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  • 1.
    Adamsson, Viola
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Influence of a healthy Nordic diet on serum fatty acid composition and associations with blood lipoproteins: results from the NORDIET study2014In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 58, p. 24114-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The fatty acid (FA) composition of serum lipids is related to the quality of dietary fat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a healthy Nordic diet (ND) on the FA composition of serum cholesterol esters (CE-FA) and assess the associations between changes in the serum CE-FA composition and blood lipoproteins during a controlled dietary intervention.

    Methods: The NORDIET trial was a six-week randomised, controlled, parallel-group dietary intervention study that included 86 adults (53±8 years) with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C. Serum CE-FA composition was measured using gas chromatography. Diet history interviews were conducted, and daily intake was assessed using checklists.

    Results: Food and nutrient intake data indicated that there was a reduction in the fat intake from dairy and meat products and an increase in the consumption of fatty fish with the ND, decreasing the levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the diet, slightly decreasing the levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and moderately increasing the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Concomitantly, the levels of CE-SFA 14:0, 15:0 and 18:0, but not 16:0, decreased during the ND, and these changes differed from those observed in the control diet group (p<0.01). In contrast, serum 22:6n-3 increased during the ND compared with the control diet (p<0.01). The changes in CE-SFA 14:0, 15:0 and 18:0 during the intervention correlated positively with those in LDL-C, HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (p<0.01), whereas the changes in CE-PUFA 22:6n-3 were negatively correlated with changes in the corresponding serum lipids.

    Conclusions: The decreased intake of saturated fat and increased intake of n-3 PUFA in a healthy Nordic diet are partly reflected by changes in the serum CE-FA composition, which are associated with an improved serum lipoprotein pattern.

  • 2.
    Adamsson, Viola
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Reumark, Anna
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    What is a healthy Nordic diet?: Foods and nutrients in the NORDIET study2012In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 56, p. 18189-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A healthy Nordic diet (ND), a diet based on foods originating from the Nordic countries, improves blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity and lowers blood pressure and body weight in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Objective: To describe and compare food and nutrient composition of the ND in relation to the intake of a Swedish reference population (SRP) and the recommended intake (RI) and average requirement (AR), as described by the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR). Design: The analyses were based on an estimate of actual food and nutrient intake of 44 men and women (mean age 53 +/- 8 years, BMI 26 +/- 3), representing an intervention arm receiving ND for 6 weeks. Results: The main difference between ND and SRP was the higher intake of plant foods, fish, egg and vegetable fat and a lower intake of meat products, dairy products, sweets and desserts and alcoholic beverages during ND (p<0.001 for all food groups). Intake of cereals and seeds was similar between ND and SRP (p>0.3). The relative intake of protein, fat and carbohydrates during ND was in accordance with RI. Intake of all vitamins and minerals was above AR, whereas sodium intake was below RI. Conclusions: When compared with the food intake of an SRP, ND is primarily a plant-based diet. ND represents a balanced food intake that meets the current RI and AR of NNR 2004 and has a dietary pattern that is associated with decreased morbidity and mortality.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Klinisk Nutrition.
    Hedman, Anu
    Olsson, Roger
    Sjödin, Anders
    Vessby, Bengt
    Skelettmuskelns fettsyraprofil i relation till fysisk aktivitet, dietärt fett och fibertyp1999In: Svenska Läkarsällskapets Riksstämma 30 nov-2dec, 1999, 1999Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 4.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Klinisk Nutrition.
    Nälsén, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Klinisk Nutrition.
    Tengblad, Siv
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Klinisk Nutrition.
    Dietary fat quality influences the fatty acid profile of skeletal muscle phospholipids in humans.2000In: Presentation vid 7th Nordic Nutrition Congress, Mariehamn, Åland 18-21 juni, 2000: Scand. j. Nutr. Supplement 37, Vol 44, 2S, 2000, 2000Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 5.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nälsén, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Tengblad, Siv
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle reflects dietary fat compositionin humans2002In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 76, no 6, p. 1222-1229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is still unknown whether the fatty acid composition of human skeletal muscle lipids is directly influenced by the fat composition of the diet.

    Objective: We investigated whether the fatty acid composition of the diet is reflected in the fatty acid profile of skeletal muscle phospholipids and triacylglycerols.

