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  • 1.
    Balgoma, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Hedeland, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Anabolic androgenic steroids exert a selective remodeling of the plasma lipidome that mirrors the decrease of the de novo lipogenesis in the liver2020In: Metabolomics, ISSN 1573-3882, E-ISSN 1573-3890, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) is a source of public concern because of their adverse effects. Supratherapeutic doses of AASs are known to be hepatotoxic and regulate the lipoproteins in plasma by modifying the metabolism of lipids in the liver, which is associated with metabolic diseases. However, the effect of AASs on the profile of lipids in plasma is unknown.

    Objectives: To describe the changes in the plasma lipidome exerted by AASs and to discuss these changes in the light of previous research about AASs and de novo lipogenesis in the liver.

    Methods: We treated male Wistar rats with supratherapeutic doses of nandrolone decanoate and testosterone undecanoate. Subsequently, we isolated the blood plasma and performed lipidomics analysis by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Results: Lipid profiling revealed a decrease of sphingolipids and glycerolipids with palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, and oleic acids. In addition, lipid profiling revealed an increase in free fatty acids and glycerophospholipids with odd-numbered chain fatty acids and/or arachidonic acid.

    Conclusion: The lipid profile presented herein reports the imprint of AASs on the plasma lipidome, which mirrors the downregulation of de novo lipogenesis in the liver. In a broader perspective, this profile will help to understand the influence of androgens on the lipid metabolism in future studies of diseases with dysregulated lipogenesis (e.g. type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma).

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  • 2.
    Brolin, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Johansson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Diwakarla, Shanti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    The mRNA expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (Igf1) is decreased in the rat frontal cortex following gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) administration2017In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 646, p. 15-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, growth hormone (GH), together with its secondary mediators insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2), have been highlighted for their beneficial effects in the central nervous system (CNS), in particular as cognitive enhancers. Cognitive processes, such as learning and memory, are known to be impaired in individuals suffering from substance abuse. In the present study, we investigated the effect of gamma-hydroxybuturate (GHB), an illicit drug used for its sedating and euphoric properties, on genes associated with the somatotrophic axis in regions of the brain important for cognitive function. Sprague Dawley rats (n =36) were divided into three groups and administered either saline, GHB 50 mg/kg or GHB 300 mg/kg orally for seven days. The levels of Ghr, Igf1 and Igf2 gene transcripts were analyzed using qPCR in brain regions involved in cognition and dependence. The levels of IGF-1 in blood plasma were also determined using ELISA. The results demonstrated a significant down-regulation of Igf1 mRNA expression in the frontal cortex in high-dose treated rats. Moreover, a significant correlation between Igf1 and Ghr mRNA expression was found in the hippocampus, the frontal cortex, and the caudate putamen, indicating local regulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis. To summarize, the current study concludes that chronic GHB treatment influences gene expression of Ghr and Igf1 in brain regions involved in cognitive function.

  • 3.
    Brolin, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Chronic administration of morphine using mini-osmotic pumps affects spatial memory in the male rat2018In: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, ISSN 0091-3057, E-ISSN 1873-5177, Vol. 167, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of opioid analgesics to treat non-cancer pain has increased over the years. Many chronic pain patients suffer from numerous adverse effects, such as reduced quality of life, development of dependence, and cognitive impairments. Cognitive processes are regulated by several systems, one of which involves growth hormone (GH) and its secondary mediator insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but also glutamatergic transmission, including receptors such as the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor complex. In the laboratory, repeated injections are commonly used to establish animal models of long-term or chronic drug exposure. However, in the present study, we aimed to mimic a more human dose regimen using constant drug delivery provided by mini-osmotic pumps implanted subcutaneously in male Sprague Dawley rats. After developing opioid tolerance the cognitive function of rats was studied. Spatial learning and memory capabilities were evaluated using the rat Morris water maze (MWM). Moreover, gene expression related to the GH/IGF-1-axis and the NMDA-receptor system was analyzed using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and plasma levels of IGF-1 were assessed using the ELISA technique. Our results demonstrate that rats exposed to morphine for 27 days display memory impairments in the MWM probe trial. However, the behavioral effects of chronic morphine treatment were not accompanied by any significant differences in terms of mRNA expression or IGF-1 plasma concentration. The animal model used in this study provides a simple and suitable way to investigate the behavioral and neurochemical effects of chronic opioid treatment similar to the exposure seen in human pain patients.

  • 4.
    Dabo, Fatimah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Sundström Poromaa, Inger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Åkerud, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Different SNP combinations in the GCH1 gene and use of labor analgesia2010In: Molecular Pain, E-ISSN 1744-8069, Vol. 6, p. 41-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate if there is an association between different SNP combinations in the guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase (GCH1) gene and a number of pain behavior related outcomes during labor. A population-based sample of pregnant women (n = 814) was recruited at gestational week 18. A plasma sample was collected from each subject. Genotyping was performed and three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) previously defined as a pain-protective SNP combination of GCH1 were used. Results: Homozygous carriers of the pain-protective SNP combination of GCH1 arrived to the delivery ward with a more advanced stage of cervical dilation compared to heterozygous carriers and non-carriers. However, homozygous carriers more often used second line labor analgesia compared to the others. Conclusion: The pain-protective SNP combination of GCH1 may be of importance in the limited number of homozygous carriers during the initial dilation of cervix but upon arrival at the delivery unit these women are more inclined to use second line labor analgesia.

  • 5.
    Dabo Pettersson, Fatimah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Grönblad, Alhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Sundström-Poromaa, Inger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Åkerud, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    The A118G Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of Human μ–Opioid Receptor Gene and Use of Labor Analgesia2012In: Reproductive Sciences, ISSN 1933-7191, E-ISSN 1933-7205, Vol. 19, no 9, p. 962-967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human µ-opioid receptor (MOR) is the major site of action of endogenous opioids and most of the clinically used opioid analgesics. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), A118G of the MOR 1 gene (OPRM1), has been associated with altered pain perception. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this polymorphism of OPRM1 is associated with a number of pain-related behaviors during labor. In this observational retrospective population-based study, pregnant women (n = 814) were recruited at gestational week 18. A plasma sample was collected from each participant and an SNP genotyping assay was performed. No differences in sociodemographic variables or labor pain-related outcomes, such as stage of cervical dilation on arrival at the delivery unit or use of any type of second-line analgesia during spontaneous labor, were found between noncarriers and G-allele carriers of OPRM1. We conclude that there is no association between the A118G polymorphism of OPRM1 regarding pain-related behavior during labor.

  • 6.
    Diwakarla, Shanti
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nylander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Reddy Vanga, Sudarsana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
    Shamsudin Khan, Yasmin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
    Gutierrez-de-Teran, Hugo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
    Ng, Leelee
    Pham, Vi
    Sävmarker, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Lundback, Thomas
    Jenmalm-Jensen, Annika
    Andersson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Engen, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Rosenström, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Larhed, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Åqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Yeen Chai, Siew
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Binding to and Inhibition of Insulin-Regulated Aminopeptidase (IRAP) by Macrocyclic Disulfides Enhances Spine Density2016In: Molecular Pharmacology, ISSN 0026-895X, E-ISSN 1521-0111, Vol. 89, no 4, p. 413-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Angiotensin IV (Ang IV) and related peptide analogues, as well as non-peptide inhibitors of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP), have previously been shown to enhance memory and cognition in animal models. Furthermore, the endogenous IRAP substrates oxytocin and vasopressin are known to facilitate learning and memory. In this study, the two recently synthesized 13-membered macrocylic competitive IRAP inhibitors HA08 and HA09, which were designed to mimic the N-terminal of oxytocin and vasopressin, were assessed and compared based on their ability to bind to the IRAP active site, and alter dendritic spine density in rat hippocampal primary cultures. The binding modes of the IRAP inhibitors HA08, HA09 and of Ang IV in either the extended or γ-turn conformation at the C-terminal to human IRAP were predicted by docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The binding free energies calculated with the linear interaction energy (LIE) method, which are in excellent agreement with experimental data and simulations, have been used to explain the differences in activities of the IRAP inhibitors, both of which are structurally very similar, but differ only with regard to one stereogenic center. In addition, we show that HA08, which is 100-fold more potent than the epimer HA09, can enhance dendritic spine number and alter morphology, a process associated with memory facilitation. Therefore, HA08, one of the most potent IRAP inhibitors known today, may serve as a suitable starting point for medicinal chemistry programs aided by MD simulations aimed at discovering more drug-like cognitive enhancers acting via augmenting synaptic plasticity.

