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  • 1.
    Sakornsakolpat, Phuwanat
    et al.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Mahidol Univ, Dept Med, Fac Med, Siriraj Hosp, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Prokopenko, Dmitry
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Genet & Aging Res Unit, Boston, MA 02114 USA.
    Lamontagne, Maxime
    Inst Univ Cardiol & Pneumol Quebec, Quebec City, PQ, Canada.
    Reeve, Nicola F.
    Univ Leicester, Genet Epidemiol Grp, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Guyatt, Anna L.
    Univ Leicester, Genet Epidemiol Grp, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Jackson, Victoria E.
    Univ Leicester, Genet Epidemiol Grp, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Shrine, Nick
    Univ Leicester, Genet Epidemiol Grp, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Qiao, Dandi
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Bartz, Traci M.
    Univ Washington, Cardiovasc Hlth Res Unit, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Univ Washington, Dept Med, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Univ Washington, Dept Biostat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Kim, Deog Kyeom
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, SMG SNU Boramae Med Ctr, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lee, Mi Kyeong
    NIEHS, Epidemiol Branch, NIH, Dept Hlth & Human Serv, Raleigh, NC USA.
    Latourelle, Jeanne C.
    Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Boston, MA 02118 USA.
    Li, Xingnan
    Univ Arizona, Dept Med, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Morrow, Jarrett D.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Obeidat, Ma'en
    Univ British Columbia, Ctr Heart Lung Innovat, St Pauls Hosp, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Wyss, Annah B.
    NIEHS, Epidemiol Branch, NIH, Dept Hlth & Human Serv, Raleigh, NC USA.
    Bakke, Per
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Bergen, Norway.
    Barr, R. Graham
    Columbia Univ, Dept Med, Coll Phys & Surg, New York, NY USA;Columbia Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Mailman Sch Publ Hlth, New York, NY USA.
    Beaty, Terri H.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA.
    Belinsky, Steven A.
    Lovelace Resp Res Inst, Albuquerque, NM USA.
    Brusselle, Guy G.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands;Ghent Univ Hosp, Dept Resp Med, Ghent, Belgium;Erasmus MC, Dept Resp Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Crapo, James D.
    Natl Jewish Hlth, Div Pulm & Crit Care Med, Dept Med, Denver, CO USA.
    de Jong, Kim
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, Groningen, Netherlands;Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, GRIAC, Groningen, Netherlands.
    DeMeo, Dawn L.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Pulm & Crit Care Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Fingerlin, Tasha E.
    Natl Jewish Hlth, Ctr Genes Environm & Hlth, Denver, CO USA;Univ Colorado Denver, Dept Biostat & Informat, Aurora, CO USA.
    Gharib, Sina A.
    Univ Washington, Computat Med Core, Ctr Lung Biol, UW Med Sleep Ctr,Dept Med, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Gulsvik, Amund
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Bergen, Norway.
    Hall, Ian P.
    Univ Nottingham, Div Resp Med, Queens Med Ctr, Nottingham, England;Nottingham Biomed Res Ctr, Natl Inst Hlth Res, Nottingham, England.
    Hokanson, John E.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Epidemiol, Anschutz Med Campus, Aurora, CO USA.
    Kim, Woo Jin
    Kangwon Natl Univ, Dept Internal Med, Sch Med, Chunchon, South Korea;Kangwon Natl Univ, Environm Hlth Ctr, Chunchon, South Korea.
    Lomas, David A.
    UCL, UCL Resp, London, England.
    London, Stephanie J.
    NIEHS, Epidemiol Branch, NIH, Dept Hlth & Human Serv, Raleigh, NC USA.
    Meyers, Deborah A.
    Univ Arizona, Dept Med, Tucson, AZ USA.
    O'Connor, George T.
    Natl Heart Lung & Blood Inst Framingham Heart Stu, Framingham, MA USA;Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Pulm Ctr, Boston, MA 02118 USA.
    Rennard, Stephen, I
    Univ Nebraska Med Ctr, Pulm Crit Care Sleep & Allergy Div, Omaha, NE USA;AstraZeneca, Clin Discovery Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Schwartz, David A.
    Univ Colorado Denver, Dept Med, Sch Med, Aurora, CO USA;Univ Colorado Denver, Sch Med, Dept Immunol, Aurora, CO USA.
