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  • 1.
    Basirat, F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Perroud, Hervé
    Lofi, Johanna
    Denchik, Nataliya
    Lods, Gérard
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    Pezard, Philippe
    Niemi, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Viability of modelling gas transport in shallow injection-monitoring experiment field at Maguelone,France2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Basirat, F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sharma, P.
    Niemi, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Experimental study of advective-diffusive gaseous CO2 transport through porous media.2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Basirat, Farzad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Denchik, Nataliya
    Univ Montpellier 2, Geosci Montpellier CNRS UMR 5243, Cc 060 Bat 22,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Pezard, Philippe A.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Geosci Montpellier CNRS UMR 5243, Cc 060 Bat 22,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Numerical modelling of CO2 injection at small-scale field experimental site in Maguelone, France2016In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 54, p. 200-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the performance of downhole and surface geophysical monitoring methods, a series of shallow gas injection-monitoring experiments has been performed in a coastal saline aquifer at Maguelone, France. The recorded data include pressure measurements with a Westbay multilevel completion and CO2 saturation at an observation well derived from electrical resistivity with a modified Waxman-Smits (MWS) model. In this work, the aim is to develop a simulation model capturing the gas transport behavior and consistent with field data. For this purpose, the simulation of the CO2 injection experiment is carried out with two conceptual models, a homogeneous model and a heterogeneous model treated with multiple realization Monte Carlo simulations. Numerical simulator TOUGH2 with the equation of state module EOS7C is used for the simulations. Comparison of the model results with field data suggests that the pressure responses are captured with relatively good accuracy. Similarly, the model also provides an overall reasonable agreement and correct order of magnitude for predicted gas saturation values. However, as the heterogeneity pattern in the field data remains largely unknown, the model predictions can only be used to capture the mean behavior as well as to provide insights into how heterogeneity can influence the system behavior, by means of sensitivity analyses of the influence of heterogeneities on individual realizations.

  • 4.
    Basirat, Farzad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Jung, Byeongju
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), Daejeon, South Korea.
    Yang, Zhibing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Numerical simulation of geological storage of CO2 with impurities in large scale saline aquiferManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 5. Basirat, Farzad
    et al.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Perroud, H
    Université de Montpellier.
    Lofi, J.
    Université de Montpellier.
    Denchik, N.
    Université de Montpellier.
    Pezard, P.
    Université de Montpellier.
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Modeling gas transport in the shallow subsurface in the Maguelone field experiment2013Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Developing reliable monitoring techniques to detect and characterize CO2 leakage in shallow subsurface is necessary for the safety of any GCS project. To test different monitoring techniques, shallow injection-monitoring experiment have and are being carried out at the Maguelone, along the Mediterranean lido of the Gulf of Lions, near Montpellier, France. This experimental site was developed in the context of EU FP7 project MUSTANG and is documented in Lofi et al. (2012). Gas injection experiments are being carried out and three techniques of pressure, electrical resistivity and seismic monitoring have been used to detect the nitrogen and CO2 release in the near surface environment. In the present work we use the multiphase and multicomponent TOUGH2/EOS7CA model to simulate the gaseous nitrogen and CO2 transport of the experiments carried out so far. The objective is both to gain understanding of the system performance based on the model analysis as well as to further develop and validate modelling approaches for gas transport in the shallow subsurface, against the well-controlled data sets. Numerical simulation can also be used for the prediction of experimental setup limitations. We expect the simulations to represent the breakthrough time for the different tested injection rates. Based on the hydrogeological formation data beneath the lido, we also expect the vertical heterogeneities in grain size distribution create an effective capillary barrier against upward gas transport in numerical simulations.

  • 6.
    Basirat, Farzad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Perroud, H
    Université de Montpellier.
    Lofi, J
    Université de Montpellier.
    Denchik, N
    Université de Montpellier.
    Pezard, P
    Université de Montpellier.
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University.
    Modeling gas transport in the shallow subsurface in the Maguelone field experiment2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing reliable monitoring techniques to detect and characterize CO2  leakage in shallow subsurface is necessary for the safety of any GCS project. To test different monitoring techniques, shallow injection-monitoring experiment have and are being carried out at the Maguelone, along the Mediterranean lido of the Gulf of Lions, near Montpellier, France. This experimental site was developed in the context of EU FP7 project MUSTANG and is documented in Lofi et al. (2012). Gas injection experiments are being carried out and three techniques of pressure, electrical resistivity and seismic monitoring have been used to detect the nitrogen and CO2  release in the near surface environment. In the present work we use the multiphase and multicomponent TOUGH2/EOS7CA model to simulate the gaseous nitrogen and CO2  transport of the experiments carried out so far. The objective is both to gain understanding of the system performance based on the model analysis as well as to further develop and validate modelling approaches for gas transport in the shallow subsurface, against the well-controlled data sets. Numerical simulation can also be used for the prediction of experimental setup limitations. We expect the simulations to represent the breakthrough time for the different tested injection rates. Based on the hydrogeological formation data beneath the lido, we also expect the vertical heterogeneities in grain size distribution create an effective capillary barrier against upward gas transport in numerical simulations.

