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  • 1. Abarca-Gómez, L.
    et al.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Ezzati, M
    Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults.2017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10113, p. 2627-2642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults.

    METHODS: We pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5-19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5-19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity).

    FINDINGS: Regional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (-0·01 kg/m(2) per decade; 95% credible interval -0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m(2) per decade (0·69-1·35, PP>0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m(2) per decade (0·64-1·25, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m(2) per decade (-0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m(2) per decade (0·50-1·06, PP>0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4-1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8-6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5-1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7-9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0-12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8-10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4-19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3-14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7-29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5-38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44-117) million girls and 117 (70-178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24-89) million girls and 74 (39-125) million boys worldwide were obese.

    INTERPRETATION: The rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults.

  • 2.
    Andersén, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Self-efficacy, Vocational Rehabilitation and Transition to Work2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to examine the relationship between self-efficacy, individually tailored vocational rehabilitation and transition to work or studies.

    Study I was a cross-sectional study based on questionnaire- and registry data, investigating whether factors related to sick leave predict self-efficacy in women on long-term sick leave (n= 337) due to pain and/or mental illness. General self-efficacy was low. Anxiety and depression were the strongest predictors for low self-efficacy.

    Study II used longitudinal data from a randomised controlled trial, comprising partly the same women (n=401) as in Study I. Participants were allocated to either 1) assessment of multidisciplinary team and multimodal intervention (TEAM), 2) acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), or 3) control group. Self-efficacy increased in the TEAM group in comparison with the control group.

    Study III had a descriptive qualitative design with individual interviews, studying participants’ (n=14) experiences with an individually tailored vocational rehabilitation project, and encounters with professionals working in it. The participants, who were on long-term sick leave due to mental illness or pain reported overall positive experiences with the project. The project was based on collaboration between authorities and motivational interviewing. The positive experiences were based on four categories: Opportunities for receiving various dimensions of support, Good overall treatment by the professionals, Satisfaction with the working methods of the project, and Opportunities for personal development.

    Study IV was a prospective cohort study investigating perceived self-efficacy in unemployed young adults (n= 249) aged 19-29 year with disabilities, and the association between self-efficacy and transition to work or studies. The study used questionnaire- and registry data from a vocational rehabilitation project. Higher levels of self-efficacy were associated with increased odds for ‘transition to work’. General self-efficacy was low, and young adults with lower self-efficacy reported worse self-rated health compared with those with higher self-efficacy.

    This thesis showed that multidisciplinary assessment with a multimodal intervention had positive effects on self-efficacy. Individually tailored vocational rehabilitation, based on cooperation and motivational interviewing, may be beneficial for individuals on long-term sick leave and the interactions between participants and the professionals may affect participants’ self-efficacy positively. Mental health needs to be considered when targeting self-efficacy in vocational rehabilitation. Furthermore, research is needed to a) clarify which components in the multidisciplinary team intervention can increase self-efficacy, b) study the effects of vocational rehabilitation based on an individual design, cooperation and motivational interviewing on self-efficacy, health and transition to work, and c) develop interventions that can increase self-efficacy and support transition to work/ studies in young adults with disabilities.

    List of papers
    1. Predictors of self-efficacy in women on long-term sick leave
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predictors of self-efficacy in women on long-term sick leave
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 320-326Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Self-efficacy has been shown to be related to sick leave and to be a predictor of return to work after sickness absence. The aim of this study was to investigate whether factors related to sick leave predict self-efficacy in women on long-term sick leave because of pain and/or mental illness. This cross-sectional study uses baseline data from 337 Swedish women with pain and/or mental illness. All included women took part in vocational rehabilitation. Data were collected through a sick leave register and a baseline questionnaire. General self-efficacy, sociodemographics, self-rated health, anxiety, depression, view of the future, and social support were measured and analyzed by univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses. The full multivariate linear regression model, which included mental health factors together with all measured factors, showed that anxiety and depression were the only predictive factors of lower self-efficacy (adjusted R-2 = 0.46, P < 0.001) and explained 46% of the variance in self-efficacy. The mean scores of general self-efficacy were low, especially in women born abroad, those with low motivation, those with uncertainties about returning to work, and women reporting distrust. Anxiety and depression are important factors to consider when targeting self-efficacy in vocational rehabilitation.

    Keywords
    anxiety, depression, self-efficacy, sick leave, vocational rehabilitation, women
    National Category
    Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-268763 (URN)10.1097/MRR.0000000000000129 (DOI)000364627800006 ()26258448 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-12-15 Created: 2015-12-09 Last updated: 2018-01-19
    2. Strengthened General Self-Efficacy with Multidisciplinary Vocational Rehabilitation in Women on Long-Term Sick Leave: A Randomised Controlled Trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Strengthened General Self-Efficacy with Multidisciplinary Vocational Rehabilitation in Women on Long-Term Sick Leave: A Randomised Controlled Trial
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Journal of occupational rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, E-ISSN 1573-3688, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 691-700Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To investigate the effects of two vocational rehabilitation interventions on self-efficacy, for women on long-term sick leave ≥ 1 year due to chronic pain and/or mental illness. Methods This study uses data from a randomised controlled trial consisting of two phases and comprising 401 women on long-term sick leave. They were allocated to either (1) a multidisciplinary team assessment and multimodal intervention (TEAM), (2) acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), or (3) control group. Data were collected through repeated measurements from self-reported questionnaires before intervention, 6 and 12 months later and registry data. Data from measurements of general self-efficacy, sociodemographics, anxiety and depression were analysed with linear regression analyses. Results During the intervention period, the women in the TEAM group’s self-efficacy mean increased from 2.29 to 2.74. The adjusted linear regression model, which included group allocation, sociodemographics, self-efficacy pre-treatment, anxiety and depression showed increased self-efficacy for those in the TEAM intervention at 12 months (B = 0.25, 95% CI 0.10–0.41). ACT intervention had no effect on self-efficacy at 12 months (B = 0.02, 95% CI − 0.16 to 0.19). The results in the adjusted model also showed that higher self-efficacy at pre-treatment was associated with a higher level of self-efficacy at 12 months (B = 0.68, 95% CI 0.54–0.81). Conclusion A multidisciplinary team assessment and multimodal intervention increased self-efficacy in women on sick leave for an extremely long time (mean 7.8 years) who had a low mean level of self-efficacy prior to inclusion. Thus, self-efficacy needs to be addressed in vocational rehabilitation.

    Keywords
    Chronic pain, Mental illness, Multidisciplinary rehabilitation, Self-efficacy, Sick leave, Vocational rehabilitation, Women
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-339109 (URN)10.1007/s10926-017-9752-8 (DOI)000450856600011 ()29318421 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Social Insurance AgencySwedish Association of Local Authorities and RegionsVårdal Foundation
    Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
    3. Positive experiences of a vocational rehabilitation intervention for individuals on long-term sick leave, the Dirigo project: a qualitative study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Positive experiences of a vocational rehabilitation intervention for individuals on long-term sick leave, the Dirigo project: a qualitative study
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 790Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The process of returning to work after long-term sick leave can sometimes be complex. Many factors, (e.g. cooperation between different authorities and the individual as well as individual factors such as health, emotional well-being and self-efficacy) may have an impact on an individual’s ability to work. The aim of this study was to investigate clients’ experiences with an individually tailored vocational rehabilitation, the Dirigo project, and encounters with professionals working on it. The Dirigo project was based on collaboration between rehabilitation authorities, individually tailored interventions and a motivational interviewing approach. 

    Methods: A descriptive qualitative design was used with data collected through interviews. Fourteen individuals on long-term sick leave took part in individual semi-structured interviews. The interviews were analysed using content analysis.

    Results: The analysis showed overall positive experience of methods and encounters with professionals in a vocational rehabilitation project. The positive experiences were based on four key factors: 1. Opportunities for receiving various dimensions of support.  2. Good overall treatment by the professionals. 3. Satisfaction with the working methods of the project, and 4. Opportunities for personal development.

    Conclusions: The main result showed that the clients had an overall positive experience of a vocational rehabilitation project and encounters with professionals who used motivational interviewing as a communication method. The overall positive experience indicated that their interactions with the different professionals may have affected their self-efficacy in general and in relation to transition to work. The knowledge is essential for the professionals working in the area of vocational rehabilitation. However, vocational rehabilitation interventions also need a societal approach to be able to offer clients opportunities for job training and real jobs.

    Keywords
    Sick leave, vocational rehabilitation, motivational interviewing, cooperation, return-to-work, qualitative study
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Research subject
    Social Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328791 (URN)10.1186/s12889-017-4804-8 (DOI)000412684800001 ()29017504 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-08-31 Created: 2017-08-31 Last updated: 2018-01-19Bibliographically approved
    4. The relationship between self-efficacy and transition to work or studies in young adults with disabilities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The relationship between self-efficacy and transition to work or studies in young adults with disabilities
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 272-278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate perceived self-efficacy in unemployed young adults with disabilities and the association between self-efficacy and transition to work or studies.

    Methods: This prospective cohort study collected data through self-report questionnaires and registry data from a vocational rehabilitation project with young adults, aged 19-29 years. The Swedish Social Insurance Agency, the Swedish Public Employment Service and the participating municipalities identified potential participants to the study. A total of 531 participants were included in the study, of which 249 (47%) were available for analysis. Multinomial logistic regression models were carried out to estimate the associations between self-efficacy, demographic, health and employment status. The latter was coded as: “no transition to work or studies”, “transition to studies”, and “transition to work”.

    Results: A higher level of self-efficacy was associated with increased odds for “transition to work” (OR=2.37, p<0.05). This finding remained consistent when adjusting for possible confounders. The mean value of self-efficacy was low, and participants with lower self-efficacy reported worse self-rated health (p<0.001) compared with participants with higher self-efficacy.

    Conclusions: The results from this study suggest that self-efficacy should be addressed in vocational rehabilitation of young adults with disabilities in order to support their transition and integration into the labour market.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2018
    Keywords
    self-efficacy, young adults, disability, employment
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Research subject
    Social Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328794 (URN)10.1177/1403494817717556 (DOI)000429934600015 ()29569532 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    European Social Fund (ESF)Swedish Social Insurance Agency
    Available from: 2017-08-31 Created: 2017-08-31 Last updated: 2018-06-19Bibliographically approved
  • 3.
    Andersén, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Christian, Ståhl
    National Centre for Work and Rehabilitation, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Kristiansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Larsson, Kjerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Positive experiences of a vocational rehabilitation intervention for individuals on long-term sick leave, the Dirigo project: a qualitative study2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The process of returning to work after long-term sick leave can sometimes be complex. Many factors, (e.g. cooperation between different authorities and the individual as well as individual factors such as health, emotional well-being and self-efficacy) may have an impact on an individual’s ability to work. The aim of this study was to investigate clients’ experiences with an individually tailored vocational rehabilitation, the Dirigo project, and encounters with professionals working on it. The Dirigo project was based on collaboration between rehabilitation authorities, individually tailored interventions and a motivational interviewing approach. 

    Methods: A descriptive qualitative design was used with data collected through interviews. Fourteen individuals on long-term sick leave took part in individual semi-structured interviews. The interviews were analysed using content analysis.

    Results: The analysis showed overall positive experience of methods and encounters with professionals in a vocational rehabilitation project. The positive experiences were based on four key factors: 1. Opportunities for receiving various dimensions of support.  2. Good overall treatment by the professionals. 3. Satisfaction with the working methods of the project, and 4. Opportunities for personal development.

    Conclusions: The main result showed that the clients had an overall positive experience of a vocational rehabilitation project and encounters with professionals who used motivational interviewing as a communication method. The overall positive experience indicated that their interactions with the different professionals may have affected their self-efficacy in general and in relation to transition to work. The knowledge is essential for the professionals working in the area of vocational rehabilitation. However, vocational rehabilitation interventions also need a societal approach to be able to offer clients opportunities for job training and real jobs.

  • 4.
    Andersén, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Larsson, Kjerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Berglund, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Kristiansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Strengthened General Self-Efficacy with Multidisciplinary Vocational Rehabilitation in Women on Long-Term Sick Leave: A Randomised Controlled Trial2018In: Journal of occupational rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-0487, E-ISSN 1573-3688, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 691-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To investigate the effects of two vocational rehabilitation interventions on self-efficacy, for women on long-term sick leave ≥ 1 year due to chronic pain and/or mental illness. Methods This study uses data from a randomised controlled trial consisting of two phases and comprising 401 women on long-term sick leave. They were allocated to either (1) a multidisciplinary team assessment and multimodal intervention (TEAM), (2) acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), or (3) control group. Data were collected through repeated measurements from self-reported questionnaires before intervention, 6 and 12 months later and registry data. Data from measurements of general self-efficacy, sociodemographics, anxiety and depression were analysed with linear regression analyses. Results During the intervention period, the women in the TEAM group’s self-efficacy mean increased from 2.29 to 2.74. The adjusted linear regression model, which included group allocation, sociodemographics, self-efficacy pre-treatment, anxiety and depression showed increased self-efficacy for those in the TEAM intervention at 12 months (B = 0.25, 95% CI 0.10–0.41). ACT intervention had no effect on self-efficacy at 12 months (B = 0.02, 95% CI − 0.16 to 0.19). The results in the adjusted model also showed that higher self-efficacy at pre-treatment was associated with a higher level of self-efficacy at 12 months (B = 0.68, 95% CI 0.54–0.81). Conclusion A multidisciplinary team assessment and multimodal intervention increased self-efficacy in women on sick leave for an extremely long time (mean 7.8 years) who had a low mean level of self-efficacy prior to inclusion. Thus, self-efficacy needs to be addressed in vocational rehabilitation.