    Design: Thirty-two healthy adults (25 men and 7 women) included in a larger controlled, multicenter dietary study were randomly assigned to diets containing a high proportion of either saturated fatty acids (SFAs) [total fat, 36% of energy; SFAs, 18% of energy; monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), 10% of energy] or MUFAs (total fat, 35% of energy; SFAs, 9% of energy; MUFAs, 19% of energy) for 3 mo. Within each diet group, there was a second random assignment to supplementation with fish oil capsules [containing 3.6 g n−3 fatty acids/d; 2.4 g eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n−3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n−3)] or placebo. A muscle biopsy sample was taken from the vastus lateralis muscle after the diet period. Parallel analyses of diet and supplementation effects were performed.

    Results: The proportions of myristic (14:0), pentadecanoic (15:0), heptadecanoic (17:0), and palmitoleic (16:1n−7) acids in the skeletal muscle phospholipids were higher and the proportion of oleic acid (18:1n−9) was lower in the SFA group than in the MUFA group. The proportion of total n−3 fatty acids in the muscle phospholipids was ≈2.5 times higher, with a 5 times higher proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n−3), in subjects supplemented with n−3 fatty acids than in those given placebo. Similar differences were observed in the skeletal muscle triacylglycerols.

    Conclusion: The fatty acid composition of skeletal muscle lipids reflects the fatty acid composition of the diet in healthy men and women.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Klinisk Nutrition.
    Sjödin, Anders
    Klinisk Nutrition.
    Hedman, Anu
    Olsson, Roger
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Klinisk Nutrition.
    Fatty acid profile of skeletal muscle phospholipids in trained and undtrained young men.1999In: 8th European Nutrition Conference, Lillehammer, Norge 17-19 juni, 1999.: Scand. J. Nutr. 73S, suppl 34, 2/1999, 1999Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 7.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjödin, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hedman, Anu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Olsson, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fatty acid profile of skeletal muscle phospholipids in trained and untrained young men2000In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 279, no 4, p. E744-E751Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endurance trained (n = 14) and untrained young men (n = 15) were compared regarding the fatty acid profile of the vastus lateralis muscle after 8 wk on diets with a similar fatty acid composition. The skeletal muscle phospholipids in the trained group contained lower proportions of palmitic acid (16:0) (-12.4%, P < 0.001) and di-homo-gamma-linolenic acid [20:3(n-6)] (-15.3%, P = 0.018), a lower n-6-to-n-3 ratio (-42.0%, P = 0.015), higher proportions of stearic acid (18:0) (+9.8%, P = 0.004) and sum of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (+33.8%, P = 0.009), and a higher ratio between 20:4(n-6) to 20:3(n-6) (+18.4%, P = 0.006) compared with those in the untrained group. The group differences in 16:0, 20:3(n-6), 18:0/16:0, and 20:4(n-6)/20:3(n-6) were independent of fiber-type distribution. The trained group also showed a lower proportion of 16:0 (-7.9%, P < 0.001) in skeletal muscle triglycerides irrespective of fiber type. In conclusion, the fatty acid profile of the skeletal muscle differed between trained and untrained individuals, although the dietary fatty acid composition was similar. This difference was not explained by different fiber-type distribution alone but appears to be a direct consequence of changes in fatty acid metabolism due to the higher level of physical activity.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Klinisk Nutrition.
    Sjödin, Anders
    Olsson, Roger
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Klinisk Nutrition.
    Effects of physical exercise on fatty acid composition in skeletal muscle.1998In: International 15th Puijo Symposium Kuopio, Finland, 22-25 juni, 1998.: Kuopio University Publications D. Medical Scinces 149, 1998., 1998Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 9.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjödin, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Olsson, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Effects of physical exercise on phospholipid fatty acid composition in skeletal muscle1998In: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0193-1849, E-ISSN 1522-1555, Vol. 274, no 37, p. E432-E438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of low-intensity exercise on the fatty acid composition in skeletal muscle and in serum were studied in 19 sedentary, middle-aged Swedish men. During a 10-wk period, all subjects were given a standardized diet with an identical fat composition. After 4 wk on this diet, they were randomly allocated to a daily exercise program (55% peak oxygen uptake) or to continue to live a sedentary life for the remaining 6 wk. Aerobic capacity (submaximal bicycle test) and peripheral insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp) improved with training, whereas the body weight as well as the body composition (underwater weighing and bioimpedance) were unchanged. The proportions of palmitic acid (16:0) and linoleic acid [18:2(n-6)] and the sum of n-6 fatty acids [18:2(n-6), 20:3(n-6), 20:4(n-6)] were decreased in skeletal muscle phospholipids, whereas the proportion of oleic acid [18:1(n-9)] was increased, by training. The fatty acid profile in skeletal muscle triglycerides remained unchanged. We conclude that regular low-intensity exercise influences the fatty acid composition of the phospholipids in skeletal muscle, which hypothetically may contribute to changes of the skeletal muscle membrane fluidity and influence the peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences.
    Sjödin, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Dye, Louise
    Blundell, John
    Effects of meals with calcuated high or low glycemic index compared with a high protein meal on appetite, cognitive performance and subjective state2005In: Presentation vid 23rd International Symposium on Diabetes and Nutrition, DNSG, 30 juni-3 juli, Ebeltoft, Danmark, 2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences.
    Tengblad, Siv
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences.
    Kamal-Edin, Afaf
    Landberg, Rikard
    Åman, Per
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Oförändrad insulinkänslighet och lipidperoxidation efter ökat intag av fullkornsprodukter hos friska män och kvinnor.2006In: Livsmedelsforskardagarna, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Flertalet epidemilogiska studier har visat positiva hälsoeffekter av ett högt intag av fullkornsprodukter. Framförallt är en minska risk för hjärtinfarkt/sjukdom visad, och data