  • 7.
    Diwakarla, Shanti
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nylander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Vanga, Sudarsana Reddy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics.
    Shamsudin, Yasmin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics.
    Gutierrez-de-Teran, Hugo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics.
    Sävmarker, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Ng, Leelee
    Monash Univ, Dept Physiol, Biomed Discovery Inst, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Pham, Vi
    Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.
    Lundback, Thomas
    Karolinska Inst, Chem Biol Consortium Sweden, Sci Life Lab, Div Translat Med & Chem Biol,Dept Med Biochem & B, S-17177 Solna, Sweden..
    Jenmalm-Jensen, Annika
    Karolinska Inst, Chem Biol Consortium Sweden, Sci Life Lab, Div Translat Med & Chem Biol,Dept Med Biochem & B, S-17177 Solna, Sweden..
    Svensson, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Artursson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Engen, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Rosenström, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Larhed, Mats
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging.
    Åqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics.
    Chai, Siew Yeen
    Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Aryl Sulfonamide Inhibitors of Insulin-Regulated Aminopeptidase Enhance Spine Density in Primary Hippocampal Neuron Cultures2016In: ACS Chemical Neuroscience, E-ISSN 1948-7193, Vol. 7, no 10, p. 1383-1392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The zinc metallopeptidase insulin regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP), which is highly expressed in the hippocampus and other brain regions associated with cognitive function, has been identified as a high-affinity binding site of the hexapeptide angiotensin IV (Ang IV). This hexapeptide is thought to facilitate learning and memory by binding to the catalytic site of IRAP to inhibit its enzymatic activity. In support of this hypothesis, low molecular weight, nonpeptide specific inhibitors of TRAP have been shown to enhance memory in rodent models. Recently, it was demonstrated that linear and macrocyclic Ang IV-derived peptides can alter the shape and increase the number of dendritic spines in hippocampal cultures, properties associated with enhanced cognitive performance. After screening a library of 10 500 drug like substances for their ability to inhibit IRAP, we identified a series of low molecular weight aryl sulfonamides, which exhibit no structural similarity to Ang IV, as moderately potent IRAP inhibitors:A structural and biological characterization of three of these aryl sulfonamides was performed. Their binding modes to human IRAP were explored by docking calculations combined with molecular dynamics simulations and binding affinity estimations using the linear interaction energy method. Two alternative binding modes emerged from this analysis, both of which correctly rank the ligands according to their experimental binding affinities for this series of compounds. Finally, we show that two of these drug-like IRAP inhibitors can alter dendritic spine morphology and increase spine density in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons.

  • 8.
    Emanuelsson, Ida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Almokhtar, Mokhtar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Wikvall, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Gröndbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nylander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Svensson, Anne-Lie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Svenningsen, Åsa Fex
    Norlin, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Expression and regulation of CYP17A1 and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in cells of the nervous system: potential effects of vitamin D on brain steroidogenesis2018In: Neurochemistry International, ISSN 0197-0186, E-ISSN 1872-9754, Vol. 113, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steroids are reported to have diverse functions in the nervous system. Enzymatic production of steroid hormones has been reported in different cell types, including astrocytes and neurons. However, the information on some of the steroidogenic enzymes involved is insufficient in many respects. Contradictory results have been reported concerning the relative importance of different cell types in the nervous system for expression of CYP17A1 and 3b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3b-HSD). 3b-HSD is important in all basic steroidogenic pathways and CYP17A1 is required to form sex hormones. In the current investigation we studied the expression of these enzymes in cultured primary rat astrocytes, in neuron-enriched cells from rat cerebral cortex and in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, a cell line often used as an in vitro model of neuronal function and differentiation. As part of this study we also examined potential effects on CYP17A1 and 3b-HSD by vitamin D, a compound previously shown to have regulatory effects in steroid hormone-producing cells outside the brain. The results of our study indicate that astrocytes are a major site for expression of 3b-HSD whereas expression of CYP17A1 is found in both astrocytes and neurons. The current data suggest that neurons, contrary to some previous reports, are not involved in 3b-HSD reactions. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D can influence gene expression and hormone production by steroidogenic enzymes in some cells. We found that vitamin D suppressed CYP17A1-mediated activity by 20% in SH-SY5Ycells and astrocytes. Suppression of CYP17A1 mRNA levels was considerably stronger, about 50% in SH-SY5Y cells and 75% in astrocytes. In astrocytes 3b-HSD was also suppressed by vitamin D, about 20% at the enzyme activity level and 60% at the mRNA level. These data suggest that vitamin D-mediated regulation of CYP17A1 and 3b-HSD, particularly on the transcriptional level, may play a role in the nervous system.

  • 9.
    Enhamre, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Carlsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Watanabe, Hiroyuki
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    The expression of growth hormone receptor gene transcript in the prefrontal cortex is affected in male mice with diabetes-induced learning impairments2012In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 523, no 1, p. 82-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have indicated that both growth hormone (GH) deficiency and diabetes are conditions associated with impairments in learning and memory processes. In this study, we investigated the effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on spatial learning in mice using the Barnes maze (BM). The expression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene transcript in areas of the brain associated with learning and memory were examined. The results indicated that the GHR gene transcript is up-regulated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of diabetic mice compared to controls. In addition, there was a significant correlation between the expression of GHR mRNA and performance in the BM during the acquisition phase in diabetic but not control mice. These results suggest that diabetes induces an imbalance in the GH/IGF-1 system leading to altered activity in the PFC and associated cognitive deficiencies.

  • 10.
    Florén Lind, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Stam, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Acute low dose caffeine affects behavior profile and activity, an examination of male rats with high or low anxiety-like behavior2023In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 455, article id 114678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anxiety disorders affect up to one third of the population. Caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, is thought to have a dose-dependent effect on anxiety. We recently showed that a high dose of caffeine (50 mg/kg) differentially affected anxiety-like behavior in rats with high or low baseline anxiety-like behavior, replicating findings using relatively high doses in human patient samples. It is not known if low doses of caffeine have similar effects. The elevated plus maze (EPM) was used to categorize male Wistar rats (13 weeks of age) into groups of high or low anxiety-like behavior. Behavior was evaluated using the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test and the EPM after a low 10 mg/kg dose of caffeine. Multivariate data analysis demonstrated that caffeine decreased the differences between the high and low anxiety group, whereas the separation remained for the high and low control groups. For the caffeine treated rats, univariate statistics showed an increase in parameters regarding activity in the EPM and duration in the slope of the MCSF. Regarding risk-taking, shelter-seeking, and exploratory behavior, caffeine did not affect the groups differently. In conclusion, these results demonstrate increased activity in the caffeine-treated rats, together with a potentially anxiolytic effect and increased impulsivity that did not differ between the baseline anxiety groups. In contrast to high caffeine doses, a low dose does not generally affect rats with high anxiety at baseline differently than rats with low anxiety-like behavior. Further studies are warranted to fully elucidate the effects of caffeine in anxiety.

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  • 11.
    Florén Lind, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Stam, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Meurling, Evelina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Acute caffeine differently affects risk-taking and the expression of BDNF and of adenosine and opioid receptors in rats with high or low anxiety-like behavior2023In: Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, ISSN 0091-3057, E-ISSN 1873-5177, Vol. 227-228, article id 173573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anxiety disorders are common psychiatric conditions with a partially elucidated neurobiology. Caffeine, an unspecific adenosine receptor antagonist, is a common psychostimulant with anxiogenic effects in sensitive individuals. High doses of caffeine produce anxiety-like behavior in rats but it is not known if this is specific for rats with high baseline anxiety-like behavior. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate general behavior, risk-taking, and anxiety-like behavior, as well as mRNA expression (adenosine A2A and A1, dopamine D2, and, μ, κ, δ opioid, receptors, BDNF, c-fos, IGF-1) in amygdala, caudate putamen, frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, after an acute dose of caffeine. Untreated rats were screened using the elevated plus maze (EPM), giving each rat a score on anxiety-like behavior based on their time spent in the open arms, and categorized into a high or low anxiety-like behavior group accordingly. Three weeks after categorization, the rats were treated with 50 mg/kg caffeine and their behavior profile was studied in the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test, and one week later in the EPM. qPCR was performed on selected genes and corticosterone plasma levels were measured using ELISA. The results demonstrated that the high anxiety-like behavior rats treated with caffeine spent less time in risk areas of the MCSF and resituated towards the sheltered areas, a behavior accompanied by lower mRNA expression of adenosine A2A receptors in caudate putamen and increased BDNF expression in hippocampus. These results support the hypothesis that caffeine affects individuals differently depending on their baseline anxiety-like behavior, possibly involving adenosine receptors. This highlights the importance of adenosine receptors as a possible drug target for anxiety disorders, although further research is needed to fully elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms of caffeine on anxiety disorders.

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  • 12.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Growth Hormone and Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: Effects on Neurochemistry and Cognition2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth hormone (GH) stimulates growth and metabolism but also displays profound effects on the central nervous system (CNS). GH affects neurogenesis and neuroprotection, and has been shown to counteract drug-induced apoptosis in the brain. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), mainly abused for their anabolic and performance-enhancing properties, can cause several adverse effects, such as cardiovascular complications, sterility, depression, and aggression. GH and AAS are both believed to interact with several signaling systems in the CNS. The aim of this thesis was to further investigate the impact of GH and AAS on neurochemistry and cognitive functions. Recombinant human GH (rhGH) and the steroid nandrolone decanoate (ND) were administered, separately and in combination with each other, to male rats.

    The results demonstrated that administration of GH improved spatial memory, assessed in a water maze test. Furthermore, GH induced alterations of the GABAB receptor mRNA expression, density, and functionality in the brain, for example in regions associated with cognition. GH also altered the mu opioid peptide (MOP) receptor, but not the delta opioid peptide (DOP) receptor functionality in the brain. Thus, some of the GH effects on cognition may involve effects on the GABAB receptors and MOP receptors. ND, on the contrary, seemed to induce impairments of memory and also altered the GABAB receptor mRNA expression in the brain. Furthermore, ND lowered the IGF-1 plasma concentrations and attenuated the IGF-1, IGF-2, and GHR mRNA expression in the pituitary. In addition, significant effects of GH and ND were found on plasma steroid concentrations, organ weight, as well as body weight.