    Sliwinski, Pawel
    Inst TB & Lung Dis, Dept Resp Med 2, Warsaw, Poland.
    Sparrow, David
    Boston Univ, Sch Med, VA Boston Healthcare Syst, Boston, MA 02118 USA;Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02118 USA.
    Strachan, David P.
    St Georges Univ London, Populat Hlth Res Inst, London, England.
    Tal-Singer, Ruth
    GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Collegeville, PA USA.
    Tesfaigzi, Yohannes
    Lovelace Resp Res Inst, Albuquerque, NM USA.
    Vestbo, Jorgen
    Univ Manchester, Sch Biol Sci, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Vonk, Judith M.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, Groningen, Netherlands;Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, GRIAC, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Yim, Jae-Joon
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, Div Pulm & Crit Care Med, Dept Internal Med, Seoul, South Korea.
    Zhou, Xiaobo
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Bosse, Yohan
    Inst Univ Cardiol & Pneumol Quebec, Quebec City, PQ, Canada;Laval Univ, Dept Mol Med, Quebec City, PQ, Canada.
    Manichaikul, Ani
    Univ Virginia, Ctr Publ Hlth Genom, Charlottesville, VA USA;Univ Virginia, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Charlottesville, VA USA.
    Lahousse, Lies
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands;Univ Ghent, Dept Bioanal, Ghent, Belgium.
    Silverman, Edwin K.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Pulm & Crit Care Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Boezen, H. Marike
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Epidemiol, Groningen, Netherlands;Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, GRIAC, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Wain, Louise, V
    Univ Leicester, Genet Epidemiol Grp, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England;Glenfield Hosp, Natl Inst Hlth Res, Leicester Resp Biomed Res Ctr, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Tobin, Martin D.
    Univ Leicester, Genet Epidemiol Grp, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England;Glenfield Hosp, Natl Inst Hlth Res, Leicester Resp Biomed Res Ctr, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Hobbs, Brian D.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Pulm & Crit Care Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Cho, Michael H.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Pulm & Crit Care Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Batini, Chiara
    Univ Leicester, Genet Epidemiol Grp, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Zhao, Jing Hua
    Univ Cambridge, Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Cambridge, England.
    Wielscher, Matthias
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, Sch Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Weiss, Stefan
    Univ Med Greifswald, Interfac Inst Genet & Funct Genom, Dept Funct Genom, Greifswald, Germany.
    Kentistou, Katherine A.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cardiovasc Sci, Queens Med Res Inst, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Cook, James P.
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Biostat, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
    Hui, Jennie
    Sir Charles Gairdner Hosp, Busselton Populat Med Res Inst, Nedlands, WA, Australia;Univ Western Australia, Sch Populat Hlth, Crawley, WA, Australia;Sir Charles Gairdner Hosp, PathWest Lab Med WA, Crawley, WA, Australia;Univ Western Australia, Sch Pathol & Lab Med, Crawley, WA, Australia.
    Karrasch, Stefan
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Inst Epidemiol, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Neuherberg, Germany;Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Inst & Outpatient Clin Occupat Social & Environm, Munich, Germany;German Ctr Lung Res DZL, Comprehens Pneumol Ctr Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Imboden, Medea
    Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Basel, Switzerland;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Harris, Sarah E.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Edinburgh, Western Gen Hosp, Ctr Genom & Expt Med, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Marten, Jonathan
    Univ Edinburgh, Med Res Council, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Enroth, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Kerr, Shona M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Med Res Council, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Surakka, Ida
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Mol Med Finland FIMM, Helsinki, Finland;Natl Inst Hlth & Welf THL, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vitart, Veronique
    Univ Edinburgh, Med Res Council, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Univ Tampere, Dept Clin Chem, Fimlab Labs, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Finnish Cardiovasc Res Ctr Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere, Finland.
    Ewert, Ralf
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Internal Med B Cardiol Intens Care Pulm Med, Greifswald, Germany.
    Gieger, Christian
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Res Unit Mol Epidemiol, Inst Epidemiol, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Homuth, Georg
    Univ Med Greifswald, Interfac Inst Genet & Funct Genom, Dept Funct Genom, Greifswald, Germany.
    Joshi, Peter K.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, Med Res Council, Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Epidemiology.
    Luan, Jianan
    Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, Med Res Council, Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Mahajan, Anubha
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford, England.
