of aggregates in the innermost coma (<2 km) of a comet, where gas drag is still significant.

  • 4. Arroyo-Torres, B.
    et al.
    Wittkowski, M.
    Chiavassa, A.
    Scholz, M.
    Freytag, Bernd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Marcaide, J. M.
    Hauschildt, P. H.
    Wood, P. R.
    Abellan, F. J.
    What causes the large extensions of red supergiant atmospheres?: Comparisons of interferometric observations with 1D hydrostatic, 3D convection, and 1D pulsating model atmospheres2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 575, A50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. This research has two main goals. First, we present the atmospheric structure and the fundamental parameters of three red supergiants (RSGs), increasing the sample of RSGs observed by near-infrared spectro-interferometry. Additionally, we test possible mechanisms that may explain the large observed atmospheric extensions of RSGs. Methods. We carried out spectro-interferometric observations of the.RSGs V602 Car, EID 95687, and EID 183589 in the near-infrared K-band (1.92-2.47 mu m) with the VLTI/AMBER instrument at medium spectral resolution (R similar to 1500). To categorize and comprehend the extended atmospheres, we compared our observational results to predictions by available hydrostatic PHOENIX, available 3D convection, and new 1D self-excited pulsation models of RSGs. Results. Our near-infrared flux spectra of V602 Car, HD 95687, and HD 183589 are well reproduced by the PHOENIX model atmospheres. The continuum visibility values are consistent with a limb-darkened disk as predicted by the PHOENIX models, allowing us to determine the angular diameter and the fundamental parameters of our sources. Nonetheless, in the case of V602 Car and HD 95686, the PHOENIX model visibilities do not predict the large observed extensions of molecular layers, most remarkably in the CO bands. Likewise, the 3D convection models and the ID pulsation models with typical parameters of RSGs lead to compact atmospheric structures as well, which are similar to the structure of the hydrostatic PHOENIX models. They can also not explain the observed decreases in the visibilities and thus the large atmospheric molecular extensions. The full sample of our RSGs indicates increasing observed atmospheric extensions with increasing luminosity and decreasing surface gravity, and no correlation with effective temperature or variability amplitude. Conclusions. The location of our RSG sources in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is contirm.ed to be consistent with the red limits of recent evolutionary tracks. The observed extensions of the atmospheric layers of our sample of RSGs are comparable to those of Mira stars. This phenomenon is not predicted by any of the considered model atmospheres including as 311) convection and new 1D pulsation models of.RSGs. This confirms that neither convection nor pulsation alone can levitate the molecular atmospheres of.RSGs. Our observed correlation of atmospheric extension with luminosity supports a scenario of radiative acceleration on Doppler-shifted molecular lines.

  • 5.
    Arroyo-Torres, B.
    et al.
    Univ Valencia, Dept Astron & Astrofis, E-46100 Burjassot, Spain..
    Wittkowski, M.
    ESO, Garching, Germany..
    Marcaide, J. M.
    Univ Valencia, Dept Astron & Astrofis, E-46100 Burjassot, Spain.;Donostia Int Phys Ctr, Donostia San Sebastian, Spain..
    Abellan, F. J.
    Univ Valencia, Dept Astron & Astrofis, E-46100 Burjassot, Spain..
    Chiavassa, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, CNRS, Observ Cote Azur, Sophia Anitpolis, France..
    Fabregat, J.
    Univ Valencia, Astron Observ, E-46003 Valencia, Spain..
    Freytag, Bernd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Guirado, J. C.
    Univ Valencia, Dept Astron & Astrofis, E-46100 Burjassot, Spain.;Univ Valencia, Astron Observ, E-46003 Valencia, Spain..
    Hauschildt, P. H.
    Hamburger Sternwarte, Hamburg, Germany..
    Marti-Vidal, I.
    Chalmers, Onsala Space Observ, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Landessternwarte, D-69115 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Scholz, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Inst Theoret Astrophys, D-69115 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Sydney, Sch Phys, Sydney Inst Astron, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Wood, P. R.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    VLTI/AMBER Studies of the Atmospheric Structure and Fundamental Parameters of Red Giant and Supergiant Stars2015In: WHY GALAXIES CARE ABOUT AGB STARS III: A CLOSER LOOK IN SPACE AND TIME, ASTRONOMICAL SOC PACIFIC , 2015, Vol. 497, 91-96 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present recent near-IR interferometric studies of red giant and super giant stars, which are aimed at obtaining information on the structure of the atmospheric layers and constraining the fundamental parameters of these objects. The observed visibilities of six red supergiants (RSGs), and also of one of the five red giants observed, indicate large extensions of the molecular layers, as previously observed for Mira stars. These extensions are not predicted by hydrostatic PHOENIX model atmospheres, hydrodynamical (RED) simulations of stellar convection, or self-excited pulsation models. All these models based on parameters of RSGs lead to atmospheric structures that are too compact compared to our observations. We discuss how alternative processes might explain the atmospheric extensions for these objects. As the continuum appears to be largely free of contamination by molecular layers, we can estimate reliable Rosseland angular radii for our stars. Together with distances and bolometric fluxes, we estimate the effective temperatures and luminosities of our targets, locate them in the HR diagram, and compare their positions to recent evolutionary tracks.

  • 6. Auger, A. -T
    et al.
    Groussin, O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, UMR 7326, LAM, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Jorda, L.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, UMR 7326, LAM, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Bouley, S.
    Univ Paris 11, Lab GEOPS, Geosci Paris Sud, F-91405 Orsay, France.;Inst Mecan Celeste & Calcul Ephemerides, UMR 8028, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Gaskell, R.
    Planetary Sci Inst, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA..
    Lamy, P. L.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, UMR 7326, LAM, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Capanna, C.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, UMR 7326, LAM, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Thomas, N.
    Univ Bern, Inst Phys, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Pommerol, A.
    Univ Bern, Inst Phys, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Sierks, H.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Barbieri, C.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Rodrigo, R.
    Ctr Astrobiol INTA CSIC, Madrid 28691, Spain.;Int Space Sci Inst, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Koschny, D.
    European Space Agcy, Sci Support Off, NL-2201 Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Rickman, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Keller, H. U.
    Inst Geophys & Extraterr Phys, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Agarwal, J.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    A'Hearn, M. F.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Barucci, M. A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, LESIA,CNRS, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Bertaux, J. -L
    Bertini, I.
    Univ Padua, CISAS, I-35100 Padua, Italy..
    Cremonese, G.
    Univ Padua, Dept Mech Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Da Deppo, V.
    CNR IFN UOS Padova LUXOR, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Davidsson, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Debei, S.
    Univ Padua, Dept Mech Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    De Cecco, M.
    Univ Trento, UNITN, I-38100 Trento, Italy..
    El-Maarry, M. R.
    Univ Bern, Inst Phys, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Fornasier, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, LESIA,CNRS, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Fulle, M.
    Osserv Astron Trieste, INAF, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Gutierrez, P. J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Guettler, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Hviid, S.
    DLR, Inst Planetary Res, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Ip, W. -H
    Knollenberg, J.
    DLR, Inst Planetary Res, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kramm, J. -R
    Kuehrt, E.
    DLR, Inst Planetary Res, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kueppers, M.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA, Operat Dept, Madrid 28691, Spain..
    La Forgia, F.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lara, L. M.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Lazzarin, M.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lopez Moreno, J. J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Marchi, S.
    Southwest Res Inst, Boulder, CO 80302 USA..
    Marzari, F.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Massironi, M.
    Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, I-35121 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Ctr Ateneo Studi & Attivita Spaziali Giuseppe Col, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Michalik, H.
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Datentech & Kommunikat Netze, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Naletto, G.
    Univ Padua, CISAS, I-35100 Padua, Italy.;CNR IFN UOS Padova LUXOR, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Dept Informat Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Oklay, N.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Pajola, M.
    Univ Padua, Ctr Ateneo Studi & Attivita Spaziali Giuseppe Col, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Sabau, L.
    Inst Nacl Tecn Aeroesp, Madrid 28850, Spain..
    Tubiana, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Vincent, J. -B
    Wenzel, K. -P
    Geomorphology of the Imhotep region on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from OSIRIS observations2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 583, A35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Since August 2014, the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) onboard the Rosetta spacecraft has acquired high spatial resolution images of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, down to the decimeter scale. This paper focuses on the Imhotep region, located on the largest lobe of the nucleus, near the equator. Aims. We map, inventory, and describe the geomorphology of the Imhotep region. We propose and discuss some processes to explain the formation and ongoing evolution of this region. Methods. We used OSIRIS NAC images, gravitational heights and slopes, and digital terrain models to map and measure the morphologies of Imhotep. Results. The Imhotep region presents a wide variety of terrains and morphologies: smooth and rocky terrains, bright areas, linear features, roundish features, and boulders. Gravity processes such as mass wasting and collapse play a significant role in the geomorphological evolution of this region. Cometary processes initiate erosion and are responsible for the formation of degassing conduits that are revealed by elevated roundish features on the surface. We also propose a scenario for the formation and evolution of the Imhotep region; this implies the presence of large primordial voids inside the nucleus, resulting from its formation process.

  • 7.
    Barklem, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Belyaev, A. K.
    Dickinson, A. S.
    Gadea, F. X.
    Inelastic Na+H collision data for non-LTE applications in stellar atmospheres2010In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 519, A20- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rate coefficients for inelastic Na+H collisions are calculated for all transitions between the ten levels up to and including the ionic state (ion-pair production), namely Na(3s,3p,4s,3d,4p,5s,4d,4f,5p)+H(1s) and Na++H-. The calculations are based on recent full quantum scattering cross-section calculations. The data are needed for non-LTE applications in cool astrophysical environments, especially cool stellar atmospheres, and are presented for a temperature range of 500-8000 K. From consideration of the sensitivity of the cross-sections to input quantum chemical data and the results of different methods for the scattering calculations, a measure of the possible uncertainties in the rate coefficients is estimated.

  • 8.
    Barklem, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Belyaev, A. K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Guitou, M.
    Feautrier, N.
    Gadea, F. X.
    Spielfiedel, A.
    On inelastic hydrogen atom collisions in stellar atmospheres2011In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 530, A94- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of inelastic hydrogen atom collisions on non-LTE spectral line formation has been, and remains to be, a significant source of uncertainty for stellar abundance analyses, due to the difficulty in obtaining accurate data for low-energy atomic collisions either experimentally or theoretically. For lack of a better alternative, the classical "Drawin formula" is often used. Over recent decades, our understanding of these collisions has improved markedly, predominantly through a number of detailed quantum mechanical calculations. In this paper, the Drawin formula is compared with the quantum mechanical calculations both in terms of the underlying physics and the resulting rate coefficients. It is shown that the Drawin formula does not contain the essential physics behind direct excitation by H atom collisions, the important physical mechanism being quantum mechanical in character. Quantitatively, the Drawin formula compares poorly with the results of the available quantum mechanical calculations, usually significantly overestimating the collision rates by amounts that vary markedly between transitions.

  • 9.
    Barklem, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Belyaev, A. K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Spielfiedel, A.
    Guitou, M.
    Feautrier, N.
    Inelastic Mg plus H collision data for non-LTE applications in stellar atmospheres2012In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 541, A80- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rate coefficients for inelastic Mg+H collisions are calculated for all transitions between the lowest seven levels and the ionic state (charge transfer), namely Mg(3s(2) S-1, 3s3p P-3, 3s3p P-1, 3s4s S-3, 3s4s S-1, 3s3d D-1, 3s4p P-3)+H(1s) and Mg+(3s S-2)+H-. The rate coefficients are based on cross-sections from full quantum scattering calculations, which are themselves based on detailed quantum chemical calculations for the MgH molecule. The data are needed for non-LTE applications in cool astrophysical environments, especially cool stellar atmospheres, and are presented for a temperature range of 500-8000 K. From consideration of the sensitivity of the cross-sections to various uncertainties in the calculations, most importantly input quantum chemical data and the numerical accuracy of the scattering calculations, a measure of the possible uncertainties in the rate coefficients is estimated.