    In conclusion, this thesis contributes with further knowledge on the cognitive and neurochemical consequences of GH and ND use. The findings regarding ND are worrying considering the common use of AAS among adolescents. GH improves memory functions and affects signaling systems in the brain associated with cognition, hence the hypothesis that GH can reverse drug-induced impairments is further strengthened.

    List of papers
    1. GH (Growth hormone) improves spatial memory and reverses certain anabolic androgenic steroid-induced effects in intact rats
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>GH (Growth hormone) improves spatial memory and reverses certain anabolic androgenic steroid-induced effects in intact rats
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0022-0795, E-ISSN 1479-6805, Vol. 216, no 1, p. 31-41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Growth hormone (GH) has previously been shown to promote cognitive functions in GH deficient rodents. In this study we report effects of GH on learning and memory in intact rats pretreated with the anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone. Male Wistar rats received nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg) or peanut oil every third day for three weeks and were subsequently treated with recombinant human GH (1.0 IU/kg) or saline for ten consecutive days. During the GH/saline treatment spatial learning and memory were tested in the Morris water maze (MWM). Also, plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) were assessed and the gene expression of the GH receptor, Igf1, and Igf2 in hippocampus and frontal cortex was analyzed. The results demonstrated a significant positive effect of GH on memory functions and increased gene expression of Igf1 in the hippocampus was found in the animals treated with GH. In addition, GH was demonstrated to increase the body weight gain and was able to attenuate the reduced body weight seen in nandrolone treated animals. In general, the rats treated with nandrolone alone did not exhibit any pronounced alteration in memory compared to controls in the MWM, and in many cases GH did not induce any alteration. Regarding target zone crossings, considered to be associated to spatial memory, the difference between GH and steroid treated animals was significant and administration of GH improved this parameter in the latter group. In conclusion, GH improves spatial memory in intact rats and can reverse certain effects induced by AAS (anabolic androgenic steroid).

    National Category
    Neurosciences
    Research subject
    Pharmaceutical Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-185657 (URN)10.1530/JOE-12-0315 (DOI)000313718300008 ()23092877 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2012-11-27 Created: 2012-11-27 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    2. Administration of growth hormone and nandrolone decanoate alters mRNA expression of the GABAB receptor subunits as well as GH receptor, IGF-1, and IGF-2 in rat brain
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Administration of growth hormone and nandrolone decanoate alters mRNA expression of the GABAB receptor subunits as well as GH receptor, IGF-1, and IGF-2 in rat brain
    (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), especially among young adults, is of major concern. Among AAS users it is common to combine the AAS nandrolone decanoate (ND), with intake of growth hormone (GH) and a connection between gonadal steroids and the GH system has been suggested. Both AAS and GH affect functions in the brain, for example those associated with the hypothalamus and pituitary, and several GH actions are mediated by growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2). The GABAergic system is implicated in actions induced by AAS and previous studies have provided evidence for a link between GH and GABAB receptors in the brain. Our aim was to examine the impact of a combined administration of AAS and GH on expression of GABAB receptors and important GH mediators in rat brain

    Design: In the present study, male rats were administered a high dose of ND every third day during three weeks, and subsequently the rats were given recombinant human GH (rhGH) during ten days. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to analyze gene expression in hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala.

    Results: In the pituitary gland, the expression of GABAB receptor subunits was affected differently by the steroid treatment; the GABAB1 mRNA expression was decreased whereas a distinct elevation of the GABAB2 expression was found. Administration of ND also caused a decrease of GHR, IGF-1, and IGF-2 mRNA expression in the pituitary while the corresponding expression in the hypothalamus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala was unaffected. The rhGH administration did not alter the GABAB2 expression but increased the GABAB1 gene expression in the hypothalamus as compared the AAS treated group.

    Conclusions: These results provide new insights on the impact of ND and GH on the brain and highlight the interaction of these hormones with systems influencing GABAB receptor expression. The physiological significance of the observed effects of these hormones is discussed.

    National Category
    Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-205916 (URN)
    Available from: 2013-08-27 Created: 2013-08-25 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Affects the Density and Functionality of GABAB receptors in the Male Rat Brain
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Affects the Density and Functionality of GABAB receptors in the Male Rat Brain
    2013 (English)In: Neuroendocrinology, ISSN 0028-3835, E-ISSN 1423-0194, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 203-211Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The beneficial effects of growth hormone (GH) on memory and learning have previously been confirmed in both humans and in animal models. An important role of GABA(B) receptors for multiple forms of learning and memory has also been reported. In this study, we examined the effect of GH on the density and functionality of the metabotropic GABA(B) receptors in the rat brain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 24) divided into 3 groups were injected twice daily with recombinant human GH (0.07 or 0.7 IU/kg) for 7 days. The effects of the hormone were determined by quantitative autoradiography and by GABA(B) stimulated [(35)S]-GTPγS binding using the selective GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen. The results demonstrate moderate but significant alterations in both receptor density and functionality in a number of brain regions. For example, a dose-dependent upregulation of GABA(B) receptors was found in the cingulate cortex, primary motor cortex and caudate putamen, whereas attenuation in the receptor density was encountered in, for example, the medial geniculate nucleus. Although the GH-induced effects on the GABA(B) receptor in brain areas associated with cognition were fairly pronounced, they were significant and we propose that the physiological responses observed after GH administration at least partly can be mediated through a mechanism involving GABA(B) receptors.

    National Category
    Neurosciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-182071 (URN)10.1159/000339821 (DOI)000318463400001 ()22710737 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2012-10-03 Created: 2012-10-03 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
    4. Application of in vitro [(35)S]GTPγ-S autoradiography in studies of growth hormone effects on opioid receptors in the male rat brain
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of in vitro [(35)S]GTPγ-S autoradiography in studies of growth hormone effects on opioid receptors in the male rat brain
    2013 (English)In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 90, p. 100-106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic treatment with opiates may inhibit cell growth and trigger apoptosis. On the contrary, growth hormone (GH) has been demonstrated to stimulate neurogenesis and counteract apoptosis. We recently demonstrated that recombinant human GH (rhGH) may reverse opiate-induced apoptosis in cells derived from prenatal mouse hippocampus. Thus, GH might be able to prevent the impaired cognitive capabilities that may occur in both humans and other mammals in connection to chronic opiate treatment. In order to explore the mechanism by which GH exerts its beneficial effects we here examined the impact of GH treatment on the levels of delta and mu opioid peptide (DOP and MOP, respectively) receptors in the male rat brain. The rats were treated with rhGH (Genotropin(®)) at two different doses (0.07 and 0.7IU/kg), twice daily, during 7 days. Following decapitation, the levels of DOP and MOP receptor functionality were determined using [(35)S]GTPγS autoradiography. The results demonstrate that rhGH affects the levels of the MOP receptor functionality in certain areas of the brain. These alterations were seen in e.g. amygdala and thalamus, i.e. regions that recently have been implicated in learning and memory. The activity level of DOP receptors was not affected. Thus, the data support that the beneficial effect of GH on counteracting apoptosis might involve a direct or indirect effect on the MOP but not the DOP receptor.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Research subject
    Pharmaceutical Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-185621 (URN)10.1016/j.brainresbull.2012.09.008 (DOI)000314446100014 ()23063719 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2012-11-27 Created: 2012-11-27 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
    5. The impact of nandrolone decanoate and growth hormone on biosynthesis of steroids in rats
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of nandrolone decanoate and growth hormone on biosynthesis of steroids in rats
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Steroids, ISSN 0039-128X, E-ISSN 1878-5867, Vol. 78, no 12-13, p. 1192-1199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Growth hormone (GH) and anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are commonly used in sports communities. Several studies have suggested an association between GH and AAS. We have investigated the impact of GH in rats treated with nandrolone decanoate (ND). Male Wistar rats received ND (15 mg/kg) every third day during three weeks and were subsequently treated with recombinant human GH (1.0 IU/kg) for ten consecutive days. Plasma samples were collected and peripheral organs (i.e. heart, liver, testis and thymus) were dissected and weighed. Concentration of thirteen endogenous steroids was measured in the rat plasma samples using high specificity LC-MS/MS methods. Seven steroids were detected and quantified, and concentrations of estrone, testosterone, and androstenedione were significantly different among the groups, while concentrations of pregnenolone, DHEA, 17- hydroxyprogesterone and corticosterone were not altered. Administration of rhGH alone altered the plasma steroid distribution, and the results demonstrated significantly increased concentrations of plasma estrone as well as decreased concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione in the ND-treated rats. Administration of rhGH to ND-pretreated rats did not reverse the alteration of the steroid distribution induced by ND. Administration of ND decreased the weight of the thymus, and addition of rhGH did not reverse this reduction. However, rhGH administration induced an enlargement of thymus. Taken together, the plasma steroid profile differed in the four groups, i.e. controls, AAS, rhGH and the combination of AAS and rhGH treatment.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keywords
    Growth hormone, anabolic androgenic steroids, testosterone, androstenedione
    National Category
    Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-205915 (URN)10.1016/j.steroids.2013.08.012 (DOI)000327287800006 ()
    Available from: 2013-08-27 Created: 2013-08-25 Last updated: 2022-01-28Bibliographically approved
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  • 13.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    [(35)S]GTPγS autoradiography for studies of opioid receptor functionality2015In: Methods in Molecular Biology, ISSN 1064-3745, E-ISSN 1940-6029, Vol. 1230, p. 169-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The opioid receptors have been an interesting target for the drug industry for decades. These receptors were pharmacologically characterized in the 1970s and several drugs and peptides have emerged over the years. In 2012, the crystal structures were also demonstrated, with new data on the receptor sites, and thus new possibilities will appear. The role of opioids in the brain has attracted considerable interest in several diseases, especially pain and drug dependence. The opioid receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) that are Gi-coupled which make them suitable for studying the receptor functionality. The [(35)S]GTPγS autoradiography assay is a good option that has the benefit of generating both anatomical and functional data in the area of interest. It is based on the first step of the signaling mechanism of GPCRs. When a ligand binds to the receptor GTP will replace GDP on the α-subunit of the G protein, leading to a dissociation of the βγ-subunit. These subunits will start a cascade of second messengers and subsequently a physiological response.