    Murray, Alison
    Univ Aberdeen, Inst Med Sci, Aberdeen Biomed Imaging Ctr, Aberdeen, Scotland.
    Porteous, David J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Edinburgh, Western Gen Hosp, Ctr Genom & Expt Med, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Rawal, Rajesh
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Res Unit Mol Epidemiol, Inst Epidemiol, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Neuherberg, Germany;Univ Munster, Inst Epidemiol & Social Med, Munster, Germany.
    Smith, Blair H.
    Univ Dundee, Div Populat Hlth & Genom, Ninewells Hosp & Med Sch, Dundee, Scotland.
    Timmers, Paul R. H. J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Raitakari, Olli T.
    Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol & Nucl Med, Turku, Finland;Univ Turku, Res Ctr Appl & Prevent Cardiovasc Med, Turku, Finland.
    Kahonen, Mika
    Univ Tampere, Finnish Cardiovasc Res Ctr Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Dept Clin Physiol, Tampere Univ Hosp, Tampere, Finland.
    Polasek, Ozren
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Split, Sch Med, Split, Croatia.
    Gyllensten, Ulf B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rudan, Igor
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Deary, Ian J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.
    Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Basel, Switzerland;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Schulz, Holger
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Inst Epidemiol, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Neuherberg, Germany;German Ctr Lung Res DZL, Comprehens Pneumol Ctr Munich, Munich, Germany.
    James, Alan L.
    Sir Charles Gairdner Hosp, Busselton Populat Med Res Inst, Nedlands, WA, Australia;Sir Charles Gairdner Hosp, Dept Pulm Physiol & Sleep Med, Nedlands, WA, Australia;Univ Western Australia, Sch Med & Pharmacol, Crawley, WA, Australia.
    Wilson, James F.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Edinburgh, Med Res Council, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Stubbe, Beate
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Internal Med B Cardiol Intens Care Pulm Med, Greifswald, Germany.
    Zeggini, Eleftheria
    Wellcome Sanger Inst, Hinxton, England;German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Inst Translat Genom, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, Sch Publ Hlth, London, England;Univ Oulu, Ctr Life Course Hlth Res, Fac Med, Oulu, Finland;Univ Oulu, Bioctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland;Oulu Univ Hosp, OYS, Unit Primary Hlth Care, Oulu, Finland;Brunel Univ London, Dept Life Sci, Coll Hlth & Life Sci, Uxbridge, Middx, England.
    Wareham, Nick
    Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, Med Res Council, Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Hayward, Caroline
    Univ Edinburgh, Med Res Council, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Morris, Andrew P.
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Biostat, Liverpool, Merseyside, England;Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford, England.
    Agusti, Alvar
    Univ Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERES, Resp Inst,Hosp Clin, Barcelona, Spain.
    Anderson, Wayne
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Med, Chapel Hill, NC 27515 USA.
    Bakerly, Nawar
    Salford Royal NHS Fdn Trust, Salford, Lancs, England;Univ Manchester, Manchester Acad Hlth Sci Ctr, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Bals, Robert
    Saarland Univ, Dept Internal Med Pulmonol Allergol & Crit Care 5, Homburg, Germany.
    Barnes, Kathleen C.
    Univ Colorado Denver, Dept Med, Sch Med, Aurora, CO USA.
    Bleecker, Eugene R.
    Univ Arizona, Dept Med, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Bowler, Russell
    Natl Jewish Hlth, Div Pulm & Crit Care Med, Dept Med, Denver, CO USA.
    Brightling, Christopher
    Glenfield Hosp, Natl Inst Hlth Res, Leicester Resp Biomed Res Ctr, Leicester, Leics, England;Univ Leicester, Dept Resp Med Allergy & Thorac Surg, Glenfield Hosp, Leicester, Leics, England.
    de Bruijne, Marleen
    Erasmus MC, Biomed Imaging Grp Rotterdam, Dept Radiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands;Erasmus MC, Biomed Imaging Grp Rotterdam, Dept Med Informat, Rotterdam, Netherlands;Univ Copenhagen, Dept Comp Sci, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Castaldi, Peterj
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Celli, Bartolome
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Pulm & Crit Care Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Coxson, Harvey O.
