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  • 1.
    André, Tomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics.
    Dawod, Ibrahim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics. European XFEL, Holzkoppel 4, DE-22869 Schenefeld, Germany.
    Cardoch, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics. Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestraße 85 DE-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Macromolecule classification using X-ray laser induced fragmentation simulated with hybrid Monte Carlo/Molecular DynamicsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a hybrid Monte Carlo and classical molecular dynamics code to follow the ultrafast atomic dynamics in biological macromolecules induced by a femtosecond X-ray laser. Our model for fragmentation shows good qualitative agreement with ab-initio simulations of small molecules, while being computationally faster.  We applied the code for macromolecules and simulated the Coulomb explosion dynamics due to the fast ionization in six proteins with different physical properties. The trajectories of the ions are followed and projected onto a detector, where the particular pattern depends on the protein, providing a unique footprint. We utilize algorithms such as principal component analysis  and t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding to classify the fragmentation pattern. The results show that the classification algorithms are able to separate the explosion patterns into distinct groups. We envision that this method could be used to provide additional class information, like particle mass or shape, in structural determination experiments using X-ray lasers.

  • 2.
    André, Tomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Sjöqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Quantum Matter Theory.
    Dark path holonomic qudit computation2022In: Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, ISSN 1050-2947, E-ISSN 1094-1622, Vol. 106, no 6, article id 062402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonadiabatic holonomic quantum computation is a method used to implement high-speed quantum gates with non-Abelian geometric phases associated with paths in state space. Due to their noise tolerance, these phases can be used to construct error resilient quantum gates. We extend the holonomic dark path qubit scheme in [M.-Z. Ai et al., Fundam. Res. 2, 661 (2022)] to qudits. Specifically, we demonstrate one- and two-qudit universality by using the dark path technique. Explicit qutrit (d = 3) gates are demonstrated and the scaling of the number of loops with the dimension d is addressed. This scaling is linear and we show how any diagonal qudit gate can be implemented efficiently in any dimension.

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  • 3.
    Dawod, Ibrahim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics. European XFEL, Holzkoppel 4, DE-22869 Schenefeld, Germany.
    Cardoch, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics.
    André, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics.
    De Santis, Emiliano
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    E, Juncheng
    European XFEL, Holzkoppel 4, DE-22869 Schenefeld, Germany.
    Mancuso, Adrian P.
    European XFEL, Holzkoppel 4, DE-22869 Schenefeld, Germany. Department of Chemistry and Physics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria 3086, Australia. Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE, UK.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics. Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestraße 85 DE-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chemical and Bio-Molecular Physics.
    MolDStruct: modelling the dynamics and structure of matter exposed to ultrafast X-ray lasers with hybrid collisional-radiative/molecular dynamicsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a method to compute photon-matter interaction and atomic dynamics with X-ray lasers using a hybrid code based on classical molecular dynamics and collisional-radiative calculations. The forces between the atoms are dynamically computed based on changes to their electronic occupations and the free electron cloud created due to the irradiation of photons in the X-ray spectrum. The rapid transition from neutral solid matter to dense plasma phase allows the use of screened potentials, which reduces the number of non-bonded interactions required to compute. In combination with parallelization through domain decomposition, large-scale molecular dynamics and ionization induced by X-ray lasers can be followed. This method is applicable for large enough samples (solids, liquids, proteins, viruses, atomic clusters and crystals) that when exposed to an X-ray laser pulse turn into a plasma in the first few femtoseconds of the interaction. We show several examples of the applicability of the method and we quantify the sizes that the method is suitable for. For large systems, we investigate non-thermal heating and scattering of bulk water, which we compare to previous experiments. We simulate molecular dynamics of a protein crystal induced by an X-ray pump, X-ray probe scheme, and find good agreement of the damage dynamics with experiments. For single particle imaging, we simulate ultrafast dynamics of a methane cluster exposed to a femtosecond X-ray laser. In the context of coherent diffractive imaging we study the fragmentation as given by an X-ray pump X-ray probe setup to understand the evolution of radiation damage.

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