  • 14.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Johansson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Kushnir, Mark M
    ARUP Institute for Clinical and Experimental Chemistry.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    The impact of nandrolone decanoate and growth hormone on biosynthesis of steroids in rats2013In: Steroids, ISSN 0039-128X, E-ISSN 1878-5867, Vol. 78, no 12-13, p. 1192-1199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth hormone (GH) and anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are commonly used in sports communities. Several studies have suggested an association between GH and AAS. We have investigated the impact of GH in rats treated with nandrolone decanoate (ND). Male Wistar rats received ND (15 mg/kg) every third day during three weeks and were subsequently treated with recombinant human GH (1.0 IU/kg) for ten consecutive days. Plasma samples were collected and peripheral organs (i.e. heart, liver, testis and thymus) were dissected and weighed. Concentration of thirteen endogenous steroids was measured in the rat plasma samples using high specificity LC-MS/MS methods. Seven steroids were detected and quantified, and concentrations of estrone, testosterone, and androstenedione were significantly different among the groups, while concentrations of pregnenolone, DHEA, 17- hydroxyprogesterone and corticosterone were not altered. Administration of rhGH alone altered the plasma steroid distribution, and the results demonstrated significantly increased concentrations of plasma estrone as well as decreased concentrations of testosterone and androstenedione in the ND-treated rats. Administration of rhGH to ND-pretreated rats did not reverse the alteration of the steroid distribution induced by ND. Administration of ND decreased the weight of the thymus, and addition of rhGH did not reverse this reduction. However, rhGH administration induced an enlargement of thymus. Taken together, the plasma steroid profile differed in the four groups, i.e. controls, AAS, rhGH and the combination of AAS and rhGH treatment.

  • 15.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Johansson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Administration of growth hormone and nandrolone decanoate alters mRNA expression of the GABAB receptor subunits as well as of the GH receptor, IGF-1, and IGF-2 in rat brain.2014In: Growth Hormone & IGF Research, ISSN 1096-6374, E-ISSN 1532-2238, Vol. 24, no 2-3, p. 60-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), especially among young adults, is of major concern. Among AAS users it is common to combine the AAS nandrolone decanoate (ND), with intake of growth hormone (GH) and a connection between gonadal steroids and the GH system has been suggested. Both AAS and GH affect functions in the brain, for example those associated with the hypothalamus and pituitary, and several GH actions are mediated by growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2). The GABAergic system is implicated in actions induced by AAS and previous studies have provided evidence for a link between GH and GABAB receptors in the brain. Our aim was to examine the impact of AAS administration and a subsequent administration of GH, on the expression of GABAB receptors and important GH mediators in rat brain.

    DESIGN: The aim was to investigate the CNS effects of a high-dose ND, and to study if a low, but physiological relevant, dose of GH could reverse the ND-induced effects. In the present study, male rats were administered a high dose of ND every third day during three weeks, and subsequently the rats were given recombinant human GH (rhGH) during ten days. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to analyze gene expression in hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala.

    RESULTS: In the pituitary gland, the expression of GABAB receptor subunits was affected differently by the steroid treatment; the GABAB1 mRNA expression was decreased whereas a distinct elevation of the GABAB2 expression was found. Administration of ND also caused a decrease of GHR, IGF-1, and IGF-2 mRNA expression in the pituitary while the corresponding expression in the hypothalamus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala was unaffected. The rhGH administration did not alter the GABAB2 expression but increased the GABAB1 gene expression in the hypothalamus as compared to the AAS treated group.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results provide new insights on the impact of ND and GH on the brain and highlight the interaction of these hormones with systems influencing GABAB receptor expression. The physiological significance of the observed effects of these hormones is discussed.

  • 16.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Johansson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Affects the Density and Functionality of GABAB receptors in the Male Rat Brain2013In: Neuroendocrinology, ISSN 0028-3835, E-ISSN 1423-0194, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 203-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The beneficial effects of growth hormone (GH) on memory and learning have previously been confirmed in both humans and in animal models. An important role of GABA(B) receptors for multiple forms of learning and memory has also been reported. In this study, we examined the effect of GH on the density and functionality of the metabotropic GABA(B) receptors in the rat brain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 24) divided into 3 groups were injected twice daily with recombinant human GH (0.07 or 0.7 IU/kg) for 7 days. The effects of the hormone were determined by quantitative autoradiography and by GABA(B) stimulated [(35)S]-GTPγS binding using the selective GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen. The results demonstrate moderate but significant alterations in both receptor density and functionality in a number of brain regions. For example, a dose-dependent upregulation of GABA(B) receptors was found in the cingulate cortex, primary motor cortex and caudate putamen, whereas attenuation in the receptor density was encountered in, for example, the medial geniculate nucleus. Although the GH-induced effects on the GABA(B) receptor in brain areas associated with cognition were fairly pronounced, they were significant and we propose that the physiological responses observed after GH administration at least partly can be mediated through a mechanism involving GABA(B) receptors.

  • 17.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Johansson, Jenny
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Nyberg, Fred J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    GH (Growth hormone) improves spatial memory and reverses certain anabolic androgenic steroid-induced effects in intact rats2013In: Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0022-0795, E-ISSN 1479-6805, Vol. 216, no 1, p. 31-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth hormone (GH) has previously been shown to promote cognitive functions in GH deficient rodents. In this study we report effects of GH on learning and memory in intact rats pretreated with the anabolic androgenic steroid nandrolone. Male Wistar rats received nandrolone decanoate (15 mg/kg) or peanut oil every third day for three weeks and were subsequently treated with recombinant human GH (1.0 IU/kg) or saline for ten consecutive days. During the GH/saline treatment spatial learning and memory were tested in the Morris water maze (MWM). Also, plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) were assessed and the gene expression of the GH receptor, Igf1, and Igf2 in hippocampus and frontal cortex was analyzed. The results demonstrated a significant positive effect of GH on memory functions and increased gene expression of Igf1 in the hippocampus was found in the animals treated with GH. In addition, GH was demonstrated to increase the body weight gain and was able to attenuate the reduced body weight seen in nandrolone treated animals. In general, the rats treated with nandrolone alone did not exhibit any pronounced alteration in memory compared to controls in the MWM, and in many cases GH did not induce any alteration. Regarding target zone crossings, considered to be associated to spatial memory, the difference between GH and steroid treated animals was significant and administration of GH improved this parameter in the latter group. In conclusion, GH improves spatial memory in intact rats and can reverse certain effects induced by AAS (anabolic androgenic steroid).

  • 18.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nylander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    The neurobiology and addiction potential of anabolic androgenic steroids and the effects of growth hormone2016In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 126, p. 127-137Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are substances that mimic the hormone testosterone, and primarily act via the androgen receptor. In addition to their physiological effect on muscle tissue and growth, research from the last decade has shown that AAS have a pronounced impact on the central nervous system. A large number of studies have demonstrated that AAS affect the mesolimbic reward system in the brain. However, whether the direct effects of AAS on endorphins, dopamine, serotonin and GABA etc. and on the corresponding and related systems lead to dependence needs to be further elucidated. According to recent studies, the prevalence of AAS dependence among AAS users has been estimated to be approximately 30%, and polysubstance use, of both pharmaceutical drugs and narcotics, within this group is common. The present review primarily discusses AAS in the context of addiction and dependence, and further addresses the issue of using multiple substances, i.e. stimulants and opiates in combination with AAS. In addition, aspects of the treatment of AAS dependence, the connection between AAS abuse and cognition, and AAS-induced neurotoxicity are presented. Currently, performance enhancing drugs are frequently used in combination with AAS. Therefore, a large section on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor is also included.

  • 19.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nylander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Assessing Cell Viability Effects of Opioids in Primary Cortical Cells from Rat.2021In: Methods in Molecular Biology, ISSN 1064-3745, E-ISSN 1940-6029, Vol. 2201, p. 171-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the number of studies that have examined the impact of opioids on cell viability is very limited, it has clearly shown that opioids commonly used in the clinic can both decrease neurogenesis and induce cell death. These negative effects induced by opioids are worrying and there is a need for further in-depth investigations addressing the impact of opioids on cell function and cell viability. A useful in vitro approach for studying the effects of opioids on cellular function and viability is using primary cortical cell cultures obtained from embryonic day 17 (E17) rat embryos. These cell cultures contain both neurons and glial cells that provide a more physiologically relevant culture condition when compared to the use of various commercially available cell lines. The primary cortical cells can be cultivated in 96-well plates, treated with various concentrations of opioids, and cell viability functions such as mitochondrial function and membrane integrity can easily be assessed using specific colorimetric assays.