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Radiol, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Crystal, Ron
    Weill Cornell Med Coll, Dept Genet Med, New York, NY USA;Weill Cornell Med Coll, Div Pulm & Crit Care Med, Dept Med, New York, NY USA.
    de Jong, Pim
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Resp Med, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Dirksen, Asger
    Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Dept Resp Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Dy, Jennifer
    Northeastern Univ, Dept Elect & Comp Engn, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Foreman, Marilyn
    Morehouse Sch Med, Atlanta, GA 30310 USA.
    Garcia-Aymerich, Judith
    ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain;Univ Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain;CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ CIBERESP, Barcelona, Spain.
    Gevenois, Pierre
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Hop Erasme, Dept Radiol, Brussels, Belgium.
    Ghosh, Soumitra
    GlaxoSmithKline R&D, Collegeville, PA USA.
    Gietema, Hester
    Maastricht Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Radiol, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Hansel, Nadia
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Med, Baltimore, MD USA.
    Hersh, Craig P.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Pulm & Crit Care Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Hoffman, Eric
    Univ Iowa, Dept Radiol, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA.
    Kalsheker, Noor
    Univ Nottingham, Sch Life Sci, Nottingham, England.
    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich
    Heidelberg Univ, Translat Lung Res Ctr Heidelberg, Dept Diagnost & Intervent Radiol, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Laitinen, Tarja
    Turku Univ Hosp, Univ Turku, Dept Pulm Dis & Clin Allergol, Turku, Finland.
    Lambrechts, Diether
    VIB, Vesalius Res Ctr VRC, Leuven, Belgium;Katholieke Univ Leuven, Lab Translat Genet, Dept Oncol, Leuven, Belgium.
    Litonjua, Augusto A.
    Univ Rochester, Med Ctr, Dept Pediat, Golisano Childrens Hosp Strong,Div Pediat Pulm Me, Rochester, NY 14642 USA.
    Loth, Daan W.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Lutz, Sharon M.
    Harvard Pilgr Hlth Care Inst, Dept Populat Med, Boston, MA USA;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Lynch, David
    Natl Jewish Hlth, Dept Radiol, Denver, CO USA.
    MacNee, William
    Univ Edinburgh, Dept Resp Med, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    McDonald, Merry-Lynn
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Div Pulm Allergy & Crit Care Med, Birmingham, AL USA.
    Newell, John D.
    Univ Iowa, Dept Radiol, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA.
    Nordestgaard, Borge G.
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Dept Clin Biochem & Copenhagen Gen Populat Study, Herlev, Denmark;Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Oh, Yeon-Mok
    Univ Ulsan Coll Med, Dept Pulm & Crit Care Med, Asan Med Ctr, Seoul, South Korea;Univ Ulsan Coll Med, Clin Res Ctr Chron Obstruct Airway Dis, Seoul, South Korea.
    Pare, Peter D.
    Univ British Columbia, Ctr Heart Lung Innovat, St Pauls Hosp, Vancouver, BC, Canada;Univ British Columbia, St Pauls Hosp, Inst Heart & Lung Hlth, Dept Med, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Pistolesi, Massimo
    Univ Hosp Careggi, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Florence, Italy.
    Postma, Dirkje S.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, GRIAC, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Puhan, Milo
    Univ Zurich, Epidemiol Biostat & Prevent Inst, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Regan, Elizabeth
    Natl Jewish Hlth, Div Rheumatol, Dept Med, Denver, CO USA.
    Rich, Stephen S.
    Univ Virginia, Ctr Publ Hlth Genom, Charlottesville, VA USA.
    Seo, Joon Beom
    Univ Ulsan, Asan Med Ctr, Dept Radiol, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea;Univ Ulsan, Asan Med Ctr, Res Inst Radiol, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea.
    Short, Andrea
    Univ Manchester, Sch Social Sci, Manchester, Lancs, England.
    Stoel, Berend
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Sverzellati, Nicola
    Univ Parma, Dept Med & Surg, Radiol, Parma, Italy.
    ter Riet, Gerben
    Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, Dept Gen Practice, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Van Beek, Edwin J. R.
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh Imaging, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Van Ginneken, Bram
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Radiol & Nucl Med, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Vogelmeier, Claus F.
    Univ Marburg, Pulm Dis, Marburg, Germany.
    Wanner, Adam
    Univ Miami, Miller Sch Med, Dept Med, Div Pulm Allergy Crit Care & Sleep Med, Miami, FL 33136 USA.
    Washko, George
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Radiol, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Wauters, Els
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Lab Pneumol, Dept Chron Dis Metab & Ageing, Leuven, Belgium.
