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  • 1.
    Gunell, Herbert
    et al.
    Royal Belgian Inst Space Aeron BIRA IASB, Ave Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium;Umea Univ, Dept Phys, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Goetz, Charlotte
    TU Braunschweig, Inst Geophys & Extraterr Phys, Mendelssohnstr 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Wedlund, Cyril Simon
    Univ Oslo, Dept Phys, Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Lindkvist, Jesper
    Umea Univ, Dept Phys, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umea Univ, Dept Phys, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, Box 812, S-98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    LLera, Kristie
    Southwest Res Inst, 6220 Culebra Rd, San Antonio, TX 78238 USA.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Holmström, Mats
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, Box 812, S-98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    The infant bow shock: a new frontier at a weak activity comet2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 619, article id L2Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The bow shock is the first boundary the solar wind encounters as it approaches planets or comets. The Rosetta spacecraft was able to observe the formation of a bow shock by following comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko toward the Sun, through perihelion, and back outward again. The spacecraft crossed the newly formed bow shock several times during two periods a few months before and after perihelion; it observed an increase in magnetic field magnitude and oscillation amplitude, electron and proton heating at the shock, and the diminution of the solar wind further downstream. Rosetta observed a cometary bow shock in its infancy, a stage in its development not previously accessible to in situ measurements at comets and planets.

  • 2.
    Nilsson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, Box 812, SE-98128 Kiruna, Sweden;Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Comp Sci Elect & Space Engn, SE-98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Wieser, Gabriella Stenberg
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, Box 812, SE-98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Behar, Etienne
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, Box 812, SE-98128 Kiruna, Sweden;Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Comp Sci Elect & Space Engn, SE-98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Gunell, Herbert
    Royal Belgian Inst Space Aeron, Ave Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium;Umea Univ, Dept Phys, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Wieser, Martin
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, Box 812, SE-98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Galand, Marina
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Phys, Prince Consort Rd, London SW7 2AZ, England.
    Wedlund, Cyril Simon
    Univ Oslo, Dept Phys, POB 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Alho, Markku
    Aalto Univ, Sch Elect Engn, Dept Elect & Nanoengn, POB 15500, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland.
    Goetz, Charlotte
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Geophys & Extraterr Phys, Mendelssohnstr 3, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Yamauchi, Masatoshi
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, Box 812, SE-98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Henri, Pierre
    CNRS, LPC2E, 3A Ave Rech Sci, F-45071 Orleans 2, France.
    Odelstad, Elias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Vigren, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Evolution of the ion environment of comet 67P during the Rosetta mission as seen by RPC-ICA2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 469, p. S252-S261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rosetta has followed comet 67P from low activity at more than 3.6 au heliocentric distance to high activity at perihelion (1.24 au) and then out again. We provide a general overview of the evolution of the dynamic ion environment using data from the RPC-ICA ion spectrometer. We discuss where Rosetta was located within the evolving comet magnetosphere. For the initial observations, the solar wind permeated all of the coma. In 2015 mid-April, the solar wind started to disappear from the observation region, to re-appear again in 2015 December. Low-energy cometary ions were seen at first when Rosetta was about 100 km from the nucleus at 3.6 au, and soon after consistently throughout the mission except during the excursions to farther distances from the comet. The observed flux of low-energy ions was relatively constant due to Rosetta's orbit changing with comet activity. Accelerated cometary ions, moving mainly in the antisunward direction gradually became more common as comet activity increased. These accelerated cometary ions kept being observed also after the solar wind disappeared from the location of Rosetta, with somewhat higher fluxes further away from the nucleus. Around perihelion, when Rosetta was relatively deep within the comet magnetosphere, the fluxes of accelerated cometary ions decreased, as did their maximum energy. The disappearance of more energetic cometary ions at close distance during high activity is suggested to be due to a flow pattern where these ions flow around the obstacle of the denser coma or due to charge exchange losses.

  • 3.
    Wieser, Gabriella Stenberg
    et al.
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, Box 812, SE-98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Odelstad, Elias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Wieser, Martin
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, Box 812, SE-98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, Box 812, SE-98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Goetz, Charlotte
    TU Braunschweig, Inst Geophys & Extraterrestrial Phys, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Karlsson, Tomas
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Elect Engn, Dept Space & Plasma Phys, Stockholm, Sweden.
    André, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Kalla, Leif
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, Box 812, SE-98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Nicolaou, Georgios
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, Box 812, SE-98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Wedlund, Cyril Simon
    Univ Oslo, Dept Phys, POB 1048, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Richter, Ingo
    TU Braunschweig, Inst Geophys & Extraterrestrial Phys, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Gunell, Herbert
    Royal Belgian Inst Space Aeron, Ave Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium;Umea Univ, Dept Phys, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Investigating short-time-scale variations in cometary ions around comet 67P2017In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 469, p. S522-S534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The highly varying plasma environment around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko inspired an upgrade of the ion mass spectrometer (Rosetta Plasma Consortium Ion Composition Analyzer) with new operation modes, to enable high time resolution measurements of cometary ions. Two modes were implemented, one having a 4 s time resolution in the energy range 0.3-82 eV/q and the other featuring a 1 s time resolution in the energy range 13-50 eV/q. Comparing measurements made with the two modes, it was concluded that 4 s time resolution is enough to capture most of the fast changes of the cometary ion environment. The 1462 h of observations done with the 4 s mode were divided into hour-long sequences. It is possible to sort 84 per cent of these sequences into one of five categories, depending on their appearance in an energy-time spectrogram. The ion environment is generally highly dynamic, and variations in ion fluxes and energies are seen on time-scales of 10 s to several minutes.