    talar även för en minskad risk för typ 2 diabetes. Mekanismerna bakom fullkornets positiva effekter är dock fortfarande oklara. Såväl en förbättrad insulinkänslighet som en minskad förekomst av lipidperoxidation och inflammation har föreslagits, vilket vi därför önskade undersöka i denna studie.

    I en randomiserad cross-over design deltog 30 lätt överviktiga (BMI 282) kvinnor (n=22) och män (n=8). Under två på varandra följande 6 veckors perioder fick deltagarna antingen cerealieprodukter med fullkorn eller utan fullkorn. En standardiserad mängd (3 skivor mjukt bröd, 2 skivor hårt bröd, 1 portion musli/gryn och 1 portion pasta/ris) inkluderades dagligen i deras vanliga kost. Perifer insulinkänslighet mättes med euglykemisk hyperinsulinemisk clampteknik. Lipidperoxidationsmarkören 8-iso-PGF2 mättes i urin och inflammationsmarkörerna CRP och IL-6 mättes i plasma. Kostinterventionen monitorerades med hjälp av vägda kostregisteringar och dagboksnoteringar.

    Kostregistreringarna bekräftade ett högre intag av fiber och flertalet mineralämnen under fullkornsperioden jämfört med icke-fullkornsperioden. Vi fann dock ingen förbättring av insulinkänsligheten och inte heller någon förändring av lipidperoxidation eller inflammationsmarkörer.

    Att ersätta icke-fullkorns produkter med fullkorn under en 6 veckors period hos vuxna lätt överviktiga friska män och kvinnor gav således ingen mätbar effekt på vare sig insulinkänslighet, lipidperoxidation eller inflammationsmarkörer. Frågan om vilka mekanismerna som ligger bakom de positiva hälsoeffekterna av fullkornsprodukter kvarstår och längre koststudier på deltagare med varierande metaboltstatus behövs.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences.
    Tengblad, Siv
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences.
    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf
    Landberg, Rickard
    Åman, Per
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ökat intag av fullkornsprodukter. Effekter på insulinkänslighet, lipidperoxidation och inflammationsmarkörer?2006In: Svenska Läkarsällskapets Riksstämma, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Bakgrund: Flertalet epidemiologiska studier har visat positiva hälsoeffekter av ett högt intag av fullkornsprodukter. Framförallt är en minskad risk för hjärtinfarkt/sjukdom visad, men data talar även för en minskad risk för typ 2 diabetes. Mekanismerna bakom fullkornets positiva effekter är dock fortfarande oklara. Såväl en förbättrad insulinkänslighet som en minskad förekomst av lipidperoxidation och inflammation har föreslagits, vilket vi önskade undersöka i denna studie.

