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• 1. Aarts, Fides
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Generating Models of Infinite-State Communication Protocols Using Regular Inference with Abstraction2010In: Testing Software and Systems: ICTSS 2010, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2010, p. 188-204Conference paper (Refereed)
• 2. Aarts, Fides
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Generating models of infinite-state communication protocols using regular inference with abstraction2015In: Formal methods in system design, ISSN 0925-9856, E-ISSN 1572-8102, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 1-41Article in journal (Refereed)

In order to facilitate model-based verification and validation, effort is underway to develop techniques for generating models of communication system components from observations of their external behavior. Most previous such work has employed regular inference techniques which generate modest-size finite-state models. They typically suppress parameters of messages, although these have a significant impact on control flow in many communication protocols. We present a framework, which adapts regular inference to include data parameters in messages and states for generating components with large or infinite message alphabets. A main idea is to adapt the framework of predicate abstraction, successfully used in formal verification. Since we are in a black-box setting, the abstraction must be supplied externally, using information about how the component manages data parameters. We have implemented our techniques by connecting the LearnLib tool for regular inference with an implementation of session initiation protocol (SIP) in ns-2 and an implementation of transmission control protocol (TCP) in Windows 8, and generated models of SIP and TCP components.

• 3.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
Algorithmic analysis of programs with well quasi-ordered domains2000In: INFORMATION AND COMPUTATION, ISSN 0890-5401, Vol. 160, no 1-2, p. 109-127Article in journal (Refereed)

Over the past few years increasing research effort has been directed towards the automatic verification of infinite-state systems. This paper is concerned with identifying general mathematical structures which can serve as sufficient conditions for achiev

• 4.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Verifying programs with unreliable channels1996In: Information and Computation, ISSN 0890-5401, Vol. 127, no 2, p. 91-101Article in journal (Refereed)

We consider the verification of a particular class of infinite-state systems, namely systems consisting of finite-state processes that communicate via unbounded lossy FIFO channels. This class is able to model, e.g., link protocols such as the Alternating

• 5.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
Comparing source sets and persistent sets for partial order reduction2017In: Models, Algorithms, Logics and Tools: Essays Dedicated to Kim Guldstrand Larsen on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday, Springer, 2017, p. 516-536Chapter in book (Other academic)

Partial order reduction has traditionally been based on persistent sets, ample sets, stubborn sets, or variants thereof. Recently, we have presented a strengthening of this foundation, using source sets instead of persistent/ample/stubborn sets. Source sets subsume persistent sets and are often smaller than persistent sets. We introduced source sets as a basis for Dynamic Partial Order Reduction (DPOR), in a framework which assumes that processes are deterministic and that all program executions are finite. In this paper, show how to use source sets for partial order reduction in a framework which does not impose these restrictions. We also compare source sets with persistent sets, providing some insights into conditions under which source sets and persistent sets do or do not differ.

• 6.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
Optimal dynamic partial order reduction2014In: Proc. 41st ACM SIGPLAN-SIGACT Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages, New York: ACM Press, 2014, p. 373-384Conference paper (Refereed)

Stateless model checking is a powerful technique for program verification, which however suffers from an exponential growth in the number of explored executions. A successful technique for reducing this number, while still maintaining complete coverage, is Dynamic Partial Order Reduction (DPOR). We present a new DPOR algorithm, which is the first to be provably optimal in that it always explores the minimal number of executions. It is based on a novel class of sets, called source sets, which replace the role of persistent sets in previous algorithms. First, we show how to modify an existing DPOR algorithm to work with source sets, resulting in an efficient and simple to implement algorithm. Second, we extend this algorithm with a novel mechanism, called wakeup trees, that allows to achieve optimality. We have implemented both algorithms in a stateless model checking tool for Erlang programs. Experiments show that source sets significantly increase the performance and that wakeup trees incur only a small overhead in both time and space.