    Wouters, Emiel F. M.
    Maastricht Univ, Resp Med, Med Ctr, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Young, Robert P.
    Univ Auckland, Sch Biol Sci, Auckland, New Zealand;Univ Auckland, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Zeigler-Heitbrock, Loems
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, EvA Study Ctr, Gauting, Germany.
    Genetic landscape of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease identifies heterogeneous cell-type and phenotype associations2019In: Nature Genetics, ISSN 1061-4036, E-ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 494-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 x 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.

  • 2.
    Shrine, Nick
    et al.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Guyatt, Anna L.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Erzurumluoglu, A. Mesut
    Univ Leicester, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Jackson, Victoria E.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England;Walter & Eliza Hall Inst Med Res, Populat Hlth & Immun Div, Parkville, Vic, Australia;Univ Melbourne, Dept Med Biol, Parkville, Vic, Australia.
    Hobbs, Brian D.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Pulm & Crit Care Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Melbourne, Carl A.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Batini, Chiara
    Univ Leicester, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Fawcett, Katherine A.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Song, Kijoung
    GlaxoSmithKline, Target Sci, Collegeville, PA USA.
    Sakornsakolpat, Phuwanat
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Mahidol Univ, Fac Med, Dept Med, Siriraj Hosp, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Li, Xingnan
    Univ Arizona, Dept Med, Div Genet Genom & Precis Med, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Boxall, Ruth
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Oxford, England;Univ Oxford, Med Res Council, Populat Hlth Res Unit, Oxford, England.
    Reeve, Nicola F.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Obeidat, Ma'en
    Univ British Columbia, St Pauls Hosp, Ctr Heart Lung Innovat, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Zhao, Jing Hua
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Wielscher, Matthias
    Imperial Coll London, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England.
    Weiss, Stefan
    Univ Med Greifswald, Interfac Inst Genet & Funct Genom, Dept Funct Genom, Greifswald, Germany.
    Kentistou, Katherine A.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cardiovasc Sci, Queens Med Res Inst, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Cook, James P.
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Biostat, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
    Sun, Benjamin B.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, MRC BHF Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Zhou, Jian
    Simons Fdn, Flatiron Inst, New York, NY USA.
    Hui, Jennie
    Sir Charles Gairdner Hosp, Busselton Populat Med Res Inst, Nedlands, WA, Australia;Univ Western Australia, Sch Populat Hlth, Crawley, WA, Australia;Sir Charles Gairdner Hosp, PathWest Lab Med WA, Crawley, WA, Australia;Univ Western Australia, Sch Pathol & Lab Med, Crawley, WA, Australia.
    Karrasch, Stefan
    Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Inst Epidemiol, German Res Ctr Environ, Neuherberg, Germany;Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Inst & Outpatient Clin Occupat Social & Environm, Munich, Germany;CPC M, Munich, Germany.
    Imboden, Medea
    German Ctr Lung Res DZL, Munich, Germany;Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Basel, Switzerland;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Harris, Sarah E.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Genom & Expt Med, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Marten, Jonathan
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Med Res Council, Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Enroth, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Kerr, Shona M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Med Res Council, Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Surakka, Ida
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Mol Med Finland FIMM, Helsinki, Finland;Natl Inst Hlth & Welf THL, Helsinki, Finland.
    Vitart, Veronique
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Med Res Council, Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Univ Tampere, Dept Clin Chem, Fimlab Labs, Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Finnish Cardiovasc Res Ctr Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere, Finland.
    Allen, Richard J.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Bakke, Per S.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Bergen, Norway.
    Beaty, Terri H.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA.
    Bleecker, Eugene R.
    Univ Arizona, Dept Med, Div Genet Genom & Precis Med, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Bosse, Yohan
    Laval Univ, Dept Mol Med, Quebec City, PQ, Canada;Laval Univ, Inst Univ Cardiol & Pneumol Quebec, Quebec City, PQ, Canada.
    Brandsma, Corry-Anke
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, GRIAC Res Inst, Dept Pathol & Med Biol, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Chen, Zhengming
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Oxford, England.
    Crapo, James D.
    Natl Jewish Hlth, Denver, CO USA;Natl Jewish Hlth, Div Pulm Crit Care & Sleep Med, Denver, CO USA.