    Metod: I en randomiserad cross-over design deltog 30 lätt överviktiga (BMI 282) kvinnor (n=22) och män (n=8). Under två på varandra följande 6-veckors perioder fick deltagarna antingen cerealieprodukter med fullkorn eller utan fullkorn. En standardiserad mängd (3 skivor mjukt bröd, 2 skivor hårt bröd, 1 portion musli/gryn och 1 portion pasta/ris) inkluderades dagligen i deras vanliga kost. Perifer insulinkänslighet mättes med euglykemisk hyperinsulinemisk clampteknik. Lipidperoxidationsmarkören 8-iso-PGF2 mättes i urin och inflammationsmarkörerna CRP och IL-6 mättes i plasma. Kostinterventionen monitorerades med hjälp av vägda kostregisteringar och dagboksnoteringar.

    Resultat: Kostregistreringarna bekräftade ett högre intag av fiber och flertalet mineralämnen under fullkornsperioden jämfört med icke-fullkornsperioden. Vi fann dock ingen förbättring av insulinkänsligheten och inte heller någon förändring av lipidperoxidation eller inflammationsmarkörer.

    Sammanfattning: Att ersätta icke-fullkorns produkter med fullkorn under en 6-veckors period hos vuxna lätt överviktiga friska män och kvinnor gav ingen mätbar effekt på insulinkänslighet, lipidperoxidation eller inflammationsmarkörer. Frågan om vilka mekanismerna som ligger bakom de positiva hälsoeffekterna av fullkornsprodukter kvarstår och längre koststudier på deltagare med varierande metaboltstatus behövs.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Tengblad, Siv
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf
    Landberg, Rikard
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Åman, Per
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Whole-grain foods do not affect insulin sensitivity or markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation in healthy, moderately overweight subjects2007In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 137, no 6, p. 1401-1407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High intakes of whole grain foods are inversely related to the incidence of coronary heart diseases and type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of a diet rich in whole grains compared with a diet containing the same amount of refined grains on insulin sensitivity and markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation. In a randomized crossover study, 22 women and 8 men (BMI 28 +/- 2) were given either whole-grain or refined-grain products (3 bread slices, 2 crisp bread slices, 1 portion muesli, and 1 portion pasta) to include in their habitual daily diet for two 6-wk periods. Peripheral insulin sensitivity was determined by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp tests. 8-Iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha) (8-iso PGF(2alpha)), an F(2)-isoprostane, was measured in the urine as a marker of lipid peroxidation, and highly sensitive C-reactive protein and IL-6 were analyzed in plasma as markers of inflammation. Peripheral insulin sensitivity [mg glucose . kg body wt(-1) . min(-1) per unit plasma insulin (mU/L) x 100] did not improve when subjects consumed whole-grain products (6.8 +/- 3.0 at baseline and 6.5 +/- 2.7 after 6 wk) or refined products (6.4 +/- 2.9 and 6.9 +/- 3.2, respectively) and there were no differences between the 2 periods. Whole-grain consumption also did not affect 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) in urine, IL-6 and C-reactive protein in plasma, blood pressure, or serum lipid concentrations. In conclusion, substitution of whole grains (mainly based on milled wheat) for refined-grain products in the habitual daily diet of healthy moderately overweight adults for 6-wk did not affect insulin sensitivity or markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation.

  • 14.
    Arnlov, J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lind, L
    Department of Medical Sciences.
    Zethelius, B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Andren, B
    Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hales, C N
    Department of Medical Sciences.
    Vessby, B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lithell, H
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Several factors associated with the insulin resistance syndrome are predictors of left ventricular systolic dysfunction in a male population after 20 years of follow-up.2001In: Am Heart J, ISSN 1097-6744, Vol. 142, no 4, p. 720-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Basu, Samar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Vessby, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Berne, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Type 1 diabetes is associated with increased cyclooxygenase- and cytokine-mediated inflammation2005In: Diabetes Care, ISSN 0149-5992, E-ISSN 1935-5548, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 1371-1375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The extent of involvement of cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated inflammation in type 1 diabetes is unknown, and the association between the COX- and cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses in type 1 diabetes is not fully understood.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), 24-h urinary and plasma 15-keto-dihydro-prostaglandin F(2alpha) (a metabolite of prostaglandin F(2alpha) [PGF(2alpha)] and an indicator of COX-mediated inflammation), serum amyloid protein A (SAA), and interleukin (IL)-6 (indicators of inflammation) were measured in 38 subjects with type 1 diabetes and 41 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects.