• 7.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
Source Sets: A Foundation for Optimal Dynamic Partial Order Reduction2017In: Journal of the ACM, ISSN 0004-5411, E-ISSN 1557-735X, Vol. 64, no 4, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed)

Stateless model checking is a powerful method for program verification that, however, suffers from an exponential growth in the number of explored executions. A successful technique for reducing this number, while still maintaining complete coverage, is Dynamic Partial Order Reduction (DPOR), an algorithm originally introduced by Flanagan and Godefroid in 2005 and since then not only used as a point of reference but also extended by various researchers. In this article, we present a new DPOR algorithm, which is the first to be provably optimal in that it always explores the minimal number of executions. It is based on a novel class of sets, called source sets, that replace the role of persistent sets in previous algorithms. We begin by showing how to modify the original DPOR algorithm to work with source sets, resulting in an efficient and simple-to-implement algorithm, called source-DPOR. Subsequently, we enhance this algorithm with a novel mechanism, called wakeup trees, that allows the resulting algorithm, called optimal-DPOR, to achieve optimality. Both algorithms are then extended to computational models where processes may disable each other, for example, via locks. Finally, we discuss tradeoffs of the source-and optimal-DPOR algorithm and present programs that illustrate significant time and space performance differences between them. We have implemented both algorithms in a publicly available stateless model checking tool for Erlang programs, while the source-DPOR algorithm is at the core of a publicly available stateless model checking tool for C/pthread programs running on machines with relaxed memory models. Experiments show that source sets significantly increase the performance of stateless model checking compared to using the original DPOR algorithm and that wakeup trees incur only a small overhead in both time and space in practice.

• 8.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
Optimal stateless model checking for reads-from equivalence under sequential consistency2019In: Proceedings of the ACM on programming languages, ISSN 2475-1421Article in journal (Refereed)

We present a new approach for stateless model checking (SMC) of multithreaded programs under Sequential Consistency (SC) semantics.  To combat state-space explosion, SMC is often equipped with a partial-order reduction technique, which defines an equivalence on executions, and only needs to explore one execution in each equivalence class.  Recently, it has been observed that the commonly used equivalence of Mazurkiewicz traces can be coarsened but still cover all program crashes and assertion violations.  However, for this coarser equivalence, which preserves only the reads-from relation from writes to reads, there is no SMC algorithm which is (i) optimal in the sense that it explores precisely one execution in each reads-from equivalence class, and (ii) efficient in the sense that it spends polynomial effort per class.  \end{inparaenum} We present the first SMC algorithm for SC that is both optimal and efficient in practice, meaning that it spends polynomial time per equivalence class on all programs that we have tried.  This is achieved by a novel test that checks whether a given reads-from relation can arise in some execution.  Our experimental results show that Nidhugg/rfsc, although slower than the fastest SMC tools in programs where tools happen to examine the same number of executions, always scales similarly or better than them, and outperforms them by an exponential factor in programs where the reads-from equivalence is coarser than the standard one. We also present two non-trivial use cases where the new equivalence is particularly effective, as well as the significant performance advantage that Nidhugg/rfsc offers compared to state-of-the-art SMC and systematic concurrency testing tools.

• 9.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
Stateless model checking for TSO and PSO2015In: Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems: TACAS 2015, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, p. 353-367Conference paper (Refereed)
• 10.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
Stateless model checking for TSO and PSO2017In: Acta Informatica, ISSN 0001-5903, E-ISSN 1432-0525, Vol. 54, no 8, p. 789-818Article in journal (Refereed)
• 11.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Stateless model checking for POWER2016In: Computer Aided Verification: Part II, Springer, 2016, p. 134-156Conference paper (Refereed)

We present the first framework for efficient application of stateless model checking (SMC) to programs running under the relaxed memory model of POWER. The framework combines several contributions. The first contribution is that we develop a scheme for systematically deriving operational execution models from existing axiomatic ones. The scheme is such that the derived execution models are well suited for efficient SMC. We apply our scheme to the axiomatic model of POWER from [8]. Our main contribution is a technique for efficient SMC, called Relaxed Stateless Model Checking (RSMC), which systematically explores the possible inequivalent executions of a program. RSMC is suitable for execution models obtained using our scheme. We prove that RSMC is sound and optimal for the POWER memory model, in the sense that each complete program behavior is explored exactly once. We show the feasibility of our technique by providing an implementation for programs written in C/pthreads.