  • 20. Heddini, Ulrika
    et al.
    Bohm-Starke, Nina
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Johannesson, Ulrika
    GCH1-polymorphism and pain sensitivity among women with provoked vestibulodynia2012In: Molecular Pain, E-ISSN 1744-8069, Vol. 8, p. 68-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a pain disorder localized in the vestibular mucosa. It is the most common cause of dyspareunia among young women and it is associated with general pain hypersensitivity and other chronic pain conditions. Polymorphism in the guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase (GCH1) gene has been found to influence general pain sensitivity and the risk of developing a longstanding pain condition. The aim of this study was to investigate GCH1-polymorphism in women with PVD and healthy controls, in correlation to pain sensitivity. Results: We found no correlation between the previously defined pain-protective GCH1-SNP combination and the diagnosis of PVD. Nor any correlation with pain sensitivity measured as pressure pain thresholds on the arm, leg and in the vestibule, coital pain scored on a visual analog scale and prevalence of other bodily pain conditions among women with PVD (n = 98) and healthy controls (n = 102). However, among patients with current treatment (n = 36), there was a significant interaction effect of GCH1-gene polymorphism and hormonal contraceptive (HC) therapy on coital pain (p = 0.04) as well as on pressure pain thresholds on the arm (p = 0.04). PVD patients carrying the specified SNP combination and using HCs had higher pain sensitivity compared to non-carriers. In non-HC-users, carriers had lower pain sensitivity. Conclusions: The results of this study gave no support to the hypothesis that polymorphism in the GCH1-gene contributes to the etiology of PVD. However, among patients currently receiving treatment an interaction effect of the defined SNP combination and use of hormonal contraceptives on pain sensitivity was found. This finding offers a possible explanation to the clinically known fact that some PVD patients improve after cessation of hormonal contraceptives, indicating that PVD patients carrying the defined SNP combination of GCH1 would benefit from this intervention.

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  • 21.
    Heddini, Ulrika
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bohm-Starke, Nina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Johannesson, Ulrika
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Serotonin receptor gene (5HT-2A) polymorphism is associated with provoked vestibulodynia and comorbid symptoms of pain2014In: Journal of Sexual Medicine, ISSN 1743-6095, E-ISSN 1743-6109, Vol. 11, no 12, p. 3064-3071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionProvoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a common type of dyspareunia among young women. The patho-physiology remains largely unclear. Women with PVD have general pain hypersensitivity and often report additional pain symptoms. Signs point towards PVD being a chronic pain disorder similar to other syndromes of longstanding pain, including a common comorbidity of anxiety and depression. Polymorphism in the serotonin receptor gene, 5HT-2A, has been associated with other chronic pain disorders such as fibromyalgia but has not been investigated in PVD patients. AimWe aimed to investigate a possible contribution of polymorphism in the 5HT-2A gene to the etiology of PVD as well as a potential influence on pain sensitivity. MethodsIn this case-control study 98 women with PVD and 103 healthy controls between 18 and 44 years and in the same menstrual cycle phase completed questionnaires and underwent quantitative sensory testing. Venous blood samples were collected for DNA isolation. Main Outcome MeasuresConcomitant pain was reported, a bodily pain score was created and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) on the arm, leg, and in the vestibule were measured. Intensity of coital pain was rated on a visual analog scale, range 0-100. The T102C (rs6313) and A-1438G (rs6311) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5HT-2A gene were analyzed. ResultsThe probability of PVD was elevated in participants carrying the 1438G- and 102C-alleles of the 5HT-2A gene (OR 2.9). The G-/C- genotypes were also associated with more concomitant bodily pain in addition to the dyspareunia, but not with experimental PPTs or coital pain ratings. PVD patients reported more concomitant bodily pain and had lower PPTs compared with controls. ConclusionThe results indicate a contribution of alterations in the serotonergic system to the patho-genesis of PVD and gives further evidence of PVD being a general pain disorder similar to other chronic pain disorders. Heddini U, Bohm-Starke N, Gronbladh A, Nyberg F, Nilsson KW, and Johannesson U. Serotonin receptor gene (5HT-2A) polymorphism is associated with provoked vestibulodynia and comorbid symptoms of pain.

  • 22.
    Heddini, Ulrika
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Johannesson, Ulrika
    Karolinska Institutet, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nilsson, Kent W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Bohm-Starke, Nina
    Karolinska Institutet, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    A118G polymorphism in the μ-opioid receptor gene and levels of β-endorphin are associated with provoked vestibulodynia and pressure pain sensitivity2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 10-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is the most common cause of dyspareunia among young women. The aetiology is largely unknown and treatment is often extensive and longstanding with varying outcomes. Patients display general pain hypersensitivity and there are correlations with other chronic pain syndromes such as fibromyalgia later in life. The A118G polymorphism in the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene influences endogenous pain regulation and pain sensitivity, but has not been studied in this patient group before. We aimed to investigate a possible association between A118G polymorphism and PVD, with correlation to plasma levels of β-endorphin, and to explore relationships between this polymorphism and pain sensitivity among women with PVD and healthy controls.

    Methods

    This case–control study included 98 women with PVD and 103 controls. Participants filled out study-specific questionnaires and underwent quantitative sensory testing of pressure pain thresholds on the arm, leg and in the vestibular area. Levels of β-endorphin were analyzed by radioimmunoassay using the EURIA-beta-endorphin kit, and the A118G single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs1799971) in the OPRM1 gene was analyzed using the TaqMan SNP genotyping assay.

    Results

    The 118G allele was more common in controls (44%) than in patients (30%) (p  = 0.042). The odds ratio of having PVD was 1.8 in participants carrying the 118A allele compared to participants hetero- or homozygous for the 118G allele (OR = 1.846, CI: 1.03–3.31, p = 0.039). Pressure pain thresholds on the leg were higher for participants carrying the 118G allele (mean 480 kPa, SD 167.5) than for those carrying the 118A allele (mean 419, SD 150.4, p = 0.008). Levels of β-endorphin were higher in patients (mean 17.9 fmol/ml, SD 4.71) than in controls (mean 15.8 fmol/ml, SD 4.03) (p < 0.001).

    Conclusion

    We found an association between the A118G polymorphism in the OPRM1 gene and an increased risk of PVD and increased pain sensitivity among participants carrying the 118A allele. PVD patients were more sensitive to pressure pain and had higher levels of plasma β-endorphin than controls. The results indicate that differences in endogenous pain modulation involving the opioid system could contribute to the pathophysiology of PVD and the general pain hypersensitivity seen in these women.

    Implications

    The data support the conceptualization of PVD as part of a general pain disorder with a possible genetic predisposition. The age of onset of PVD is usually between 18 and 25 years and already at this age general pain hypersensitivity is present but rarely causing disability. We believe that early recognition and treatment, with the risk of further development of chronic pain taken into consideration, might prevent future aggravated pain problems in this patient group.

  • 23.
    Johansson, Jenny
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brolin, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) elevates Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP) levels in the frontal cortex of the male rat brainManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has increased in popularity among adolescents during recent years. Predominantly it is used as a recreational drug, but frequently also as an anabolic agent due to its ability of releasing growth hormone. The fact that GHB has been reported to be highly addictive and can cause cognitive deficiencies has become a major concern. In this study, we investigated the impact of GHB treatment in rats on the levels of the endogenous opioid peptides Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP) and Dynorphin B (DYNB) in various regions of the brain and on the levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in plasma. Furthermore, spontaneous explorative behavior and locomotor activity after GHB administration was analyzed in an Open field (OF). The results demonstrated that treatment with GHB did not affect the parameters that were assessed in the OF, nor did it affect the plasma levels of IGF-1. Regarding the opioid peptide levels, the GHB treated rats demonstrated increased immunoreactive (ir) MEAP but not DYNB levels in the frontal cortex, while no significant alterations were observed in caudate putamen, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus and periaqueductal grey. Moreover, in control rats the levels of ir MEAP and ir DYNB seemed well-balanced in many regions and the peptide levels correlated in amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus. However, in the GHB-treated animals no such correlation was observed. In conclusion, GHB treatment created an imbalance regarding the opioids MEAP/DYNB and increased the levels of MEAP significantly in regions of the brain that are of importance for the development of drug dependence.

  • 24.
    Johansson, Jenny
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) induces cognitive deficits and affects GABAreceptors and IGF-1 receptors in male rats2014In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 269, p. 164-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the abuse of the club drug Gamma-hydroxy butyric acid (GHB) has become increasingly frequent among adolescents. The drug induces euphoria but can also result in sedation, anaesthesia as well as short-term amnesia. In addition, the abuse of GHB is reported to cause cognitive impairments. The mechanism by which GHB induces impairment in learning and memory has not been fully clarified. The present study investigates the impact on spatial learning and memory using a water maze test in rats treated with GHB. The behavioural data is combined with an autoradiographic analysis of the GABAB and the IGF-1 receptor systems. The results demonstrate that the GHB treated animals display an impaired performance in the water maze test as compared to controls. In addition, significant alterations in GABAB and IGF-1 receptor density as well as GABAB receptor functionality, were observed in several brain regions associated with cognitive functions e.g. hippocampus. To conclude, our findings suggest that GHB treatment can affect spatial learning and memory, and that this outcome at least to some extent is likely to involve both GABAB and IGF-1 receptors.