  • 10.
    Barklem, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Osorio, Y.
    Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, vía Láctea.; Universidad de La Laguna, Departamento de Astrofísica.; Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg.
    Fursa, D. V.
    Curtin Institute for Computation, Kent Street.; Department of Physics, Astronomy and Medical Radiation Science, Kent Street.
    Bray, I.
    Curtin Institute for Computation, Kent Street.; Department of Physics, Astronomy and Medical Radiation Science, Kent Street.
    Zatsarinny, O.
    Drake University, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Bartschat, K.
    Drake University, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Jerkstrand, A.
    Max-Planck Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85748 Garching.
    Inelastic e plus Mg collision data and its impact on modelling stellar and supernova spectra2017In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 606, A11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results of calculations for inelastic e+Mg effective collision strengths for the lowest 25 physical states of Mg I (up to 3s6p P-1), and thus 300 transitions, from the convergent close-coupling (CCC) and the B-spline R-matrix (BSR) methods are presented. At temperatures of interest, similar to 5000 K, the results of the two calculations differ on average by only 4%,with a scatter of 27%. As the methods are independent, this suggests that the calculations provide datasets for e+Mg collisions accurate to this level. Comparison with the commonly used dataset compiled by Mauas et al. (1988, ApJ, 330, 1008), covering 25 transitions among 12 states, suggests the Mauas et al. data are on average similar to 57% too low, and with a very large scatter of a factor of similar to 6.5. In particular the collision strength for the transition corresponding to the Mg I intercombination line at 457 nm is significantly underestimated by Mauas et al., which has consequences for models that employ this dataset. In giant stars the new data leads to a stronger line compared to previous non-LTE calculations, and thus a reduction in the non-LTE abundance correction by similar to 0.1 dex (similar to 25%). A non-LTE calculation in a supernova ejecta model shows this line becomes significantly stronger, by a factor of around two, alleviating the discrepancy where the 457 nm line in typical models with Mg/O ratios close to solar tended to be too weak compared to observations.

  • 11.
    Barklem, Paul S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Accurate abundance analysis of late-type stars: advances in atomic physics2016In: The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review, ISSN 0935-4956, E-ISSN 1432-0754, Vol. 24, 9Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of stellar properties such as chemical compositions, masses and ages, through stellar spectra, is a fundamental problem in astrophysics. Progress in the understanding, calculation and measurement of atomic properties and processes relevant to the high-accuracy analysis of F-, G-, and K-type stellar spectra is reviewed, with particular emphasis on abundance analysis. This includes fundamental atomic data such as energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities, as well as processes of photoionisation, collisional broadening and inelastic collisions. A recurring theme throughout the review is the interplay between theoretical atomic physics, laboratory measurements, and astrophysical modelling, all of which contribute to our understanding of atoms and atomic processes, as well as to modelling stellar spectra.

  • 12.
    Barklem, Paul S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Hydrogen Atom Collision Processes in Cool Stellar Atmospheres: Effects on Spectral Line Strengths and Measured Chemical Abundances in Old Stars2012In: XXI INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SPECTRAL LINE SHAPES (ICSLS 2012), 2012, 012049- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The precise measurement of the chemical composition of stars is a fundamental problem relevant to many areas of astrophysics. State-of-the-art approaches attempt to unite accurate descriptions of microphysics, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) line formation and 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres. In this paper I review progress in understanding inelastic collisions of hydrogen atoms with other species and their influence on spectral line formation and derived abundances in stellar atmospheres. These collisions are a major source of uncertainty in non-LTE modelling of spectral lines and abundance determinations, especially for old, metal-poor stars, which are unique tracers of the early evolution of our galaxy. Full quantum scattering calculations of direct excitation processes X(nl) + H <-> X(n'l') + H and charge transfer processes X(nl) + H <-> X+ + H- have been done for Li, Na and Mg [1,2,3] based on detailed quantum chemical data, e.g. [4]. Rate coefficients have been calculated and applied to non-LTE modelling of spectral lines in stellar atmospheres [5,6,7,8,9]. In all cases we find that charge transfer processes from the first excited S-state are very important, and the processes affect measured abundances for Li, Na and Mg in some stars by as much as 60%. Effects vary with stellar parameters (e.g. temperature, luminosity, metal content) and so these processes are important not only for accurate absolute abundances, but also for relative abundances among dissimilar stars.

  • 13.
    Barklem, Paul S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Osorio, Yeisson Fabian Martinez
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Modelling the spectrum of Mg in cool stars2014In: XXII International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes (ICSLS 2014), 2014, 012001- p., 012001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The astrophysical importance of Mg, together with its unique range of spectral features in late-type stars, plus its relative simplicity from an atomic physics point of view, makes it a prime target and test bed for detailed ab initio non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) modelling in stellar atmospheres. In this paper, we present example first results for calculations of NLTE Mg line based on a new model atom with significant improvements in the collision data for neutral Mg. We perform calculations for excitation of the lower-lying levels due to electron impacts using the R-matrix method. Recent data for excitation and charge transfer due to hydrogen atom impacts involving low-lying levels are now employed. Further, we have made efforts to use physically-motivated methods for calculating radiative and collisional data involving Rydberg states. The results are compared with observed spectra and the impact of the new calculations briefly explored.

  • 14.
    Barucci, M. A.
    et al.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris,LESIA, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Filacchione, G.
    INAF IAPS, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Fornasier, S.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris,LESIA, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France.;Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Rue Elsa Morante, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Raponi, A.
    INAF IAPS, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Deshapriya, J. D. P.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris,LESIA, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Tosi, F.
    INAF IAPS, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Feller, C.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris,LESIA, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France.;Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Rue Elsa Morante, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Ciarniello, M.
    INAF IAPS, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Sierks, H.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Capaccioni, F.
    INAF IAPS, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Pommerol, A.
    Univ Bern, Inst Phys, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Massironi, M.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Geosci, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Oklay, N.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Merlin, F.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris,LESIA, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France.;Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Rue Elsa Morante, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Vincent, J. -B
    Fulchignoni, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Rue Elsa Morante, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.
    Observ Sci Univers, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Perna, D.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris,LESIA, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Capria, M. T.
    INAF IAPS, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Hasselmann, P. H.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris,LESIA, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Rousseau, B.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris,LESIA, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Barbieri, C.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron G Galilei, Vic Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Bockelee-Morvan, D.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris,LESIA, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Lamy, P. L.
    Aix Marseille Univ, F-13388 Marseille 13, France..
    De Sanctis, C.
    INAF IAPS, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Rodrigo, R.
    CSIC INTA, Ctr Astrobiol, Madrid 28850, Spain.;Univ Bern, Int Space Sci Inst, Hallerstr 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Erard, S.
    Koschny, D.
    European Space Agcy, Res & Sci Support Dept, NL-2201 Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Leyrat, C.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris,LESIA, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Rickman, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. PAS Space Res Ctr, Bartycka 18A, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Drossart, P.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris,LESIA, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Keller, H. U.
    TU Braunschweig, Inst Geophys & Extraterr Phys, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    A'Hearn, M. F.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Arnold, G.
    DLR, Inst Planetary Res, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Bertaux, J. -L
    Bertini, I.
    Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Cerroni, P.
    INAF IAPS, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Cremonese, G.
    Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Da Deppo, V.
    Univ Padua, Dept Informat Engn, Via Gradenigo 6, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Davidsson, B. J. R.
    JPL, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA..
    El-Maarry, M. R.
    Univ Bern, Inst Phys, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Fonti, S.
    Univ Salento, Dipartimento Fis, Lecce, LE, Italy..
    Fulle, M.
    Osserv Astron Trieste, INAF, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Groussin, O.
    CNRS, Lab Astrophys Marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille 13, France.;Aix Marseille Univ, F-13388 Marseille 13, France..
    Guettler, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Hviid, S. F.
    DLR, Inst Planetary Res, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Ip, W.
    Natl Cent Univ, Inst Space Sci, Chungli 32054, Taiwan..
    Jorda, L.
    CNRS, Lab Astrophys Marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille 13, France.;Aix Marseille Univ, F-13388 Marseille 13, France..
    Kappel, D.
    DLR, Inst Planetary Res, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Knollenberg, J.
    DLR, Inst Planetary Res, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kramm, J. -R
    Kuehrt, E.
    DLR, Inst Planetary Res, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kuppers, M.
    ESA ESAC, POB 78, Villanueva De La Canada 28691, Spain..
    Lara, L.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Granada 18080, Spain..
    Lazzarin, M.
    Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Moreno, J. J. Lopez
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Granada 18080, Spain..
    Mancarella, F.
    Univ Salento, Dipartimento Fis, Lecce, LE, Italy..
    Marzari, F.
    Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Mottola, S.
    DLR, Inst Planetary Res, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Naletto, G.
    Univ Padua, Dept Informat Engn, Via Gradenigo 6, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Pajola, M.
    NASA, Ames Res Ctr, Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA..
    Palomba, E.
    INAF IAPS, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Quirico, E.
    UJF Grenoble 1, CNRS INSU, F-38400 St Martin Dheres, France..
    Schmitt, B.
    UJF Grenoble 1, CNRS INSU, F-38400 St Martin Dheres, France..
    Thomas, N.
    Tubiana, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Detection of exposed H2O ice on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as observed by Rosetta OSIRIS and VIRTIS instruments2016In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 595, A102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Since the orbital insertion of the Rosetta spacecraft, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) has been mapped by OSIRIS camera and VIRTIS spectro-imager, producing a huge quantity of images and spectra of the comet's nucleus. Aims. The aim of this work is to search for the presence of H2O on the nucleus which, in general, appears very dark and rich in dehydrated organic material. After selecting images of the bright spots which could be good candidates to search for H2O ice, taken at high resolution by OSIRIS, we check for spectral cubes of the selected coordinates to identify these spots observed by VIRTIS. Methods. The selected OSIRIS images were processed with the OSIRIS standard pipeline and corrected for the illumination conditions for each pixel using the Lommel-Seeliger disk law. The spots with higher I/F were selected and then analysed spectrophotometrically and compared with the surrounding area. We selected 13 spots as good targets to be analysed by VIRTIS to search for the 2 mu m absorption band of water ice in the VIRTIS spectral cubes. Results. Out of the 13 selected bright spots, eight of them present positive H2O ice detection on the VIRTIS data. A spectral analysis was performed and the approximate temperature of each spot was computed. The H2O ice content was confirmed by modeling the spectra with mixing (areal and intimate) of H2O ice and dark terrain, using Hapke's radiative transfer modeling. We also present a detailed analysis of the detected spots.