• 12.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Using Forward Reachability Analysis for Verification of Lossy Channel Systems2004In: Formal methods in system design, ISSN 0925-9856, E-ISSN 1572-8102, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 39-65Article in journal (Refereed)
• 13.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Brno University. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
An Integrated Specification and Verification Technique for Highly Concurrent Data Structures2013In: Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)

We present a technique for automatically verifying safety properties of concurrent programs, in particular programs which rely on subtle dependen- cies of local states of different threads, such as lock-free implementations of stacks and queues in an environment without garbage collection. Our technique addresses the joint challenges of infinite-state specifications, an unbounded num- ber of threads, and an unbounded heap managed by explicit memory allocation. Our technique builds on the automata-theoretic approach to model checking, in which a specification is given by an automaton that observes the execution of a program and accepts executions that violate the intended specification. We extend this approach by allowing specifications to be given by a class of infinite-state au- tomata. We show how such automata can be used to specify queues, stacks, and other data structures, by extending a data-independence argument. For verifica- tion, we develop a shape analysis, which tracks correlations between pairs of threads, and a novel abstraction to make the analysis practical. We have imple- mented our method and used it to verify programs, some of which have not been verified by any other automatic method before.

• 14.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Verification of heap manipulating programs with ordered data by extended forest automata2016In: Acta Informatica, ISSN 0001-5903, E-ISSN 1432-0525, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 357-385Article in journal (Refereed)

We present a general framework for verifying programs with complex dynamic linked data structures whose correctness depends on ordering relations between stored data values. The underlying formalism of our framework is that of forest automata (FA), which has previously been developed for verification of heap-manipulating programs. We extend FA with constraints between data elements associated with nodes of the heaps represented by FA, and we present extended versions of all operations needed for using the extended FA in a fully-automated verification approach, based on abstract interpretation. We have implemented our approach as an extension of the Forester tool and successfully applied it to a number of programs dealing with data structures such as various forms of singly- and doubly-linked lists, binary search trees, as well as skip lists.

• 15.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Veriﬁcation of heap manipulating programs with ordered data by extended forest automata2013In: Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis: ATVA 2013, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 224-239Conference paper (Refereed)
• 16.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik.
Model checking of systems with many identical timed processes2003In: Theoretical Computer Science, ISSN 0304-3975, Vol. 290, no 1, p. 241-264Article in journal (Refereed)
• 17.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Computer Systems.
Undecidable verification problems for programs with unreliable channels1996In: Automata, Languages and Programming: Proceedings of ICALP 94 / [ed] Serge Abiteboul, Eli Shamir, 1996, Vol. 130, no 1, p. 71-90Conference paper (Refereed)

We consider the verification of a particular class of infinite-state systems, namely systems consisting of finite-state processes that communicate via unbounded lossy FIFO channels. This class is able to model e.g. link protocols such as the Alternating Bit Protocol and HDLC. In an earlier paper, we showed that several interesting verification problems are decidable for this class of systems, namely (1) the reachability problem: is a set of states reachable from some other state of the system, (2) safety property over traces formulated as regular sets of allowed finite traces, and (3) eventuality properties: do all computations of a system eventually reach a given set of states. In this paper, we show that the following problems are undecidable, namely

• The model checking problem in propositional temporal logics such as Propositional Linear Time Logic (PTL) and Computation Tree Logic (CTL).

• The problem of deciding eventuality properties with fair channels: do all computations eventually reach a given set of states if the unreliable channels are fair in the sense that they deliver infinitely many messages if infinitely many messages are transmitted. This problem can model the question of whether a link protocol, such as HDLC, will eventually reliably transfer messages across a medium that is not permanently broken.

The results are obtained through a reduction from a variant of Post's Correspondence Problem.

• 18.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Computer Systems.
Verifying networks of timed processes1998In: Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference, TACAS'98 / [ed] Bernhard Steffen, 1998, Vol. 1384, p. 298-312Conference paper (Refereed)

Over the last years there has been an increasing research effort directed towards the automatic verification of infinite state systems, such as timed automata, hybrid automata, data-independent systems, relational automata, Petri nets, and lossy channel systems. We present a method for deciding reachability properties of networks of timed processes. Such a network consists of an arbitrary set of identical timed automata, each with a single real-valued clock. Using a standard reduction from safety properties to reachability properties, we can use our algorithm to decide general safety properties of timed networks. To our knowledge, this is the first decidability result concerning verification of systems that are infinite-state in “two dimensions”: they contain an arbitrary set of (identical) processes, and they use infinite data-structures, viz. real-valued clocks. We illustrate our method by showing how it can be used to automatically verify Fischer's protocol, a timer-based protocol for enforcing mutual exclusion among an arbitrary number of processes.