  • 7.
    Basirat, Farzad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Perroud, Herve
    Universit´e de Montpellier.
    Lofi, Johanna
    Universit´e de Montpellier.
    Denchik, Nataliya
    Universit´e de Montpellier.
    Lods, Gerard
    Universit´e de Montpellier.
    Pezard, Philippe
    Universit´e de Montpellier.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Modeling Gas Transport in the Shallow Subsurface in Maguelone Field Experiment2013In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, p. 337-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, TOUGH2/EOS7CA model is used to simulate the shallow injection-monitoring experiment carried outat Maguelone, France, during 2012 and 2013. The ultimate objective of the work is to improve our understanding ofgas transport in the shallow subsurface as well as to develop and validate the model to monitor it. This workrepresents first results towards modelling the nitrogen and CO2 injection experiments carried out. The pressure datafrom the first injection experiments in summer 2012 is used as basis for comparison. Work is presently going on toincorporate the experimental data into the numerical simulation further.

  • 8.
    Basirat, Farzad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Experimental and modeling investigation of CO2 flow and transport in a coupled domain of porous media and free flow2015In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 42, p. 461-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A solid understanding of the transport mechanisms of gaseous CO2 near the land surface is necessary for developing reliable monitoring techniques and predictive models for possible CO2 leakage from deep underground storage. The objective of this work has been to develop an experimental method along with a simulation model for gaseous CO2 flow and transport in a system including both the porous media and the free air space above it. The experimental system consisted of a two-dimensional bench scale rectangular sandbox containing homogenous sand with an open space of still air above it. Gaseous CO2 was injected in different modes and the CO2 breakthrough was measured on specified ports in the system by using CO2 concentration sensors. A numerical model combining the gas flow in the porous medium and the free flow region was developed and used to model the experimental data. In this quest, the Discontinuous One-Domain approach was selected for modeling transport between the free flow and porous regions. The observed and simulated CO2 breakthrough curves both in the dried sand and in the free flow matched very well in the case of uniform injection and satisfactorily even in the case of point injection. Consequently, it seems that the model reasonably matches the observed data in the cases where the boundary condition is well defined. In summary, our results show that the developed experimental setup provides capability to study gaseous CO2 flow and transport in a coupled porous medium - free flow system and that our modeling approach is able to predict the flow and transport in this system with good accuracy.

  • 9.
    Basirat, Farzad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Small scale laboratory design investigation of leakage of gaseous CO2 through heterogeneous subsurface system2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technology for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide has been developed to reduce the CO2 emissions into the atmosphere from the use of fossil fuels in power generation and other industries. One of the main concerns associated with the geological storage is the possible leakage of CO2 into the shallow aquifers, for which effective detection methods are needed. The processes related to the spreading and trapping of CO2 in the reservoir formation and in supercritical conditions have received major attention and form the basis of understanding of CO2 trapping processes. Some of the CO2 may, however, also leak to the upper layers of the rock and all the way to land surface through faults and imperfections in the seal. A proper understanding and capability to detect such leaks is essential for a safe performance of any storage operation. This, in turn, involves a proper understanding of the processes related to the transport of gaseous CO2 in the nearsurface conditions, a topic that has received considerably less attention. The objective of this study is to analyze the transport and migration of gaseous CO2 in heterogeneous porous media, in controlled laboratory conditions. CO2 may reach the unsaturated zone by different leak mechanisms which may subsequently affect how and where it can be detected by leakage monitoring program. These mechanisms include exsolution from CO2 supersaturated water and continuous bubbling or gas flow along a leakage path. Below the water table, gaseous CO2 can also be trapped under capillary barriers. However, as more CO2 is supplied by leakage from below the water table, the pressure may at some point exceed the entry pressure of the barrier leading to a leak event. Similarly, fluctuations in the water table may also produce leak events of temporarily trapped CO2. In the unsaturated zone, the CO2 is heavier than air and may accumulate below ground surface and move laterally. The presence of heterogeneity influences both the movement and detectability of the CO2. Our laboratory experiment is designed and implemented for measuring CO2 distribution in time and space through the heterogeneous porous material. The CO2 concentrations through the domain are measured by using sensitive gas sensors. To better understand the consequences of CO2 leakage and how it can be detected, this study presents a conceptual model together with the design and setup of an experimental system to understand the transport, trapping and detectability of gaseous CO2 in a heterogeneous shallow geological system.