  • 15.
    Battino, U.
    et al.
    Univ Basel, Dept Phys, Klingelbergstr 82, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland..
    Pignatari, M.
    Univ Hull, Dept Math & Phys, EA Milne Ctr Astrophys, Kingston Upon Hull HU6 7RX, N Humberside, England.;Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Mikls T 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Ritter, C.
    Univ Victoria, Dept Phys & Astron, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada.;JINA Ctr Evolut Elements, E Lansing, MI USA..
    Herwig, F.
    Univ Victoria, Dept Phys & Astron, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada.;JINA Ctr Evolut Elements, E Lansing, MI USA..
    Denisenkov, P.
    Univ Victoria, Dept Phys & Astron, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada.;JINA Ctr Evolut Elements, E Lansing, MI USA.;TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3, Canada..
    Den Hartogh, J. W.
    Keele Univ, Keele ST5 5BG, Staffs, England..
    Trappitsch, R.
    Dept Geophys Sci, Chicago, IL 60637 USA.;Chicago Ctr Cosmochem, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Hirschi, R.
    Keele Univ, Keele ST5 5BG, Staffs, England.;Univ Tokyo, Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778583, Japan..
    Freytag, Bernd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Thielemann, F.
    Univ Basel, Dept Phys, Klingelbergstr 82, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland..
    Paxton, B.
    Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Kavli Inst Theoret Phys, Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA.;Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Phys, Kohn Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    Application Of A Theory And Simulation-Based Convective Boundary Mixing Model For Agb Star Evolution And Nucleosynthesis2016In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 827, no 1, 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The s-process nucleosynthesis in Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars depends on the modeling of convective boundaries. We present models and s-process simulations that adopt a treatment of convective boundaries based on the results of hydrodynamic simulations and on the theory of mixing due to gravity waves in the vicinity of convective boundaries. Hydrodynamics simulations suggest the presence of convective boundary mixing (CBM) at the bottom of the thermal pulse-driven convective zone. Similarly, convection-induced mixing processes are proposed for the mixing below the convective envelope during third dredge-up (TDU), where the C-13 pocket for the s process in AGB stars forms. In this work, we apply a CBM model motivated by simulations and theory to models with initial mass M = 2 andM = 3M(circle dot), and with initial metal content Z = 0.01 and Z = 0.02. As reported previously, the He-intershell abundances of C-12 and O-16 are increased by CBM at the bottom of the pulse-driven convection zone. This mixing is affecting the Ne-22(alpha, n)Mg-25 activation and the s-process efficiency in the C-13-pocket. In our model, CBM at the bottom of the convective envelope during the TDU represents gravity wave mixing. Furthermore, we take into account the fact that hydrodynamic simulations indicate a declining mixing efficiency that is already about a pressure scale height from the convective boundaries, compared to mixing-length theory. We obtain the formation of the C-13-pocket with a mass of approximate to 10(-4) M-circle dot. The final s-process abundances are characterized by 0.36<[s/Fe] < 0.78 and the heavy-to-light s-process ratio is -0.23< [hs/ls] < 0.45. Finally, we compare our results with stellar observations, presolar grain measurements and previous work.

  • 16.
    Belyaev, A. K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Paradoxes of the standard adiabatic born-oppenheimer approach to collision processes: Their origin and possible solutions2012In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 388, no 9, 092005- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is demonstrated that conventional applications of the standard adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approach lead to paradoxes such as nonzero inelastic cross sections for noninteracting collision systems and infinite inelastic collision cross sections. The origin of these paradoxes is the molecular state problem. The quantum solution of the problem, the multielectron reprojection method, is proposed within the standard BO approach.

  • 17. Belyaev, A. K.
    et al.
    Barklem, Paul S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Dickinson, A. S.
    Gadea, F. X.
    Cross sections for low-energy inelastic H plus Na collisions2010In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 81, no 3, 032706- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full quantum-scattering calculations are reported for low-energy near-threshold inelastic collision cross sections for H + Na. The calculations include transitions between all levels up to and including the ionic state (ion-pair production) for collision energies from the threshold up to 10 eV. These results are important for astrophysical modeling of spectra in stellar atmospheres. Results for the 3s-3p excitation are carefully examined using three different quantum chemistry input data sets, and large differences are found near the threshold. The differences are found to be predominantly due to differences in the radial coupling rather than potentials and are also found not to relate to differences in couplings in a simple manner. In fact, of the three input couplings, the two that are most similar give the cross sections with the largest differences. The 3s-3p cross sections show orbiting resonances which have been seen in earlier studies, while Feshbach resonances associated with closed channels were also found to be present in the low-energy cross sections for some transitions.

  • 18.
    Belyaev, Andrey K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Barklem, Paul S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Gadéa, F. X.
    Vlasov, D. V.
    Low-energy inelastic Na + H collisions2012In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 388, no 9, 092001- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report full quantum scattering calculations for near-threshold collision cross sections for excitation of Na by H. The calculations include contributions from transitions between all singlet states up to and including the ionic state (ion-pair production). The dynamics calculations are based on three sets of recent ab initio and pseudo-potential quantum-chemical calculations. Considerable sensitivity to the couplings employed is found.

  • 19.
    Belyaev, Andrey K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Barklem, Paul S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Guitou, M.
    Spielfiedel, A.
    Feautrier, N.
    Vlasov, D. V.
    Rodionov, D. S.
    Ab initio cross sections for low-energy inelastic Mg+H collisions2012In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 388, no 9, 092002- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full quantum scattering calculations of cross sections for low-energy near-threshold inelastic Mg + H collisions are reported, such processes being of interest for modelling of Mg spectral lines in stellar atmospheres. Nonadiabatic transions associated with radial couplings at avoided ionic crossings in the 2Σ+ molecular states are found to be the main mechanism for excitation and ion-pair production processes.

  • 20.
    Belyaev, Andrey K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Barklem, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Spielfiedel, A.
    Guitou, M.
    Feautrier, N.
    Rodionov, D. S.
    Vlasov, D. V.
    Cross sections for low-energy inelastic Mg + H and Mg+ + H- collisions2012In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 85, no 3, 032704- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report full quantum scattering calculations for low-energy near-threshold inelastic cross sections in Mg + H and Mg+ + H- collisions. The calculations include all transitions between the eight lowest adiabatic MgH((2)Sigma(+)) molecular states, with the uppermost of those diabatically extended to the ionic molecular state in the asymptotic region. This allows us to treat the excitation processes between the seven lowest atomic states of magnesium in collisions with hydrogen atoms, as well as the ion-pair production and the mutual neutralization processes. The collision energy range is from threshold up to 10 eV. These results are important for astrophysical modeling of spectra in stellar atmospheres. The processes in question are carefully examined and several process mechanisms are found. Some mechanisms are determined by interactions between ionic and covalent configurations at relatively large internuclear distances, while others are based on short-range nonadiabatic regions due to interactions between covalent configurations.

  • 21.
    Belyaev, Andrey K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Lebedev, O. V.
    Domcke, W.
    Nonadiabatic nuclear dynamics in the ammonia cation studied by the branching classical trajectory method2012In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 388, no 10, 102005- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The photoinduced nonadiabatic nuclear dynamics of the ammonia cation is studied by the branching classical trajectory approach. The time-dependent populations of different electronic states of the ammonia cation are calculated and are in good agreement with the results of full quantum calculations.

  • 22.
    Belyaev, Andrey K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Lebedev, Oleg V.
    Nonadiabatic nuclear dynamics of atomic collisions based on branching classical trajectories2011In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 84, no 1, 014701- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The branching classical trajectory method for inelastic atomic collision processes is proposed. The approach is based on two features: (i) branching of a classical trajectory in a nonadiabatic region and (ii) the nonadiabatic transition probability formulas particularly adapted for a classical trajectory treatment. In addition to transition probabilities and inelastic cross sections, the proposed approach allows one to calculate incoming and outgoing currents. The method is applied to inelastic Na + H collisions providing the results in reasonable agreement with full quantum calculations.

  • 23.
    Belyaev, Andrey K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Yakovleva, Svetlana A.
    Barklem, Paul S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Inelastic silicon-hydrogen collision data for non-LTE applications in stellar atmospheres2014In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 572, A103- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. Inelastic processes in low-energy Si + H and Si+ + H- collisions are treated for the states from the ground state up to the ionic state, in order to provide rate coefficients needed for non-LTE modeling of Si in cool stellar atmospheres. Methods. Electronic molecular structure is determined using a recently proposed model approach based on an asymptotic method in combination with available ab initio potentials. Nonadiabatic nuclear dynamics are treated by means of a combination of multichannel formulas and the branching-probability-current method, based on the Landau-Zener model for nonadiabatic transition probabilities. Results. Cross sections and rate coefficients for inelastic processes in Si + H and Si+ + H- collisions for all transitions between 26 low-lying states plus the ionic state are calculated. It is shown that the highest rate coefficient values correspond to the excitation, de-excitation, ion-pair formation, and mutual neutralization processes involving the Si(3p4p D-3), Si(3p3d F-3), Si(3p4p D-1), Si(3p3d P-3), Si(3p4p S-1), and the ionic Si+ + H- states. These processes are likely to be important in non-LTE modeling.

  • 24. Bergemann, M.
    et al.
    Ruchti, G. R.
    Serenelli, A.
    Feltzing, S.
    Alves-Brito, A.
    Asplund, M.
    Bensby, T.
    Gruyters, Pieter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Hourihane, A.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Lind, K.
    Marino, A.
    Jofre, P.
    Nordlander, T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Ryde, N.
    Worley, C. C.
    Gilmore, G.
    Randich, S.
    Ferguson, A. M. N.
    Jeffries, R. D.
    Micela, G.
    Negueruela, I.
    Prusti, T.
    Rix, H. -W
    Vallenari, A.
    Alfaro, E. J.
    Allende Prieto, C.
    Bragaglia, A.
    Koposov, S. E.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    Pancino, E.
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Smiljanic, R.
    Walton, N.
    Costado, M. T.
    Franciosini, E.
    Hill, V.
    Lardo, C.
    de Laverny, P.
    Magrini, L.
    Maiorca, E.
    Masseron, T.
    Morbidelli, L.
    Sacco, G.
    Kordopatis, G.
    Tautvaisiene, G.
    The Gaia-ESO Survey: radial metallicity gradients and age-metallicity relation of stars in the Milky Way disk2014In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 565, A89- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the relationship between age, metallicity, and alpha-enhancement of FGK stars in the Galactic disk. The results are based upon the analysis of high-resolution UVES spectra from the Gaia-ESO large stellar survey. We explore the limitations of the observed dataset, i.e. the accuracy of stellar parameters and the selection effects that are caused by the photometric target preselection. We find that the colour and magnitude cuts in the survey suppress old metal-rich stars and young metal-poor stars. This suppression may be as high as 97% in some regions of the age-metallicity relationship. The dataset consists of 144 stars with a wide range of ages from 0.5 Gyr to 13.5 Gyr, Galactocentric distances from 6 kpc to 9.5 kpc, and vertical distances from the plane 0 < vertical bar Z vertical bar < 1.5 kpc. On this basis, we find that i) the observed age-metallicity relation is nearly flat in the range of ages between 0 Gyr and 8 Gyr; ii) at ages older than 9 Gyr, we see a decrease in [Fe/H] and a clear absence of metal-rich stars; this cannot be explained by the survey selection functions; iii) there is a significant scatter of [Fe/H] at any age; and iv) [Mg/Fe] increases with age, but the dispersion of [Mg/Fe] at ages > 9 Gyr is not as small as advocated by some other studies. In agreement with earlier work, we find that radial abundance gradients change as a function of vertical distance from the plane. The [Mg/Fe] gradient steepens and becomes negative. In addition, we show that the inner disk is not only more alpha-rich compared to the outer disk, but also older, as traced independently by the ages and Mg abundances of stars.