• 19.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Computer Systems.
A general approach to partial order reductions in symbolic verification1998In: Computer Aided Verification: Proceedings of CAV'98 / [ed] Alan J. Hu, Moshe Y. Vardi, 1998, Vol. 1427, p. 379-390Conference paper (Refereed)

The purpose of partial-order reduction techniques is to avoid exploring several interleavings of independent transitions when model checking the temporal properties of a concurrent system. The purpose of symbolic verification techniques is to perform basic manipulations on sets of states rather than on individual states. We present a general method for applying partial order reductions to improve symbolic verification. The method is equally applicable to the verification of finite-state and infinite-state systems. It considers methods that check safety properties, either by forward reachability analysis or by backward reachability analysis. We base the method on the concept of commutativity (in one direction) between predicate transformers. Since the commutativity relation is not necessarily symmetric, this generalizes those existing approaches to partial order verification which are based on a symmetric dependency relation.

We show how our method can be applied to several models of infinite-state systems: systems communicating over unbounded lossy FIFO channels, and unsafe (infinite-state Petri Nets. We show by a simple example how partial order reduction can significantly speed up symbolic backward analysis of Petri Nets.

• 20.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
Proving Liveness by Backwards Reachability2006Conference paper (Refereed)
• 21.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Fragment abstraction for concurrent shape analysis2018In: Programming Languages and Systems, Springer, 2018, p. 442-471Conference paper (Refereed)
• 22.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. datorteknik.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. datorteknik.
Simulating perfect channels with probabilistic lossy channels2005In: Information and Computation, ISSN 0890-5401, Vol. 197, no 1-2, p. 22-40Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
• 23.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik.
Report on Dataflow Dependencies in Billing Processing Systems2004In: Proc. ISoLA '04: 1st International Symposium on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
• 24.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Brno Univ Technol, Brno, Czech Republic.. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Linköping Univ, Linköping, Sweden..
An integrated specification and verification technique for highly concurrent data structures for highly concurrent data structures2017In: International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT), ISSN 1433-2779, E-ISSN 1433-2787, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 549-563Article in journal (Refereed)

We present a technique for automatically verifying safety properties of concurrent programs, in particular programs that rely on subtle dependencies of local states of different threads, such as lock-free implementations of stacks and queues in an environment without garbage collection. Our technique addresses the joint challenges of infinite-state specifications, an unbounded number of threads, and an unbounded heap managed by explicit memory allocation. Our technique builds on the automata-theoretic approach to model checking, in which a specification is given by an automaton that observes the execution of a program and accepts executions that violate the intended specification. We extend this approach by allowing specifications to be given by a class of infinite-state automata. We show how such automata can be used to specify queues, stacks, and other data structures, by extending a data-independence argument. For verification, we develop a shape analysis, which tracks correlations between pairs of threads, and a novel abstraction to make the analysis practical. We have implemented our method and used it to verify programs, some of which have not been verified by any other automatic method before.

• 25.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
On the existence of network invariants for verifying parameterized systems1999In: Correct System Design: Recent Insights and Advances, Springer-Verlag, Berlin , 1999, p. 180-197Chapter in book (Refereed)
• 26.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik.
Regular Model Checking for LTL(MSO)2004In: Computer Aided Verification, 2004, p. 348-360Conference paper (Refereed)

Regular model checking is a form of symbolic model checking for parameterized and infinite-state systems whose states can be represented as words of arbitrary length over a finite alphabet, in which regular sets of words are used to represent sets of states. We present $\logic$, a combination of the logics MSO and LTL as a natural logic for expressing temporal properties to be verified in regular model checking. $\logic$ is a two-dimensional modal logic, where MSO is used for specifying properties of system states and transitions, and LTL is used for specifying temporal properties. In addition, the first-order quantification in MSO can be used to express properties parameterized on a position or process.

We give a technique for model checking $\logic$, which is adapted from the automata-theoretic approach: a formula is translated to a (\buchi) transducer with a regular set of accepting states, and regular model checking techniques are used to search for models. We have implemented the technique and show its application to a number of parameterized algorithms from the literature.

• 27.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Regular model checking for LTL(MSO)2012In: International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT), ISSN 1385-4879, E-ISSN 1571-8115, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 223-241Article in journal (Refereed)

Regular model checking is a form of symbolic model checking for parameterized and infinite-state systems whose states can be represented as words of arbitrary length over a finite alphabet, in which regular sets of words are used to represent sets of states. We present LTL(MSO), a combination of the logics MSO and LTL as a natural logic for expressing temporal properties to be verified in regular model checking. In other words, LTL(MSO) is a natural specification language for both the system and the property under consideration. LTL(MSO) is a two-dimensional modal logic, where MSO is used for specifying properties of system states and transitions, and LTL is used for specifying temporal properties.  In addition, the first-order quantification in MSO can be used to express properties parameterized on a position or process.  We give a technique for model checking LTL(MSO), which is adapted from the automata-theoretic approach: a formula is translated to a Buechi regular transition system with a regular set of accepting states, and regular model checking techniques are used to search for models. We have implemented the technique, and show its application to a number of parameterized algorithms from the literature.