  • 10.
    Basirat, Farzad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University.
    Small scale laboratory design investigation of leakage of gaseous CO2 through heterogeneous subsurface system2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 11. Basirat, Farzad
    et al.
    Yang, Zhibing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Pore-scale modeling of wettability effects on CO2-brine displacement during geological storage2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetting properties of reservoir rocks and caprocks can significantly influence on sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep geological formations. Wettability impacts on the physical and chemical processes that are associated with injecting CO2 underground. Our aim is to understand how wetting properties influence two-phase flow of CO2 and brine in a pore scale domain. We use the phase field method to simulate the two-phase flow of CO2-brine in realistic porous domain geometry. Our focus is on clarifying the pore-scale fluid-fluid displacement mechanisms under different wetting conditions and to quantifying the effect of contact angle on macroscopic parameters such as residual brine saturation, capillary pressure, and specific interfacial area. We could show the phase field method can be applied to a complex porous medium with realistic reservoir permeability. Beside it was shown that it can deal with the conditions with large viscosity contrasts and large wettability (low contact angles) which are difficult to handle with direct numerical approaches. Our simulations results suggest wettability concept cannot be explained just by contact angles. Even though the wettability in pore-scale is defined as the contact angle, there is not any particular relation to link the contact angle to the residual saturations and distribution patterns of CO2 in porous domain. Beside the contact angle, the flow rate and basic properties of fluids which are represent in capillary number and mobility number definitions and also the geometry of porous media are describe the CO2-brine distributions.

  • 12.
    Basirat, Farzad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Yang, Zhibing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Pore-scale modeling of wettability effects on CO2–brine displacement during geological storage2017In: Advances in Water Resources, ISSN 0309-1708, E-ISSN 1872-9657, Vol. 109, p. 181-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetting properties of reservoir rocks and caprocks can vary significantly, and they strongly influence geological storage of carbon dioxide in deep saline aquifers, during which CO2 is supposed to displace the resident brine and to become permanently trapped. Fundamental understanding of the effect of wettability on CO2-brine displacement is thus important for improving storage efficiency and security. In this study, we investigate the influence of wetting properties on two-phase flow of CO2 and brine at the pore scale. A numerical model based on the phase field method is implemented to simulate the two-phase flow of CO2-brine in a realistic pore geometry. Our focus is to study the pore-scale fluid-fluid displacement mechanisms under different wetting conditions and to quantify the effect of wettability on macroscopic parameters such as residual brine saturation, capillary pressure, relative permeability, and specific interfacial area. Our simulation results confirm that both the trapped wetting phase saturation and the normalized interfacial area increase with decreasing contact angle. However, the wetting condition does not appear to influence the CO2 breakthrough time and saturation. We also show that the macroscopic capillary pressures based on the pressure difference between inlet and outlet can differ significantly from the phase averaging capillary pressures for all contact angles when the capillary number is high ( log Ca > -5). This indicates that the inlet-outlet pressure difference may not be a good measure of the continuum-scale capillary pressure. In addition, the results show that the relative permeability of CO2 can be significantly lower in strongly water-wet conditions than in the intermediate-wet conditions.

  • 13. Behrens, H.
    et al.
    Ghergut, J.
    Bensabat, J.
    Niemi, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sauter, M.
    Merging single-well and inter-well tracer testsinto one forced gradient dipole test, at the Heletz site within the MUSTANG project.2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Behrens, Horst
    et al.
    Ghergut, Julia
    Bensabat, Jac
    Niemi, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Licha, Tobias
    Ptak, Thomas
    Sauter, Martin
    Merging single-well and inter-well tracer tests into one forced-gradient dipole test, at the Heletz site within the MUSTANGproject2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15. Bensabat, J.
    et al.
    Niemi, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Design and Instrumentation of a high controlled experiment of CO2 injection at Heletz, Israel in the frame of the EU-FP7MUSTANG project.2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16. Bensabat, J.
    et al.
    Niemi, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tsang, C.F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sharma, P.
    Carrera, J.
    Sauter, M.
    Tatomir, A.
    Ghergut, J.
    Pezard, P.
    Edlman, K.
    Brauchler, R.
    Hydrogeological characterization of the Heletz SandsReservoir, Heletz (Israel) as a preliminary step towards CO2 injectionexperiments.2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    et al.
    Environmental & water resources engineering Ltd (EWRE), Haifa, Israel.
    Kitron-Belinkov, Myra
    Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Deptartment of Civil, Environmental and Water Resources engineering, Haifa, Israel.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bear, Jacob
    Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Water Resources engineering, Haifa, Israel.
    Model for the dependence of conditions at the injection well head and the reservoir during CO2 injection2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly controlled field injection experiments are necessary for demonstration, for scientific understanding and for quantification of the relevant processes of CO2 geological storage.