  • 5.
    Andersén, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Larsson, Kjerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Pingel, Ronnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kristiansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    The relationship between self-efficacy and transition to work or studies in young adults with disabilities2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 272-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate perceived self-efficacy in unemployed young adults with disabilities and the association between self-efficacy and transition to work or studies.

    Methods: This prospective cohort study collected data through self-report questionnaires and registry data from a vocational rehabilitation project with young adults, aged 19-29 years. The Swedish Social Insurance Agency, the Swedish Public Employment Service and the participating municipalities identified potential participants to the study. A total of 531 participants were included in the study, of which 249 (47%) were available for analysis. Multinomial logistic regression models were carried out to estimate the associations between self-efficacy, demographic, health and employment status. The latter was coded as: “no transition to work or studies”, “transition to studies”, and “transition to work”.

    Results: A higher level of self-efficacy was associated with increased odds for “transition to work” (OR=2.37, p<0.05). This finding remained consistent when adjusting for possible confounders. The mean value of self-efficacy was low, and participants with lower self-efficacy reported worse self-rated health (p<0.001) compared with participants with higher self-efficacy.

    Conclusions: The results from this study suggest that self-efficacy should be addressed in vocational rehabilitation of young adults with disabilities in order to support their transition and integration into the labour market.

  • 6. Bellavia, Andrea
    et al.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Orsini, Nicola
    James, Stefan K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Cannon, Christopher P
    Himmelmann, Anders
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Renlund, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Time-based measures of treatment effect: reassessment of ticagrelor and clopidogrel from the PLATO trial2017In: Open heart, E-ISSN 2053-3624, Vol. 4, no 2, article id e000557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Treatment effects to binary endpoints using time-to-event data in randomised controlled trials are typically summarised by reporting HRs derived with Cox proportional hazard models. Alternative and complementary methods include summarising the between-treatment differences on the metric time scale, quantifying the effect as delay of the event (DoE). The aim of this study was to reassess data from the PLATO study expressing the effects as the time by which the main outcomes are delayed or hastened due to treatment.

    METHODS: PLATO was a randomised controlled double-blind multicentre study (n=18,624), conducted between 2006 and 2008, which demonstrated superiority of the antiplatelet treatment ticagrelor over clopidogrel in reducing risk of several cardiovascular events. In the present study, four of the main PLATO outcomes were reassessed by calculating the time by which an event may be delayed due to the treatment.

    RESULTS: The effects of ticagrelor, as compared with clopidogrel, consisted of a substantial delay of the evaluated outcomes, ranging from 83 to 98 days over 400-day follow-up. The Delay of Events Curves showed that the effects progressively increased over time, and the significant findings were concordant with those presented in the original PLATO study.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed evidence of a beneficial effect of ticagrelor over clopidogrel, and provided the magnitude of such effects in terms of delayed event time. Investigating time-to-event data with a percentile approach allows presenting treatment effects from randomised controlled studies as absolute measures of the time by which an event may be delayed due to the treatment.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PLATO (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00391872); Results.

  • 7.
    Berglund, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Adherence to drug treatment and interpretation of treatment effects2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Suboptimal adherence to medical treatments is prevalent across several clinical conditions and can lead to treatment failure. Adherence is a far from fully explored phenomenon and there is little knowledge about how patients interpret treatment effects. Commonly used treatment evaluation measures are often relative measures, which may be difficult for lay people and patients to understand.

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate factors with relevance to adherence, to estimate treatment effects with the time-based Delay of Event (DoE) measure in anticoagulant preventive treatments, and to explore how lay people responded to the DoE measure, as compared with established measures, regarding treatment decisions and effect interpretation.

    A quantitative population-based cross-sectional design was used for Study I. Study II used data from the Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation (ARISTOTLE) clinical trial and estimated effects as DoEs. Studies III and IV were carried out as randomised survey experiments.

    The results showed that general adherence behaviour was associated with both environmental and social factors. Estimations of DoE showed that stroke or systemic embolism was delayed 181 (95% CI 76 to 287) days through twenty-two months of apixaban use, as compared with  warfarin use. The delay of major and intracranial bleeding was 206 (95% CI 130 to 281) and 392 (95% CI 249 to 535) days, respectively, due to apixaban use for twenty-two months, as compared with  warfarin use. Presenting preventive treatment effects as DoEs to lay people was associated with high willingness to initiate treatment and positive views on treatment benefits and willingness to pay for treatment.

    Non-optimal adherence was partly associated with modifiable factors and it might be possible to increase adherence by managing these factors. Estimations of DoEs in preventive treatments gave information on effects regarding delay of different outcomes; the estimation also provides tools that might be useful for interpreting and communicating treatment effects in clinical decision-making. Lay people seemed to react rationally to variations in DoE magnitude; a higher proportion accepted treatment when the magnitude was greater.

    List of papers
    1. Living environment, social support and informal caregiving are associated with health care seeking behaviour and adherence to medication treatment: a cross-sectional population study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Living environment, social support and informal caregiving are associated with health care seeking behaviour and adherence to medication treatment: a cross-sectional population study
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the well-known associations between local environment and health, few studies have focused on environment and health care utiliza-tion, for instance health care seeking behaviour or adherence. This study was aimed at analysing housing type, behaviour based on perceived local outdoor safety, social support, informal caregiving, demographics, socioeconomics, and long-term illness, and associations with health-seeking and adherence behaviours at a population level. This study used data from the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2004–2014, an annually repeated, large sample, cross-sectional, population-based sur-vey study. In all, questionnaires from 100,433 individuals were returned by post, making the response rate 52.9% (100,433/190,000). Descrip-tive statistics and multiple logistic regressions were used to investigate associations between explanatory variables and the outcomes of refrain-ing from seeking care and non-adherence behaviour. Living in rented apartment, lodger, a dorm or other was associated with reporting refrain-ing from seeking care (adjusted OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00–1.22), and non-adherence (adjusted OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.13–1.31). Refraining from go-ing out due to a perceived unsafe neighbourhood was associated with refraining from seeking care (adjusted OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.51–1.67) and non-adherence (adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.17–1.36). Social support and status as an informal caregiver was associated with higher odds of refraining from seeking medical care and non-adherence. This study suggests that living in rental housing, refraining from going out due to neighbourhood safety concerns, lack of social support or informal care-giver status are associated with lower health-seeking behaviour and non-adherence to prescribed medication.

    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379066 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-03-11
    2. Effects of apixaban compared with warfarin as gain in event-free time – a novel assessment of the results of the ARISTOTLE trial
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of apixaban compared with warfarin as gain in event-free time – a novel assessment of the results of the ARISTOTLE trial
    Show others...
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    National Category
    Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379073 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-03-11
    3. Treatment effect expressed as the novel Delay of Event measure is associated with high willingness to initiate preventive treatment - A randomized survey experiment comparing effect measures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment effect expressed as the novel Delay of Event measure is associated with high willingness to initiate preventive treatment - A randomized survey experiment comparing effect measures
    2016 (English)In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 99, no 12, p. 2005-2011Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate patients' willingness to initiate a preventive treatment and compared two established effect measures to the newly developed Delay of Events (DoE) measure that expresses treatment effect as a gain in event-free time. Methods: In this cross-sectional, randomized survey experiment in the general Swedish population, 1079 respondents (response rate 60.9%) were asked to consider a preventive cardiovascular treatment. Respondents were randomly allocated to one of three effect descriptions: DoE, relative risk reduction (RRR), or absolute risk reduction (ARR). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed investigating willingness to initiate treatment, views on treatment benefit, motivation and importance to adhere and willingness to pay for treatment. Results: Eighty-one percent were willing to take the medication when the effect was described as DoE, 83.0% when it was described as RRR and 62.8% when it was described as ARR. DoE and RRR was further associated with positive views on treatment benefit, motivation, importance to adhere and WTP. Conclusions: Presenting treatment effect as DoE or RRR was associated with a high willingness to initiate treatment. Practice implications: An approach based on the novel time-based measure DoE may be of value in clinical communication and shared decision making.

    Keywords
    Preventive measures, Adherence, Decision-making, Treatment outcome, Randomized, Survey experiment
    National Category
    Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-315088 (URN)10.1016/j.pec.2016.07.028 (DOI)000391223200012 ()27499030 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Swedish Society of Medicine
    Available from: 2017-02-08 Created: 2017-02-08 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
    4. Length of time periods in treatment effect descriptions and willingness to initiate preventive therapy: a randomised survey experiment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Length of time periods in treatment effect descriptions and willingness to initiate preventive therapy: a randomised survey experiment
    2018 (English)In: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 18, article id 106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background Common measures used to describe preventive treatment effects today are proportional, i.e. they compare the proportions of events in relative or absolute terms, however they are not easily interpreted from the patient's perspective and different magnitudes do not seem to clearly discriminate between levels of effect presented to people. Methods In this randomised cross-sectional survey experiment, performed in a Swedish population-based sample (n=1041, response rate 58.6%), the respondents, aged between 40 and 75years were given information on a hypothetical preventive cardiovascular treatment. Respondents were randomised into groups in which the treatment was described as having the effect of delaying a heart attack for different periods of time (Delay of Event,DoE): 1month, 6months or 18months. Respondents were thereafter asked about their willingness to initiate such therapy, as well as questions about how they valued the proposed therapy. ResultsLonger DoE:s were associated with comparatively greater willingness to initiate treatment. The proportions accepting treatment were 81, 71 and 46% when postponement was 18months, 6months and 1month respectively. In adjusted binary logistic regression models the odds ratio for being willing to take therapy was 4.45 (95% CI 2.72-7.30) for a DoE of 6months, and 6.08 (95% CI 3.61-10.23) for a DoE of 18months compared with a DoE of 1month. Greater belief in the necessity of medical treatment increased the odds of being willing to initiate therapy. ConclusionsLay people's willingness to initiate preventive therapy was sensitive to the magnitude of the effect presented as DoE. The results indicate that DoE is a comprehensible effect measure, of potential value in shared clinical decision-making.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BMC, 2018
    Keywords
    Medical decision-making, Risk communication, Risk perception, Necessity-concern framework
    National Category
    Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-371868 (URN)10.1186/s12911-018-0662-2 (DOI)000450786000002 ()30458757 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
  • 8.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Andersén, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Carlsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Gustavsson, Catharina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Wallman, Thorne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD).
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Multidisciplinary Intervention and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Return-to-Work and Increased Employability among Patients with Mental Illness and/or Chronic Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial2018In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 15, no 11, article id 2424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: People on long-term sick leave often have a long-lasting process back to work, where the individuals may be in multiple and recurrent states; i.e., receiving different social security benefits or working, and over time they may shift between these states. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two vocational rehabilitation programs, compared to a control, on return-to-work (RTW) or increased employability in patients on long-term sick leave due to mental illness and/or chronic pain. Methods: In this randomized controlled study, 427 women and men were allocated to either (1) multidisciplinary team management, i.e., multidisciplinary assessments and individual rehabilitation management, (2) acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), or (3) control. A positive outcome was defined as RTW or increased employability. The outcome was considered negative if the (part-time) wage was reduced or ceased, or if there was an indication of decreased employability. The outcome was measured one year after entry in the project and analyzed using binary and multinomial logistic regressions. Results: Participants in the multidisciplinary team group reported having RTW odds ratio (OR) 3.31 (95% CI 1.39-7.87) compared to the control group in adjusted models. Participants in the ACT group reported having increased employability OR 3.22 (95% CI 1.13-9.15) compared to the control group in adjusted models. Conclusions: This study of vocational rehabilitation in mainly female patients on long-term sick leave due to mental illness and/or chronic pain suggests that multidisciplinary team assessments and individually adapted rehabilitation interventions increased RTW and employability. Solely receiving the ACT intervention also increased employability.

  • 9.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Living environment, social support and informal caregiving are associated with health care seeking behaviour and adherence to medication treatment: a cross-sectional population studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the well-known associations between local environment and health, few studies have focused on environment and health care utiliza-tion, for instance health care seeking behaviour or adherence. This study was aimed at analysing housing type, behaviour based on perceived local outdoor safety, social support, informal caregiving, demographics, socioeconomics, and long-term illness, and associations with health-seeking and adherence behaviours at a population level. This study used data from the Swedish National Public Health Survey 2004–2014, an annually repeated, large sample, cross-sectional, population-based sur-vey study. In all, questionnaires from 100,433 individuals were returned by post, making the response rate 52.9% (100,433/190,000). Descrip-tive statistics and multiple logistic regressions were used to investigate associations between explanatory variables and the outcomes of refrain-ing from seeking care and non-adherence behaviour. Living in rented apartment, lodger, a dorm or other was associated with reporting refrain-ing from seeking care (adjusted OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00–1.22), and non-adherence (adjusted OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.13–1.31). Refraining from go-ing out due to a perceived unsafe neighbourhood was associated with refraining from seeking care (adjusted OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.51–1.67) and non-adherence (adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.17–1.36). Social support and status as an informal caregiver was associated with higher odds of refraining from seeking medical care and non-adherence. This study suggests that living in rental housing, refraining from going out due to neighbourhood safety concerns, lack of social support or informal care-giver status are associated with lower health-seeking behaviour and non-adherence to prescribed medication.

  • 10.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Oldgren, Jonas
    Renlund, Henrik
    Hylek, Elaine M
    Lopes, Renato D
    McMurray, John JV
    Lytsy, Per
    Effects of apixaban compared with warfarin as gain in event-free time – a novel assessment of the results of the ARISTOTLE trialManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Housing Type and Neighbourhood Safety Behaviour Predicts Self-rated Health, Psychological Well-being and Frequency of Recent Unhealthy Days: A Comparative Cross-sectional Study of the General Population in Sweden2017In: Planning practice + research, ISSN 0269-7459, E-ISSN 1360-0583, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 444-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at analysing associations among housing type, neighbourhood safety behaviour, self-rated health (SRH), psychological well-being and unhealthy days in the general population. From 2004 to 2013, 90,845 Swedes completed a questionnaire about their health, number of days with poor health, psychological well-being, housing type, and whether they refrained from going out based on perception of neighbourhood safety. People not living in private housing and those who did not go out for safety reasons reported lower SRH and psychological well-being and higher frequency of recent unhealthy days and days without work capacity due to poor health.