  • 4.
    Witasse, O.
    et al.
    European Space Agcy, ESTEC.
    Sanchez-Cano, B.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Radio & Space Plasma Phys Grp.
    Mays, M. L.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Heliophys Sci Div.
    Kajdic, P.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Inst Geofis.
    Opgenoorth, Hermann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Elliott, H. A.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio.
    Richardson, I. G.
    NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Heliophys Sci Div.;Univ Maryland, Dept Astron.
    Zouganelis, I.
    European Space Agcy, ESAC, Villanueva De La Canada.
    Zender, J.
    European Space Agcy, ESTEC.
    Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.
    Univ Kiel, Inst Expt & Appl Phys.
    Turc, L.
    European Space Agcy, ESTEC.
    Taylor, M. G. G. T.
    European Space Agcy, ESTEC.
    Roussos, E.
    Max Planck Inst Solar Syst Res Justus von Liebig.
    Rouillard, A.
    IRAP, Toulouse.
    Richter, I.
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Geophys & Extraterrestrial Phys.
    Richardson, J. D.
    MIT, Ctr Space Res, Cambridge.
    Ramstad, R.
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, IRF, Kiruna.
    Provan, G.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Radio & Space Plasma Phys Grp.
    Posner, A.
    NASA Headquarters, Sci Miss Directorate.
    Plaut, J. J.
    Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena.
    Odstrcil, D.
    George Mason Univ, Dept Phys & Astron.;NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Space Weather Lab.
    Nilsson, H.
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, IRF, Kiruna.
    Niemenen, P.
    European Space Agcy, ESTEC.
    Milan, S. E.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Radio & Space Plasma Phys Grp.
    Mandt, K.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio.; UTSA, Dept Phys & Astron, San Antonio.
    Lohf, H.
    Univ Kiel, Inst Expt & Appl Phys.
    Lester, M.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Radio & Space Plasma Phys Grp.
    Lebreton, J. -P
    Univ Orleans, CNRS, LPC2E.
    Kuulkers, E.
    European Space Agcy, ESTEC.
    Krupp, N.
    Max Planck Inst Solar Syst Res Justus von Liebig.
    Koenders, C.
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Geophys & Extraterrestrial Phys.
    James, M. K.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Radio & Space Plasma Phys Grp.
    Intzekara, D.
    European Space Agcy, ESTEC.; European Space Agcy, ESAC, Villanueva De La Canada.
    Holmstrom, M.
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, IRF, Kiruna.
    Hassler, D. M.
    Southwest Res Inst, Boulder.; Inst Astrophys Spatiale, Orsay.
    Hall, B. E. S.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Radio & Space Plasma Phys Grp.
    Guo, J.
    Univ Kiel, Inst Expt & Appl Phys.
    Goldstein, R.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio.
    Goetz, C.
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Geophys & Extraterrestrial Phys.
    Glassmeier, K. H.
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Geophys & Extraterrestrial Phys.
    Genot, V.
    IRAP, Toulouse.
    Evans, H.
    European Space Agcy, ESTEC.
    Espley, J.
    Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Lab Planetary Magnetospheres, Greenbelt.
    Edberg, N. J. T.
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, IRF, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Edberg, Niklas J. T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Cowley, S. W. H.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Radio & Space Plasma Phys Grp.
    Burch, J.
    Southwest Res Inst, San Antonio.
    Behar, E.
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, IRF, Kiruna.
    Barabash, S.
    Swedish Inst Space Phys, IRF, Kiruna.
    Andrews, David J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Altobelli, N.
    European Space Agcy, ESAC, Villanueva De La Canada.
    Interplanetary coronal mass ejection observed at STEREO-A, Mars, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Saturn, and New Horizons en route to Pluto: Comparison of its Forbush decreases at 1.4, 3.1, and 9.9 AU2017In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 122, no 8, p. 7865-7890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss observations of the journey throughout the Solar System of a large interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) that was ejected at the Sun on 14 October 2014. The ICME hit Mars on 17 October, as observed by the Mars Express, Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN Mission (MAVEN), Mars Odyssey, and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) missions, 44h before the encounter of the planet with the Siding-Spring comet, for which the space weather context is provided. It reached comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, which was perfectly aligned with the Sun and Mars at 3.1 AU, as observed by Rosetta on 22 October. The ICME was also detected by STEREO-A on 16 October at 1 AU, and by Cassini in the solar wind around Saturn on the 12 November at 9.9AU. Fortuitously, the New Horizons spacecraft was also aligned with the direction of the ICME at 31.6 AU. We investigate whether this ICME has a nonambiguous signature at New Horizons. A potential detection of this ICME by Voyager 2 at 110-111 AU is also discussed. The multispacecraft observations allow the derivation of certain properties of the ICME, such as its large angular extension of at least 116 degrees, its speed as a function of distance, and its magnetic field structure at four locations from 1 to 10 AU. Observations of the speed data allow two different solar wind propagation models to be validated. Finally, we compare the Forbush decreases (transient decreases followed by gradual recoveries in the galactic cosmic ray intensity) due to the passage of this ICME at Mars, comet 67P, and Saturn.

1 - 4 of 4
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