• 28.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. datorteknik.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. datorteknik. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. datorteknik. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. datorteknik.
A Survey of Regular Model Checking.2004In: CONCUR 2004 - Concurrency Theory: 15th International Conference, London, UK, August 31 - September 3, 2004, Proceedings., 2004, p. 35-48Conference paper (Refereed)

Regular model checking is being developed for algorithmic verification of several classes of infinite-state systems whose configurations can be modeled as words over a finite alphabet. Examples include parameterized systems consisting of an arbitrary number of homogeneous finite-state processes connected in a linear or ring-formed topology, and systems that operate on queues, stacks, integers, and other linear data structures. The main idea is to use regular languages as the representation of sets of configurations, and finite-state transducers to describe transition relations. In general, the verification problems considered are all undecidable, so the work has consisted in developing semi-algorithms, and decidability results for restricted cases. This paper provides a survey of the work that has been performed so far, and some of its applications.

• 29.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Automated Verification of Linearization Policies2016In: Automated Verification of Linearization Policies: 23rd International Symposium, SAS 2016, Edinburgh, UK, September 8-10, 2016, Proceedings, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)

We present a novel framework for automated verification of linearizability for concurrent data structures that implement sets, stacks, and queues. The framework requires the user to provide a linearization policy, which describes how linearization point placement in different concurrent threads affect each other; such linearization policies are often provided informally together with descriptions of new algorithms. We present a specification formalism for linearization policies which allows the user to specify, in a simple and concise manner, complex patterns including non-fixed linearization points. To automate verification, we extend thread-modular reasoning to bound the number of considered threads, and use a novel symbolic representation for unbounded heap structures that store data from an unbounded domain. We have implemented our framework in a tool and successfully used it to prove linearizability for a wide range of algorithms, including all implementations of concurrent sets, stacks, and queues based on singly-linked lists that are known to us from the literature.

• 30.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
Optimal dynamic partial order reduction with observers2018In: Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems: Part II, Springer, 2018, Vol. 10806, p. 229-248Conference paper (Refereed)

Dynamic partial order reduction (DPOR) algorithms are used in stateless model checking (SMC) to combat the combinatorial explosion in the number of schedulings that need to be explored to guarantee soundness. The most effective of them, the Optimal DPOR algorithm, is optimal in the sense that it explores only one scheduling per Mazurkiewicz trace. In this paper, we enhance DPOR with the notion of observability, which makes dependencies between operations conditional on the existence of future operations, called observers. Observers naturally lead to a lazy construction of dependencies. This requires significant changes in the core of POR algorithms (and Optimal DPOR in particular), but also makes the resulting algorithm, Optimal DPOR with Observers, super-optimal in the sense that it explores exponentially less schedulings than Mazurkiewicz traces in some cases. We argue that observers come naturally in many concurrency models, and demonstrate the performance benefits that Optimal DPOR with Observers achieves in both an SMC tool for shared memory concurrency and a tool for concurrency via message passing, using both synthetic and actual programs as benchmarks.

• 31.
Technical University Braunschweig.
Technical University Braunschweig. Ulm University. INRIA Grenoble Rhône-Alpes. Saarland University. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Technical University Dortmund. Saarland University. University of Toulouse. Technical University Braunschweig. Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel. Saarland University. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Building timing predictable embedded systems2014In: ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems, ISSN 1539-9087, E-ISSN 1558-3465, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 82:1-37Article in journal (Refereed)
• 32.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computational Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Efficient inter-process synchronization for parallel discrete event simulation on multicores2015In: Proc. 3rd ACM SIGSIM Conference on Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation, New York: ACM Press, 2015, p. 183-194Conference paper (Refereed)
• 33.
INRIA Rocquencourt.
University of Oxford. Technical University of Dortmund. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Automated Mediator Synthesis: Combining Behavioural and Ontological Reasoning2013In: SEFM 2013, 11th Int. Conf. on Software Engineering and Formal Methods / [ed] Robert M. Hierons, Mercedes G. Merayo, Mario Bravetti, Springer, 2013, p. 274-288Conference paper (Refereed)