  • 12.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Length of time periods in treatment effect descriptions and willingness to initiate preventive therapy: a randomised survey experiment2018In: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 18, article id 106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Common measures used to describe preventive treatment effects today are proportional, i.e. they compare the proportions of events in relative or absolute terms, however they are not easily interpreted from the patient's perspective and different magnitudes do not seem to clearly discriminate between levels of effect presented to people. Methods In this randomised cross-sectional survey experiment, performed in a Swedish population-based sample (n=1041, response rate 58.6%), the respondents, aged between 40 and 75years were given information on a hypothetical preventive cardiovascular treatment. Respondents were randomised into groups in which the treatment was described as having the effect of delaying a heart attack for different periods of time (Delay of Event,DoE): 1month, 6months or 18months. Respondents were thereafter asked about their willingness to initiate such therapy, as well as questions about how they valued the proposed therapy. ResultsLonger DoE:s were associated with comparatively greater willingness to initiate treatment. The proportions accepting treatment were 81, 71 and 46% when postponement was 18months, 6months and 1month respectively. In adjusted binary logistic regression models the odds ratio for being willing to take therapy was 4.45 (95% CI 2.72-7.30) for a DoE of 6months, and 6.08 (95% CI 3.61-10.23) for a DoE of 18months compared with a DoE of 1month. Greater belief in the necessity of medical treatment increased the odds of being willing to initiate therapy. ConclusionsLay people's willingness to initiate preventive therapy was sensitive to the magnitude of the effect presented as DoE. The results indicate that DoE is a comprehensible effect measure, of potential value in shared clinical decision-making.

  • 13.
    Bixby, Honor
    et al.
    Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Epidemiology.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Yngve, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Ezzati, Majid
    Imperial College London, London, UK.
    Rising rural body-mass index is the main driver of the global obesity epidemic in adults2019In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 569, no 7755, p. 260-264Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities1,2. This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity3,4,5,6. Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary to the dominant paradigm, more than 55% of the global rise in mean BMI from 1985 to 2017-and more than 80% in some low- and middle-income regions-was due to increases in BMI in rural areas. This large contribution stems from the fact that, with the exception of women in sub-Saharan Africa, BMI is increasing at the same rate or faster in rural areas than in cities in low- and middle-income regions. These trends have in turn resulted in a closing-and in some countries reversal-of the gap in BMI between urban and rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, especially for women. In high-income and industrialized countries, we noted a persistently higher rural BMI, especially for women. There is an urgent need for an integrated approach to rural nutrition that enhances financial and physical access to healthy foods, to avoid replacing the rural undernutrition disadvantage in poor countries with a more general malnutrition disadvantage that entails excessive consumption of low-quality calories.

  • 14.
    Brooke, Hannah Louise
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Epidemiol, POB 210, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Talback, Mats
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Epidemiol, POB 210, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hornblad, Jesper
    Natl Board Hlth & Welf, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Lars Age
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Ludvigsson, Jonas Filip
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.;Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Paediat, Orebro, Sweden.;Univ Nottingham, Sch Med, Div Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Nottingham, England.;Columbia Univ Coll Phys & Surg, Dept Med, New York, NY USA..
    Druid, Henrik
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Pathol & Oncol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Feychting, Maria
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Epidemiol, POB 210, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ljung, Rickard
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Epidemiol, POB 210, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The Swedish cause of death register2017In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 32, no 9, p. 765-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has a long tradition of recording cause of death data. The Swedish cause of death register is a high quality virtually complete register of all deaths in Sweden since 1952. Although originally created for official statistics, it is a highly important data source for medical research since it can be linked to many other national registers, which contain data on social and health factors in the Swedish population. For the appropriate use of this register, it is fundamental to understand its origins and composition. In this paper we describe the origins and composition of the Swedish cause of death register, set out the key strengths and weaknesses of the register, and present the main causes of death across age groups and over time in Sweden. This paper provides a guide and reference to individuals and organisations interested in data from the Swedish cause of death register.

  • 15.
    Erdsiek, F.
    et al.
    Tech Univ Chemnitz, Fac Behav & Social Sci, Chemnitz, Germany.
    Özcebe, H.
    Hacettepe Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Ankara, Turkey.
    Üner, S.
    Hacettepe Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Ankara, Turkey.
    Caman, Ö. Karadag
    Hacettepe Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Ankara, Turkey.
    Brand, H.
    Maastricht Univ, FHML, CAPHRI, Dept Int Hlth, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Czabanowska, K.
    Maastricht Univ, FHML, CAPHRI, Dept Int Hlth, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Gershuni, O.
    Maastricht Univ, FHML, CAPHRI, Dept Int Hlth, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Daryani, Achraf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Aksakal, T.
    Tech Univ Chemnitz, Fac Behav & Social Sci, Chemnitz, Germany.
    Brzoska, P.
    Tech Univ Chemnitz, Fac Behav & Social Sci, Chemnitz, Germany.
    Rational drug use and migration: awareness and attitudes towards antibiotic use among adults in Turkey and Turkish migrants in Sweden, the Netherlands and Germany2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no Supplement: 1, p. 44-45Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Fugelstad, Anna
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Gotgatan 83E, SE-I1662 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thiblin, Ingemar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Forensic Medicine.
    Johansson, Lars Age
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Ågren, Gunnar
    Former Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Gotgatan 83E, SE-17662 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sidorchuk, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Opioid-related deaths and previous care for drug use and pain relief in Sweden2019In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 201, p. 253-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: In 2006-2014, the rate of drug-related deaths, typically opioid poisonings, more than doubled in Sweden. Opioid prescriptions for pain control or opioid agonist therapy also increased. In this retrospective study, we compared death rates between individuals whose first recorded contact with prescribed opioids was for pain control and individuals that had received substance use disorder (SUD) treatment before their first recorded opioid prescription.

    Methods: We included 2834 forensically examined individuals (ages 15-64 years) that died of poisoning in Sweden in 2006-2014. For each death we acquired data on previous opioid prescriptions and SUD treatments. We compared three study groups: pain control (n = 788); a SUD treatment group (n = 1629); and a group with no prescription for pain control or SUD treatment (n = 417).

    Results: Overall fatal poisonings increased from 2.77 to 7.79 (per 100,000 individuals) from 2006 to 2014 (relative 181% increase). Fatal poisoning increased from 2006 to 2014 by 269% in the pain control group (0.64 to 2.36 per 100,000) and by 238% in the SUD treatment group (1.35 to 4.57 per 100,000). Heroin-related deaths remained constant; consequently, the increase was likely attributable to prescription opioids.

    Conclusion: A rapid increase in deaths attributable mainly to prescription opioids for pain control, was reported previously in the United States. Our study indicated that increased access to prescription opioids might contribute to higher death rates also in Sweden among patients seeking pain control and individuals with an established SUD; however, deaths related to prescription opioids mainly occurred among those with SUDs.

  • 17.
    Grandahl, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Larsson, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Dalianis, Tina
    Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenhammar, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Tydén, Tanja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Obstetrics and Reproductive Health Research.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Nevéus, Tryggve
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Paediatric Inflammation Research.
    Catch-up HPV vaccination status of adolescents in relation to socioeconomic factors, individual beliefs and sexual behaviour2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 11, article id e0187193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2012, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination was introduced free of charge in the Swedish national school-based vaccination programme for 10-12-year-old girls, and as catch-up vaccination for young women. In Sweden, there is an ongoing discussion about including boys in the national vaccination programme. Few studies are undertaken about adolescents' knowledge, beliefs and HPV vaccination status in relation to socioeconomic status and sexual experience. Thus, the aim was to examine HPV catch-up vaccination status in adolescents in relation to 1) socioeconomic factors, 2) beliefs and knowledge about HPV prevention, and 3) sexual behaviour. The Health Belief Model was used as a theoretical framework. Upper secondary school students (n = 832) aged 16, randomly chosen from a larger sample, were invited to participate in conjunction with the general health interview with the school nurse. A total of 751/832 (90.3%), girls (n = 391, 52%) and boys (n = 360, 48%) completed the questionnaire. HPV vaccination was associated with ethnicity and the mothers' education level; i.e. girls with a non-European background and girls with a less educated mother were less likely to have received the vaccine (p<0.01 and p = 0.04 respectively). Vaccinated girls perceived HPV infection as more severe (p = 0.01), had more insight into women's susceptibility to the infection (p = 0.02), perceived more benefits of the vaccine as protection against cervical cancer (p<0.01) and had a higher intention to engage in HPV-preventive behaviour (p = 0.01). Furthermore, boys and girls were almost equally sexually experienced, although fewer girls had used condom during first intercourse with their latest partner (p = 0.03). Finally, HPV vaccinated girls were less likely to have unprotected sex (p<0.01). In summary, catch-up HPV vaccination among young girls was associated with a European background and high maternal education level, as well as more favourable beliefs towards HPV prevention and less sexual risk-taking. Further preventive measures should therefore be directed at the migrant population.

  • 18.
    Larsson, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Roshanai, Afsaneh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Ordinarie hälsokommunikation inom Stockholms län2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En viktig metod för att främja hälsa hos nyanlända migranter är hälsokommunikation på det egna modersmålet. Flera initiativ har tagits för att utveckla hälsokommunikationen med migranter i Sverige. Särskild Hälsokommunikation har införts i flera delar av landet, däribland i Stockholms län. Sedan 2015 är hälsokommunikation integrerad i Samhällsorienteringen i Stockholms län, för de flyktingar som omfattas av etableringslagen.

    I denna rapport presenteras en utvärdering av utvecklingen av den tidigare etablerade ordinarie hälsokommunikationen som ges av Stockholms läns landstings hälsokommunikatörer i tolv kommuner i länet. Syftet är att utvärdera vilka utvecklingsbehov som finns för den ordinarie hälsokommunikationen.

    Genom intervjuer med aktörer inom landsting och kommuner har vi undersökt hur de aktuella kommunerna ser på organisation och finansieringsmodeller för ordinarie hälsokommunikation. Vidare har en enkätundersökning bland deltagare i hälsokommunikationen genomförts med syfte att kartlägga vad som kännetecknar deltagarna i den ordinarie hälsokommunikationen utifrån sociodemografiska och hälsorelaterade faktorer.

    Utvärderingen pekar på flera utvecklingsområden för den ordinarie hälsokommunikationen.

    Denna hälsokommunikation skulle exempelvis i större utsträckning kunna fördjupas och inriktas mot specifika målgruppers behov. Det finns också utrymme för att utveckla samverkan med andra aktörer som når målgrupperna, såsom Arbetsförmedling, hälso- och sjukvård och socialtjänst, samt att nå manliga migranter och yngre vuxna i större utsträckning.

    Innehåll och metodik kan anpassat till målgruppens bristande hälsolitteracitet, d.v.s. förmåga att få tag på, förstå, värdera och använda sig av hälsoinformation. Det finns även ett intresse av att utveckla den lokala förankringen av verksamheten, samtidigt som den centrala samordningen och stödet har en viktig funktion. Rollfördelningen mellan de centrala funktionerna och de lokala aktörerna kan förtydligas och långsiktiga avtal anpassas till detta.

  • 19.
    Paulsson Do, Ulrica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Edlund, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Stenhammar, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    How 15- to 16-year-old Swedish adolescents experience social relationships and health-related behaviours: A qualitative study2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Health-related behaviours are associated with social relationships. Adolescence is a time when healthy and unhealthy behaviours are established. There is a need to investigate adolescents' views on how social relationships are related to health-related behaviours of adolescents in the Scandinavian welfare system. This study aimed to explore Swedish adolescents' experiences and thoughts of how social relationships in different social environments are related to health-related behaviours.

    Methods: A total of 36 adolescents aged 15-16 years were interviewed in seven focus-group sessions. Qualitative content analysis was used for analysis of the transcribed interviews.

    Results: Two themes - social context and personal management - emerged. Swedish adolescents describe that their health-related behaviours as being partly shaped by their own personal management but mainly by the social contexts that surround them. Social contexts were expressed as playing a role in the adolescents' health-related behaviours, as they provide fellowship, pressure, dependability and engagement. Fellowship with friends and family was expressed as providing healthy behaviours and high levels of well-being. Fellowship with friends was particularly important for physical activity. Close relationships were stated to influence health-related behaviours. Pressure from friends, teachers and social media were described as mainly influencing unhealthy behaviours and, to some extent, low levels of well-being. However, adolescents' personal ability illustrated how adolescents shaped their own health-related behaviours.

    Conclusions: The study results contribute to the understanding of Swedish adolescents' views on how social relationships can shape their health-related behaviours. The findings may be useful to school professionals in supporting adolescents to improve well-being and healthy behaviours.

  • 20.
    Paulsson Do, Ulrica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Edlund, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Stenhammar, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Psychosocial vulnerability underlying four common unhealthy behaviours in 15–16-year-old Swedish adolescents: a cross-sectional study2017In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 5, article id 39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Factors that influence unhealthy behaviours in adolescents may have different impacts in different sociocultural settings. There is lack of research on the association between psychosocial vulnerability and unhealthy behaviours in adolescents, particularly outside the United States. The aim was to investigate both direct and indirect relationships between psychosocial conditions (subjective well-being, social relationships and self-esteem) and four health-related behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, meal frequency and physical activity) in Swedish adolescents aged 15-16 years. Socio-demographic variables (socio-economic status, gender and age) were also investigated.