    RESULTS: The inflammatory indicators (urinary 15-keto-dihydro-PGF(2alpha), P < 0.01; IL-6, P < 0.04) were increased in men with diabetes. CRP and SAA did not show any significant difference between the diabetic and the control subjects. Urinary levels of 15-keto-dihydro-PGF(2alpha) correlated with the degree of glycemic control, HbA(1c) (r = 0.42, P < 0.0005). No correlation was found between the duration of diabetes and the inflammatory biomarkers or metabolic measurements.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that an early low-grade inflammatory process reflected by elevated levels of PGF(2alpha) and IL-6 is involved in type 1 diabetes. Thus, both COX- and cytokine-mediated inflammatory pathways are significantly related to type 1 diabetes.

  • 16.
    Basu, Samar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Klinisk nutrition & metabolism.
    Smedman, Annika
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Klinisk nutrition & metabolism.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Klinisk nutrition & metabolism.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Klinisk nutrition & metabolism.
    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) induces lipid perxidation in humans2000In: Proceedings if the OCC Meeting 2000, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Becker, Wulf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Inga-Britt
    Haraldsdottir, Johanna
    Nydahl, Margareta
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ytterfors, A
    Precoded or weighed food records for measuring dietary habits in a population of Swedish adults. I Food intake.1996Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Björklund, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Andrén, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lithell, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Different metabolic predictors of white-coat and sustained hypertension over a 20-year follow-up period: a population-based study of elderly men2002In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 106, no 1, p. 63-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The clinical significance of white-coat hypertension is still unclear. Moreover, no study has examined metabolic predictors of white-coat versus sustained hypertension.

    Methods and Results We investigated men (n=602) in a longitudinal population-based cohort who at age 70 years were identified as normotensive, white-coat hypertensive (office blood pressure [BP] ≥140/90 and daytime ambulatory BP <135/85 mm Hg), and sustained hypertensive (office BP ≥140/90 and daytime ambulatory BP ≥135/85 mm Hg). At baseline, when the subjects were aged 50 years, blood glucose, insulin, lipids, and fatty acid composition of the serum cholesterol esters were analyzed. The investigations at age 70 years included determination of insulin sensitivity and target organ damage. At age 50 years, individuals who 20 years later were identified as white-coat hypertensive or sustained hypertensive showed significantly elevated BP, heart rate, and impaired glucose tolerance compared with normotensive subjects but white coat hypertensive subjects were leaner and had a more favorable serum cholesterol ester fatty acid profile than did sustained hypertensive subjects. At age 70 years, both white-coat and sustained hypertensive subjects showed an impaired insulin sensitivity, elevated blood glucose, and increased serum insulin and heart rate compared with normotensive subjects, but left ventricular mass and urinary albumin excretion were increased only in sustained hypertensive subjects.

    Conclusions These findings indicate that although metabolic abnormalities and elevated heart rate were consistent over time in both hypertensive groups, a lower body mass index and more favorable dietary fat composition predicted the development of white-coat as opposed to sustained hypertension over 20 years.

  • 19. Boberg, M
    et al.
    Pollare, T
    Siegbahn, A
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Vessby, B
    Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids reduces triglycerides but increases PAI-1 in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.1992In: Eur J Clin Invest, ISSN 0014-2972, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 645-50Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 20.
    Byberg, Liisa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Kilander, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Warensjö Lemming, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cancer death is related to high palmitoleic acid in serum and to polymorphisms in the SCD-1 gene in healthy Swedish men2014In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 99, no 3, p. 551-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    A high proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or a high ratio of MUFAs to saturated fatty acids in plasma, reflecting a high activity of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), has been shown to be related to cancer death and incidence in some studies.

    OBJECTIVES:

    The objective was to study whether the serum cholesteryl ester proportion of palmitoleic acid [16:1n-7 (16:1ω-3)] and the ratio of palmitoleic to palmitic acid (16:1n-7/16:0), as an estimation of the activity of SCD-1, are related to cancer death and to investigate whether polymorphisms in the SCD-1 gene are related to cancer mortality.

    DESIGN:

    A community-based cohort of 50-y-old men was followed for a maximum of >40 y. Survival analysis was used to relate fatty acid composition in serum, analyzed at baseline by gas-liquid chromatography (n = 1981), and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SCD-1 gene (n = 986) to cancer death. A 7-d dietary record was completed at age 70 y (n = 880).