Software systems are increasingly composed of independentlydeveloped heterogeneous components. To ensure interoperability, medi-ators are needed that coordinate actions and translate exchanged mes-sages between the components. We present a technique for automatedsynthesis of mediators, by means of a quotient operator, that is based onbehavioural models of the components and an ontological model of thedata domain. By not requiring a specification of the composed system,the method supports both off-line and run-time synthesis. The obtainedmediator is the most general component that ensures freedom of bothcommunication mismatches and deadlock in the composition. Validationof the approach is given by implementation of a prototype tool, while ap-plicability is illustrated on heterogeneous holiday booking components.

• 34.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik.
On the Correspondence Between Conformance Testing and Regular Inference2005In: FASE 2005, 2005, p. 175-189Conference paper (Refereed)
• 35.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik.
Insights to Angluin's Learning2005In: Electr. Notes on Theoret. Comput. Sci., Vol. 118, p. 3-18Article in journal (Refereed)
• 36.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. COMPUTER SYSTEMS.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Insights to Angluin's Learning2003Report (Other scientific)
• 37.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Regular Inference for State Machines Using Domains with Equality Tests2008In: Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering / [ed] Fiadeiro JL; Inverardi P, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2008, p. 317-331Conference paper (Refereed)

Existing algorithms for regular inference (aka automata learning) allows to infer a finite state machine by observing the output that the machine produces in response to a selected sequence of input strings. We generalize regular inference techniques to infer a class of state machines with an infinite state space. We consider Mealy machines extended with state variables that can assume values from a potentially unbounded domain. These values can be passed as parameters in input and output symbols, and can be used in tests for equality between state variables and/or message parameters. This is to our knowledge the first extension of regular inference to infinite-state systems. We intend to use these techniques to generate models of communication protocols from observations of their input-output behavior. Such protocols often have parameters that represent node adresses, connection identifiers, etc. that have a large domain, and on which test for equality is the only meaningful operation. Our extension consists of two phases. In the first phase we apply an existing inference technique for finite-state Mealy machines to generate a model for the case that the values are taken from a small data domain. In the second phase we transform this finite-state Mealy machine into an infinite-state Mealy machine by folding it into a compact symbolic form.

• 38.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. datorteknik.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. datorteknik.
Regular Inference for State Machines with Parameters.2006In: Fundamental Approaches to Software Engineering, 9th International Conference, FASE 2006,, 2006, p. 107-121Conference paper (Refereed)

We present experiences from a case study where a model-based approach to black-box testing is applied to verify that a Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) gateway conforms to its specification.The WAP gateway is developed by Ericsson and used in mobile telephone networks to connect mobile phones with the Internet. We focus on testing the software implementing the session (WSP) and transaction (WTP) layers of the WAP protocol. These layers, and their surrounding environment, are described as a network of timed automata. To model the many sequence numbers (from a large domain) used in the protocol, we introduce an abstraction technique. We believe the suggested abstraction

technique will prove useful to model and analyse other similar protocols with sequence numbers, in particular in the context of model-based testing.

A complete test bed is presented, which includes generation and execution of test cases. It takes as input a model and a coverage criterion expressed as an observer, and returns a verdict for each test case. The test bed includes existing

tools from Ericsson for test-case execution. To generate test suites, we use our own tool CoVer --- a new test-case generation tool based on the real-time model-checker Uppaal.

• 39.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik.
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Datorteknik.
Specifying and Generating Test Cases Using Observer Automata2004In: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Formal Approaches to Testing of Software, 2004, p. 125-139Conference paper (Refereed)
• 40.
Blossom Grove AB, Jarfalla, Sweden.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
Industrial Evaluation of Test Suite Generation Strategies for Model-Based Testing2016Conference paper (Refereed)

We report on a case study on model based testing for a commercially available telecom software system. A main purpose is to investigate how different strategies for test suite generation affect quality attributes of the generated test suites, in a realistic industrial environment. We develop a functional model in the form of an extended finite state machine, from which we generate test suites using several different (model) coverage criteria, alongside with randomly and manually generated test suites. We compare test suites with respect to fault-detection capability, incurred (source) code coverage, and test generation and execution time. The system under test is a commercially released version, not seeded with any faults, implying that exposed faults are "real" faults that passed previous testing. We did not find clear difference between coverage-based and random test suites. Test suite generation and execution is performed using the tool ERLY MARSH, developed by the first author.