  • 25.
    Bertini, I.
    et al.
    Univ Padua, Ctr Studies & Act Space CISAS G Colombo, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Gutierrez, P. J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Lara, L. M.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Marzari, F.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron G Galilei, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Moreno, F.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Pajola, M.
    Univ Padua, Ctr Studies & Act Space CISAS G Colombo, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    La Forgia, F.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron G Galilei, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Sierks, H.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Barbieri, C.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron G Galilei, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lamy, P.
    CNRS, UMR 7326, Lab Astrophys Marseille, F-13388 Marseille 13, France.;Aix Marseille Univ, F-13388 Marseille 13, France..
    Rodrigo, R.
    CSIC INTA, Ctr Astrobiol, Madrid 28850, Spain.;Int Space Sci Inst, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Koschny, D.
    European Space Agcy, Res & Sci Support Dept, NL-2201 Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Rickman, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Keller, H. U.
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Geophys & Extraterr Phys, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Agarwal, J.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    A'Hearn, M. F.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Barucci, M. A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Univ Paris 06, CNRS, LESIA,Observ Paris, F-92195 Meudon Pricipal, France..
    Bertaux, J. -L
    Cremonese, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Da Deppo, V.
    CNR IFN UOS Padova LUXOR, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Davidsson, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Debei, S.
    Univ Padua, Dept Ind Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    De Cecco, M.
    Univ Trent, UNITN, I-38100 Trento, Italy..
    Ferri, F.
    Univ Padua, Ctr Studies & Act Space CISAS G Colombo, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Fornasier, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Univ Paris 06, CNRS, LESIA,Observ Paris, F-92195 Meudon Pricipal, France.;Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Fulle, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Trieste, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Giacomini, L.
    Univ Padua, Dept Geosci, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Groussin, O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, UMR 7326, Lab Astrophys Marseille, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Guettler, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Hviid, S. F.
    DLR, Inst Planetary Res, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Ip, W. -H
    Jorda, L.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, UMR 7326, Lab Astrophys Marseille, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Knollenberg, J.
    DLR, Inst Planetary Res, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kramm, J. R.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Kuehrt, E.
    DLR, Inst Planetary Res, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kueppers, M.
    ESA ESAC, Villanueva De La Canada 28691, Spain..
    Lazzarin, M.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron G Galilei, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lopez Moreno, J. J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Magrin, S.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron G Galilei, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Massironi, M.
    Univ Padua, Dept Geosci, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Michalik, H.
    Inst Datentech & Kommunikat Netze, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Mottola, S.
    DLR, Inst Planetary Res, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Naletto, G.
    Univ Padua, Ctr Studies & Act Space CISAS G Colombo, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;CNR IFN UOS Padova LUXOR, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Dept Informat Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Oklay, N.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Thomas, N.
    Univ Bern, Inst Phys, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Tubiana, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Vincent, J. -B
    Search for satellites near comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using Rosetta/OSIRIS images2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 583, A19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The European Space Agency Rosetta mission reached and started escorting its main target, the Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, at the beginning of August 2014. Within the context of solar system small bodies, satellite searches from approaching spacecraft were extensively used in the past to study the nature of the visited bodies and their collisional environment. Aims. During the approaching phase to the comet in July 2014, the OSIRIS instrument onboard Rosetta performed a campaign aimed at detecting objects in the vicinity of the comet nucleus and at measuring these objects' possible bound orbits. In addition to the scientific purpose, the search also focused on spacecraft security to avoid hazardous material in the comet's environment. Methods. Images in the red spectral domain were acquired with the OSIRIS Narrow Angle Camera, when the spacecraft was at a distance between 5785 km and 5463 km to the comet, following an observational strategy tailored to maximize the scientific outcome. From the acquired images, sources were extracted and displayed to search for plausible displacements of all sources from image to image. After stars were identified, the remaining sources were thoroughly analyzed. To place constraints on the expected displacements of a potential satellite, we performed Monte Carlo simulations on the apparent motion of potential satellites within the Hill sphere. Results. We found no unambiguous detections of objects larger than similar to 6 m within similar to 20 km and larger than similar to 1 m between similar to 20 km and similar to 110 km from the nucleus, using images with an exposure time of 0.14 s and 1.36 s, respectively. Our conclusions are consistent with independent works on dust grains in the comet coma and on boulders counting on the nucleus surface. Moreover, our analysis shows that the comet outburst detected at the end of April 2014 was not strong enough to eject large objects and to place them into a stable orbit around the nucleus. Our findings underline that it is highly unlikely that large objects survive for a long time around cometary nuclei.

  • 26. Bertini, Ivano
    et al.
    Sabolo, Walter
    Gutierrez, Pedro J.
    Marzari, Francesco
    Snodgrass, Colin
    Tubiana, Cecilia
    Moissl, Richard
    Pajola, Maurizio
    Lowry, Stephen C.
    Barbieri, Cesare
    Ferri, Francesca
    Davidsson, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Sierks, Holger
    Search for satellites near (21) Lutetia using OSIRIS/Rosetta images2012In: Planetary and Space Science, ISSN 0032-0633, E-ISSN 1873-5088, Vol. 66, no 1, 64-70 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On 2010 July 10 the ESA Rosetta mission flew by the large asteroid (21) Lutetia. One of the scientific goals of the onboard OSIRIS instrument was the search for satellites of the asteroid, with more than 20 images specifically dedicated to this topic. An observational campaign was devised with a selection of filters and exposure times tailored to maximize the possibility of detecting small companions and determining their bound orbits. Data were analyzed with suitable methods to remove cosmic ray hits and known background objects, in order to search for persistent detections of potential interesting flux sources. We found no unambiguous detections of a satellite larger than similar to 160 m inside the entire sphere of gravitational influence. Our search confirmed the absence of bound companions larger than similar to 30 m inside 20 primary radii. These limits are a factor of similar to 30 smaller than the values reported so far from large ground-based telescopes using adaptive optics and from the Hubble Space Telescope.

  • 27.
    Bladh, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Höfner, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Exploring wind-driving dust species in cool luminous giants: I. Basic criteria and dynamical models of M-type AGB stars2012In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 546, A76- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The heavy mass loss observed in evolved asymptotic giant branch stars is usually attributed to a two-stage process: atmospheric levitation by pulsation-induced shock waves followed by radiative acceleration of dust grains, which transfer momentum to the surrounding gas through collisions. In order for an outflow to occur the two stages of the mass-loss scheme have to connect, i.e., the radiative acceleration can only be initiated if the levitated gas reaches a distance from the stellar photosphere where dust particles can condense. This levitation distance is limited by the kinetic energy transferred to the gas by the shock waves, which imposes strict constraints on potential wind-driving dust species. Aims. This work is part of an ongoing effort aiming at identifying the actual wind-drivers among the dust species observed in circumstellar envelopes. In particular, we focus on the interplay between a strong stellar radiation field and the dust formation process. Methods. To identify critical properties of potential wind-driving dust species we use detailed radiation-hydrodynamical models which include a parameterized dust description, complemented by simple analytical estimates to help with the physical interpretation of the numerical results. The adopted dust description is constructed to mimic different chemical and optical dust properties in order to systematically study the effects of a realistic radiation field on the second stage of the mass loss mechanism. Results. We see distinct trends in which combinations of optical and chemical dust properties are needed to trigger an outflow. Dust species with a low condensation temperature and a near-infrared absorption coefficient that decreases strongly with wavelength will not condense close enough to the stellar surface to be considered as potential wind-drivers. Conclusions. Our models confirm that metallic iron and Fe-bearing silicates are not viable as wind-drivers due to their near-infrared optical properties and resulting large condensation distances. TiO2 is also excluded as a wind-driver due to the low abundance of Ti. Other species, such a SiO2 and Al2O3, are less clear-cut cases due to uncertainties in the optical and chemical data and further work is needed. A strong candidate is Mg2SiO4 with grain sizes of 0.1-1 mu m, where scattering contributes significantly to the radiative acceleration, as suggested by earlier theoretical work and supported by recent observations.

  • 28.
    Bladh, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Höfner, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Aringer, B.
    Dust in AGB Stars: Transparent or Opaque?2011In: Why Galaxies Care about AGB Stars II: Shining Examples and Common Inhabitants, 2011, Vol. 445Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical properties of the dust particles that drive the winds of cool giant stars affect the stellar spectra in two ways: (1) indirectly, through their influence on the dynamical structure of the atmosphere/envelope and the resulting molecular features, and (2) directly, by changes of the spectral energy distribution due to absorption and scattering on dust grains. The qualitative differences in the energy distributions of C-type and M-type AGB stars in the visual and near-infrared regions suggest that the dust particles in oxygen rich atmospheres are relatively transparent to radiation. By using detailed dynamical models of gas and radiation combined with a simple description for the dust opacity (which can be adjusted to mimic different wavelength dependences and condensation temperatures) and also by adjusting the fraction of the opacity that is treated as true absorption, we investigate which dust properties produce synthetic photometry consistent with observations. The goal of this study is to narrow down the possible dust species that may be driving the winds in M-type AGB stars.

  • 29.
    Bladh, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Höfner, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Nowotny, W.
    Aringer, B.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Exploring wind-driving dust species in cool luminous giants II. Constraints from photometry of M-type AGB stars2013In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 553, A20- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The heavy mass loss observed in evolved asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars is usually attributed to a two-stage process: atmospheric levitation by pulsation-induced shock waves, followed by radiative acceleration of newly formed dust grains. The dust transfers momentum to the surrounding gas through collisions and thereby triggers a general outflow. Radiation-hydrodynamical models of M-type AGB stars suggest that these winds can be driven by photon scattering - in contrast to absorption - on Fe-free silicate grains of sizes 0.1-1 mu m. Aims. In this paper we study photometric constraints for wind-driving dust species in M-type AGB stars, as part of an ongoing effort to identify likely candidates among the grain materials observed in circumstellar envelopes. Methods. To investigate the scenario of stellar winds driven by photon scattering on dust, and to explore how different optical and chemical properties of wind-driving dust species affect photometry we focus on two sets of dynamical models atmospheres: (i) models using a detailed description for the growth of Mg2SiO4 grains, taking into account both scattering and absorption cross-sections when calculating the radiative acceleration; and (ii) models using a parameterized dust description, constructed to represent different chemical and optical dust properties. By comparing synthetic photometry from these two sets of models to observations of M-type AGB stars we can provide constraints on the properties of wind-driving dust species. Results. Photometry from wind models with a detailed description for the growth of Mg2SiO4 grains reproduces well both the values and the time-dependent behavior of observations of M-type AGB stars, providing further support for the scenario of winds driven by photon scattering on dust. The photometry from the models with a parameterized dust description suggests that wind-drivers need to have a low absorption cross-section in the visual and near-IR to reproduce the time-dependent behavior, i. e. small variations in (J-K) and spanning a larger range in (V-K). This places constraints on the optical and chemical properties of the wind-driving dust species. Conclusions. To reproduce the observed photometric variations in (V-K) and (J-K) both detailed and parameterized models suggest that the wind-driving dust materials have to be quite transparent in the visual and near-IR. Consequently, strong candidates for outflows driven by photon scattering on dust grains are Mg2SiO4, MgSiO3, and potentially SiO2.