  • 25.
    Johansson, Jenny
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Application of in vitro [(35)S]GTPγ-S autoradiography in studies of growth hormone effects on opioid receptors in the male rat brain2013In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 90, p. 100-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic treatment with opiates may inhibit cell growth and trigger apoptosis. On the contrary, growth hormone (GH) has been demonstrated to stimulate neurogenesis and counteract apoptosis. We recently demonstrated that recombinant human GH (rhGH) may reverse opiate-induced apoptosis in cells derived from prenatal mouse hippocampus. Thus, GH might be able to prevent the impaired cognitive capabilities that may occur in both humans and other mammals in connection to chronic opiate treatment. In order to explore the mechanism by which GH exerts its beneficial effects we here examined the impact of GH treatment on the levels of delta and mu opioid peptide (DOP and MOP, respectively) receptors in the male rat brain. The rats were treated with rhGH (Genotropin(®)) at two different doses (0.07 and 0.7IU/kg), twice daily, during 7 days. Following decapitation, the levels of DOP and MOP receptor functionality were determined using [(35)S]GTPγS autoradiography. The results demonstrate that rhGH affects the levels of the MOP receptor functionality in certain areas of the brain. These alterations were seen in e.g. amygdala and thalamus, i.e. regions that recently have been implicated in learning and memory. The activity level of DOP receptors was not affected. Thus, the data support that the beneficial effect of GH on counteracting apoptosis might involve a direct or indirect effect on the MOP but not the DOP receptor.

  • 26.
    Kalliomäki, Maija-Liisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Anaesthesia, POB 2000, Tampere 33521, Finland.
    Sandblom, Gabriel
    CLINTEC, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Gunarsson, Ulf
    Umea Univ, Dept Surg & Perioperat Sci, S-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Univ Uppsala Hosp, Pain Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ginya, Harumi
    Precis Syst Sci Co Ltd, Div IVD Syst Dev, Chiba, Japan.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Genetic susceptibility to postherniotomy pain. The influence of polymorphisms in the Mu opioid receptor, TNF-alpha, GRIK3, GCH1, BDNF and CACNA2D2 genes2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 12, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Despite improvements in surgical technique, 5%-8% of patients undergoing herniorrhaphy still suffer from clinically relevant persistent postherniotomy pain. This is a problem at both individual and society levels. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not a single nucleotide polymorphism in a specific gene contributes to the development of persistent pain after surgery. Methods: One hundred individuals with persistent postherniotomy pain, along with 100 without pain matched for age, gender and type of surgery were identified in a previous cohort study on patients operated for groin hernia. All patients underwent a thorough sensory examination and blood samples were collected. DNA was extracted and analysed for single nucleotide polymorphism in the Mu opioid receptor, TNF-alpha, GRIK3, GCH1, BDNF and CACNA2D2 genes. Results: Patients with neuropathic pain were found to have a homozygous single nucleotide polymorph in the TNF-alpha gene significantly more often than pain-free patients (P = 0.036, one-tailed test). Conclusions: SNP in the TNF-alpha gene has a significant impact on the risk for developing PPSP. Implications: The result suggests the involvement of genetic variance in the development of pain and this requires further investigation.

  • 27.
    Korczak, Maciej
    et al.
    Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Kurowski, Przemysław
    Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Leśniak, Anna
    Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Gröndbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Filipowska, Anna
    Silesian University of Technology, Zabrze, Poland.
    Bujalska-Zadrożny, Magdalena
    Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    GABA B receptor intracellular signaling: novel pathways for depressive disorder treatment?2020In: European Journal of Pharmacology, ISSN 0014-2999, E-ISSN 1879-0712, Vol. 885, article id 173531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affecting over 320 million people around the world, depression has become a formidable challenge for modern medicine. In addition, an increasing number of studies cast doubt on the monoamine theory of depressive disorder and, worryingly, antidepressant medications only significantly benefit patients with severe depression. Thus, it is not surprising that researchers have shown an increased interest in new theories attempting to explain the pathogenesis of this disease. One example is the excitatory/inhibitory transmission imbalance theory. These abnormalities involve glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling. Studies on GABAB receptors and their antagonists are particularly promising for the treatment of depressive disorders. In this paper, intracellular pathways controlled by GABAB receptors and their links to depression are described, including the impact of ketamine on GABAergic synaptic transmission.

  • 28.
    Lai, Zhennan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Effects of growth hormone on brain function: new routes for the delivery of the hormone into the brain2016In: Amino Acids, ISSN 0939-4451, E-ISSN 1438-2199, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 633-634Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Nylander, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Gröndbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Diwakarla, Shanti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Growth hormone is protective against acute methadone-induced toxicity by modulating the NMDA receptor complex2016In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 339, p. 538-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human growth hormone (GH) displays promising protective effects in the central nervous system after damage caused by various insults. Current evidence suggests that these effects may involve N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function, a receptor that also is believed to play a role in opioid-induced neurotoxicity. The aims of the present study were to examine the acute toxic effects of methadone, an opioid receptor agonist and NMDA receptor antagonist, as well as to evaluate the protective properties of recombinant human GH (rhGH) on methadone-induced toxicity. Primary cortical cell cultures from embryonic day 17 rats were grown for 7 days in vitro. Cells were treated with methadone for 24 h and the 50% lethal dose was calculated and later used for protection studies with rhGH. Cellular toxicity was determined by measuring mitochondrial activity, lactate dehydrogenase release, and caspase activation. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of NMDA receptor subunits were investigated following methadone and rhGH treatment using quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. A significant protective effect was observed with rhGH treatment on methadone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and in methadone-induced LDH release. Furthermore, methadone significantly increased caspase-3 and -7 activation but rhGH was unable to inhibit this effect. The mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor subunit GluN1, GluN2a, and GluN2b increased following methadone treatment, as assessed by qPCR, and rhGH treatment effectively normalized this expression to control levels. We have demonstrated that rhGH can rescue cells from methadone-induced toxicity by maintaining mitochondrial function, cellular integrity, and NMDA receptor complex expression.

  • 30.
    Nylander, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Katila, Lenka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Birgersson, Jennifer
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Gröndbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, M
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Mitochondrial function and membrane integrity: an in vitro comparison between six commonly used opioidsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There is an ongoing opioid crisis in the United States where the illicit and non-medical use of prescription opioids is associated with an increasing number of overdose deaths. Few studies have investigated the effects of opioid-induced effects on cell viability, and comparative studies are scarce. Here we examine the toxic effect on cell viability from six commonly used opioids; methadone, morphine, oxycodone, hydromorphone, ketobemidone, and fentanyl with respect to mitochondrial and membrane function in vitro. Methods: The opioids were tested in four different cell cultures; primary cortical cell cultures, human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and both differentiated and undifferentiated neuroblastoma/glioma hybrid NG108-15 cells. Results: The six different opioids displayed the same trend of reduced cell viability in all four cell cultures. The ranking of opioids, with respect to reduced cell viability were as follows; methadone, fentanyl, ketobemidone, oxycodone, hydromorphone, and morphine. Conclusion: Methadone was ranked as the most toxic opioid closely followed by fentanyl. Ketobemidone and oxycodone had modest effects while both hydromorphone and morphine only displayed little to no negative impact on cell viability.

  • 31.
    Nylander, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    The Protective and Restorative Effects of Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 on Methadone-Induced Toxicity In Vitro2018In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 1-16, article id ijms-387278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence to date suggests that opioids such as methadone may be associated with cognitive impairment. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are suggested to be neuroprotective and procognitive in the brain and may therefore counteract these effects. This study aims to explore the protective and restorative effects of GH and IGF-1 in methadone-treated cell cultures. Primary cortical cell cultures were harvested from rat fetuses and grown for seven days in vitro. To examine the protective effects, methadone was co-treated with or without GH or IGF-1 for three consecutive days. To examine the restorative effects, methadone was added for the first 24 h, washed, and later treated with GH or IGF-1 for 48 h. At the end of each experiment, mitochondrial function and membrane integrity were evaluated. The results revealed that GH had protective effects in the membrane integrity assay and that both GH and IGF-1 effectively recovered mitochondrial function and membrane integrity in cells pretreated with methadone. The overall conclusion of the present study is that GH, but not IGF-1, protects primary cortical cells against methadone-induced toxicity, and that both GH and IGF-1 have a restorative effect on cells pretreated with methadone.

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  • 32.
    Nylander, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Gröndbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    The effects of morphine, methadone, and fentanyl on mitochondria: A live cell imaging study2021In: Brain Research Bulletin, ISSN 0361-9230, E-ISSN 1873-2747, Vol. 171, p. 126-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The important role of mitochondria in maintaining normal brain cell function has been demonstrated in several neurodegenerative diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction is a prominent feature. Accumulating evidence indicates that opioids may induce neuronal cell death and inhibit neurogenesis, two factors that are dependent on normal mitochondrial function. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of morphine, methadone, and fentanyl on mitochondrial morphology. Cells from the neuroblastoma/glioma hybrid cell-line NG108-15 were seeded on 96-well cell culture plates and treated with MitoTracker™ for 30 min prior to opioid treatment. Morphine, methadone, and fentanyl were added at various concentrations and images of mitochondria were acquired every 30 min for four hours using a high-content imaging device. The morphological parameters total mitochondrial area, mitochondrial network, number of mitochondrial objects, and the mean area of mitochondrial objects were analyzed using automated image analysis. Methadone and fentanyl, but not morphine, decreased the mitochondrial network, the number of mitochondrial objects, and increased the mean area of mitochondrial objects. Both methadone and fentanyl altered mitochondrial morphology with no effects seen from morphine treatment. These data suggest that methadone and fentanyl disrupt mitochondrial morphology, which may contribute to neuronal cell death.