• 41.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Regular Inference for Communication Protocol Entities2008Report (Other academic)
• 42.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Inferring Compact Models of Communication Protocol Entities2010In: Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, Verification, and Validation: Part I / [ed] Margaria, Tiziana; Steffen, Bernhard, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2010, p. 658-672Conference paper (Refereed)

Our overall goal is to support model-based approaches to verification and validation of communication protocols by techniques that automatically generate models of communication protocol entities from observations of their external behavior, using techniques based on regular inference (aka automata learning). In this paper, we address the problem that existing regular inference techniques produce "flat" state machines, whereas practically useful protocol models structure the internal state in terms of control locations and state variables, and describes dynamic behavior in a suitable (abstract) programming notation. We present a technique for introducing structure of an unstructured finite-state machine by introducing state variables and program-like descriptions of dynamic behavior, given a certain amount of user guidance. Our technique groups states with "similar control behavior" into control locations, and obtain program-like descriptions by means of decision tree generation. We have applied parts of our approach to an executable state machine specification of the Mobile Arts Advanced Mobile Location Center (A-MLC) protocol and evaluated the results by comparing them to the original specification.

• 43. Bouajjani, A
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Regular Model Checking2000In: Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Computer Aided Verification, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
• 44. Broy, Manfred
Jonsson, BengtUppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. datorteknik.Katoen, Joost-PieterLeucker, MartinUppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. datorteknik.Pretschner, Alexander
Model-Based Testing of Reactive Systems, Advanced Lectures: outcome of a research seminar2005Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
• 45.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
IPSSE, TU Clausthal, Germany. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
RALib: A LearnLib extension for inferring EFSMs2015Conference paper (Refereed)
• 46.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
A succinct canonical register automaton model2015In: Journal of Logical and Algebraic Methods in Programming, ISSN 2352-2208, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 54-66Article in journal (Refereed)
• 47.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
A succinct canonical register automaton model2011In: Automated Technology for Verification and Analysis: ATVA 2011 / [ed] Tevfik Bultan, Pao-Ann Hsiung, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2011, p. 366-380Conference paper (Refereed)

We present a novel canonical automaton model, based on register automata, that can easily be used to specify protocol or program behavior. More concretely, register automata are reminiscent of controlflow graphs: they comprise a finite control structure, assignments, and conditionals, allowing to assign values of an infinite domain to regis-ters (variables) and to compare them for equality. A major contributionis the definition of a canonical automaton representation of any lan-guage recognizable by a deterministic register automaton, by means of aNerode congruence. Not only is this canonical form easier to comprehend than previous proposals, but it can also be exponentially more succinct than these. Key to the canonical form is the symbolic treatment of data languages, which overcomes the structural restrictions in previous formalisms, and opens the way to new practical applications.

• 48.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computing Science.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
Active learning for extended finite state machines2016In: Formal Aspects of Computing, ISSN 0934-5043, E-ISSN 1433-299X, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 233-263Article in journal (Refereed)
• 49.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems.
IPSSE, TU Clausthal, Germany. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. TU Dortmund, Germany.
Active Learning for Extended Finite State Machines2015Report (Other academic)
• 50.
Scania CV AB, Sodertalje, Sweden.
Dortmund Univ Technol, Dortmund, Germany;Fraunhofer ISST, Dortmund, Germany. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computer Systems. TU Dortmund, Chair Programming Syst, Dortmund, Germany.
Extending Automata Learning to Extended Finite State Machines2018In: Machine Learning for Dynamic Software Analysis: Potentials and Limits / [ed] Bennaceur, A Hahnle, R Meinke, K, Springer, 2018, p. 149-177Conference paper (Refereed)

Automata learning is an established class of techniques for inferring automata models by observing how they respond to a sample of input words. Recently, approaches have been presented that extend these techniques to infer extended finite state machines (EFSMs) by dynamic black-box analysis. EFSMs model both data flow and control behavior, and their mutual interaction. Different dialects of EFSMs are widely used in tools for model-based software development, verification, and testing. This survey paper presents general principles behind some of these recent extensions. The goal is to elucidate how the principles behind classic automata learning can be maintained and guide extensions to more general automata models, and to situate some extensions with respect to these principles.

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