    The preparation of such an experiment requires reliable information on both the hydraulic, thermal and chemical properties of the target layer and the formation fluid as well as on the injection discharges and their associated pressure build-up in the reservoir. For this, there is a need to determine the state variables of CO2 in the injection tube near the well head, which can produce the desired mass flow rates given the condition at the reservoir, while respecting pressure buildup constraints.

     

    A model connecting the multiphase flow and transport processes in the target layer (based on the well-known TOUGH2/ECO2N model) at the vicinity of the injection well with those occurring in the injection tube (solving the one dimensional equations mass, momentum and energy conservation) has been developed. To this model the injection tube is a boundary condition. Once the reservoir pressure build-up resulting from the injection discharge is known, there is a need to determine the necessary injection conditions at the wellhead. For this purpose we apply the 1-D tube model, which provides the solution of the conditions in the injection pipe, given the injection rate and the pressure at the reservoir.

     

    These two linked models, the porous medium model and the pipe model, are applied to the planning of the Heletz injection experiment to be carried out in the frame of the EU-FP7 funded MUSTANG project. Sensitivity analyses are carried out with regard to uncertainty in the target layer permeability and the temperature of the injected CO2, which depends on the thermal heat transfer coefficient in the injection tube.

  • 18. Bensabat, Jacob
    et al.
    Niemi, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tsang, C.F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sharma, P.
    Carrera, J.
    Sauter, M.
    Tatomir, A.
    Ghergut, I.
    Pezard, P.
    Edlman, K.
    Hydrogeological characterization and first CO2 injection experiment in the Heletz sands Reservoir, Heletz (Israel)2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Bockgård, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Niemi, Auli
    Role of rock heterogeneity on lateral diversion of water flow at the soil–rock interface2004In: Vadose Zone Journal, ISSN 1539-1663, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 786-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 20.
    Bockgård, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Role of rock heterogeneity on lateral diversion of water flow at the soil-rock interface2004In: Vadose Zone Journal, ISSN 1539-1663, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 786-795Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Brown, S.
    et al.
    Martynov, S.
    Mahgerefteh, H.
    Fairweather, M.
    Woolley, R.M
    Wareing, C.J.
    Falle, S.
    Rutters, H.
    Niemi, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Zhang, Y.C.
    Chen, S.
    Bensabat, J.
    Shah, N.
    CO2QUEST: Techno-economic Assessment of CO2 Quality Effect on Its Storage and Transport2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Brown, Solomon
    et al.
    UCL, Sch Chem Engn, London WC1E 7JE, England..
    Martynov, Sergey
    UCL, Sch Chem Engn, London WC1E 7JE, England..
    Mahgerefteh, Haroun
    UCL, Sch Chem Engn, London WC1E 7JE, England..
    Fairweather, Michael
    Univ Leeds, Sch Chem & Proc Engn, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Woolley, Robert M.
    Univ Leeds, Sch Chem & Proc Engn, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Wareing, Christopher J.
    Univ Leeds, Sch Chem & Proc Engn, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Falle, Samuel A. E. G.
    Univ Leeds, Sch Math, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Rutters, Heike
    Bundesanstalt Geowissensch & Rohstoffe, D-30655 Hannover, Germany..
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Zhang, Yong Chun
    Dalian Univ Technol, Dalian, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Shaoyn
    Dalian Univ Technol, Dalian, Peoples R China..
    Besnebat, Jacob
    Environm & Water Resources Engn Ltd, IL-34641 Heifa, Israel..
    Shah, Nilay
    Imperial Coll London, Ctr Environm Policy, London, England..
    Mac Dowell, Niall
    Imperial Coll London, Ctr Environm Policy, London, England..
    Proust, Christophe
    INERIS, F-60550 Paris, France..
    Farret, Regis
    INERIS, F-60550 Paris, France..
    Economou, Ioannis G.
    Natl Ctr Sci Res Demokritos, GR-15310 Attikis, Greece..
    Tsangaris, Dimitrios M.
    Natl Ctr Sci Res Demokritos, GR-15310 Attikis, Greece..
    Boulougouris, Georgios C.
    Natl Ctr Sci Res Demokritos, GR-15310 Attikis, Greece..
    Van Wittenberghe, Jeroen
    ArcelorMittal, OCAS NV, B-9060 Zelzate, Belgium..
    CO(2)QUEST: Techno-economic assessment of CO2 quality effect on its storage and transport2014In: 12TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES, GHGT-12, 2014, p. 2622-2629Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presented is an overview of the CO(2)QUEST project that addresses fundamentally important issues regarding the impact of typical impurities in the gas or dense phase CO2 stream captured from fossil fuel power plants on its safe and economic transportation and storage. Previous studies have mainly investigated the impact of CO2 stream impurities on each part of the carbon capture and storage (CCS) chain in isolation. This is a significant drawback given the different sensitivities of pipeline, wellbore materials and storage sites to the various impurities. The project brings together leading researchers and stakeholders, to address the impact of the typical impurities upon safe and economic CO2 transportation and storage. State-of-the-art mathematical models, backed by laboratory and industrial-scale experimentation, are implemented to perform a comprehensive techno-economic assessment of the impact of impurities upon the thermo-physical phenomena governing pipeline and storage-site integrities.