    METHODS: To study these associations, a hypothesised model was tested using structural equation modelling. In the hypothesised model, interrelated psychosocial conditions (low well-being, poor social relationships and low self-esteem) and socio-demographic factors (low self-perceived socio-economic status, being female and higher age) together represented a vulnerability underlying smoking, alcohol consumption, irregular meal frequency and low level of physical activity. In this cross-sectional study, self-report questionnaires were used to collect data from 492 adolescents.

    RESULTS: Hypothesised pathways between psychosocial conditions, socio-demographic factors and the four unhealthy behaviours were confirmed. Low well-being was strongly associated with unhealthy behaviours, and poor social relationships showed a strong indirect association with the unhealthy behaviours. Low self-esteem, low self-perceived socio-economic status and female gender were also vulnerability factors for the unhealthy behaviours.

    CONCLUSIONS: Vulnerability for four common unhealthy behaviours was found in Swedish adolescents. This study presents the interrelationships of psychosocial and socio-demographic factors and how they were related with unhealthy behaviours. The results bring new insight into how psychosocial factors are related to unhealthy behaviours in adolescents living in northern Europe.

  • 21.
    Paulsson Do, Ulrica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Stenhammar, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Edlund, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Health communication with parents and teachers and unhealthy behaviours in 15- to 16-year-old Swedes2017In: Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine, E-ISSN 2164-2850, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 229-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Unhealthy behaviours during adolescence constitute a major risk for numerous diseases in adulthood.

    Aim: To explore the associations between multiple unhealthy behaviours in adolescents and health behaviour information communicated by their parents and teachers, how much the adolescents cared about this information and whether adolescents went to schools with an annual health-themed week or not.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a self-reported questionnaire was delivered to pupils aged 15 and 16 (n = 492). The results were analysed using Poisson regression.

    Results: The number of unhealthy behaviours was lower in adolescents whose parents encouraged them to adopt healthy behaviours. Adolescents at schools with an annual health-themed week reported more unhealthy behaviours than other adolescents. In addition, attendance at such schools did not compensate for a lack of health behaviour information communicated by parents. Caring about health behaviour information communicated by parents was associated with fewer unhealthy behaviours. In contrast, the opposite was found when adolescents cared about health information communicated by teachers.

    Conclusion: It is important for parents to encourage their adolescent children to adopt healthy behaviours because this is particularly effective at lowering the number of unhealthy behaviours in adolescents. It also appears to be important for parents and teachers to develop credibility among adolescents regarding information communicated about health issues. The results also indicate the importance of involving parents in the school health work to influence them to encourage their adolescent children to adopt healthy behaviours.

  • 22.
    Ståhl, Christian
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Natl Ctr Work & Rehabil, S-58381 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Andersén, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Larsson, Kjerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Karolinska Inst, Sect Social Work, Dept Neurobiol, Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Process evaluation of an interorganizational cooperation initiative in vocational rehabilitation: the Dirigo project2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, article id 431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study analyzes the process of establishing and developing a cooperative vocational rehabilitation project with special focus on organizational and professional aspects. In the project, officials from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency and the Swedish Public Employment Service worked cooperatively with participants on long-term sick leave, youths with disability benefits, and people receiving social allowances. The officials used Motivational Interviewing (MI) as a method when meeting participants, and were able to offer flexible and tailored case management. The goal was to improve work ability and promote self-sufficiency.

    Methods: The process evaluation was carried out through continuous data collection throughout the project (2012-2014), resulting in a total of 28 individual interviews and 17 focus groups with officials and managers. The material was categorized through an inductive content analysis, and analyzed using social capital as a theoretical frame.

    Results: The evaluation points to how issues related to design, organization and management contributed to the project not reaching its goals, e.g. problems with recruitment of participants, the funding structure, and staffing problems on the managerial level. Still, officials reported positive effects of close cooperation, which was perceived as facilitating the case management by fostering a mutual understanding and access to resources and rehabilitation measures from more than one authority.

    Conclusions: Cooperative work combined with the use of MI and flexible case management seem to promote an increased trust between officials from different authorities and participants, which in the study is conceptualized as bonding and bridging social capital (between officials) and linking social capital (between officials and participants). The organizational problems combined with the relatively large differences in approaches between the project and regular practice obstructed implementation, where the authorities involved did not appear to be ready for implementing methodologies that require organizational restructuring.

  • 23.
    Sundström, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Epidemiology.
    Nowrouzi, Shamim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Marttala, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ekman, Inger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Öhagen, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Östlund, Ollie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    The Precision HYpertenSIon Care (PHYSIC) study: a double-blind, randomized, repeated cross-over study2019In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 124, no 1, p. 51-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High blood pressure is the leading risk factor for premature deaths and a major cost to societies worldwide. Effective blood pressure-lowering drugs are available, but patient adherence to them is low, likely partly due to side effects. To identify patient-specific differences in treatment effects, a repeated cross-over design, where the same treatment contrasts are repeated within each patient, is needed. Such designs have been surprisingly rarely used, given the current focus on precision medicine. The Precision HYpertenSIon Care (PHYSIC) study aims to investigate if there is a consistent between-person variation in blood pressure response to the common blood pressure-lowering drug classes of a clinically relevant magnitude, given the within-person variation in blood pressure. The study will also investigate the between-person variation in side effects of the drugs. In a double-blind, randomized, repeated cross-over trial, 300 patients with mild hypertension will be treated with four blood pressure-lowering drugs (candesartan, lisinopril, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide) in monotherapy, with two of the drugs repeated for each patient. If the study indicates that there is a potential for precision hypertension care, the most promising predictors of blood pressure and side effect response to the drugs will be explored, as will the potential for development of a biomarker panel to rank the suitability of blood pressure-lowering drug classes for individual patients in terms of anticipated blood pressure effects and side effects, with the ultimate goal to maximize adherence. The study follows a protocol pre-registered at ClinicalTrials.gov with the identifier NCT02774460.

  • 24.
    Uner,, S
    et al.
    Hacettepe Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Ankara, Turkey.
    Caman,, OK
    Hacettepe Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Ankara, Turkey.
    Brzoska,, P
    Tech Univ Chemnitz, Fac Behav & Social Sci, Chemnitz, Germany.
    Erdsiek, F
    Tech Univ Chemnitz, Fac Behav & Social Sci, Chemnitz, Germany.
    Brand,, H
    Maastricht Univ, Dept Int Hlth, FHML, CAPHRI, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Czabanowska, K
    Maastricht Univ, Dept Int Hlth, FHML, CAPHRI, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Gershuni, O
    Maastricht Univ, Dept Int Hlth, FHML, CAPHRI, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Daryani, Achraf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Aksakal, T
    Tech Univ Chemnitz, Fac Behav & Social Sci, Chemnitz, Germany.
    Use of antibiotics among adults in Turkey and Turkish migrants in Germany, Netherlands and Sweden2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, p. 184-184Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Wangmar, Johanna
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jervaeus, Anna
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fritzell, Kaisa
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Hultcrantz, Rolf
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Health literacy levels and views about being invited to a colorectal cancer screening program2018In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 743-749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Sweden has not yet implemented a national screening program for colorectal cancer, but a nationwide study is ongoing; the Screening of Swedish Colons (SCREESCO). Previous research shows that the use of health care services, together with several health-related outcomes, is associated with an individual's level of health literacy. However, the relation between health literacy and participation in colorectal cancer screening has produced varying results reported within the few studies addressing this issue and therefore, further research is warranted.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim was to explore health literacy and views about being invited to screening, among participants and non-participants in a national colorectal cancer screening program. They were randomly sampled to fecal immunochemical test or colonoscopy and a mixed methods approach was applied, using questionnaires, focus group discussions and interviews.

    RESULTS: The majority of individuals, whether they were participants or non-participants in the SCREESCO program, had an acceptable level of health literacy and no significant differences in health literacy levels between the groups were found. Participants expressed that it was important and appreciated to be able to choose information sources on an individual basis. Among non-participants, the importance of receiving invitations with a clear message that quickly draws one's attention was highlighted. However, both groups expressed a positive outlook towards the invitation. The mixed methods approach revealed that findings from interviews and focus group discussions corresponded to items in the health literacy scales.

    CONCLUSION: A majority of individuals displayed acceptable levels of health literacy, regardless of whether they chose to participate or not. Similarities between the groups were seen in the qualitative findings regarding views of the invitation. Currently, the SCREESCO invitation letter is distributed by regular mail, but in the future a more dynamic approach could be valuable to increase clarity in the message about importance of screening.

  • 26.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Experiences of the Health Examination for Asylum Seekers - Focus Groups with Refugees in Sweden2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Refugees experiences of health information in the civic orientation - Health literacy does matter2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Al Adhami, Maissa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Refugees experiences of health information in the civic orientation: Health literacy does matter2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Al Adhami, Maissa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Refugees experiences of health information inthe civic orientation: Health literacy does matter2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Dept Neurosci & Physiol Occupat Therapy, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Comprehensive health literacy is associated with experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers - A Swedish cross-sectional study2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 136-136Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Health literacy and refugees’ experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers: a Swedish cross-sectional study2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Health literacy and refugees’ experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers: a Swedish cross-sectional study2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Poor health and refraining from seeking healthcare are associated with limited comprehensive health literacy among refugees: a Swedish cross-sectional study2018In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 409-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to explore the distributions of comprehensive health literacy (CHL), general health, psychological well-being and having refrained from seeking healthcare among refugees in Sweden. Further objectives were to examine associations between CHL and the above mentioned factors.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 refugees speaking Arabic, Dari and Somali. Participants in the civic orientation course in Sweden responded to a questionnaire. CHL was measured using the HLS-EU-Q16 questionnaire. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression was used to investigate potential associations.

    Results: The majority of the respondents had limited CHL, and about four of ten had reported poor health and/or having refrained from seeking healthcare. Limited CHL was associated with having reported poor health and having refrained from seeking healthcare. 

    Conclusions: A considerable proportion of the refugees in Sweden have limited CHL, and report less than good health and impaired well-being, or that they have refrained from seeking healthcare. Further, CHL is associated with the above mentioned factors. Efforts are needed to promote refugees' CHL, optimal health seeking behavior, and health.