  • 30.
    Bladh, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Astronomy and Space Physics, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Susanne, Höfner
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Aringer, Bernhard
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Exploring wind-driving dust species in cool luminous giants III: Wind models for M-type AGB stars2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 575, A105Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    et al.
    Soubiran, C.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Asplund, M.
    Carraro, G.
    Costado, M. T.
    Feltzing, S.
    Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. I.
    Jimenez-Esteban, F.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Marino, A. F.
    Montes, D.
    San Roman, I.
    Tabernero, H. M.
    Tautvaisiene, G.
    Testing the chemical tagging technique with open clusters2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 577, A47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Stars are born together from giant molecular clouds and, if we assume that the priors were chemically homogeneous and well-mixed, we expect them to share the same chemical composition. Most of the stellar aggregates are disrupted while orbiting the Galaxy and most of the dynamic information is lost, thus the only possibility of reconstructing the stellar formation history is to analyze the chemical abundances that we observe today. Aims. The chemical tagging technique aims to recover disrupted stellar clusters based merely on their chemical composition. We evaluate the viability of this technique to recover co-natal stars that are no longer gravitationally bound. Methods. Open clusters are co-natal aggregates that have managed to survive together. We compiled stellar spectra from 31 old and intermediate-age open clusters, homogeneously derived atmospheric parameters, and 17 abundance species, and applied machine learning algorithms to group the stars based on their chemical composition. This approach allows us to evaluate the viability and efficiency of the chemical tagging technique. Results. We found that stars at different evolutionary stages have distinct chemical patterns that may be due to NLTE effects, atomic diffusion, mixing, and biases. When separating stars into dwarfs and giants, we observed that a few open clusters show distinct chemical signatures while the majority show a high degree of overlap. This limits the recovery of co-natal aggregates by applying the chemical tagging technique. Nevertheless, there is room for improvement if more elements are included and models are improved.

  • 32.
    Bodewits, D.
    et al.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Lara, L. M.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    A'Hearn, M. F.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.;Akad Wissensch Gottingen, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    La Forgia, F.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Gicquel, A.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Kovacs, G.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Knollenberg, J.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Lazzarin, M.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lin, Z. -Y
    Shi, X.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Snodgrass, C.
    Open Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Planetary & Space Sci, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England..
    Tubiana, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Sierks, H.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Barbieri, C.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lamy, P. L.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, LAM, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Rodrigo, R.
    CSIC, INTA, Ctr Astrobiol, E-28850 Madrid, Spain.;Int Space Sci Inst, Hallerstr 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Koschny, D.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1,Postbus 299, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Rickman, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Keller, H. U.
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, IGEP, Mendelssohnstr 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Barucci, M. A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Univ Pierre & Marie Curie, CNRS, LESIA Observ Paris, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Bertaux, J. -L
    Bertini, I.
    Univ Padua, Ctr Ateneo Studi & Attivita Spaziali Giuseppe Col, Via Venezia 15, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Boudreault, S.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Cremonese, G.
    Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Da Deppo, V.
    CNR, IFN UOS Padova LUXOR, Via Trasea 7, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Davidsson, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Debei, S.
    Univ Padua, Dept Ind Engn, Via Venezia 1, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    De Cecco, M.
    Univ Trento, Via Sommar 9, I-38123 Trento, Italy..
    Fornasier, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Univ Pierre & Marie Curie, CNRS, LESIA Observ Paris, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Fulle, M.
    Osserv Astron Trieste, INAF, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34014 Trieste, Italy..
    Groussin, O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, LAM, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Gutierrez, P. J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Guettler, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Hviid, S. F.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Ip, W. -H
    Jorda, L.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, LAM, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Kramm, J. -R
    Kuehrt, E.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kuppers, M.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA, Operat Dept, POB 78, E-28691 Villanueva De La Canada, Madrid, Spain..
    Lopez-Moreno, J. J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Glorieta Astron, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Marzari, F.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Naletto, G.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy.;CNR, IFN UOS Padova LUXOR, Via Trasea 7, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Dept Informat Engn, Via Gradenigo 6-B, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Oklay, N.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Thomas, N.
    Univ Bern, Inst Phys, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland.;Univ Bern, Ctr Space & Habitabil, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Toth, I.
    MTA CSFK Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege M Ut 15-17, HU-1525 Budapest, Hungary..
    Vincent, J. -B
    Changes in the physical environment of the inner coma of 67p/churyumov-gerasimenko with decreasing heliocentric distance2016In: Astronomical Journal, ISSN 0004-6256, E-ISSN 1538-3881, Vol. 152, no 5, 130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Wide Angle Camera of the OSIRIS instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft is equipped with several narrow-band filters that are centered on the emission lines and bands of various fragment species. These are used to determine the evolution of the production and spatial distribution of the gas in the inner coma of comet 67P with time and heliocentric distance, here between 2.6 and 1.3 au pre-perihelion. Our observations indicate that the emission observed in the OH, OI, CN, NH, and NH2 filters is mostly produced by dissociative electron impact excitation of different parent species. We conclude that CO2 rather than H2O is a significant source of the [OI] 630 nm emission. A strong plume-like feature observed in the CN and OI filters is present throughout our observations. This plume is not present in OH emission and indicates a local enhancement of the CO2/H2O ratio by as much as a factor of 3. We observed a sudden decrease in intensity levels after 2015 March, which we attribute to decreased electron temperatures in the first few kilometers above the surface of the nucleus.

  • 33. Boyajian, T.
    et al.
    von Braun, K.
    Feiden, Gregory
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Huber, D.
    Basu, S.
    Demarque, P.
    Fischer, D. A.
    Schaefer, G.
    Mann, A. W.
    White, T. R.
    Maestro, V.
    Brewer, J.
    Lamell, C. B.
    Spada, F.
    López-Morales, M.
    Ireland, M.
    Farrington, C.
    van Belle, G. T.
    Kane, S. R.
    Jones, J.
    ten Brummelaar, T. A.
    Ciardi, D. R.
    McAlister, H. A.
    Ridgway, S.
    Goldfinger, P. J.
    Turner, N. H.
    Sturmann, L.
    Stellar diameters and temperatures - VI. High angular resolution measurements of the transiting exoplanet host stars HD 189733 and HD 209458 and implications for models of cool dwarfs2015In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 447, no 1, 846-857 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present direct radii measurements of the well-known transiting exoplanet host stars HD 189733 and HD 209458 using the CHARA Array interferometer. We find the limb-darkened angular diameters to be thetaLD = 0.3848 +/- 0.0055 and 0.2254 +/- 0.0072 milliarcsec for HD 189733 and HD 209458, respectively. HD 189733 and HD 209458 are currently the only two transiting exoplanet systems where detection of the respective planetary companion's orbital motion from high resolution spectroscopy has revealed absolute masses for both star and planet. We use our new measurements together with the orbital information from radial velocity and photometric time series data, Hipparcos distances, and newly measured bolometric fluxes to determine the stellar effective temperatures (Teff = 4875 +/- 43, 6093 +/- 103 K), stellar linear radii (R* = 0.805 +/- 0.016, 1.203 +/- 0.061 Rsun), mean stellar densities (rho* = 1.62 +/- 0.11, 0.58 +/- 0.14 rhosun), planetary radii (Rp = 1.216 +/- 0.024, 1.451 +/- 0.074 RJup), and mean planetary densities (rhop = 0.605 +/- 0.029, 0.196 +/- 0.033 rhoJup) for HD 189733 b and HD 209458 b, respectively. The stellar parameters for HD 209458, a F9 dwarf, are consistent with indirect estimates derived from spectroscopic and evolutionary modeling. However, we find that models are unable to reproduce the observational results for the K2 dwarf, HD 189733. We show that, for stellar evolutionary models to match the observed stellar properties of HD 189733, adjustments lowering the solar-calibrated mixing length parameter from 1.83 to 1.34 need to be employed.

  • 34.
    Calvo, F.
    et al.
    Ist Ric Solari Locarno IRSOL, Via Patocchi 57 Prato Pernice, CH-6605 Locarno, Switzerland.;Univ Geneva, Observ Geneva, Ch Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Sauverny, Switzerland..
    Steiner, O.
    Ist Ric Solari Locarno IRSOL, Via Patocchi 57 Prato Pernice, CH-6605 Locarno, Switzerland.;Kiepenheuer Inst Sonnenphys, Schoneckstr 6, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany..
    Freytag, Bernd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Non-magnetic photospheric bright points in 3D simulations of the solar atmosphere2016In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 596, A43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Small-scale bright features in the photosphere of the Sun, such as faculae or G-band bright points, appear in connection with small-scale magnetic flux concentrations. Aims. Here we report on a new class of photospheric bright points that are free of magnetic fields. So far, these are visible in numerical simulations only. We explore conditions required for their observational detection. Methods. Numerical radiation (magneto-) hydrodynamic simulations of the near-surface layers of the Sun were carried out. The magnetic field-free simulations show tiny bright points, reminiscent of magnetic bright points, only smaller. A simple toy model for these non-magnetic bright points (nMBPs) was established that serves as a base for the development of an algorithm for their automatic detection. Basic physical properties of 357 detected nMBPs were extracted and statistically evaluated. We produced synthetic intensity maps that mimic observations with various solar telescopes to obtain hints on their detectability. Results. The nMBPs of the simulations show a mean bolometric intensity contrast with respect to their intergranular surroundings of approximately 20%, a size of 60-80 km, and the isosurface of optical depth unity is at their location depressed by 80-100 km. They are caused by swirling downdrafts that provide, by means of the centripetal force, the necessary pressure gradient for the formation of a funnel of reduced mass density that reaches from the subsurface layers into the photosphere. Similar, frequently occurring funnels that do not reach into the photosphere, do not produce bright points. Conclusions. Non-magnetic bright points are the observable manifestation of vertically extending vortices (vortex tubes) in the photosphere. The resolving power of 4-m-class telescopes, such as the DKIST, is needed for an unambiguous detection of them.

  • 35.
    Casey, A. R.
    et al.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Ruchti, G.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Masseron, T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Randich, S.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Lind, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy. Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Kennedy, G. M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Koposov, S. E.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Hourihane, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Franciosini, E.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Lewis, J. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Magrini, L.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Morbidelli, L.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Sacco, G. G.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Worley, C. C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Feltzing, S.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Jeffries, R. D.
    Keele Univ, Astrophys Grp, Keele ST5 5BG, Staffs, England..
    Vallenari, A.
    Padova Observ, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Bensby, T.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Bragaglia, A.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Flaccomio, E.
    Osserv Astron Palermo, INAF, Piazza Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo, Italy..
    Francois, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Korn, Andreas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Lanzafame, A.
    Univ Catania, Sez Astrofis, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Pancino, E.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.;ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observ Cote Azur, Lab Lagrange,UMR7293, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Smiljanic, R.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Dept Astrophys, Ul Rabianska 8, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Carraro, G.
    European Southern Observ, Alonso Cordova 3107 Vitacura, Santiago, Chile..
    Costado, M. T.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Apdo 3004, E-18080 Granada, Spain..
    Damiani, F.
    Osserv Astron Palermo, INAF, Piazza Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo, Italy..
    Donati, P.
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Frasca, A.
    Osserv Astrofis Catania, INAF, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Jofre, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Lardo, C.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    de Laverny, P.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observ Cote Azur, Lab Lagrange,UMR7293, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Monaco, L.
    Univ Andres Bello, Dept Ciencias Fis, Republ 220, Santiago, Chile..
    Prisinzano, L.
    Osserv Astron Palermo, INAF, Piazza Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo, Italy..
    Sbordone, L.
    Millennium Inst Astrophys, Av Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile.;Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Av Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago 7820436, Chile..
    Sousa, S. G.
    Univ Porto, CAUP, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Oporto, Portugal..
    Tautvaisiene, G.
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, A Gostauto 12, LT-01108 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Zaggia, S.
    Padova Observ, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Zwitter, T.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Delgado Mena, E.
    Univ Porto, CAUP, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Oporto, Portugal..
    Chorniy, Y.
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, A Gostauto 12, LT-01108 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Martell, S. L.
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Phys, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Aguirre, V. Silva
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Miglio, A.
    Univ Birmingham, Sch Phys & Astron, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England..
    Chiappini, C.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Montalban, J.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron G Galilei, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, Quartier Agora, Bat B5c,Allee 6 Aout 19c, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Valentini, M.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    The Gaia-ESO Survey: revisiting the Li-rich giant problem2016In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 461, no 3, 3336-3352 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discovery of lithium-rich giants contradicts expectations from canonical stellar evolution. Here we report on the serendipitous discovery of 20 Li-rich giants observed during the Gaia-ESO Survey, which includes the first nine Li-rich giant stars known towards the CoRoT fields. Most of our Li-rich giants have near-solar metallicities and stellar parameters consistent with being before the luminosity bump. This is difficult to reconcile with deep mixing models proposed to explain lithium enrichment, because these models can only operate at later evolutionary stages: at or past the luminosity bump. In an effort to shed light on the Li-rich phenomenon, we highlight recent evidence of the tidal destruction of close-in hot Jupiters at the sub-giant phase. We note that when coupled with models of planet accretion, the observed destruction of hot Jupiters actually predicts the existence of Li-rich giant stars, and suggests that Li-rich stars should be found early on the giant branch and occur more frequently with increasing metallicity. A comprehensive review of all known Li-rich giant stars reveals that this scenario is consistent with the data. However, more evolved or metal-poor stars are less likely to host close-in giant planets, implying that their Li-rich origin requires an alternative explanation, likely related to mixing scenarios rather than external phenomena.