  • 23.
    Cliffe, Andrew
    et al.
    School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Power, Henry
    University of Nottingham.
    Yang, Zhibing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tian, Liang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Use of Gaussian Process Emulators for Quantifying Uncertainty in CO2 Spreading Predications in Heterogeneous Geological Media2011In: Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 13: EGU2011-11898, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 24.
    Dessirier, Benoît
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tsang, Chin-Fu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    A new scripting library for modeling flow and transport in fractured rock with channel networks2018In: Computers & Geosciences, ISSN 0098-3004, E-ISSN 1873-7803, Vol. 111, p. 181-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep crystalline bedrock formations are targeted to host spent nuclear fuel owing to their overall low permeability. They are however highly heterogeneous and only a few preferential paths pertaining to a small set of dominant rock fractures usually carry most of the flow or mass fluxes, a behavior known as channeling that needs to be accounted for in the performance assessment of repositories. Channel network models have been developed and used to investigate the effect of channeling. They are usually simpler than discrete fracture networks based on rock fracture mappings and rely on idealized full or sparsely populated lattices of channels. This study reexamines the minimal requirements to describe a channel network in terms of groundwater flow and solute transport, leading to an extended description suitable for unstructured arbitrary networks of channels. An implementation of this formalism in a Python scripting library is presented and released along with this article. A new algebraic multigrid preconditioner delivers a significant speedup in the flow solution step compared to previous channel network codes. 3D visualization is readily available for verification and interpretation of the results by exporting the results to an open and free dedicated software. The new code is applied to three example cases to verify its results on full uncorrelated lattices of channels, sparsely populated percolation lattices and to exemplify the use of unstructured networks to accommodate knowledge on local rock fractures.

  • 25.
    Dessirier, Benoît
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tsang, Chin-Fu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA USA..
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    A new scripting library for modeling flow and transport in fractured rock with channel networks2018In: Computers & Geosciences, ISSN 0098-3004, E-ISSN 1873-7803, Vol. 111, p. 181-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep crystalline bedrock formations are targeted to host spent nuclear fuel owing to their overall low permeability. They are however highly heterogeneous and only a few preferential paths pertaining to a small set of dominant rock fractures usually carry most of the flow or mass fluxes, a behavior known as channeling that needs to be accounted for in the performance assessment of repositories. Channel network models have been developed and used to investigate the effect of channeling. They are usually simpler than discrete fracture networks based on rock fracture mappings and rely on idealized full or sparsely populated lattices of channels. This study reexamines the fundamental parameter structure required to describe a channel network in terms of groundwater flow and solute transport, leading to an extended description suitable for unstructured arbitrary networks of channels. An implementation of this formalism in a Python scripting library is presented and released along with this article. A new algebraic multigrid preconditioner delivers a significant speedup in the flow solution step compared to previous channel network codes. 3D visualization is readily available for verification and interpretation of the results by exporting the results to an open and free dedicated software. The new code is applied to three example cases to verify its results on full uncorrelated lattices of channels, sparsely populated percolation lattices and to exemplify the use of unstructured networks to accommodate knowledge on local rock fractures.