  • 33.
    Nylander, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Stam, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Growth hormone increases dendritic spine density in primary hippocampal cell cultures2020In: Growth Hormone & IGF Research, ISSN 1096-6374, E-ISSN 1532-2238, Vol. 50, p. 42-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Growth hormone (GH) is widely known for its peripheral effects during growth and development. However, numerous reports also suggest that GH exert pro-cognitive, restorative, and protective properties in the brain. In in vitro studies, the detection of dendritic spines, small protrusions extending from axons, can act as a marker for cognition-related function as spine formation is considered to be associated with learning and memory. Here we show that an acute 24-hour treatment of GH can increase dendritic spine density in primary hippocampal cell cultures.

    Design: Primary hippocampal cells were harvested from embryonic Wistar rats and cultured for 14 days. Cells were treated with supra-physiological doses of GH (10-1000 nM) and subjected to a high-throughput screening protocol. Images were acquired and analyzed using automated image analysis and the number of spines, spines per neurite length, neurite length, and mean area of spines, was reported.

    Results: GH treatment increased dendritic spine density using the highest dose while the general health of the cells was unaffected.

    Conclusion: The results from the present study further confirms a potential role of GH in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction.

  • 34.
    Rhodin, Annica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Gröndbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Ginya, Harumi
    Precision System Science Japan.
    NIlsson, Kent W
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Rosenblad, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Zhou, Qin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Enlund, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, research centers etc., Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Division of Biological Research on Drug Dependence.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Combined analysis of circulating β-endorphin with gene polymorphisms in OPRM1, CACNAD2 and ABCB1 reveals correlation with pain, opioid sensitivity and opioid-related side effects2013In: Molecular Brain, ISSN 1756-6606, Vol. 6, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Opioids are associated with wide inter-individual variability in the analgesic response and a narrow therapeutic index. This may be partly explained by the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding molecular entities involved in opioid metabolism and receptor activation. This paper describes the investigation of SNPs in three genes that have a functional impact on the opioid response: OPRM1, which codes for the μ-opioid receptor; ABCB1 for the ATP-binding cassette B1 transporter enzyme; and the calcium channel complex subunit CACNA2D2. The genotyping was combined with an analysis of plasma levels of the opioid peptide β-endorphin in 80 well-defined patients with chronic low back pain scheduled for spinal fusion surgery, and with differential sensitivity to the opioid analgesic remifentanil. This patient group was compared with 56 healthy controls.

    Results

    The plasma β-endorphin levels were significantly higher in controls than in pain patients.

    A higher incidence of opioid-related side effects and sex differences was found in patients with the minor allele of the ABCB1 gene. Further, a correlation between increased opioid sensitivity and the major CACNA2D2 allele was confirmed. A tendency of a relationship between opioid sensitivity and the minor allele of OPRM1 was also found.

    Conclusions

    Although the sample cohort in this study was limited to 80 patients it appears that it was possible to observe significant correlations between polymorphism in relevant genes and various items related to pain sensitivity and opioid response. Of particular interest is the new finding of a correlation between increased opioid sensitivity and the major CACNA2D2 allele. These observations may open for improved strategies in the clinical treatment of chronic pain with opioids.

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  • 35.
    Rhodin, Annika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    von Ehren, Michaela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Skottheim, B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Ortiz-Nieto, Francisco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Raininko, Raili
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Gordh, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Recombinant human growth hormone improves cognitive capacity in a pain patient exposed to chronic opioids2014In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 58, no 6, p. 759-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent decades, the increasing use of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain has raised concerns regarding tolerance, addiction, and importantly cognitive dysfunction. Current research suggests that the somatotrophic axis could play an important role in cognitive function. Administration of growth hormone (GH) to GH-deficient humans and experimental animals has been shown to result in significant improvements in cognitive capacity. In this report, a patient with cognitive disabilities resulting from chronic treatment with opioids for neuropathic pain received recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy. A 61-year-old man presented with severe cognitive dysfunction after long-term methadone treatment for intercostal neuralgia and was diagnosed with GH insufficiency by GH releasing hormone-arginine testing. The effect of rhGH replacement therapy on his cognitive capacity and quality of life was investigated. The hippocampal volume was measured using magnetic resonance imaging, and the ratios of the major metabolites were calculated using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Cognitive testing revealed significant improvements in visuospatial cognitive function after rhGH. The hippocampal volume remained unchanged. In the right hippocampus, the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio (reflecting nerve cell function) was initially low but increased significantly during rhGH treatment, as did subjective cognitive, physical and emotional functioning. This case report indicates that rhGH replacement therapy could improve cognitive behaviour and well-being, as well as hippocampal metabolism and functioning in opioid-treated patients with chronic pain. The idea that GH could affect brain function and repair disabilities induced by long-term exposure to opioid analgesia is supported.

  • 36.
    Seyer, Benjamin
    et al.
    Monash University.
    Diwakarla, Shanti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Burns, Peta
    Monash University.
    Hallberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preparative Medicinal Chemistry.
    Gröndbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Chai, Siew Yeen
    Monash University.
    Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase inhibitor-mediated increases in dendritic spine density are facilitated by glucose uptake2020In: Journal of Neurochemistry, ISSN 0022-3042, E-ISSN 1471-4159, Vol. 153, no 4, p. 485-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethyl2‐acetylamino‐7‐hydroxy‐4‐pyridin‐3‐yl‐4H‐chromene‐3‐carboxylate (HFI‐419), the benzopyran‐based inhibitor of insulin‐regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP), has previously been shown to improve spatial working and recognition memory in rodents. However, the mechanism of its cognitive‐enhancing effect remains unknown. There is a close correlation between dendritic spine density and learning in vivo and several studies suggest that increases in neuronal glucose uptake and/or alterations to the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may improve memory and increase dendritic spine density. We aimed to identify the potential mechanism by which HFI‐419 enhances memory by utilizing rat primary cultures of hippocampal cells. Alterations to dendritic spine density were assessed in the presence of varying concentrations of HFI‐419 at different stages of hippocampal cell development. In addition, glucose uptake and changes to spine density were assessed in the presence of indinavir, an inhibitor of the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), or the matrix metalloprotease inhibitor CAS 204140‐01‐2. We confirmed that inhibition of IRAP activity with HFI‐419 enhanced spatial working memory in rats, and determined that this enhancement may be driven by GLUT4‐mediated changes to dendritic spine density. We observed that IRAP inhibition increased dendritic spine density prior to peak dendritic growth in hippocampal neurons, and that spine formation was inhibited when GLUT4‐mediated glucose uptake was blocked. In addition, during the peak phase of dendritic spine growth, the effect of IRAP inhibition on enhancement of dendritic spine density resulted specifically in an increase in the proportion of mushroom/stubby‐like spines, a morphology associated with memory and learning. Moreover, these spines were deemed to be functional based on their expression of the pre‐synaptic markers vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and synapsin. Overall, or findings suggest that IRAP inhibitors may facilitate memory by increasing hippocampal dendritic spine density via a GLUT4‐mediated mechanism. 

  • 37.
    Stam, Frida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Lind, Sara Florén
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Schroff, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nylander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Gising, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Gröndbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Larhed, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Toxicity Is Reversed by the Macrocyclic IRAP-Inhibitor HA08 in Primary Hippocampal Cell Cultures2022In: Current Issues in Molecular Biology, ISSN 1467-3037, E-ISSN 1467-3045, Vol. 44, no 10, p. 5000-5012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Angiotensin IV (Ang IV), a metabolite of Angiotensin II, is a bioactive hexapeptide that inhibits the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP). This transmembrane zinc metallopeptidase with many biological functions has in recent years emerged as a new pharmacological target. IRAP is expressed in a variety of tissues and can be found in high density in the hippocampus and neocortex, brain regions associated with cognition. Ang IV is known to improve memory tasks in experimental animals. One of the most potent IRAP inhibitors known today is the macrocyclic compound HA08 that is significantly more stable than the endogenous Ang IV. HA08 combines structural elements from Ang IV and the physiological substrates oxytocin and vasopressin, and binds to the catalytic site of IRAP. In the present study we evaluate whether HA08 can restore cell viability in rat primary cells submitted to hydrogen peroxide damage. After damaging the cells with hydrogen peroxide and subsequently treating them with HA08, the conceivable restoring effects of the IRAP inhibitor were assessed. The cellular viability was determined by measuring mitochondrial activity and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. The mitochondrial activity was significantly higher in primary hippocampal cells, whereas the amount of LDH was unaffected. We conclude that the cell viability can be restored in this cell type by blocking IRAP with the potent macrocyclic inhibitor HA08, although the mechanism by which HA08 exerts its effects remains unclear.