  • 34.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Experiences of the Health Examination for Asylum Seeker: Focus Group Discussions with Arabic and Somali Speaking Refugees in Sweden2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Experiences of the Health Examination for Asylum Seeker: Focus Group Discussions with Arabic and Somali Speaking Refugees in Sweden2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Experiences of the Health Examination for Asylum Seeker: Focus Group Discussions with Arabic and Somali Speaking Refugees in Sweden2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Experiences of the HealthExamination for Asylum Seeker: Focus Group Discussions with Arabic and Somali Speaking Refugees in Sweden2017Conference paper (Refereed)
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    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Refugees' experiences of health information during civic orientation in Sweden: health literacy does matter2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 136-136Article in journal (Other academic)
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    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Dept Neurosci & Physiol Occupat Therapy, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Experiences of the health examination for asylum seekers - focus group discussions with Arabic and Somali speaking refugees in Sweden2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 135-136Article in journal (Other academic)
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    Wångdahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Experiences of the Health Examination for Asylum Seekers: Focus Group Discussions with Arabic and Somali Speaking Refugees in SwedenIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
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    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
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    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England;Univ Kent, Canterbury, Kent, England.
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    Middlesex Univ, London, England.
    Bixby, Honor
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
    Danaei, Goodarz
    Harvard TH Chan, Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.
    Hajifathalian, Kaveh
    Cleveland Clin, Cleveland, OH USA.
    Taddei, Cristina
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.
    Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.
    Djalalinia, Shirin
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran. Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Qods, Iran.
    Khatibzadeh, Shahab
    Brandeis Univ, Waltham, MA USA.
    Lugero, Charles
    Mulago Hosp, Kampala, Uganda.
    Peykari, Niloofar
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran. Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Qods, Iran;Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Tehran, Iran.
    Zhang, Wan Zhu
    Uganda Heart Inst, Kampala, Uganda.
    Bennett, James
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
    Bilano, Ver
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
    Stevens, Gretchen A.
    World Hlth Org, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Cowan, Melanie J.
    World Hlth Org, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Riley, Leanne M.
    World Hlth Org, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Chen, Zhengming
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England.
    Hambleton, Ian R.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Barbados.
    Jackson, Rod T.
    Univ Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Kengne, Andre Pascal
    South African Med Res Council, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Seoul, South Korea.
    Laxmaiah, Avula
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Liu, Jing
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing An Zhen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China;Capital Med Univ, Beijing Zhen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran. Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Qods, Iran;Shiraz Univ Med Sci, Shiraz, Iran.
    Neuhauser, Hannelore K.
    Robert Koch Inst, Berlin, Germany;Robert Koch Inst, Berlin, Germany;German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Munich, Germany;German Ctr Cardiovascular Res, Gottingen, Germany.
    Soric, Maroje
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia;Univ Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Starc, Gregor
    Univ Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia;Univ Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Woodward, Mark
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England;Univ Oxford, Oxford, England;Univ New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia;Univ New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia.
    Ezzati, Majid
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
    Abarca-Gomez, Leandra
    Caja Costarricense Seguro Social, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Abdeen, Ziad A.
    Al Quds Univ, Al bireh, Palestine.
    Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.
    Birzeit Univ, Birzeit, Israel.
    Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin
    Inst Mexicano Seguro Social, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Adams, Robert J.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Aekplakorn, Wichai
    Mahidol Univ, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand.
    Afsana, Kaosar
    BRAC, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.
    Inst Nacl Ciencias Med & Nutr Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Agyemang, Charles
    Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Ahmad, Noor Ani
    Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.
    Ahmadvand, Alireza
    Non Communicable Dis Res Ctr, Shiraz, Iran.
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    BIPS, Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol, Bremen, Germany.
    Ajlouni, Kamel
    Natl Ctr Diabet & Endocrinol, Amman, Jordan.
    Akhtaeva, Nazgul
    Kazakh Natl Med Univ, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan.
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
    King Abdulaziz Univ, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Ali, Mohamed M.
    World Hlth Org, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Ali, Osman
    Univ Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg.
    Aly, Eman
    World Hlth Org Reg Off Eastern Mediterranean, Nasr City, Egypt.
    Amarapurkar, Deepak N.
    Bombay Hosp & Med Res Ctr, Bombay, Maharashtra, India;Med Res Ctr, Bombay, Maharashtra, India.
    Amouyel, Philippe
    Lille Univ & Hosp, Lille, France.
    Amuzu, Antoinette
    London Sch Hyg Trop Med, London, England.
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    Western Norway Univ Appl Sci, Bergen, Norway.
    Anderssen, Sigmund A.
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Angquist, Lars H.
    Frederiksberg Univ Hosp, Frederiksberg, Denmark;Bispebjerg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Anjana, Ranjit Mohan
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Ansong, Daniel
    Komfo Anokye Teaching Hosp, Kumasi, Ghana.
    Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Araujo, Joana
    Univ Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Ariansen, Inger
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.
    Aris, Tahir
    Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.
    Arlappa, Nimmathota
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Arveiler, Dominique
    Strasbourg Univ & Hosp, Strasbourg, France.
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    Nepal Hlth Res Council, Kathmandu, Nepal.
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    Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Assah, Felix K.
    Univ Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Assuncao, Maria Cecilia F.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.
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    Reg Author Publ Hlth, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia.
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    Univ Porto, Med Sch, Porto, Portugal.
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
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    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India.
    Bahijri, Suhad
    King Abdulaziz Univ, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Balakrishna, Nagalla
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed
    Univ Sci & Technol, Taizi, Yemen.
    Banach, Maciej
    Bandosz, Piotr
    Banegas, Jose R.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Barbagallo, Carlo M.
    Univ Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Barcelo, Alberto
    Pan Amer Hlth Org, Washington, DC USA.
    Barkat, Amina
    Univ Mohammed V Rabat, Rabat, Morocco.
    Barros, Aluisio J. D.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.
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    Univ Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil.
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    Dalhousie Univ, Halifax, NS, Canada.
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    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Irbid, Jordan.
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    Kazakh Natl Med Univ, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan.
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    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
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    Univ Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
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    Univ Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia.
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    CAFAM Univ Fdn, Bogota, Colombia.
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    Univ Utah, Sch Med, Salt Lake City, UT USA.
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    Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.
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    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Bettiol, Heloisa
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
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    BJ Med Coll, Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India.
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    Chirayu Med Coll, Bhopal, India.
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    SL Jain Hosp, Delhi, India.
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    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
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    Ufa Eye Res Inst, Ufa, Russia.
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    Nepal Hlth Res Council, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Bjerregaard, Peter
    Univ Greenland, Nuuk, Greenland;Univ Southern, Odense, Denmark.
    Bjertness, Espen
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Bjertness, Marius B.
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Bjorkelund, Cecilia
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blokstra, Anneke
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Bilthoven, Netherlands.
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    Univ Turin, Turin, Italy.
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    UCL, London, England.
    Boeing, Heiner
    German Inst Human Nutr, Berlin, Germany.
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    Univ Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay.
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    CEMIC, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
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    Toulouse Univ, Sch Med, Toulouse, France.
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    Univ Hosp Varese, Varese, Italy.
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    Minist Hlth, Victoria, Seychelles;Univ Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
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    Univ Cent Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.
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    World Hlth Org, Geneva, Switzerland.
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    Bielefeld Univ, Bielefeld, Germany.
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    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany.
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    Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
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    Univ Turin, Turin, Italy.
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    National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, The Netherlands.
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    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
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    Cork Inst Technol, Cork, Ireland.
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    Hadassah Hebrew Univ, Med Ctr, Jerusalem, Israel.
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    Univ La Laguna, San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain.
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    Univ Malta, Msida, Malta.
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    Vanderbilt Univ, 221 Kirkland Hall, Nashville, TN 37235 USA.
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    Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Res Inst, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
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    Istanbul Univ, Istanbul, Turkey.
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    Univ Fed Juiz De Fora, Juiz De Fora, Brazil.
    Capuano, Vincenzo
    Cardiol Mercato S Severino, Mercato San Severino, Italy.
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    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
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    Karolinska Inst, Solna, Sweden.
    Carvalho, Maria J.
    Univ Porto, Porto, Portugal.
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    Univ Santiago Compostela, Santiago, Spain.
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    UCL, London, England.
    Caserta, Carmelo A.
    Chamukuttan, Snehalatha
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    Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore.
    Chan, Queenie
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
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    Natl Inst Med Stat, New Delhi, India.
    Chaturvedi, Nishi
    UCL, London, England.
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    Acad Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
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    Capital Inst Pediat, Beijing, Peoples R China. Duke Univ, Durham, NC USA.
    Chen, Huashuai
    Chen, Shuohua
    Kailuan Gen Hosp, Tangshan, Peoples R China.
    Cheng, Ching-Yu
    Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore.
    Cherkaoui Dekkaki, Imane
    Univ Mohammed V Rabat, Rabat, Morocco.
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    Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Chiolero, Arnaud
    Univ Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Chiou, Shu-Ti
    Minist Hlth & Welf, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Chirita-Emandi, Adela
    Victor Babes Univ Med & Pharm Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania.
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    Murcia Reg Hlth Council, Murcia, Spain.
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    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea.
    Cho, Yumi
    Korea Centers Dis Control & Prevent, Cheongju, South Korea.
    Christofaro, Diego G.
    Univ Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Chudek, Jerzy
    Med Univ Silesia, Katowice, Poland.
    Cifkova, Renata
    Charles Univ Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Cinteza, Eliza
    Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm, Bucharest, Romania.
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    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Clays, Els
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Concin, Hans
    Agcy Prevent & Social Med, Vienna, Austria.
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Univ Southampton, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Cooper, Rachel
    UCL, London, England.
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    Cork Inst Technol, Cork, Ireland.
    Costanzo, Simona
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy.
    Cottel, Dominique
    Inst Pasteur, Lille, France.
    Cowell, Chris
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Craig, Cora L.
    Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Res Inst, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
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    CIBEROBN, Madrid, Spain.
    Cruz, Juan J.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    D'Arrigo, Graziella
    Natl Council Res, Rome, Italy.
    d'Orsi, Eleonora
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.
    Dallongeville, Jean
    Inst Pasteur, Lille, France.
    Damasceno, Albertino
    Eduardo Mondlane Univ, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Dankner, Rachel
    Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Dantoft, Thomas M.
    Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Dauchet, Luc
    Lille Univ & Hosp, Lille, France.
    Davletov, Kairat
    Kazakh Natl Med Univ, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan.
    De Backer, Guy
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    De Bacquer, Dirk
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    de Gaetano, Giovanni
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy.
    De Henauw, Stefaan
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    de Oliveira, Paula Duarte
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.
    De Smedt, Delphine
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Deepa, Mohan
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Dehghan, Abbas
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Delisle, Helene
    Univ Montreal, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Deschamps, Valerie
    French Publ Hlth Agcy, St Maurice, France.
    Dhana, Klodian
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy.
    Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares
    Univ Do Vale Do Rio Dos Sinos, Sao Leopoldo, Brazil.
    Diaz, Alejandro
    Natl Council Sci & Tech Res, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Dickerson, Ty T.
    Univ Utah, Sch Med, Salt Lake City, UT USA.
    Do, Ha T. P.
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Dobson, Annette J.
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Donfrancesco, Chiara
    Ist Super Sanita, Rome, Italy.
    Donoso, Silvana P.
    Univ Cuenca, Cuenca, Ecuador.
    Doering, Angela
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Oberschleissheim, Germany.
    Dorobantu, Maria
    Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm, Bucharest, Romania.
    Doua, Kouamelan
    Minist Sante & Lutte Contre Sida, Abidjan, Cote Ivoire.
    Drygas, Wojciech
    Cardinal Wyszynski Inst Cardiol, Warsaw, Poland.
    Dulskiene, Virginija
    Dzakula, Aleksandar
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania;Univ Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Dzerve, Vilnis
    Univ Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta
    Eggertsen, Robert
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    El Ati, Jalila
    Natl Inst Nutr & Food Technol, Tunis, Tunisia. Inst Hosp Del Mar dInvest Med, Barcelona, Spain.
    Elliott, Paul
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
    Elosua, Roberto
    Erasmus, Rajiv T.
    Univ Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Erem, Cihangir
    Karadeniz Tech Univ, Trabzon, Turkey.
    Eriksen, Louise
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Johan G.
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge
    Inst Mexicano Seguro Social, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    Evans, Alun
    Queens Univ Belfast, Belfast, Antrim, North Ireland.
    Faeh, David
    Univ Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Fall, Caroline H.
    Univ Southampton, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran. Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Qods, Iran.
    Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.
    Centro Salud Villanueva Norte, Villanueva de la Serena, Spain.
    Ferguson, Trevor S.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.
    Fernandes, Romulo A.
    Univ Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Fernandez-Berges, Daniel
    Hosp Don Benito Villanueva Serena, Badajoz, Spain.
    Ferrante, Daniel
    Minist Hlth, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Ferrari, Marika
    Council Agr Res & Econ, Arezzo, Italy.
    Ferreccio, Catterina
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Ferrieres, Jean
    Toulouse Univ, Sch Med, Toulouse, France.
    Finn, Joseph D.
    Univ Manchester, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Fischer, Krista
    Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Foger, Bernhard
    Agcy Prevent & Social Med, Vienna, Austria.
    Foo, Leng Huat
    Univ Sains Malaysia, George Town, Malaysia.
    Forslund, Ann-Sofie
    Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden.
    Forsner, Maria
    Dalarna Univ, Falun, Sweden.
    Fouad, Heba M.
    World Hlth Org Reg Off Eastern Mediterranean, Nasr City, Egypt.
    Francis, Damian K.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Barbados.
    Franco, Maria do Carmo
    Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Frontera, Guillermo
    Hosp Univ Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
    Fuchs, Flavio D.
    Hosp Clin Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Fuchs, Sandra C.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Fujita, Yuki
    Kindai Univ, Higashiosaka, Osaka, Japan.
    Furusawa, Takuro
    Kyoto Univ, Kyoto, Japan.
    Gaciong, Zbigniew
    Med Univ Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Galvano, Fabio