  • 36.
    Chaboyer, B.
    et al.
    Dartmouth Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, Hanover, NH 03755 USA.;Max Planck Inst Astrophys, Karl Schwarzschild Str 1, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    McArthur, B. E.
    Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    O'Malley, E.
    Dartmouth Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, Hanover, NH 03755 USA..
    Benedict, G. F.
    Univ Texas Austin, McDonald Observ, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Feiden, Gregory A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Harrison, T. E.
    New Mexico State Univ, Dept Astron, Las Cruces, NM 88003 USA..
    McWilliam, A.
    Observ Carnegie Inst Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 USA..
    Nelan, E. P.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Patterson, R. J.
    Univ Virginia, Dept Astron, Charlottesville, VA 22904 USA..
    Sarajedini, A.
    Univ Florida, Dept Astron, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA..
    Testing Metal-poor Stellar Models and Isochrones with HST Parallaxes of Metal-poor Stars2017In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 835, no 2, 152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) fine guidance sensor observations were used to obtain parallaxes of eight metal-poor ([Fe/H] < -1.4) stars. The parallaxes of these stars determined by the new Hipparcos reduction average 17% accuracy, in contrast to our new HST parallaxes, which average 1% accuracy and have errors on the individual parallaxes ranging from 85 to 144 mu as. These parallax data were combined with HST Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry in the F606W and F814W filters to obtain the absolute magnitudes of the stars with an accuracy of 0.02-0.03 mag. Six of these stars are on the main sequence (MS) (with -2.7 < [Fe/H] < -1.8) and are suitable for testing metal-poor stellar evolution models and determining the distances to metal-poor globular clusters (GCs). Using the abundances obtained by O'Malley et al., we find that standard stellar models using the VandenBerg & Clem color transformation do a reasonable job of matching five of the MS stars, with HD 54639 ([Fe/H] = -2.5) being anomalous in its location in the color-magnitude diagram. Stellar models and isochrones were generated using a Monte Carlo analysis to take into account uncertainties in the models. Isochrones that fit the parallax stars were used to determine the distances and ages of nine GCs (with -2.4 <= [Fe/H] <= -1.9). Averaging together the age of all nine clusters led to an absolute age of the oldest, most metal-poor GCs of 12.7 +/- 1.0 Gyr, where the quoted uncertainty takes into account the known uncertainties in the stellar models and isochrones, along with the uncertainty in the distance and reddening of the clusters.

  • 37. Chiar, J. E.
    et al.
    Pendleton, Y. J.
    Allamandola, L. J.
    Boogert, A. C. A.
    Ennico, K.
    Greene, T. P.
    Geballe, T. R.
    Keane, J. V.
    Lada, C. J.
    Mason, R. E.
    Roellig, T. L.
    Sandford, S. A.
    Tielens, A. G. G. M.
    Werner, M. W.
    Whittet, D. C. B.
    Decin, L.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Ices in the Quiescent IC 5146 Dense Cloud2011In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 731, no 1, 9- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents spectra in the 2 to 20 mu m range of quiescent cloud material located in the IC 5146 cloud complex. The spectra were obtained with NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility SpeX instrument and the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrometer. We use these spectra to investigate dust and ice absorption features in pristine regions of the cloud that are unaltered by embedded stars. We find that the H2O-ice threshold extinction is 4.03 +/- 0.05 mag. Once foreground extinction is taken into account, however, the threshold drops to 3.2 mag, equivalent to that found for the Taurus dark cloud, generally assumed to be the touchstone quiescent cloud against which all other dense cloud and embedded young stellar object observations are compared. Substructure in the trough of the silicate band for two sources is attributed to CH3OH and NH3 in the ices, present at the similar to 2% and similar to 5% levels, respectively, relative to H2O-ice. The correlation of the silicate feature with the E(J-K) color excess is found to follow a much shallower slope relative to lines of sight that probe diffuse clouds, supporting the previous results by Chiar et al.

  • 38.
    Chiavassa, A.
    et al.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Observ Cote Azur, Lab Lagrange, F-06189 Nice, France..
    Freytag, Bernd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    3D Hydrodynamical Simulations of Evolved Stars and Observations of Stellar Surfaces2015In: WHY GALAXIES CARE ABOUT AGB STARS III: A CLOSER LOOK IN SPACE AND TIME, ASTRONOMICAL SOC PACIFIC , 2015, Vol. 497, 11-21 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolved stars are among the largest and brightest stars and they are ideal targets for the new generation of sensitive, high resolution instrumentation that provides spectrophotometric, interferometric, astrometric, and imaging observables. The interpretation of the complex stellar surface images requires numerical simulations of stellar convection that take into account multi-dimensional time-dependent radiation hydrodynamics with realistic input physics. We show how the evolved star simulations are obtained using the radiative hydrodynamics code (COBOLD)-B-5 and how the accurate observables are computed with the post-processing radiative transfer code OPTIM3D. The synergy between observations and theoretical work is supported by a proper and quantitative analysis using these simulations, and by strong constraints from the observational side.

  • 39. Cornejo-Espinoza, D.
    et al.
    Ramírez, I.
    Barklem, P. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Guevara-Day, W.
    Precise effective temperatures of solar analog stars2012In: IAU Symposium, 2012, Vol. 286, 328-331 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We perform a study of 62 solar analog stars to compute their effective temperatures (T $_eff$) using the Balmer line wing fitting procedure and compare them with T $_eff$ values obtained using other commonly employed methods. We use observed Hα spectral lines and a fine grid of theoretical LTE model spectra calculated with the best available atomic data and most recent quantum theory. Our spectroscopic data are of very high quality and have been carefully normalized to recover the proper shape of the Hα line profile. We obtain T $_eff$ values with internal errors of about 25K. Comparison of our results with those from other methods shows reasonably good agreement. Then, combining T $_eff$ values obtained from four independent techniques, we are able to determine final T $_eff$ values with errors of about 10K.

  • 40. Cruzalebes, P.
    et al.
    Jorissen, A.
    Rabbia, Y.
    Sacuto, S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Chiavassa, A.
    Pasquato, E.
    Plez, B.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Spang, A.
    Chesneau, O.
    Fundamental parameters of 16 late-type stars derived from their angular diameter measured with VLTI/AMBER(star)2013In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 434, no 1, 437-450 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thanks to their large angular dimension and brightness, red giants and supergiants are privileged targets for optical long-baseline interferometers. 16 red giants and supergiants have been observed with the VLTI/AMBER facility over a 2-year period, at medium spectral resolution (R = 1500) in the K band. The limb-darkened angular diameters are derived from fits of stellar atmospheric models on the visibility and the triple product data. The angular diameters do not show any significant temporal variation, except for one target: TX Psc, which shows a variation of 4 per cent using visibility data. For the eight targets previously measured by long-baseline interferometry (LBI) in the same spectral range, the difference between our diameters and the literature values is less than 5 per cent, except for TX Psc, which shows a difference of 11 per cent. For the eight other targets, the present angular diameters are the first measured from LBI. Angular diameters are then used to determine several fundamental stellar parameters, and to locate these targets in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD). Except for the enigmatic Tc-poor low-mass carbon star W Ori, the location of Tc-rich stars in the HRD matches remarkably well the thermally-pulsating asymptotic giant branch, as it is predicted by the stellar evolution models. For pulsating stars with periods available, we compute the pulsation constant and locate the stars along the various sequences in the period-luminosity diagram. We confirm the increase in mass along the pulsation sequences, as predicted by theory, except for W Ori which, despite being less massive, appears to have a longer period than T Cet along the first-overtone sequence.

  • 41.
    Danilovich, T.
    et al.
    Chalmers, Onsala Space Observ, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bergman, P.
    Chalmers, Onsala Space Observ, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Justtanont, K.
    Chalmers, Onsala Space Observ, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lombaert, R.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Louvain, Belgium..
    Maercker, M.
    Chalmers, Onsala Space Observ, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Bonn, Argelander Inst Astron, Bonn, Germany..
    Olofsson, H.
    Chalmers, Onsala Space Observ, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ramstedt, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Royer, P.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Louvain, Belgium..
    Detailed Modelling of the Circumstellar Envelope of the S-type AGB Star W Aquilae2015In: WHY GALAXIES CARE ABOUT AGB STARS III: A CLOSER LOOK IN SPACE AND TIME, ASTRONOMICAL SOC PACIFIC , 2015, Vol. 497, 219-220 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present new Herschel(1) HIFI (de Graauw et al. 2010) and PACS (Poglitsch et al. 2010) sub-millimeter and far-infrared line observations of several molecular species towards the S-type AGB star W Aql. We use these observations, which probe a wide range of gas temperatures, to constrain the circumstellar properties of W Aql, including mass-loss rate and molecular abundances.