  • 26.
    Edlmann, K.
    et al.
    Univ Edinburgh, Sch Geosci, Grant Inst, James Hutton Rd, Edinburgh EH93FE, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Bensabat, J.
    EWRE, Haifa, Israel..
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Haszeldine, R. S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Sch Geosci, Grant Inst, James Hutton Rd, Edinburgh EH93FE, Midlothian, Scotland..
    McDermott, C. I.
    Univ Edinburgh, Sch Geosci, Grant Inst, James Hutton Rd, Edinburgh EH93FE, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Lessons learned from using expert elicitation to identify, assess and rank the potential leakage scenarios at the Heletz pilot CO2 injection site2016In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 49, p. 473-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expert elicitation is a useful approach to synthesis expert knowledge, experience and insight when the input data and analysis is limited. During the early stages of the EU FP7 MUSTANG pilot CO2 injection experiment at Heletz, Israel there was very little input data available, yet decisions had to be made regarding data collection, drilling, operation and monitoring strategies. An expert elicitation study was undertaken to identify, assess and rank potential CO2 leakage scenarios at Heletz to provide guidance to support the decision making processes. This paper presents a critique of the expert elicitation process undertaken, presenting the methodology and a discussion of the results. We present the lessons learned during the expert elicitation process, highlighting its advantages and limitations and provide suggestions on ways to overcome these limitations. Our findings show that prudent expert elicitation can make a valuable contribution to decision making, however if done improperly it can equally lead to invalid or misleading results and wrong decisions.

  • 27.
    Edlmann, K.
    et al.
    Univ Edinburgh, Grant Inst, Sch Geosci, Kings Bldg,James Hutton Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3FE, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, J.
    EWRE, Haifa, Israel..
    Haszeldine, R. S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Grant Inst, Sch Geosci, Kings Bldg,James Hutton Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3FE, Midlothian, Scotland..
    McDermott, C. I.
    Univ Edinburgh, Grant Inst, Sch Geosci, Kings Bldg,James Hutton Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3FE, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Mineralogical properties of the caprock and reservoir sandstone of the Heletz field scale experimental CO2 injection site, Israel; and their initial sensitivity to CO2 injection2016In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 48, p. 94-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the initial database of the mineralogy of the caprock and reservoir sandstones of the Heletz field scale experimental CO2 injection site, Israel. The XRD mineralogy results show that the Heletz caprock has K-feldspar as the primary mineral (40%) followed by kaolinite (15%) and plagioclase feldspar (12%) then illite (6%) and muscovite (6%) with minor quartz, calcite, pyrite, chlorite and ankerite with traces of siderite. The Heletz reservoir rock is primarily quartz (70%) followed by K-feldspar (12%) and plagioclase feldspar (4%) with minor illite, kaolinite, muscovite, chlorite ankerite and pyrite with traces of dolomite, calcite and siderite. "Cook and look" bench experiments were conducted on the Heletz caprock and reservoir sandstone samples to identify if there was any immediate mineral reactivity that would influence permeability on exposure to CO2 that may cause concerns during well completion and initial injection of CO2 at Heletz. The sandstone exhibited reactivity under brine dis-equilibrium which was observed in the field with loss of injectivity which was restored by injecting KCL into the well and performing 20 swab-suctions. The caprock revealed no reactivity of immediate concern to the well completion and injection strategy and will retain its integrity.