    Univ Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manoli
    CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ, Madrid, Spain.
    Gareta, Dickman
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa.
    Garnett, Sarah P.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Gaspoz, Jean-Michel
    Geneva Univ Hosp, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Gasull, Magda
    CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ, Madrid, Spain.
    Gates, Louise
    Australian Bur Stat, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Wageningen Univ, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Ghasemian, Anoosheh
    Non Communicable Dis Res Ctr, Shiraz, Iran.
    Ghimire, Anup
    B P Koirala Inst Hlth Sci, Dharan, Nepal.
    Giampaoli, Simona
    Ist Super Sanita, Rome, Italy.
    Gianfagna, Francesco
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy;Univ Insubria, Varese, Italy.
    Gill, Tiffany K.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Giovannelli, Jonathan
    Lille Univ & Hosp, Lille, France.
    Goldsmith, Rebecca A.
    Minist Hlth, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Goncalves, Helen
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.
    Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Rivas, Juan P.
    Andes Clin Cardio Metab Studies, Merida, Venezuela.
    Bonet Gorbea, Mariano
    Natl Inst Hyg Epidemiol & Microbiol, Havana, Cuba.
    Gottrand, Frederic
    Univ Lille 2, Lille, France.
    Graff-Iversen, Sidsel
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.
    Grafnetter, Dusan
    Inst Clin & Expt Med, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Grajda, Aneta
    Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Warsaw, Poland.
    Grammatikopoulou, Maria G.
    Alexander Technol Educ Inst, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Gregor, Ronald D.
    Dalhousie Univ, Halifax, NS, Canada.
    Grodzicki, Tomasz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Med Coll, Krakow, Poland.
    Grontved, Anders
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Grosso, Giuseppe
    Azienda Ospedaliera Univ Policlinico Vittorio Ema, Catania, Italy.
    Gruden, Gabriella
    Univ Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Grujic, Vera
    Univ Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Gu, Dongfeng
    Natl Ctr Cardiovasc Dis, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Guan, Ong Peng
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore.
    Gudmundsson, Elias F.
    Iceland Heart Assoc, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Univ Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Guerrero, Ramiro
    Univ Icesi, Cali, Colombia.
    Guessous, Idris
    Geneva Univ Hosp, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Guimaraes, Andre L.
    Univ Estadual Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Brazil. Kings Coll London, London, England.
    Gulliford, Martin C.
    Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna
    Iceland Heart Assoc, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Gunter, Marc
    Int Agcy Res Canc, Lyon, France.
    Gupta, Prakash C.
    Healis Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth, Navi Mumbai, India.
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Eternal Heart Care Ctr & Res Inst, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
    Gureje, Oye
    Univ Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
    Gurzkowska, Beata
    Inst Clin & Expt Med, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Gutierrez, Laura
    Inst Clin Effectiveness & Hlth Policy, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Gutzwiller, Felix
    Univ Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hadaegh, Farzad
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Danish Canc Soc Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hardy, Rebecca
    UCL, London, England.
    Kumar, Rachakulla Hari
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Hata, Jun
    Kyushu Univ, Fukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Hayes, Alison J.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    He, Jiang
    Tulane Univ, New Orleans, LA USA.
    He, Yuna
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Henriques, Ana
    Univ Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Hernandez Cadena, Leticia
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.
    Herrala, Sauli
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Oulu, Finland.
    Heshmat, Ramin
    Chron Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England.
    Ho, Sai Yin
    Univ Hong Kong, Hong Hom, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Ho, Suzanne C.
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Hom, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Hobbs, Michael
    Univ Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Hofman, Albert
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Dinc, Gonul Horasan
    Celal Bayar Univ, Manisa, Turkey.
    Horimoto, Andrea R. V. R.
    Heart Inst, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Hormiga, Claudia M.
    Fdn Oftalmol Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia.
    Horta, Bernardo L.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.
    Houti, Leila
    Howitt, Christina
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Barbados.
    Htay, Thein Thein
    Independent Publ Hlth Specialist, Yangon, Myanmar.
    Htet, Aung Soe
    Minist Hlth, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Htike, Maung Maung Than
    Minist Hlth, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Hu, Yonghua
    Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Maria Huerta, Jose
    CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ, Madrid, Spain.
    Huisman, Martijn
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Husseini, Abdullatif S.
    Birzeit Univ, Birzeit, Palestine.
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Int Agcy Res Canc, Lyon, France.
    Hwalla, Nahla
    Amer Univ Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Iacoviello, Licia
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy;Univ Insubria, Varese, Italy.
    Iannone, Anna G.
    Cardiol Mercato S Severino, Mercato San Severino, Italy.
    Ibrahim, Mohsen M.
    Cairo Univ, Cairo, Egypt.
    Wong, Norazizah Ibrahim
    Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.
    Ikeda, Nayu
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Irazola, Vilma E.
    Inst Clin Effectiveness & Hlth Policy, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Islam, Muhammad
    Aga Khan Univ, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Ismail, Aziz al-Safi
    Univ Sains Malaysia, George Town, Malaysia.
    Ivkovic, Vanja
    UHC Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Iwasaki, Masanori
    Niigata Univ, Niigata, Japan.
    Jacobs, Jeremy M.
    Hadassah Univ Med Ctr, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Jaddou, Hashem
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Irbid, Jordan.
    Jafar, Tazeen
    Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore.
    Jamrozik, Konrad
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Janszky, Imre
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway.
    Jasienska, Grazyna
    Jagiellonian Univ, Med Coll, Krakow, Poland.
    Jelakovic, Ana
    UHC Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Jelakovic, Bojan
    Univ Zagreb, Coll Med, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Jennings, Garry
    Heart Fdn, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Jeong, Seung-lyeal
    Natl Hlth Insurance Serv, Jeonju, South Korea.
    Jiang, Chao Qiang
    Guangzhou 12th Hosp, Guangzhou, Peoples R China.
    Joffres, Michel
    Simon Fraser Univ, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Johansson, Mattias
    Int Agcy Res Canc, Lyon, France.
    Jokelainen, Jari J.
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Oulu, Finland.
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Jorgensen, Torben
    Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, Glostrup, Denmark.
    Joshi, Pradeep
    World Hlth Org Country Off, Delhi, India.
    Jozwiak, Jacek
    Czestochowa Tech Univ, Czestochowa, Poland.
    Juolevi, Anne
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Jurak, Gregor
    Univ Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Juresa, Vesna
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Kafatos, Anthony
    Univ Crete, Iraklion, Greece.
    Kajantie, Eero O.
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra
    Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi
    Univ Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia.
    Karki, Khem B.
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran. Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Qods, Iran.
    Katz, Joanne
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Baltimore, MD USA.
    Kauhanen, Jussi
    Univ Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Kaur, Prabhdeep
    Natl Inst Epidemiol, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Kavousi, Maryam
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Kazakbaeva, Gyulli
    Ufa Eye Res Inst, Ufa, Russia.
    Keil, Ulrich
    Univ Munster, Munster, Germany.
    Boker, Lital Keinan
    Israel Ctr Dis Control, Tel Hashomer, Israel.
    Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Oulu, Finland.
    Kelishadi, Roya
    Res Inst Primordial Prevent Non communicable Dis, Esfahan, Iran.
    Kemper, Han C. G.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Kengne, Andre P.
    South African Med Res Council, Durban, South Africa.
    Kerimkulova, Alina
    Kyrgyz State Med Acad, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
    Kersting, Mathilde
    Res Inst Child Nutr, Bonn, Germany.
    Key, Timothy
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England.
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Irbid, Jordan.
    Khalili, Davood
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Khateeb, Mohammad
    Natl Ctr Diabet & Endocrinol, Amman, Jordan.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, England.
    Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Kiechl, Stefan
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Killewo, Japhet
    Muhimbili Univ Hlth & Allied Sci, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Kim, Jeongseon
    Natl Canc Ctr, Goyang, South Korea.
    Kim, Yeon-Yong
    Natl Hlth Insurance Serv, Jeonju, South Korea.
    Klumbiene, Jurate
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Knoflach, Michael
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Kolle, Elin
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Kolsteren, Patrick
    Inst Trop Med, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Korrovits, Paul
    Tartu Univ Clin, Tartu, Estonia.
    Koskinen, Seppo
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kouda, Katsuyasu
    Kindai Univ, Higashiosaka, Osaka, Japan.
    Kowlessur, Sudhir
    Minist Hlth & Qual Life, Port Louis, Mauritius.
    Koziel, Slawomir
    Polish Acad Sci, Anthropol Unit, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Kriemler, Susi
    Univ Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Kristensen, Peter Lund
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Krokstad, Steinar
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway.
    Kromhout, Daan
    Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Kruger, Herculina S.
    North West Univ, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Kubinova, Ruzena
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kuciene, Renata
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Kuh, Diana
    UCL, London, England.
    Kujala, Urho M.
    Univ Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Kulaga, Zbigniew
    Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Warsaw, Poland.
    Kumar, R. Krishna
    Amrita Inst Med Sci, Kochi, Kerala, India. Cardinal Wyszynski Inst Cardiol, Warsaw, Poland.
    Kurjata, Pawel
    Kusuma, Yadlapalli S.
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India.
    Kuulasmaa, Kari
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kyobutungi, Catherine
    African Populat & Hlth Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lachat, Carl
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Lam, Tai Hing
    Univ Hong Kong, Hong Hom, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Landrove, Orlando
    Minist Salud Publ, Havana, Cuba.
    Lanska, Vera
    Inst Clin & Expt Med, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Lappas, Georg
    Sahlgrens Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larijani, Bagher
    Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Laugsand, Lars E.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway.
    Bao, Khanh Le Nguyen
    Le, Tuyen D.
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Leclercq, Catherine
    Food & Agr Org United Nat, Rome, Italy.
    Lee, Jeannette
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Lee, Jeonghee
    Natl Canc Ctr, Goyang, South Korea.
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Tampere, Finland.
    Leon-Munoz, Luz M.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Levitt, Naomi S.
    Univ Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa.
    Li, Yanping
    Harvard TH Chan, Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.
    Lilly, Christa L.
    West Virginia Univ, Morgantown, WV USA.
    Lim, Wei-Yen
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.
    Oswaldo Cruz Fdn Rene Rachou Res Inst, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Lin, Hsien-Ho
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Lin, Xu
    Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Linneberg, Allan
    Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Litwin, Mieczyslaw
    Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Warsaw, Poland.
    Lorbeer, Roberto
    Univ Med Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Eugenio Lozano, Jose
    Consejeria Sanidad Junta de Castilla & Leon, Valladolid, Spain.
    Luksiene, Dalia
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Lundqvist, Annamari
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Lunet, Nuno
    Univ Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Ma, Jun
    Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Machado-Coelho, George L. L.
    Univ Fed Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil.
    Machi, Suka
    Jikei Univ, Sch Med, Tokyo, Japan.
    Maggi, Stefania
    CNR, Rome, Italy.
    Magliano, Dianna J.
    Baker Heart & Diabet Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Magriplis, Emmanuella
    Agr Univ Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Majer, Marjeta
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Makdisse, Marcia
    Hosp Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Malhotra, Rahul
    Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore.
    Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, India.
    Malyutina, Sofia
    Inst Internal & Prevent Med, Moscow, Russia.
    Manios, Yannis
    Harokopio Univ, Kallithea, Greece.
    Mann, Jim I.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Manzato, Enzo
    Univ Padua, I-35100 Padua, Italy.
    Margozzini, Paula
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Marques-Vidal, Pedro
    Lausanne Univ Hosp, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Marques, Larissa Pruner
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.
    Marrugat, Jaume
    CIBERCV, Madrid, Spain.
    Martorell, Reynaldo
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA USA.
    Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Tromso, Norway.
    Matijasevich, Alicia
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Matsha, Tandi E.
    Cape Peninsula Univ Technol, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Mbanya, Jean Claude N.
    Univ Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Posso, Anselmo J. Mc Donald
    Gorgas Mem Inst Hlth Studies, Panama City, Panama.
    McFarlane, Shelly R.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.
    McGarvey, Stephen T.
    Brown Univ, Providence, RI USA.
    McLachlan, Stela
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    McLean, Rachael M.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    McLean, Scott B.
    Stat Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    McNulty, Breige A.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia
    Univ Oran 1, Oran, Algeria.
    Medzioniene, Jurate
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Meirhaeghe, Aline
    INSERM, Paris, France.
    Meisinger, Christa
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany.
    Menezes, Ana Maria B.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.
    Menon, Geetha R.
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India.
    Meshram, Indrapal I.
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, India.
    Metspalu, Andres
    Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Meyer, Haakon E.
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Mi, Jie
    Capital Inst Pediat, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Mikkel, Kairit
    Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Miller, Jody C.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Minderico, Claudia S.
    Lusofona Univ, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Francisco, Juan
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Jaime Miranda, J.
    Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin
    Kyrgyz State Med Acad, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
    Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Modesti, Pietro A.
    Univ Firenze, Florence, Italy.
    Mohamed, Mostafa K.
    Ain Shams Univ, Cairo, Egypt.
    Mohammad, Kazem
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Mohammadifard, Noushin
    Hypertens Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Mohan, Viswanathan
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Mohanna, Salim
    Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.
    Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd
    Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.
    Mollehave, Line T.
    Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Moller, Niels C.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Molnar, Denes
    Univ Pecs, Pecs, Hungary.
    Momenan, Amirabbas
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Mondo, Charles K.
    Mulago Hosp, Kampala, Uganda.
    Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K.
    Univ Limpopo, Polokwane, South Africa.
    Moon, Jin Soo
    Seoul Natl Univ, Childrens Hosp, Seoul, South Korea.
    Moreira, Leila B.
    Univ Oran 1, Oran, Algeria;Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Morejon, Alain
    Univ Med Sci, Havana, Cuba.
    Moreno, Luis A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Morgan, Karen
    RCSI Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    Moschonis, George
    La Trobe Univ, Bundoora, Vic, Australia.
    Mossakowska, Malgorzata
    Int Inst Mol & Cell Biol, Warsaw, Poland.
    Mostafa, Aya
    Ain Shams Univ, Cairo, Egypt.
    Mota, Jorge
    Univ Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel
    Ahvaz Jundishapur Univ Med Sci, Ahwaz, Khuzestan, Iran.
    Motta, Jorge
    Gorgas Mem Inst Publ Hlth, Panama City, Panama.
    Msyamboza, Kelias P.
    WHO, Country Off, Lilongwe, Malawi.
    Mu, Thet Thet
    Dept Publ Hlth, Pyinmana, Myanmar.
    Muiesan, Maria L.
    Univ Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany.
    Murphy, Neil
    Int Agcy Res Canc, Lyon, France.
    Mursu, Jaakko
    Univ Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Musil, Vera
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Nabipour, Iraj
    Bushehr Univ Med Sci, Bushehr, Iran.
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Ulm Univ, Ulm, Germany.
    Naidu, Balkish M.
    Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.
    Nakamura, Harunobu
    Kobe Univ, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.
    Namesna, Jana
    Reg Author Publ Hlth, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia.
    Nang, Ei Ei K.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Nangia, Vinay B.
    Suraj Eye Inst, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India.
    Narake, Sameer
    Healis Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth, Navi Mumbai, India.
    Nauck, Matthias
    Univ Med Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
    Maria Navarrete-Munoz, Eva
    CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ, Madrid, Spain.
    Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba
    INSERM, Paris, France.
    Neal, William A.
    West Virginia Univ, Morgantown, WV USA.
    Nenko, Ilona
    Jagiellonian Univ, Med Coll, Krakow, Poland.
    Neovius, Martin
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nervi, Flavio
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Nguyen, Chung T.
    Natl Inst Hyg & Epidemiol, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, D. Nguyen
    Univ Pharm & Med Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Nguyen, Quang Ngoc
    Nguyen, Quang V.
    Natl Hosp Endocrinol, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis E.
    Miami Vet Affairs Healthcare Syst, Miami, FL USA.
    Niiranen, Teemu J.
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland;Univ Turku Tyks, Turku, Finland.
    Ning, Guang
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
    Ninomiya, Toshiharu
    Kyushu Univ, Fukuoka, Japan.
    Nishtar, Sania
    Heartfile, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Noale, Marianna
    CNR, Rome, Italy.
    Noboa, Oscar A.
    Univ Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay.
    Noorbala, Ahmad Ali
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Norat, Teresa
    Imperial Coll London, London, England.
    Noto, Davide
    Univ Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Al Nsour, Mohannad
    Eastern Mediterranean Publ Hlth Network, Amman, Jordan.
    O'Reilly, Dermot
    Queens Univ Belfast, Belfast, Antrim, North Ireland.
    Oda, Eiji
    Tachikawa Gen Hosp, Tachikawa, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oehlers, Glenn
    Acad Hosp Paramaribo, Paramaribo, Surinam.
    Oh, Kyungwon