    Danesh, John
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, MRC BHF Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England;British Heart Fdn Cambridge Ctr Excellence, Addenbrookes Hosp, Div Cardiovasc Med, Cambridge, England;Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst, Dept Human Genet, Cambridge, England;Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, NIHR Blood & Transplant Res Unit Donor Hlth & Gen, Cambridge, England.
    DeMeo, Dawn L.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Pulm & Crit Care Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Dudbridge, Frank
    Univ Leicester, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Ewert, Ralf
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Internal Med B Cardiol Intens Care Pulm Med, Greifswald, Germany.
    Gieger, Christian
    German Res Ctr Environ, Inst Epidemiol, Res Unit Mol Epidemiol, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Gulsvik, Amund
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, Bergen, Norway.
    Hansell, Anna L.
    Univ Leicester, Ctr Environm Hlth & Sustainabil, Leicester, Leics, England;Imperial Coll London, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, Sch Publ Hlth, UK Small Area Hlth Stat Unit, London, England;Imperial Coll Healthcare NHS Trust, St Marys Hosp, London, England.
    Hao, Ke
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Genet & Genom Sci, New York, NY 10029 USA.
    Hoffman, Joshua D.
    GlaxoSmithKline, Target Sci, Collegeville, PA USA.
    Hokanson, John E.
    Univ Colorado, Dept Epidemiol, Anschutz Med Campus, Aurora, CO USA.
    Homuth, Georg
    Univ Med Greifswald, Interfac Inst Genet & Funct Genom, Dept Funct Genom, Greifswald, Germany.
    Joshi, Peter K.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Joubert, Philippe
    Laval Univ, Inst Univ Cardiol & Pneumol Quebec, Quebec City, PQ, Canada;Laval Univ, Dept Mol Biol Med Biochem & Pathol, Quebec City, PQ, Canada.
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Univ Cambridge, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Sch Clin Med, Cambridge, England.
    Li, Xuan
    Univ British Columbia, St Pauls Hosp, Ctr Heart Lung Innovat, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Li, Liming
    Peking Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Hlth Sci Ctr, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Lin, Kuang
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Oxford, England.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Epidemiology.
    Locantore, Nicholas
    GlaxoSmithKline Res & Dev Ltd, Collegeville, PA USA.
    Luan, Jian'an
    Univ Cambridge, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Sch Clin Med, Cambridge, England.
    Mahajan, Anubha
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford, England.
    Maranville, Joseph C.
    Merck & Co Inc, MRL, Kenilworth, NJ USA.
    Murray, Alison
    Univ Aberdeen, Aberdeen Biomed Imaging Ctr, Inst Med Sci, Aberdeen, Scotland.
    Nickle, David C.
    Merck & Co Inc, MRL, Kenilworth, NJ USA;Gossamer Bio, San Diego, CA USA.
    Packer, Richard
    Univ Leicester, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Parker, Margaret M.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Paynton, Megan L.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Porteous, David J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Genom & Expt Med, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Prokopenko, Dmitry
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Qiao, Dandi
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Rawal, Rajesh
    German Res Ctr Environ, Inst Epidemiol, Res Unit Mol Epidemiol, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg, Germany;Univ Munster, Inst Epidemiol & Social Med, Munster, Germany.
    Runz, Heiko
    Merck & Co Inc, MRL, Kenilworth, NJ USA.
    Sayers, Ian
    Univ Nottingham, Div Resp Med & NIHR Nottingham Biomed Res Ctr, Nottingham, England.
    Sin, Don D.
    Univ British Columbia, St Pauls Hosp, Ctr Heart Lung Innovat, Vancouver, BC, Canada;Univ British Columbia, Dept Med, Resp Div, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Smith, Blair H.
    Univ Dundee, Ninewells Hosp, Div Populat Hlth & Genom, Dundee, Scotland;Univ Dundee, Med Sch, Dundee, Scotland.
    Artigas, Maria Soler
    Univ Autonoma Barcelona, Vail dHebron Res Inst VHIR, Psychiat Genet Unit, Grp Psychiat Mental Hlth & Addict, Barcelona, Spain;Hosp Univ Vall Hebron, Dept Psychiat, Barcelona, Spain;Inst Salud Carlos III, Biomed Network Res Ctr Mental Hlth CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain.
    Sparrow, David
    VA Boston Healthcare Syst, Boston, MA USA;Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02118 USA.