  • 42.
    Davidsson, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Gutierrez, P. J.
    Inst Astrofis Andalucia CSIC, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Sierks, H.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Barbieri, C.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lamy, P. L.
    CNRS, UMR 7326, Lab Astrophys Marseille, F-13388 Marseille 13, France.;Aix Marseille Univ, F-13388 Marseille 13, France..
    Rodrigo, R.
    CSIC INTA, Ctr Astrobiol, Madrid 28850, Spain.;Int Space Sci Inst, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Koschny, D.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA, Sci Support Off, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Rickman, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Keller, H. U.
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, IGEP, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Agarwal, J.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    A'Hearn, M. F.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.;Akad Wissensch Gottingen, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Barucci, M. A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Univ Paris 06, LESIA Observ Paris, CNRS, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Bertaux, J. -L
    Bertini, I.
    Univ Padua, Ctr Ateneo Studi Att Spaziali Giuseppe Colombo CI, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Bodewits, D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Cremonese, G.
    Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Da Deppo, V.
    CNR IFN UOS Padova LUXOR, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Debei, S.
    Univ Trento, I-38100 Trento, Italy..
    De Cecco, M.
    Univ Padua, Dept Ind Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Fornasier, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Univ Paris 06, LESIA Observ Paris, CNRS, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Fulle, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron, I-34014 Trieste, Italy..
    Groussin, O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, UMR 7326, LAM, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Guettler, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Hviid, S. F.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Ip, W. -H
    Jorda, L.
    CNRS, UMR 7326, Lab Astrophys Marseille, F-13388 Marseille 13, France.;Aix Marseille Univ, F-13388 Marseille 13, France..
    Knollenberg, J.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kovacs, G.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Kramm, J. -R
    Kuehrt, E.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kueppers, M.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA, Operat Dept, Madrid 28691, Spain..
    La Forgia, F.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lara, L. M.
    Inst Astrofis Andalucia CSIC, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Lazzarin, M.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lopez Moreno, J. J.
    Inst Astrofis Andalucia CSIC, Granada 18008, Spain..
    Lowry, S.
    Univ Kent, Ctr Astrophys & Planetary Sci, Sch Phys Sci, Canterbury CT2 7NH, Kent, England..
    Magrin, S.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Marzari, E.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Michalik, H.
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Datentech & Kommunikat Netze, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Moissl-Fraund, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA, Operat Dept, Madrid 28691, Spain..
    Naletto, G.
    Univ Padua, Dept Informat Engn, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Oklay, N.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Pajola, M.
    Univ Padua, Ctr Ateneo Studi Att Spaziali Giuseppe Colombo CI, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Snodgrass, C.
    Open Univ, Planetary & Space Sci, Dept Phys Sci, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England..
    Thomas, N.
    Univ Bern, Inst Phys, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Tubiana, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Vincent, J. -B
    Orbital elements of the material surrounding comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 583, A16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. We investigate the dust coma within the Hill sphere of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Aims. We aim to determine osculating orbital elements for individual distinguishable but unresolved slow-moving grains in the vicinity of the nucleus. In addition, we perform photometry and constrain grain sizes. Methods. We performed astrometry and photometry using images acquired by the OSIRIS Wide Angle Camera on the European Space Agency spacecraft Rosetta. Based on these measurements, we employed standard orbit determination and orbit improvement techniques. Results. Orbital elements and effective diameters of four grains were constrained, but we were unable to uniquely determine them. Two of the grains have light curves that indicate grain rotation. Conclusions. The four grains have diameters nominally in the range 0.14-0.50 m. For three of the grains, we found elliptic orbits, which is consistent with a cloud of bound particles around the nucleus. However, hyperbolic escape trajectories cannot be excluded for any of the grains, and for one grain this is the only known option. One grain may have originated from the surface shortly before observation. These results have possible implications for the understanding of the dispersal of the cloud of bound debris around comet nuclei, as well as for understanding the ejection of large grains far from the Sun.

  • 43.
    Davidsson, Björn J. R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Gutierrez, P. J.
    Groussin, O.
    A’Hearn, M. F.
    Farnham, T.
    Feaga, L. M.
    Kelley, M. S.
    Klaasen, K.
    Merlin, F.
    Protopapa, S.
    Rickman, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Sunshine, J. M.
    Thermal Inertia and Surface Roughness of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 Derived from Recalibrated Deep Impact NIR Spectroscopy2011In: EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011, 2011, 221- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On July 4, 2005, the HRI-IR instrument onboard the Deep Impact spacecraft (NASA/Univ. of Maryland) acquired the first ever near-infrared spectra of a fully resolved comet nucleus, 9P/Tempel 1. Early attempts to estimate the thermal inertia of the surface material were inconclusive, due to negligence of small-scale surface roughness in the thermophysical models used to analyze the spectra. Following a substantial recalibration of the original dataset, we now reconsider the 9P/Tempel 1 spectra, using more realistic thermophysical models. In addition to largescale nucleus irregularity, these models now explicitly consider small-scale roughness and related phenomena such as shadowing and IR self heating. Furthermore, 3D heat conduction can be utilized when topographic features are similar in size to the thermal skin depth, or smaller. Estimates of the thermal inertia, degree of small-scale roughness and their levels of variation across the nucleus are presented.

  • 44.
    Davidsson, Björn J. R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Gutierrez, Pedro J.
    Groussin, Olivier
    A'Hearn, Michael F.
    Farnham, Tony
    Feaga, Lori M.
    Kelley, Michael S.
    Klaasen, Kenneth P.
    Merlin, Frederic
    Protopapa, Silvia
    Rickman, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Sunshine, Jessica M.
    Thomas, Peter C.
    Thermal inertia and surface roughness of Comet 9P/Tempel 12013In: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 224, no 1, 154-171 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Re-calibrated near-infrared spectroscopy of the resolved nucleus of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 acquired by the Deep Impact spacecraft has been analyzed by utilizing the post-Stardust-NExT nucleus shape model and spin pole solution, as well as a novel thermophysical model that explicitly accounts for small-scale surface roughness and thermal inertia. We find that the thermal inertia varies measurably across the surface, and that thermal emission from certain regions only can be reproduced satisfactory if surface roughness is accounted for. Particularly, a scarped/pitted terrain that experienced morning sunrise during the flyby is measurably rough (Hapke mean slope angle similar to 45 degrees) and has a thermal inertia of at most 50J m(-2) K-1 s(-1/2), but probably much lower. However, thick layered terrain and thin layered terrain experiencing local noon during the flyby have a substantially larger thermal inertia, reaching 150J m(-2) K-1 s(-1/2) if the surface is as rough as the scarped/pitted terrain, but 200J m(-2) K-1 s(-1/2) if the terrain is considered locally flat. Furthermore, the reddening of the nucleus near-infrared 1.5-2.2 gm spectrum varies between morphological units, being reddest for thick layered terrain (median value 3.4% k angstrom(-1)) and most neutral for the smooth terrain known to contain surface water ice (median value 3.1% k angstrom(-1)). Thus, Comet 9P/Tempel 1 is heterogeneous in terms of both thermophysical and optical properties, due to formation conditions and/or post-formation processing. 

  • 45.
    Davidsson, Björn J. R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Rickman, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Surface roughness and three-dimensional heat conduction in thermophysical models2014In: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 243, 58-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thermophysical model is presented that considers surface roughness, cast shadows, multiple or single scattering of radiation, visual and thermal infrared self heating, as well as heat conduction in one or three dimensions. The code is suitable for calculating infrared spectral energy distributions for spatially resolved or unresolved minor Solar System bodies without significant atmospheres or sublimation, such as the Moon, Mercury, asteroids, irregular satellites or inactive regions on comet nuclei. It is here used to explore the effects of surface roughness on spatial scales small enough for heat conduction to erase lateral temperature gradients. Analytically derived corrections to one-dimensional models that reproduce the results of three-dimensional modeling are presented. We find that the temperature of terrains with such small-scale roughness is identical to that of smooth surfaces for certain types of topographies and non-scattering material. However, systematic differences between smooth and rough terrains are found for scattering materials, or topographies with prominent positive relief. Contrary to common beliefs, the roughness on small spatial scales may therefore affect the thermal emission of Solar System bodies.

  • 46.
    Davidsson, Björn J. R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Rickman, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Bandfield, Joshua L.
    Groussin, Olivier
    Gutierrez, Pedro J.
    Wilska, Magdalena
    Capria, Maria Teresa
    Emery, Joshua P.
    Helbert, Joern
    Jorda, Laurent
    Maturilli, Alessandro
    Mueller, Thomas G.
    Interpretation of thermal emission. I. The effect of roughness for spatially resolved atmosphereless bodies2015In: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 252, 1-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spacecraft observations of atmosphereless Solar System bodies, combined with thermophysical modeling, provide important information about the thermal inertia and degree of surface roughness of these bodies. The thermophysical models rely on various methods of generating topography, the most common being the concave spherical segment. We here compare the properties of thermal emission for a number of different topographies - concave spherical segments, random Gaussians, fractals and parallel sinusoidal trenches - for various illumination and viewing geometries, degrees of surface roughness and wavelengths. We find that the thermal emission is strongly dependent on roughness type, even when the degrees of roughness are identical, for certain illumination and viewing geometries. The systematic usage of any single topography model may therefore bias determinations of thermal inertia and level of roughness. We outline strategies that may be employed during spacecraft observations to disentangle thermal inertia, level of roughness and type of topography. We also compare the numerically complex and time consuming full-scale thermophysical models with a simplified statistical approach, which is fairly easy to implement and quick to run. We conclude that the simplified statistical approach is similar to thermophysical models for cases tested here, which enables the user to analyze huge amounts of spectral data at a low numerical cost.