    Korea Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Cheongju, South Korea.
    Ohara, Kumiko
    Kobe Univ, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.
    Olinto, Maria Teresa A.
    Univ Vale Rio dos Sinos, Sao Leopoldo, RS, Brazil.
    Oliveira, Isabel O.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.
    Azahadi, Mohd
    Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.
    Onat, Altan
    Istanbul Univ, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Ong, Sok King
    Minist Hlth, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei.
    Ono, Lariane M.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.
    Ordunez, Pedro
    Pan Amer Hlth Org, Washington, DC USA.
    Ornelas, Rui
    Univ Madeira, Funchal,, Portugal.
    Osmond, Clive
    MRC Lifecourse Epidemiol Unit, Southampton, Hants, England.
    Ostojic, Sergej M.
    Univ Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Ostovar, Afshin
    Bushehr Univ Med Sci, Bushehr, Iran.
    Otero, Johanna A.
    Fdn Oftalmol Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia.
    Overvad, Kim
    Aarhus Univ, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Owusu-Dabo, Ellis
    Kwame Nkrumah Univ Sci & Technol, Kumasi, Ghana.
    Paccaud, Fred Michel
    Nstitute Social & Prevent Med, Bern, Switzerland.
    Padez, Cristina
    Univ Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Pahomova, Elena
    Univ Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Pajak, Andrzej
    Jagiellonian Univ, Med Coll, Krakow, Poland.
    Palli, Domenico
    Canc Prevent & Res Inst, Naples, Italy.
    Palmieri, Luigi
    Ist Super Sanita, Rome, Italy.
    Pan, Wen-Harn
    Acad Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
    Heidelberg Univ, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Panza, Francesco
    IRCCS Casa Sollievo Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.
    Papandreou, Dimitrios
    Zayed Univ, Abu Dhabi, U Arab Emirates.
    Park, Soon-Woo
    Catholic Univ Daegu, Daegu, South Korea.
    Parnell, Winsome R.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Parsaeian, Mahboubeh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Patel, Nikhil D.
    Jivandeep Hosp, Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India.
    Pecin, Ivan
    Univ Zagreb, Sch Med, Zagreb, Croatia;Univ Hosp Ctr Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Pednekar, Mangesh S.
    Healis Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth, Navi Mumbai, India.
    Peer, Nasheeta
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Peixoto, Sergio Viana
    Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rene Rachou Res Inst, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Peltonen, Markku
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pereira, Alexandre C.
    Heart Inst, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Peters, Annette
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany.
    Petersmann, Astrid
    Univ Med Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
    Petkeviciene, Janina
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Pham, Son Thai
    Pigeot, Iris
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Pikhart, Hynek
    UCL, London, England.
    Pilav, Aida
    Univ Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herceg.
    Pilotto, Lorenza
    Cardiovasc Prevent Ctr, Udine, Italy.
    Pitakaka, Freda
    Minist Hlth & Med Serv, Honiara, Solomon Islands.
    Piwonska, Aleksandra
    Cardinal Wyszynski Inst Cardiol, Warsaw, Poland.
    Plans-Rubio, Pedro
    Publ Hlth Agcy Catalonia, Catalonia, Spain.
    Polasek, Ozren
    Univ Split, Split, Croatia.
    Porta, Miquel
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile;Inst Hosp Mar Invest Med, Barcelona, Spain.
    Portegies, Marileen L. P.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Pourshams, Akram
    Digest Oncol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Poustchi, Hossein
    Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.
    Pradeepa, Rajendra
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Prashant, Mathur
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India.
    Price, Jacqueline F.
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Puder, Jardena J.
    Lausanne Univ Hosp, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Puiu, Maria
    Victor Babes Univ Med & Pharm Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania.
    Punab, Margus
    Tartu Univ Clin, Tartu, Estonia.
    Qasrawi, Radwan F.
    Al Quds Univ, Jerusalem, Palestine.
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Alborz, Iran.
    Bao, Tran Quoc
    Radic, Ivana
    Univ Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia.
    Radisauskas, Ricardas
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    BRAC, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Raitakari, Olli
    Univ Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Raj, Manu
    Amrita Inst Med Sci, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Rao, Sudha Ramachandra
    Natl Inst Epidemiol, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Ramachandran, Ambady
    India Diabet Res Fdn, New Delhi, India.
    Ramos, Elisabete
    Univ Porto, Med Sch, Porto, Portugal.
    Rampal, Lekhraj
    Univ Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.
    Rampal, Sanjay
    Univ Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Reina, Daniel A. Rangel
    Gorgas Mem Inst Hlth Studies, Panama City, Panama.
    Redon, Josep
    Univ Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
    Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.
    Univ Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Ribeiro, Robespierre
    Minas Gerais State Secretariat Hlth, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Riboli, Elio
    Imperial Coll London, London, England.
    Rigo, Fernando
    Hlth Ctr San Agustin, San Agustin, Spain.
    de Wit, Tobias F. Rinke
    PharmAccess Fdn, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Ritti-Dias, Raphael M.
    Univ Nove de Julho, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Robinson, Sian M.
    Univ Southampton, Southampton SO9 5NH, Hants, England.
    Robitaille, Cynthia
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, Maria
    Canarian Hlth Serv, Tenerife, Spain.
    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A.
    Univ Ind Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia.
    Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba
    Inst Nacl Salud Publ, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.
    Romaguera, Dora
    CIBEROBN, Madrid, Spain.
    Ronkainen, Kimmo
    Univ Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Univ Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Roy, Joel G. R.
    Stat Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Rubinstein, Adolfo
    Inst Clin Effectiveness & Hlth Policy, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca
    Inst Mexicano Seguro Social, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
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    Med Univ Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.
    Sabanayagam, Charumathi
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore.
    Sachdev, Harshpal S.
    Sitaram Bhartia Inst Sci & Res, New Delhi, India.
    Saidi, Olfa
    Univ Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Sakarya, Sibel
    Marmara Univ, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Salanave, Benoit
    French Publ Hlth Agcy, St Maurice, France.
    Salazar Martinez, Eduardo
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.
    Salmeron, Diego
    CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ, Barcelona, Spain.
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Salonen, Jukka T.
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Salvetti, Massimo
    Univ Brescia, Brescia, Italy.
    Sanchez-Abanto, Jose
    Natl Inst Hlth, Lima, Peru.
    Sans, Susana
    Catalan Dept Hlth, Catalonia, Spain.
    Santos, Diana A.
    Univ Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Santos, Ina S.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.
    dos Santos, Renata Nunes
    Univ Sao Paulo, Clin Hosp, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Santos, Rute
    Univ Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Saramies, Jouko L.
    South Karelia Social & Hlth Care Dist, Lappeenranta, Finland.
    Sardinha, Luis B.
    Univ Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Sarganas, Giselle
    Robert Koch Inst, Berlin, Germany.
    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal
    Isfahan Cardiovasc Res Ctr, Esfahan, Iran.
    Saum, Kai-Uwe
    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Savva, Savvas
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Scazufca, Marcia
    Univ Sao Paulo, Clin Hosp, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Schargrodsky, Herman
    Hosp Italiano Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Schipf, Sabine
    Univ Med Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
    Schmidt, Carsten O.
    Univ Med Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
    Schoettker, Ben
    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Schultsz, Constance
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Schutte, Aletta E.
    North West Univ, South African Med Res Council, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Sein, Aye Aye
    Minist Hlth, Naypyidaw, Myanmar.
    Sen, Abhijit
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway.
    Senbanjo, Idowu O.
    Lagos State Univ, Coll Med, Lagos, Nigeria.
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Sharma, Sanjib K.
    BP Koirala Inst Hlth Sci, Dharan, Nepal.
    Shaw, Jonathan E.
    Baker Heart & Diabet Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Shibuya, Kenji
    Univ Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Shin, Dong Wook
    Samsung Med Ctr, Seoul, South Korea.
    Shin, Youchan
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore.
    Si-Ramlee, Khairil
    Minist Hlth, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei.
    Siantar, Rosalynn
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore.
    Sibai, Abla M.
    Amer Univ Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Santos Silva, Diego Augusto
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.
    Simon, Mary
    India Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Simons, Judith
    St Vincents Hosp, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Simons, Leon A.
    Univ New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Sjostrom, Michael
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta
    Med Univ Lodz, Lodz, Poland.
    Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw
    Int Inst Mol & Cell Biol, Warsaw, Poland.
    Smeeth, Liam
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England.
    Smith, Margaret C.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England.
    Snijder, Marieke B.
    Acad Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    So, Hung-Kwan
    Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Sobngwi, Eugene
    Univ Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Soderberg, Stefan
    Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden.
    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo
    Univ Bari, Bari, Italy.
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden.
    Song, Yi
    Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.
    Univ Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jerome, Charles Sossa
    Inst Reg Sante Publ, Ouidah, Benin.
    Soumare, Aicha
    Univ Bordeaux, Talence, France.
    Staessen, Jan A.
    Univ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Stathopoulou, Maria G.
    INSERM, Paris, France.
    Stavreski, Bill
    Heart Fdn, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway.
    Stehle, Peter
    Univ Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Stein, Aryeh D.
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA USA.
    Stergiou, George S.
    Sotiria Hosp, Athens, Greece.
    Stessman, Jochanan
    Hadassah Univ, Med Ctr, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Stieber, Jutta
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany.
    Stoeckl, Doris
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany.
    Stocks, Tanja
    Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden.
    Stokwiszewski, Jakub
    Natl Inst Hyg, Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Warsaw, Poland.
    Stronks, Karien
    Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Strufaldi, Maria Wany
    Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Sun, Chien-An
    Fu Jen Catholic Univ, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Sung, Yn-Tz
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul
    Mahidol Univ, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Sy, Rody G.
    Univ Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines.
    Tai, E. Shyong
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.
    Tammesoo, Mari-Liis
    Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Tamosiunas, Abdonas
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Tan, Eng Joo
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Tang, Xun
    Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Tanser, Frank
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa.
    Tao, Yong
    Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul
    Minist Hlth, Amman, Jordan.
    Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.
    Natl Inst Hlth, Lima, Peru.
    Tautu, Oana-Florentina
    Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm, Bucharest, Romania.
    Taylor, Anne
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Theobald, Holger
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Theodoridis, Xenophon
    Alexander Technol Educ Inst, Sindos, Greece.
    Thijs, Lutgarde
    Univ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Thuesen, Betina H.
    Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Danish Canc Soc Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tolonen, Hanna K.
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Kuopio, Finland.
    Tolstrup, Janne S.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Topbas, Murat
    Karadeniz Tech Univ, Trabzon, Turkey.
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ, Coll Med, Warsaw, Poland.
    Jose Tormo, Maria
    Hlth Serv Murcia, Murcia, Spain.
    Torrent, Maties
    IB SALUT Area Salut Menorca, Ciutadella De Menorca, Spain.
    Traissac, Pierre
    Inst Rech Dev, Marseille, France.
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Hellen Hlth Fdn, Athens, Greece.
    Trinh, Oanh T. H.
    Univ Pharm & Med Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
    Trivedi, Atul
    Govt Med Coll, New Delhi, India.
    Tshepo, Lechaba
    Sefako Makgatho Hlth Sci Univ, Tshwane, South Africa.
    Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.
    Tullu, Fikru
    Addis Ababa Univ, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka
    Univ Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Dasman Diabet Inst, Kuwait, Kuwait.
    Turley, Maria L.
    Minist Hlth, Thorndon, New Zealand.
    Tynelius, Per
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tzourio, Christophe
    Univ Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
    Ueda, Peter
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.
    Ugel, Eunice E.
    Univ Centrooccidental Lisandro Alvarado, Barquisimeto, Venezuela.
    Ulmer, Hanno
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Uusitalo, Hannu M. T.
    Univ Tampere, Tays Eye Ctr, Tampere, Finland.
    Valdivia, Gonzalo
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile.
    Valvi, Damaskini
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.
    van der Schouw, Yvonne T.
    Univ Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Van Herck, Koen
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Minh, Hoang Van
    van Rossem, Lenie
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Van Schoor, Natasja M.
    Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.
    Acad Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Vanderschueren, Dirk
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Vanuzzo, Diego
    Cardiovasc Prevent Ctr, Udine, Italy.
    Vatten, Lars
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Oslo, Norway.
    Vega, Tomas
    Consejeria Sanidad Junta Castilla & Leon, Madrid, Spain.
    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Veronesi, Giovanni
    Univ Insubria, Varese, VA, Italy.
    Verschuren, W. M. Monique
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Bilthoven, Netherlands.
    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn
    Inst Trop Med, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Victora, Cesar G.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.
    Viet, Lucie
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Bilthoven, Netherlands.
    Viikari-Juntura, Eira
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vineis, Paolo
    Imperial Coll London, London, England.
    Vioque, Jesus
    Univ Miguel Hernandez, Elche, Spain.
    Virtanen, Jyrki K.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Visvikis-Siest, Sophie
    INSERM, Paris, France.
    Viswanathan, Bharathi
    Minist Hlth, Victoria, Seychelles.
    Vlasoff, Tiina
    North Karelian Ctr Publ Hlth, Joensuu, Finland.
    Vollenweider, Peter
    Lausanne Univ Hosp, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Voutilainen, Sari
    Univ Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Wade, Alisha N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Wagner, Aline
    Univ Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.
    Walton, Janette
    Cork Inst Technol, Cork, Ireland.
    Bebakar, Wan Mohamad Wan
    Univ Sains Malaysia, George Town, Malaysia.
    Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan
    Inst Med Res, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Wanderley, Rildo S., Jr.
    Univ Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Wang, Ming-Dong
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Wang, Qian
    Xinjiang Med Univ, Urumqi, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Ya Xing
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Ying-Wei
    Minist Hlth & Welf, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Wannamethee, S. Goya
    UCL, London, England.
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, England.
    Wedderkopp, Niels
    Univ Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Weerasekera, Deepa
    Minist Hlth, Thorndon, New Zealand.
    Whincup, Peter H.
    St Georges Univ London, London, England.
    Widhalm, Kurt
    Med Univ Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Widyahening, Indah S.
    Univ Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia.
    Wiecek, Andrzej
    Med Univ Silesia, Katowice, Poland.
    Wijga, Alet H.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Wilks, Rainford J.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.
    Willeit, Johann
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Willeit, Peter
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria;Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, England.
    Williams, Emmanuel A.
    Komfo Anokye Teaching Hosp, Kumasi, Ghana.
    Wilsgaard, Tom
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Tromso, Norway.
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Natl Inst Hyg, Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Warsaw, Poland.
    Wong-McClure, Roy A.
    Caja Costarricense Seguro Social, San Jose, Costa Rica.
    Wong, Justin Y. Y.
    Minist Hlth, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei.
    Wong, Tien Yin
    Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore.
    Woo, Jean
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Wu, Aleksander Giwercman
    Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden.
    Wu, Frederick C.
    Univ Manchester, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Wu, Shouling
    Kailuan Gen Hosp, Tangshan, Peoples R China.
    Xu, Haiquan
    Minist Agr, Inst Food & Nutr Dev, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Weili
    Fudan Univ, Childrens Hosp, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Xiaoguang
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Ye, Xingwang
    Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.
    Univ Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Yoshihara, Akihiro
    Niigata Univ, Niigata, Japan.
    Younger-Coleman, Novie O.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.
    Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi
    Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putra Jaya, Malaysia.
    Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali
    Univ Teknol MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Zambon, Sabina
    Univ Padua, Padua, Italy.
    Zampelas, Antonis
    Agr Univ Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Zdrojewski, Tomasz
    Med Univ Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.
    Zeng, Yi
    Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China;Duke Univ, Durham, NC USA.
    Zhao, Dong
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing An Zhen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Wenhua
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Zheng, Wei
    Vanderbilt Univ, Nashville, TN USA.
    Zheng, Yingfeng
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore.
    Zhu, Dan
    Inner Mongolia Med Univ, Hohhot, Peoples R China.
    Zhussupov, Baurzhan
    Kazakh Natl Med Univ, Alma Ata, Kazakhstan.
    Zimmermann, Esther
    Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Cisneros, Julio Zuniga
    Gorgas Mem Inst Publ Hlth, Panama City, Panama.
    Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure: a pooled analysis of 1018 population-based measurement studies with 88.6 million participants2018In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 872-883iArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure could be due to both shifts in the entire distribution of blood pressure (representing the combined effects of public health interventions and secular trends) and changes in its high-blood-pressure tail (representing successful clinical interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure.