    Tal-Singer, Ruth
    GlaxoSmithKline Res & Dev Ltd, Collegeville, PA USA.
    Timmers, Paul R. H. J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Van den Berge, Maarten
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Pulmonol, GRIAC Res Inst, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Whittaker, John C.
    Target Sci R&D, GSK Med Res Ctr, Stevenage, Herts, England.
    Woodruff, Prescott G.
    Univ Calif San Francisco, UCSF Pulm Crit Care Allergy & Sleep Med, San Francisco, CA USA.
    Verges-Armstrong, Laura M.
    GlaxoSmithKline, Target Sci, Collegeville, PA USA.
    Troyanskaya, Olga G.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA;Princeton Univ, Lewis Sigler Inst Integrat Genom, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA.
    Raitakari, Olli T.
    Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol & Nucl Med, Turku, Finland;Univ Turku, Res Ctr Appl & Prevent Cardiovasc Med, Turku, Finland.
    Kahonenn, Mika
    Univ Tampere, Finnish Cardiovasc Res Ctr Tampere, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere, Finland;Univ Tampere, Dept Clin Physiol, Tampere Univ Hosp, Fac Med & Life Sci, Tampere, Finland.
    Polasek, Ozren
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Split Sch Med, Split, Croatia.
    Gyllensten, Ulf B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rudan, Igor
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Deary, Ian J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.
    German Ctr Lung Res DZL, Munich, Germany;Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Basel, Switzerland;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Schulz, Holger
    Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Inst Epidemiol, German Res Ctr Environ, Neuherberg, Germany;CPC M, Munich, Germany.
    James, Alan L.
    Sir Charles Gairdner Hosp, Busselton Populat Med Res Inst, Nedlands, WA, Australia;Sir Charles Gairdner Hosp, Dept Pulm Physiol & Sleep Med, Nedlands, WA, Australia;Univ Western Australia, Sch Med & Pharmacol, Crawley, WA, Australia.
    Wilson, James F.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Med Res Council, Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Stubbe, Beate
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Internal Med B Cardiol Intens Care Pulm Med, Greifswald, Germany.
    Zeggini, Eleftheria
    Wellcome Sanger Inst, Hinxton, England;German Res Ctr Environ, Inst Translat Genom, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta
    Imperial Coll London, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England;Univ Oulu, Fac Med, Ctr Life Course Hlth Res, Oulu, Finland;Univ Oulu, Bioctr Oulu, Oulu, Finland;Oulu Univ Hosp, Unit Primary Hlth Care, Oulu, Finland;Brunel Univ London, Coll Hlth & Life Sci, Dept Life Sci, Uxbridge, Middx, England.
    Wareham, Nick
    Univ Cambridge, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Sch Clin Med, Cambridge, England.
    Silverman, Edwin K.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Pulm & Crit Care Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Hayward, Caroline
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, Med Res Council, Human Genet Unit, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Morris, Andrew P.
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Biostat, Liverpool, Merseyside, England;Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford, England.
    Butterworth, Adam S.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, MRC BHF Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England;Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, NIHR Blood & Transplant Res Unit Donor Hlth & Gen, Cambridge, England.
    Scott, Robert A.
    Target Sci R&D, GSK Med Res Ctr, Stevenage, Herts, England.
    Walters, Robin G.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Populat Hlth, Oxford, England.
    Meyers, Deborah A.
    Univ Arizona, Dept Med, Div Genet Genom & Precis Med, Tucson, AZ USA.
    Cho, Michael H.
    Brigham & Womens Hosp, Channing Div Network Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Pulm & Crit Care Med, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Strachan, David P.
    St Georges Univ London, Populat Hlth Res Inst, London, England.
    Hall, Ian P.
    Univ Nottingham, Div Resp Med & NIHR Nottingham Biomed Res Ctr, Nottingham, England.
    Tobin, Martin D.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England;Glenfield Hosp, Leicester Resp Biomed Res Ctr, Natl Inst Hlth Res, Leicester, Leics, England.
    Wain, Louise, V
    Univ Leicester, Dept Hlth Sci, Leicester, Leics, England;Glenfield Hosp, Leicester Resp Biomed Res Ctr, Natl Inst Hlth Res, Leicester, Leics, England.
    New genetic signals for lung function highlight pathways and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associations across multiple ancestries2019In: Nature Genetics, ISSN 1061-4036, E-ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 481-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.

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