  • 28. Erlström, M.
    et al.
    Niemi, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Lindström, S.
    Gunnarsson, N.
    Bou Daher, S.
    Facies distribution, heterogeneity study and numerical 3D modeling of a multilayered Rhaetian-Lower Cretaceous aquifer succession inthe Höllviken Halfgraben, SW Skåne, Sweden - assessment of suitability forstorage of CO2.2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Erlström, Mikael
    et al.
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning (SGU).
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    The MUSTANG site characterisation programme2011In: Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 13: EGU2011-9743, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 30.
    Fagerlund, F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Illangesekare, T.H.
    Niemi, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Infiltration and Immobilization in Heterogeneous Media: 1. Experimental Methods and Two-Layered Reference Case2007In: Vadose Zone Journal, ISSN 1539-1663, E-ISSN 1539-1663Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Fagerlund, F.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, J.
    Shtivelman, V.
    Inter-well field test to determine in-situ CO2 trapping in a deep saline aquifer: Modelling study of the effects of testdesign and geological parameters.2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Ahlkrona, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Holmgren, Hanna
    Nielsen, Kristin
    Yang, Zhibing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Kreiss, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Analysis of boundary conditions in numerical simulations of geological CO2 storage2011In: 8th EGU General Assembly, Göttingen, Germany: Copernicus Publications , 2011, p. EGU2011-7410-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 33.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Målqvist, Axel
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Improved Monte Carlo methods for computing failure probabilities of porous media flow systems2015Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Målqvist, Axel
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Multilevel Monte Carlo methods for computing failure probability of porous media flow systems2016In: Advances in Water Resources, ISSN 0309-1708, E-ISSN 1872-9657, Vol. 94, p. 498-509Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Illangasekare, T.H.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Experimental investigation of NAPL migration and source zone formation in saturated heterogeneous media2005In: Hydrology Days, March 7 – 9, 2005, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA, 2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract
  • 36.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Illangasekare, T.H.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    NAPL migration and source zone formation in layered heterogeneous media2005In: Workshop on: Upscaling Flow and Transport in Heterogeneous Porous Media: July 11 – 13, 2005, Zeist, The Netherlands, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 37.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Illangasekare, Tissa H.
    Center for Experimental Study of Subsurface Environmental Processes (CESEP), Environmental Science and Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Nonaqueous-phase liquid infiltration and immobilization in heterogeneous media: 1. Experimental methods and two-layered reference case2007In: Vadose Zone Journal, ISSN 1539-1663, E-ISSN 1539-1663, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 471-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate data to understand the migration and entrapment ofnonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs) in heterogeneous formationsare presently lacking. A series of well-controlled laboratoryexperiments were conducted to investigate the infiltration andsubsequent immobilization of dense NAPLs in saturated heterogeneousmedia. The focus of this first study was the development ofa special experimental methodology for measuring the dynamicevolution of a NAPL plume in space and time. To demonstratethe method, a reference case of a two-layered formation consistingof two homogeneous sands separated by a dipping interface ispresented. The dipping formation in the reference case allowsthe study of NAPL behavior at texture interfaces under the influenceof both capillary and gravitational forces. The NAPL-saturationmeasurement methodology, based on a multiple-energy x-ray attenuationtechnique, correctly captured the known injected NAPL volumeas well as the general spreading and entrapment behavior inspace and time. Time-continuous measurements of NAPL saturationsallow the study of the history dependence of entrapped saturations.The Land model predicted the observed trend in the entrapmentbehavior well. The entrapment architecture was parameterizedusing spatial moments and moments of mass distribution at differentsaturations. The general features of the NAPL architecture weresuccessfully characterized by a simultaneous interpretationof these moments, while the domination of discontinuous or continuousNAPL was captured by the ganglia/pool ratio.

  • 38.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Illangasekare, Tissa H.
    Center for Experimental Study of Subsurface Environmental Processes (CESEP), Environmental Science and Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, USA.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Nonaqueous-phase liquid infiltration and immobilization in heterogeneous media: 2. Application to stochastically heterogeneous formations2007In: Vadose Zone Journal, ISSN 1539-1663, E-ISSN 1539-1663, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 483-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed a series of well-controlled laboratory experimentsinvestigating the infiltration and subsequent immobilizationof nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) in saturated heterogeneousmedia. A system of two distinct aquifer zones separated by adipping interface was considered. Heterogeneity was representedby a spatially correlated random field with known geostatisticalparameters in one zone in combination with a homogenous packingof the other zone. The effects of heterogeneity on NAPL flowand entrapment in each of the two zones were investigated. Thetime-varying NAPL saturations were continuously monitored inspace and the final static entrapment–saturation distributionwas accurately measured. The immobilized-NAPL distribution contributesto plume generation from source zones. The results show thatcapillary barriers produced by the small-scale heterogeneitystrongly influenced the migration paths and the final distributionof NAPL both in space and across different saturation ranges.The NAPL was immobilized both by snap-off to discontinuous blobsand ganglia and by capillary barriers at textural interfaces.Heterogeneity generally increased entrapment, because spatialvariations in capillary properties caused NAPL to be entrappedat higher saturations. Heterogeneity in the finer formationprovided points of entry into this formation where the NAPLsubsequently could spread as the pressure built up. The NAPLwas immobilized at high saturations because high displacementpressures in the fine materials inhibited flow at low saturations.The accessibility for water flow through NAPL occurrences andthereby also the dissolution of NAPL is limited by (i) highentrapped NAPL saturations that decrease the aqueous-phase relativepermeability and (ii) the location of NAPL inside a formationwith low average permeability.

  • 39.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Illangasekare, Tissa
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Modeling of NAPL source zone formation in stochastically heterogeneous layered media – a comparison with experimental results.2006In: Proceedings of TOUGH Symposium 2006.: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, May 1-17, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 40.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    A partially coupled, fraction-by-fraction modelling approach to the subsurface migration of gasoline spills2007In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 89, no 3-4, p. 174-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The subsurface spreading behaviour of gasoline, as well as several other common soil- and groundwater pollutants (e.g. diesel, creosote), is complicated by the fact that it is a mixture of hundreds of different constituents, behaving differently with respect to e.g. dissolution, volatilisation, adsorption and biodegradation. Especially for scenarios where the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) phase is highly mobile, such as for sudden spills in connection with accidents, it is necessary to simultaneously analyse the migration of the NAPL and its individual components in order to assess risks and environmental impacts.

