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  • 1.
    Adam, Lina N.
    et al.
    Univ Zakho, Fac Sci, Dept Biol, Duhok, Kurdistan, Iraq..
    Oraha, Ashur Y.
    Univ Duhok, Coll Med, Dept Cardiothorac & Vasc Surg, Duhok, Kurdistan, Iraq..
    Shekha, Mudhir S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Salahaddin Univ Erbil, Coll Sci, Dept Biol, Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq..
    Al-Habib, Omar A. M.
    Univ Nawroz, Coll Sci, Dept Biol, Duhok, Kurdistan, Iraq..
    Exploring nitric oxide as a crucial prognostic biomarker of coronary artery disease2023In: Prostaglandins & other lipid mediators, ISSN 1098-8823, E-ISSN 2212-196X, Vol. 165, article id 106717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The study aimed to examine if the polymorphism of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and the serum NO levels are associated with CAD.

    Materials/methods: Case-control study, 70 CAD and 30 control subjects were enrolled. The eNOS gene poly-morphism was measured by polymerase chain reaction-agarose gel electrophoresis and the serum NO was assessed by using an ELISA plate and reader covering 540 nm.

    Results: Uncovering the area under curve (AUC) for serum NO, which was (0.6821), indicating that NO seemed to be a critical prognostic biomarker of CAD; also, glucose, serum creatinine and total bilirubin proved to be sig-nificant predictors of CAD with AUC (0.6793, 0.6717 and 0.6662) respectively. Furthermore, higher serum NO levels were associated with the eNOS (ab) genotype. Revealing the intron (a) allele was protective against CAD. Moreover, diminished levels of serum NO in CAD groups compared to controls (P < 0.05). Additionally, Multiple logistic regression analysis shows a significantly high Odds ratio associated with CAD in the Duhok population.

    Conclusions: The eNOS (ab) variant seems to be a protective CAD factor for patients. Low serum NO levels are another risk factor for the advancement of CAD, suggesting their involvement in atherosclerosis. The (a) allele's protective effect is mediated through changes in eNOS promoter activity and higher NO levels.

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