    Methods

    We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20–29 years to 70–79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probit-transformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence-mean association, to the change in prevalence of raised blood pressure.

    Results

    In 2005–16, at the same level of population mean SBP and DBP, men and women in South Asia and in Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa would have the highest prevalence of raised blood pressure, and men and women in the high-income Asia Pacific and high-income Western regions would have the lowest. In most region-sex-age groups where the prevalence of raised blood pressure declined, one half or more of the decline was due to the decline in mean blood pressure. Where prevalence of raised blood pressure has increased, the change was entirely driven by increasing mean blood pressure, offset partly by the change in the prevalence-mean association.

    Conclusions

    Change in mean blood pressure is the main driver of the worldwide change in the prevalence of raised blood pressure, but change in the high-blood-pressure tail of the distribution has also contributed to the change in prevalence, especially in older age groups.

  • 42.
    Åkerman, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University.
    Challenges and opportunities for sexual and reproductive healthcare services for immigrant women in Sweden2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to obtain an understanding of immigrant women’s access to healthcare services in Sweden in relation to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). Data were obtained from three different quantitative cross-sectional studies using self-administrated questionnaires and one qualitative study based on in-depth interviews. The sample consists of immigrant women, predominantly refugees from Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, and Somalia in Study I (n=288) and Thai immigrant women in Studies II–IV: Study II (n=804), Study III (n=19) and Study IV (n=266). The results indicate that social capital factors seem to play an important role in knowledge about sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. About one-third of immigrant women reported lack of knowledge of where to go for contraceptive counselling. Lack of knowledge was associated with experiencing lack of emotional social support and not having children. An even higher proportion lacked knowledge of where to go for HIV testing, which was associated with not having participated in a health examination. In a sample of Thai immigrant women, lack of knowledge about SRH services was associated with living without a partner, having low trust in others, having predominantly bonding social relationships and belonging to the oldest age groups. In all studies, the majority had not been tested for HIV or participated in contraceptive counselling. Among the Thai women, despite expressing a need for SRH care, most participants had not sought this type of care. Women found it challenging to seek care in Sweden due to lack of knowledge about the healthcare system and language difficulties. The majority of Thai women reported a significant need for information related to SRH services. Women who had never been HIV tested in Thailand had increased odds of not being tested in Sweden.

    Lack of knowledge of where to turn for contraceptive counselling and HIV testing among immigrant women is a missed opportunity, as all citizens in Sweden have free access to these services. Providing information on SRH services to all immigrants in their native language, regardless of immigration status, is an important step in achieving equal access to SRH care.

    List of papers
    1. A missed opportunity? Lack of knowledge about sexual and reproductive health services among immigrant women in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A missed opportunity? Lack of knowledge about sexual and reproductive health services among immigrant women in Sweden
    2019 (English)In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 19, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) among immigrant women is often related to limited access,or suboptimal use of healthcare services. This study investigates the knowledge about and use of sexual andreproductive healthcare services among immigrant women in Sweden

    Method: A cross-sectional study of 288 immigrant women. A structured questionnaire was distributed amongimmigrants speaking Arabic, Dari, Somali or English registered at Swedish language schools for immigrants.Data collection took place in 19 strategically selected schools in Sweden. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests,and logistic regressions were used for the analysis.

    Results: About one-third of the immigrant women reported lack of knowledge of where to go for contraceptivecounselling. Experiencing lack of emotional social support and not having had children was associated with thislack of knowledge. An even higher proportion (56%) lacked knowledge of where to go to be HIV tested, and thiswas associated with not having participated in a health examination. Almost 25% stated that their culture keptthem back from using contraception.

    Conclusion: Lack of knowledge of where to turn for contraceptive counselling and HIV testing among immigrantwomen participating in Swedish language schools for immigrants could be considered as a missed opportunity,as all citizens in Sweden have free access to these services. New health policies and strategies should aim toincrease knowledge of SRH services among immigrants. Swedish language schools could play an important rolein increasing knowledge of SRH-related information as many new immigrants become students during their firstyears in Sweden.

    Keywords
    Health services accessibility, Sexual and reproductive health, Contraceptive counselling, Immigrant, Social capital, Sweden
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Research subject
    Social Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-376260 (URN)10.1016/j.srhc.2018.12.005 (DOI)000465365500011 ()30928137 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Public Health Agency of Sweden
    Available from: 2019-02-03 Created: 2019-02-03 Last updated: 2019-05-29Bibliographically approved
    2. Knowledge and utilization of sexual and reproductive healthcare services among Thai immigrant women in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knowledge and utilization of sexual and reproductive healthcare services among Thai immigrant women in Sweden
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: BMC International Health and Human Rights, ISSN 1472-698X, E-ISSN 1472-698X, Vol. 16, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Migration from Thailand to Sweden has increased threefold over the last 10 years. Today Thailand is one of the most common countries of origin among immigrants in Sweden. Since the year 2000, new HIV cases are also more prevalent among Thai immigrants compared to other immigrant nationalities in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between knowledge and utilization of sexual and reproductive healthcare services, contraceptive knowledge and socio-demographic characteristics and social capital among Thai immigrant women in Sweden.

    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study using a postal questionnaire to all Thai women (18-64) in two Swedish regions, who immigrated to the country between 2006 and 2011. The questionnaire was answered by 804 women (response rate 62.3 %). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used.

    RESULTS: The majority (52.1 %) of Thai women had poor knowledge of where they should turn when they need sexual and reproductive healthcare services. After controlling for potential confounders, living without a partner (OR = 2.02, CI: 1.16-3.54), having low trust in others (OR = 1.61, CI: 1.10-2.35), having predominantly bonding social capital (OR = 1.50, CI: 1.02-2.23) and belonging to the oldest age group (OR = 2.65, CI: 1.32-5.29) were identified as risk factors for having poor knowledge. The majority (56.7 %) had never been in contact with healthcare services to get advice on contraception, and about 75 % had never been HIV/STI tested in Sweden. Low utilization of healthcare was associated with poor knowledge about healthcare services (OR = 6.07, CI: 3.94-9.34) and living without a partner (OR = 2.53, CI: 1.30-4.90). Most Thai women had knowledge of how to prevent an unwanted pregnancy (91.6 %) and infection with HIV/STI (91.1 %).

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that social capital factors such as high trust in others and predominantly bridging social capital promote access to knowledge about healthcare services. However, only one-fourth of the women had been HIV/STI tested, and due to the HIV prevalence among Thai immigrants in Sweden, policy makers and health professionals need to include Thai immigrants in planning health promotion efforts and healthcare interventions.

    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-305856 (URN)10.1186/s12914-016-0100-4 (DOI)000384947700001 ()27724904 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    Public Health Agency of Sweden
    Available from: 2016-10-23 Created: 2016-10-23 Last updated: 2019-02-05Bibliographically approved
    3. Healthcare-seeking behaviour in relation to sexual and reproductive health among Thai-born women in Sweden: a qualitative study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Healthcare-seeking behaviour in relation to sexual and reproductive health among Thai-born women in Sweden: a qualitative study
    2017 (English)In: Culture, Health and Sexuality, ISSN 1369-1058, E-ISSN 1464-5351, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 194-207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Thailand is one of the most common countries of origin among immigrants in Sweden and Thai immigrants comprise the immigrant group most frequently diagnosed with HIV. Little is known about their healthcare-seeking behaviour and views on HIV prevention. This study explored Thai women's healthcare-seeking behaviour in relation to sexual and reproductive health and their views on HIV prevention. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with Thai-born women in the Stockholm area. Three themes were identified: (1) poor access to healthcare in Sweden, preferring to seek care in Thailand; (2) partners playing a key role in women's access to healthcare; (3) no perceived risk of HIV, but a positive attitude towards prevention. Despite expressing sexual and reproductive healthcare needs, most women had not sought this type of care, except for the cervical cancer screening programme to which they had been invited. Identified barriers for poor access to healthcare were lack of knowledge about the healthcare system and language difficulties. To achieve 'healthcare on equal terms', programmes and interventions must meet Thai women's healthcare needs and consider what factors influence their care-seeking behaviour. Integrating HIV prevention and contraceptive counselling into the cervical screening programme might be one way to improve access.

    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-312021 (URN)10.1080/13691058.2016.1214746 (DOI)000393781500004 ()27684388 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-01-04 Created: 2017-01-04 Last updated: 2019-02-05Bibliographically approved
    4. Utilisation of two health systems: A cross-sectional study on Swedish-Thai women’s choice of contraceptive counselling and HIV testing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utilisation of two health systems: A cross-sectional study on Swedish-Thai women’s choice of contraceptive counselling and HIV testing
    (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the need and use of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services andanalyses to what extent the use of SRH services in Sweden is associated with healthcarecontact in the country of origin or knowledge of the health system in the new country. Methods: A cross-sectional study using postal questionnaire to all Thai-born women (age 23-60) in Stockholm, residing in Sweden since 2014. Chi-squared and logistic regression wasused for analysis. Results: The response rate was 52.3% (n=266). The majority reported a significant need for information related to SRH-services. Most contraceptive using women (70%) bought theircontraceptives in Thailand. Older women and women who lacked knowledge of where to go for contraceptive counselling were more likely to have bought contraceptives in Thailand.However, use and need of contraceptive counselling in Sweden was higher among younger women. Nevertheless, women who had never been HIV tested in Thailand (40%) continued not to be tested in Sweden. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that the Swedish health system does not correspond to Thai women’s needs for SRH services and information, since the majority bought their contraceptives in Thailand, and those who were never HIV tested continued not to be in Sweden. From a public health perspective and to achieve the goal of “healthcare on equal terms”, future interventions must focus on making health services and information moreaccessible for Thai immigrants.

    Keywords
    Sweden, migration, Thai women, health services accessibility, sexual and reproductive health, contraceptives, HIV testing
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Research subject
    Social Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-376261 (URN)
    Available from: 2019-02-04 Created: 2019-02-04 Last updated: 2019-02-12
  • 43.
    Åkerman, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Larsson, Elin
    Karolinska Institute.
    Healthcare-seeking behaviour among Thai-born women in Sweden: a qualitative study2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, p. 159-160Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Åkerman, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Larsson, Elin C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    A missed opportunity? Lack of knowledge about sexual and reproductive health services among immigrant women in Sweden2019In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 19, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) among immigrant women is often related to limited access,or suboptimal use of healthcare services. This study investigates the knowledge about and use of sexual andreproductive healthcare services among immigrant women in Sweden

    Method: A cross-sectional study of 288 immigrant women. A structured questionnaire was distributed amongimmigrants speaking Arabic, Dari, Somali or English registered at Swedish language schools for immigrants.Data collection took place in 19 strategically selected schools in Sweden. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests,and logistic regressions were used for the analysis.

    Results: About one-third of the immigrant women reported lack of knowledge of where to go for contraceptivecounselling. Experiencing lack of emotional social support and not having had children was associated with thislack of knowledge. An even higher proportion (56%) lacked knowledge of where to go to be HIV tested, and thiswas associated with not having participated in a health examination. Almost 25% stated that their culture keptthem back from using contraception.

    Conclusion: Lack of knowledge of where to turn for contraceptive counselling and HIV testing among immigrantwomen participating in Swedish language schools for immigrants could be considered as a missed opportunity,as all citizens in Sweden have free access to these services. New health policies and strategies should aim toincrease knowledge of SRH services among immigrants. Swedish language schools could play an important rolein increasing knowledge of SRH-related information as many new immigrants become students during their firstyears in Sweden.

  • 45.
    Åkerman, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Larsson, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration.
    Essén, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Thai immigrant women's healthcare use and needs in relation to sexual and reproductive health: a cross-sectional study in Sweden2018In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 28, no Supplement: 1, p. 121-121Article in journal (Other academic)
1 - 45 of 45
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