    Although a few fully coupled, multi-phase, multi-constituent models exist, such models are highly complex and may be time consuming to use. A new, somewhat simplified methodology for modelling the subsurface migration of gasoline while taking its multi-constituent nature into account is therefore introduced here. Constituents with similar properties are grouped together into eight fractions. The migration of each fraction in the aqueous and gaseous phases as well as adsorption is modelled separately using a single-constituent multi-phase flow model, while the movement of the free-phase gasoline is essentially the same for all fractions. The modelling is done stepwise to allow updating of the free-phase gasoline composition at certain time intervals. The output is the concentration of the eight different fractions in the aqueous, gaseous, free gasoline and solid phases with time.

    The approach is evaluated by comparing it to a fully coupled multi-phase, multi-constituent numerical simulator in the modelling of a typical accident-type spill scenario, based on a tanker accident in northern Sweden. Here the PCFF method produces results similar to those of the more sophisticated, fully coupled model. The benefit of the method is that it is easy to use and can be applied to any single-constituent multi-phase numerical simulator, which in turn may have different strengths in incorporating various processes. The results demonstrate that the different fractions have significantly different migration behaviours and although the methodology involves some simplifications, it is a considerable improvement compared to modelling the gasoline constituents completely individually or as one single mixture.

  • 41.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Multi-constituent modelling of a gasoline spill using the T2VOC numerical simulator2003In: Proceedings of TOUGH Symposium 2003: May 12–14, 2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 42.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tian, Liang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    GII.
    Licha, Tobias
    Applied Geology, University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Design and Analysis of Field Experiments for the Investigation of In-Situ CO2 Trapping2010In: 2010 Fall Meeting, American Geophysical Union (AGU): Abstract H13C-0981, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    Design of a two-well field test to determine in situ residual and dissolution trapping of CO2 applied to the Heletz CO2 injection site2013In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 19, p. 642-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Field testing is a critical step to improve our knowledge on in situ-trapping mechanisms of CO2 injected in geological formations and their relative importance. In this study, we present a two-well test sequence aimed at quantifying field values of both residual and dissolution trapping of CO2. Then, we apply it to the Heletz experimental CO2 injection site, using numerical modelling. The sequence includes a hydraulic test to measure residual scCO(2) saturation and a novel tracer technique, together with measurements of abstracted fluid compositions for quantification of the rate of CO2 dissolution in the reservoir. The proposed tracer technique uses a tracer with negligible aqueous solubility, which is injected with the scCO(2) and enriched in the scCO(2) phase as CO2 dissolves. We show that this tracer can provide direct information about the dissolution of mobile scCO(2). We also show that the rate of abstracted dissolved CO2 can be used to predict the total rate of CO2 dissolution, provided that the amount of dissolved CO2 in the formation stabilizes, and that this can be achieved with the proposed abstraction scheme. We conclude that the combination of these measurements is a promising tool for detailed field-scale characterization of residual and dissolution trapping processes.

  • 44.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE.
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    GII.
    Design of a two-well field test to determine in-situ residual and dissolution trapping of CO2 in a deep saline aquifer2012In: Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-7231, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 45.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE.
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    GII.
    Evaluation of design options for a field experiment of CO2 injection to a deep layered aquifer at the Heletz site using numerical modelling2011In: Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 13: EGU2011-7291, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE.
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    GII.
    Field Test for Measurement of In-Situ CO2 Dissolution and Residual Phase Trapping at the Heletz Experimental CO2 Injection Site2012In: AGU fall meeting 2011 Abstracts: H14D-06, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 47.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    Interwell field test to determine in-situ CO2 trapping in a deep saline aquifer: Modelling study of the effects of test design and geological parameters2013In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 40, p. 554-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An interwell field test to determine residual phase and dissolution trapping of CO2 is being designed at Heletz, Israel. Effects of test-design options and geological parameters were investigated using numerical modelling. It was found that the interwell distance has large influence on the feasibility of the test both in terms of creation of a zone of residually trapped CO2 and detection of the time when such zone has been created. The optimal distance is site-specific and depends on formation properties. Alternating CO2 and brine injections slightly increased residual trapping, but did not facilitate creation of a well-defined zone of trapping.

  • 48.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE.
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    GII.
    Modelling and Design of Field Tests for Characterization and Monitoring of CO2 Injected to a Deep Saline Aquifer at the Heletz Site2011In: AGU Fall Meeting 2011: Abstract H33B-1321, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 49.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE.
    Yang, Zhibing
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