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  • 38.
    Wannberg, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preparative Medicinal Chemistry.
    Gising, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preparative Medicinal Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Drug Design and Discovery. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Henriksson, Martin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Organ Chem, Sci Life Lab, Drug Discovery & Dev Platform, Solna, Sweden..
    Vo, Duc Duy
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Savmarker, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sallander, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Larsson, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preparative Medicinal Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hamid, Selin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Monash Univ, Dept Pharmacol, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia.;Monash Univ, Biomed Discovery Inst, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Ablahad, Hanin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Monash Univ, Dept Pharmacol, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia.;Monash Univ, Biomed Discovery Inst, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Spizzo, Iresha
    Monash Univ, Dept Pharmacol, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia.;Monash Univ, Biomed Discovery Inst, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Gaspari, Tracey A.
    Monash Univ, Dept Pharmacol, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia.;Monash Univ, Biomed Discovery Inst, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Widdop, Robert E.
    Monash Univ, Dept Pharmacol, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia.;Monash Univ, Biomed Discovery Inst, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Petersen, Nadia N.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Backlund, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Larhed, Mats
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preparative Medicinal Chemistry.
    N-(Heteroaryl)thiophene sulfonamides as angiotensin AT2 receptor ligands2024In: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0223-5234, E-ISSN 1768-3254, Vol. 265, article id 116122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two series of N-(heteroaryl)thiophene sulfonamides, encompassing either a methylene imidazole group or a tertbutylimidazolylacetyl group in the meta position of the benzene ring, have been synthesized. An AT(2)R selective ligand with a Ki of 42 nM was identified in the first series and in the second series, six AT(2)R selective ligands with significantly improved binding affinities and Ki values of <5 nM were discovered. The binding modes to AT(2)R were explored by docking calculations combined with molecular dynamics simulations. Although some of the high affinity ligands exhibited fair stability in human liver microsomes, comparable to that observed with C21 undergoing clinical trials, most ligands displayed a very low metabolic stability with t(1/2) of less than 10 min in human liver microsomes. The most promising ligand, with an AT(2)R K-i value of 4.9 nM and with intermediate stability in human hepatocytes (t(1/2) = 77 min) caused a concentration-dependent vasorelaxation of pre-contracted mouse aorta.

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  • 39.
    Wannberg, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preparative Medicinal Chemistry.
    Gising, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preparative Medicinal Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Lindman, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preparative Medicinal Chemistry.
    Salander, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics.
    Ablahad, Hanin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Monash University.
    Hamid, Selin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Monash University.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Spizzo, Iresha
    Monash University.
    Gaspari, Tracey A.
    Monash University.
    Widdop, Robert E.
    Monash University.
    Hallberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preparative Medicinal Chemistry.
    Backlund, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Leśniak, Anna
    Medical University of Warsaw.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Larhed, Mats
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preparative Medicinal Chemistry.
    N-(Methyloxycarbonyl)thiophene sulfonamides as high affinity AT2 receptor ligands2021In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0968-0896, E-ISSN 1464-3391, Vol. 29, article id 115859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of meta-substituted acetophenone derivatives, encompassing N-(alkyloxycarbonyl)thiophene sulfonamide fragments have been synthesized. Several selective AT2 receptor ligands were identified, among those a tert-butylimidazole derivative (20) with a Ki of 9.3 nM, that demonstrates a high stability in human liver microsomes (t½ = 62 min) and in human hepatocytes (t½ = 194 min). This methyloxycarbonylthiophene sulfonamide is a 20-fold more potent binder to the AT2 receptor and is considerably more stable in human liver microsomes, than a previously reported and broadly studied structurally related AT2R prototype antagonist 3 (C38). Ligand 20 acts as an AT2R agonist and caused an AT2R mediated concentration-dependent vasorelaxation of pre-contracted mouse aorta. Furthermore, in contrast to imidazole derivative C38, the tert-butylimidazole derivative 20 is a poor inhibitor of CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9. It is demonstrated herein that smaller alkyloxycarbonyl groups make the ligands in this series of AT2R selective compounds less prone to degradation and that a high AT2 receptor affinity can be retained after truncation of the alkyloxycarbonyl group. Binding modes of the most potent AT2R ligands were explored by docking calculations combined with molecular dynamics simulations.

  • 40.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nylander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Kjellgren, Ellinor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Gröndbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nandrolone decanoate and testosterone undecanoate differently affect stress hormones, neurotransmitter systems, and general activity in the male rat2022In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 432, article id 113971Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are frequently used to improve physical appearance and strength. AAS are known to affect muscle growth, but many AAS-users also experience psychiatric and behavioral changes after long-term use. The AAS-induced effects on the brain seem to depend on the type of steroid used, but the rationale behind the observed effect is still not clear. The present study investigated and compared the impact of nandrolone decanoate and testosterone undecanoate on body weight gain, levels of stress hormones, brain gene expression, and behavioral profiles in the male rat. The behavioral profile was determined using the multivariate concentric squared field test (MCSF-test). Blood plasma and brains were collected for further analysis using ELISA and qPCR. Nandrolone decanoate caused a reduction in body weight gain in comparison with both testosterone undecanoate and control. Rats receiving nandrolone decanoate also demonstrated decreased general activity in the MCSF. In addition, nandrolone decanoate reduced the plasma levels of ACTH in comparison with the control and increased the levels of corticosterone in comparison with testosterone undecanoate. The qPCR analysis revealed brain region-dependent changes in mRNA expression, where the hypothalamus was identified as the region most affected by the AAS. Alterations in neurotransmitter systems and stress hormones may contribute to the changes in behavior detected in the MCSF. In conclusion, both AAS affect the male rat, although, nandrolone decanoate has more pronounced impact on the physiological and the behavioral parameters measured.

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  • 41.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nylander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Toxic Impact of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids in Primary Rat Cortical Cell Cultures2019In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 397, p. 172-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) among non-athletes is a public health-problem, as abusers underestimate the negative effects associated with these drugs. The present study investigated the toxic effects of testosterone, nandrolone, stanozolol, and trenbolone, and aimed to understand how AAS abuse affects the brain. Mixed cortical cultures from embryonic rats were grown in vitro for 7 days and thereafter treated with increasing concentrations of AASs for 24 h (single-dose) or 3 days (repeated exposure). Cells were co-treated with the androgen-receptor (AR) antagonist flutamide, to determine whether the potential adverse effects observed were mediated by the AR. Cellular toxicity was determined by measuring mitochondrial activity, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and caspase-3/7 activity. Nandrolone, unlike the other AASs studied, indicated an effect on mitochondrial activity after 24 h. Furthermore, single-dose exposure with testosterone, nandrolone and trenbolone increased LDH release, while no effect was detected with stanozolol. However, all of the four steroids negatively affected mitochondrial function and resulted in LDH release after repeated exposure. Testosterone, nandrolone, and trenbolone caused their toxic effects by induction of apoptosis, unlike stanozolol that seemed to induce necrosis. Flutamide almost completely prevented AAS-induced toxicity by maintaining mitochondrial function, cellular integrity, and inhibition of apoptosis. Overall, we found that supra-physiological concentrations of AASs induce cell death in mixed primary cortical cultures, but to different extents, and possibly through various mechanisms. The data presented herein suggest that the molecular interactions of the AASs with the AR are primarily responsible for the toxic outcomes observed.

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  • 42.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nylander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Örtenblad, Axel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Stam, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Structurally different anabolic androgenic steroids reduce neurite outgrowth and neuronal viability in primary rat cortical cell cultures2021In: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, ISSN 0960-0760, E-ISSN 1879-1220, Vol. 210, article id 105863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The illicit use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) among adolescents and young adults is a major concern due to the unknown and unpredictable impact of AAS on the developing brain and the consequences of this on mental health, cognitive function and behaviour. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of supra-physiological doses of four structurally different AAS (testosterone, nandrolone, stanozolol and trenbolone) on neurite development and cell viability using an in vitro model of immature primary rat cortical cell cultures. A high-throughput screening image-based approach, measuring the neurite length and number of neurons, was used for the analysis of neurite outgrowth. In addition, cell viability and expression of the Tubb3 gene (encoding the protein beta-III tubulin) were investigated. Testosterone, nandrolone, and trenbolone elicited adverse effects on neurite outgrowth as deduced from an observed reduced neurite length per neuron. Trenbolone was the only AAS that reduced the cell viability as indicated by a decreased number of neurons and declined mitochondrial function. Moreover, trenbolone downregulated the Tubb3 mRNA expression. The adverse impact on neurite development was neither inhibited nor supressed by the selective androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, flutamide, suggesting that the observed effects result from another mechanism or mechanisms of action that are operating apart from AR activation. The results demonstrate a possible AAS-induced detrimental effect on neuronal development and regenerative functions. An impact on these events, that are essential mechanisms for maintaining normal brain function, could possibly contribute to behavioural alterations seen in AAS users.

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  • 43.
    Zelleroth, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Stam, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nylander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Ellinor, Kjellgren
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Gising, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Larhed, Mats
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preparative Medicinal Chemistry.
    Gröndbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    The decanoate esters of nandrolone, testosterone, and trenbolone induce steroid specific memory impairment and somatic effects in the male rat2024In: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 161, article id 105501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in supratherapeutic doses is associated with severe adverse effects, including physical, mental, and behavioral alterations. When used for recreational purposes several AAS are often combined, and in scientific studies of the physiological impact of AAS either a single compound or a cocktail of several steroids is often used. Because of this, steroid-specific effects have been difficult to define and are not fully elucidated. The present study used male Wistar rats to evaluate potential somatic and behavioral effects of three different AAS; the decanoate esters of nandrolone, testosterone, and trenbolone. The rats were exposed to 15 mg/kg of nandrolone decanoate, testosterone decanoate, or trenbolone decanoate every third day for 24 days. Body weight gain and organ weights (thymus, liver, kidney, testis, and heart) were measured together with the corticosterone plasma levels. Behavioral effects were studied in the novel object recognition-test (NOR-test) and the multivariate concentric square field-test (MCSF-test). The results conclude that nandrolone decanoate, but neither testosterone decanoate nor trenbolone decanoate, caused impaired recognition memory in the NOR-test, indicating an altered cognitive function. The behavioral profile and stress hormone level of the rats were not affected by the AAS treatments. Furthermore, the study revealed diverse AAS-induced somatic effects i.e., reduced body weight development and changes in organ weights. Of the three AAS included in the study, nandrolone decanoate was identified to cause the most prominent impact on the male rat, as it affected body weight development, the weights of multiple organs, and caused an impaired memory function.

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