  • 47.
    Davidsson, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Jet Prop Lab, MS 183-301,4800 Oak Grove Dr, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA..
    Sierks, H.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Guettler, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Marzari, F.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Pajola, M.
    Univ Padua, Ctr Ateneo Studi & Attivita Spaziali Giuseppe Col, Via Venezia 15, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Rickman, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. PAN Space Res Ctr, Bartycka 18A, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    A'Hearn, M. F.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.;Akad Wissensch Gottingen, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Auger, A. -T
    El-Maarry, M. R.
    Univ Bern, Inst Phys, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Fornasier, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Univ Paris 06, CNRS, LESIA Observ Paris, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Gutierrez, P. J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, C Glorieta Astron S-N, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Keller, H. U.
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, IGEP, Mendelssohnstr 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Massironi, M.
    Univ Padua, Ctr Ateneo Studi & Attivita Spaziali Giuseppe Col, Via Venezia 15, I-35131 Padua, Italy.;Univ Padua, Dipartimento Geosci, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Snodgrass, C.
    Open Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Planetary & Space Sci, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England..
    Vincent, J. -B
    Barbieri, C.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lamy, P. L.
    CNRS, Lab Astrophys Marseille, UMR 7326, 38 Rue Frederic Joliot Curie, F-13388 Marseille 13, France.;Aix Marseille Univ, 38 Rue Frederic Joliot Curie, F-13388 Marseille 13, France..
    Rodrigo, R.
    CSIC INTA, Ctr Astrobiol, Madrid 28850, Spain.;Int Space Sci Inst, Hallerstr 6, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Koschny, D.
    ESA, European Space Res & Technol Ctr, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1,Postbus 299, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Barucci, M. A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Univ Paris 06, CNRS, LESIA Observ Paris, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France..
    Bertaux, J. -L
    Bertini, I.
    Univ Padua, Ctr Ateneo Studi & Attivita Spaziali Giuseppe Col, Via Venezia 15, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Cremonese, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Da Deppo, V.
    CNR IFN UOS Padova LUXOR, Via Trasea 7, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Debei, S.
    Univ Padua, Dept Ind Engn, Via Venezia 1, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    De Cecco, M.
    Univ Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38100 Trento, Italy..
    Feller, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Univ Paris 06, CNRS, LESIA Observ Paris, 5 Pl J Janssen, F-92195 Meudon, France.;Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 4 Rue Elsa Morante, F-75205 Paris 13, France..
    Fulle, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron, I-34014 Trieste, Italy..
    Groussin, O.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, LAM, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Hviid, S. F.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Hoefner, S.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Ip, W. -H
    Jorda, L.
    CNRS, Lab Astrophys Marseille, UMR 7326, 38 Rue Frederic Joliot Curie, F-13388 Marseille 13, France.;Aix Marseille Univ, 38 Rue Frederic Joliot Curie, F-13388 Marseille 13, France..
    Knollenberg, J.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kovacs, G.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Kramm, J. -R
    Kuehrt, E.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Kueppers, M.
    ESA, European Space Astron Ctr, Operat Dept, POB 78, Madrid 28691, Spain..
    La Forgia, F.
    Lara, L. M.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, C Glorieta Astron S-N, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Lazzarin, M.
    Moreno, J. J. Lopez
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, C Glorieta Astron S-N, E-18008 Granada, Spain..
    Moissl-Fraund, R.
    Mottola, S.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt DLR, Inst Planetenforsch, Rutherfordstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.;ESA, European Space Astron Ctr, Operat Dept, POB 78, Madrid 28691, Spain..
    Naletto, G.
    Univ Padua, Dept Informat Engn, Via Gradenigo 6-B, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    Oklay, N.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Thomas, N.
    Univ Bern, Inst Phys, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland..
    Tubiana, C.
    Max Planck Inst Sonnensyst Forsch, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    The primordial nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2016In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 592, A63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. We investigate the formation and evolution of comet nuclei and other trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) in the solar nebula and primordial disk prior to the giant planet orbit instability foreseen by the Nice model. Aims. Our goal is to determine whether most observed comet nuclei are primordial rubble-pile survivors that formed in the solar nebula and young primordial disk or collisional rubble piles formed later in the aftermath of catastrophic disruptions of larger parent bodies. We also propose a concurrent comet and TNO formation scenario that is consistent with observations. Methods. We used observations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by the ESA Rosetta spacecraft, particularly by the OSIRIS camera system, combined with data from the NASA Stardust sample-return mission to comet 81P/Wild 2 and from meteoritics; we also used existing observations from ground or from spacecraft of irregular satellites of the giant planets, Centaurs, and TNOs. We performed modeling of thermophysics, hydrostatics, orbit evolution, and collision physics. Results. We find that thermal processing due to short-lived radionuclides, combined with collisional processing during accretion in the primordial disk, creates a population of medium-sized bodies that are comparably dense, compacted, strong, heavily depleted in supervolatiles like CO and CO2; they contain little to no amorphous water ice, and have experienced extensive metasomatism and aqueous alteration due to liquid water. Irregular satellites Phoebe and Himalia are potential representatives of this population. Collisional rubble piles inherit these properties from their parents. Contrarily, comet nuclei have low density, high porosity, weak strength, are rich in supervolatiles, may contain amorphous water ice, and do not display convincing evidence of in situ metasomatism or aqueous alteration. We outline a comet formation scenario that starts in the solar nebula and ends in the primordial disk, that reproduces these observed properties, and additionally explains the presence of extensive layering on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (and on 9P/Tempel 1 observed by Deep Impact), its bi-lobed shape, the extremely slow growth of comet nuclei as evidenced by recent radiometric dating, and the low collision probability that allows primordial nuclei to survive the age of the solar system. Conclusions. We conclude that observed comet nuclei are primordial rubble piles, and not collisional rubble piles. We argue that TNOs formed as a result of streaming instabilities at sizes below similar to 400 km and that similar to 350 of these grew slowly in a low-mass primordial disk to the size of Triton, Pluto, and Eris, causing little viscous stirring during growth. We thus propose a dynamically cold primordial disk, which prevented medium-sized TNOs from breaking into collisional rubble piles and allowed the survival of primordial rubble-pile comets. We argue that comets formed by hierarchical agglomeration out of material that remained after TNO formation, and that this slow growth was a necessity to avoid thermal processing by short-lived radionuclides that would lead to loss of supervolatiles, and that allowed comet nuclei to incorporate similar to 3 Myr old material from the inner solar system.

  • 48. de Jong, Roelof S.
    et al.
    Barden, Sam
    Bellido-Tirado, Olga
    Brynnel, Joar
    Chiappini, Cristina
    Depagne, Eric
    Haynes, Roger
    Johl, Diane
    Phillips, Daniel P.
    Schnurr, Olivier
    Schwope, Axel
    Walcher, Jakob
    Bauer, Svend-Marian
    Cescutti, Gabriele
    Cioni, Maria-Rosa
    Dionies, Frank
    Enke, Harry
    Haynes, Dionne
    Kelz, Andreas
    Kitaura, Francisco S.
    Lamer, Georg
    Minchev, Ivan
    Mueler, Volker
    Nuza, Sebastian E.
    Olaya, Jean-Christophe
    Piffl, Tilman
    Popow, Emil
    Saviauk, Allar
    Steinmetz, Matthias
    Ural, Ugur
    Valentini, Monica
    Winkler, Roland
    Wisotzki, Lutz
    Ansorge, Wolfgang R.
    Banerji, Manda
    Solares, Eduardo Gonzalez
    Irwin, Mike
    Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.
    King, David
    McMahon, Richard
    Koposov, Sergey
    Parry, Ian R.
    Sun, Xiaowei
    Walton, Nicholas A.
    Finger, Gert
    Iwert, Olaf
    Krumpe, Mirko
    Lizon, Jean-Louis
    Mainieri, Vincenzo
    Amans, Jean-Philippe
    Bonifacio, Piercarlo
    Cohen, Mathieu
    Francois, Patrick
    Jagourel, Pascal
    Mignot, Shan B.
    Royer, Frederic
    Sartoretti, Paola
    Bender, Ralf
    Hess, Hans-Joachim
    Lang-Bardl, Florian
    Muschielok, Bernard
    Schlichter, Jorg
    Bohringer, Hans
    Boller, Thomas
    Bongiorno, Angela
    Brusa, Marcella
    Dwelly, Tom
    Merloni, Andrea
    Nandra, Kirpal
    Salvato, Mara
    Pragt, Johannes H.
    Navarro, Ramon
    Gerlofsma, Gerrit
    Roelfsema, Ronald
    Dalton, Gavin B.
    Middleton, Kevin F.
    Tosh, Ian A.
    Boeche, Corrado
    Caffau, Elisabetta
    Chistlieb, Norbert
    Grebel, Eva K.
    Hansen, Camilla J.
    Koch, Andreas
    Ludwig, Hans-G.
    Mandel, Holger
    Quirrenbach, Andreas
    Sbordone, Luca
    Seifert, Walter
    Thimm, Guido
    Helmi, Amina
    Trager, Scott C.
    Bensby, Thomas
    Feltzing, Sofia
    Ruchti, Gregory
    Edvardsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Lind, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Boland, Wilfried
    Colless, Matthew
    Frost, Gabriella
    Gilbert, James
    Gillingham, Peter
    Lawrence, Jon
    Legg, Neville
    Saunders, Will
    Sheinis, Andrew
    Driver, Simon
    Robotham, Aaron
    Bacon, Roland
    Caillier, Patrick
    Kosmalski, Johan
    Laurent, Florence
    Richard, Johan
    4MOST-4-metre Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope2014In: GROUND-BASED AND AIRBORNE INSTRUMENTATION FOR ASTRONOMY V, 2014, Vol. 9147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    4MOST is a wide-field, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility under development for the VISTA telescope of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Its main science drivers are in the fields of galactic archeology, high-energy physics, galaxy evolution and cosmology. 4MOST will in particular provide the spectroscopic complements to the large area surveys coming from space missions like Gaia, eROSITA, Euclid, and PLATO and from ground-based facilities like VISTA, VST, DES, LSST and SKA. The 4MOST baseline concept features a 2.5 degree diameter field-of-view with similar to 2400 fibres in the focal surface that are configured by a fibre positioner based on the tilting spine principle. The fibres feed two types of spectrographs; similar to 1600 fibres go to two spectrographs with resolution R> 5000 (lambda similar to 390-930 nm) and similar to 800 fibres to a spectrograph with R> 18,000 (lambda similar to 392-437 nm & 515-572 nm & 605-675 nm). Both types of spectrographs are fixed-configuration, three-channel spectrographs. 4MOST will have an unique operations concept in which 5 year public surveys from both the consortium and the ESO community will be combined and observed in parallel during each exposure, resulting in more than 25 million spectra of targets spread over a large fraction of the southern sky. The 4MOST Facility Simulator (4FS) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of this observing concept. 4MOST has been accepted for implementation by ESO with operations expected to start by the end of 2020. This paper provides a top-level overview of the 4MOST facility, while other papers in these proceedings provide more detailed descriptions of the instrument concept[1], the instrument requirements development[2], the systems engineering implementation[3], the instrument model[4], the fibre positioner concepts[5], the fibre feed[6], and the spectrographs[7].

  • 49.
    de la Cruz Rodriguez, Jaime
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    De Pontieu, B.
    Carlsson, M.
    van der Voort, L. H. M. Rouppe
    Heating of the Magnetic Chromosphere: Observational Constraints from Ca II lambda 8542 Spectra2013In: The Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, Vol. 764, no 1, L11- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The heating of the Sun's chromosphere remains poorly understood. While progress has been made on understanding what drives the quiet-Sun internetwork chromosphere, chromospheric heating in strong magnetic field regions continues to present a difficult challenge, mostly because of a lack of observational constraints. We use high-resolution spectropolarimetric data from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to identify the location and spatio-temporal properties of heating in the magnetic chromosphere. In particular, we report the existence of raised-core spectral line profiles in the Ca II lambda 8542 line. These profiles are characterized by the absence of an absorption line core, showing a quasi-flat profile between. lambda approximate to +/- 0.5 angstrom, and are abundant close to magnetic bright points and plage. Comparison with three-dimensional MHD simulations indicates that such profiles occur when the line of sight goes through an "elevated temperature canopy" associated with the expansion with height of the magnetic field of flux concentrations. This temperature canopy in the simulations is caused by ohmic dissipation where there are strong magnetic field gradients. The raised-core profiles are thus indicators of locations of increased chromospheric heating. We characterize the location and temporal and spatial properties of such profiles in our observations, thus providing much stricter constraints on theoretical models of chromospheric heating mechanisms than before.

  • 50.
    de la Cruz Rodriguez, Jaime
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Socas-Navarro, H.
    Carlsson, M.
    Leenaarts, J.
    Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium inversions from a 3D magnetohydrodynamic chromospheric model2012In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 543, A34- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The structure of the solar chromosphere is believed to be governed by magnetic fields, even in quiet-Sun regions that have a relatively weak photospheric field. During the past decade inversion methods have emerged as powerful tools for analyzing the chromosphere of active regions. The applicability of inversions to infer the stratification of the physical conditions in a dynamic 3D solar chromosphere has not yet been studied in detail.

    Aims. This study aims to establish the diagnostic capabilities of non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (NLTE) inversion techniques of Stokes profiles induced by the Zeeman effect in the Ca II lambda 8542 angstrom line.

    Methods. We computed the Ca II atomic level populations in a snapshot from a 3D radiation-MHD simulation of the quiet solar atmosphere in non-LTE using the 3D radiative transfer code Multi3d. These populations were used to compute synthetic full-Stokes profiles in the Ca II lambda 8542 angstrom line using 1.5D radiative transfer and the inversion code Nicole. The profiles were then spectrally degraded to account for finite filter width, and Gaussian noise was added to account for finite photon flux. These profiles were inverted using Nicole and the results were compared with the original model atmosphere.

    Results. Our NLTE inversions applied to quiet-Sun synthetic observations provide reasonably good estimates of the chromospheric magnetic field, line-of-sight velocities and somewhat less accurate, but still very useful, estimates of the temperature. Three-dimensional scattering of photons cause cool pockets in the chromosphere to be invisible in the line profile and consequently they are also not recovered by the inversions. To successfully detect Stokes linear polarization in this quiet snapshot, a noise level below 10(-3.5) is necessary.

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