    RESULTS:

    The proportions of 16:1n-7 and the ratio of 16:1n-7 to 16:0 were associated with cancer mortality during follow-up in a comparison of the highest with the lowest quartile of 16:1n-7 (adjusted HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.82). Inherited variance of the SCD-1 gene seemed to be related to cancer death, especially among men with a low proportion of PUFA in the diet in a comparison of the highest with the lowest weighted genetic risk score (HR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.13, 4.04).

    CONCLUSION:

    The findings are compatible with the hypothesis that there is an association between endogenously synthesized MUFAs and cancer death.

  • 21.
    Daryani, Achraf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Bengt, Vessby
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences.
    Dietary fat intake, fat sources and fatty acid composition in serum among immigrant women from Iran and Turkey compared with women of Swedish ethnicity2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 106-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Immigrants in general seem to be more vulnerable than the host population to developing nutrition-related chronic conditions. This may in part be related to diverging dietary habits, including intake of different types and amounts of dietary fat.

    Objectives

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the dietary fatty acid composition and the dietary fat sources among first generation immigrant women from Iran and Turkey compared with women of Swedish ethnicity. The second aim was to relate the reported dietary fatty acid composition to the fatty acid composition in serum cholesterol esters, and the fatty acid composition in serum to metabolic variables.

    Design

    The study was a cross-sectional health survey of randomly selected foreign-born women (n=107) and native Swedish women (n=50) living in Uppsala. This included 24 h dietary recall repeated four times and administered in the native language.

    Results and conclusion

    A lower proportion of satura ted fatty acids, a higher proportion of linoleic acid and a higher n-6/n-3 ratio were found in the immigrants’ diet than in the diet of the Swedish women. The difference in linoleic acid was also mirrored in serum. Vegetable dishes, together with edible fats, were the major contributors of polyunsaturated fatty acids among the immigrant women. While the fatty acid profile in serum among the immigrant women had both favourable and unfavourable implications, a higher prevalence of obesity and dyslipidaemia was observed in immigrant compared with Swedish-born women.

  • 22.
    Daryani, Achraf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Berglund, Lars
    Andersson, Åsa
    Kocturk, Tahire
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Risk factors for coronary heart disease among immigrant women from Iran and Turkey, compared to women of Swedish ethnicity2005In: Ethnicity & Disease, ISSN 1049-510X, E-ISSN 1945-0826, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 213-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    The aim of the study was to compare a group of immigrant women from the Middle East living in Sweden to Swedish-born controls regarding the prevalence of certain cardiovascular risk factors.

    DESIGN:

    Health survey of randomly selected foreign-born women and women native in Sweden.

    SETTING:

    Uppsala, Sweden.

    SUBJECTS:

    A total of 107 immigrant women aged 35-64 years from the Middle East (Iran [N=71] and Turkey [N=36]) living in Uppsala and residents in Sweden for at least three years and a control group of ethnic Swedish women (N=50).

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

    A questionnaire and a clinical examination specially directed towards measuring cardiovascular risk factors and prevalence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension.

    RESULTS:

    A less beneficial cardiovascular risk profile was found among immigrant women than among ethnic Swedish women. Turkish women had substantially higher body mass index (BMI), larger waist, higher waist/hip ratio and sagittal abdominal diameter, higher levels of serum triglycerides, and lower HDL cholesterol concentration compared with Swedish-born women. A similar tendency was seen also for Iranian women.

    CONCLUSION:

    The present study shows important ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease risk factor pattern. Immigrant women from Iran and Turkey are heavier than women born in Sweden and have a higher prevalence of abdominal obesity, an unfavorable lipid profile, and a high degree of physical inactivity during leisure time, which may predispose for a higher incidence of diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  • 23.
    Daryani, Achraf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences. Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kocturk, Tahire
    Andersson, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences. Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlstrom, Brita
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Domestic Sciences. Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Becker, Wulf
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Greater underreporting of dietary intake among immigrant women from Iran and Turkey than in native-Swedish women in Uppsala County2006In: 6th International Conference on Dietary Assessment Methods, 27-29 april Köpenhamn, Danmark: Complementary advances in diet and physical activity assessment methodologies, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 24.
    Dunder, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lind, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lagerqvist, Bo
    Department of Medical Sciences.
    Zethelius, Björn
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lithell, Hans
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Cardiovascular risk factors for stable angina pectoris versus unheralded myocardial infarction.2004In: Am Heart J, ISSN 1097-6744, Vol. 147, no 3, p. 502-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Fischer, C P
    et al.
    Hiscock, N J
    Penkowa, M
    Basu, S
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kallner, A
    Sjöberg, L-B
    Pedersen, B K
    Supplementation with vitamins C and E inhibits the release of interleukin-6 from contracting human skeletal muscle2004In: J Physiol, no 558, p. 633-645Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Fischer, C.P
    et al.
    Hiscock, N.J
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kallner, Anders
    Sjöberg, Lars-Börje
    Febbraio, M.A
    Pedersen, B.K
    Vitamin E isoform-specific inhibition of the exercise-induced heat shock protein 72 expression in humans2006In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 100, no 5, p. 1679-1687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, as seen in response to exercise, challenge the cellular integrity. Important protective adaptive changes include induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs). We hypothesized that supplementation with antioxidant vitamins C (ascorbic acid) and E (tocopherol) would attenuate the exercise-induced increase of HSP72 in the skeletal muscle and in the circulation. Using randomization, we allocated 21 young men into three groups receiving one of the following oral supplementations: RRR-α-tocopherol 400 IU/ day + ascorbic acid (AA) 500 mg/day (CEα), RRR-α-tocopherol 290 IU/day + RRR-γ-tocopherol 130 IU/day + AA 500 mg/day (CEαγ), or placebo (Control). After 28 days of supplementation, the subjects performed 3 h of knee extensor exercise at 50% of the maximal power output. HSP72 mRNA and protein content was determined in muscle biopsies obtained from vastus lateralis at rest (0 h), postexercise (3 h), and after a 3-h recovery (6 h). In addition, blood was sampled for measurements of HSP72, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, AA, and 8-isoprostaglandin-F (8-PGF). Postsupplementation, the groups differed with respect to plasma vitamin levels. The marker of lipid peroxidation, 8-iso-PGF, increased from 0 h to 3 h in all groups, however, markedly less (P < 0.05) in CEα. In Control, skeletal muscle HSP72 mRNA content increased 2.5-fold (P < 0.05) and serum HSP72 protein increased 4-fold (P < 0.05) in response to exercise, whereas a significant increase of skeletal muscle HSP72 protein content was not observed (P = 0.07). In CEα, skeletal muscle HSP72 mRNA, HSP72 protein, and serum HSP72 were not different from Control in response to exercise. In contrast, the effect of exercise on skeletal muscle HSP72 mRNA and protein, as well as circulating HSP72, was completely blunted in CEαγ. The results indicate that γ-tocopherol comprises a potent inhibitor of the exercise-induced increase of HSP72 in skeletal muscle as well as in the circulation.

  • 27. Frank, J.
    et al.
    Budek, A.
    Lundh, T.
    Parker, R.S.
    Swanson, J.E.
    Lourenco, C.F.
    Gago, B.
    Laranjinha, J.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Kamal-Eldin, A.
    Dietary flavonoids with a catechol structure increase alpha-tocopherol in rats and protect the vitamin from oxidation in vitro2006In: Journal of Lipid Research, ISSN 0022-2275, E-ISSN 1539-7262, Vol. 47, no 12, p. 2718-2725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To identify dietary phenolic compounds capable of improving vitamin E status, male Sprague-Dawleyrats were fed for 4 weeks either a basal diet ( control) with 2 g/kg cholesterol and an adequate content of vitamin E or the basal diet fortified with quercetin ( Q), (2)-epicatechin (EC), or (1)-catechin ( C) at concentrations of 2 g/kg. All three catechol derivatives substantially increased concentrations of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) in blood plasma and liver. To study potential mechanisms underlying the observed increase of alpha-T, the capacities of the Flavonoids to i) protect alpha-T from oxidation in LDL exposed to peroxyl radicals, ii) reduce alpha-tocopheroxyl radicals (alpha-T-.) in SDS micelles, and iii) inhibit the metabolism of tocopherols in HepG2 cells were determined. All flavonoids protected alpha-T from oxidation in human LDL ex vivo and dose-dependently reduced the concentrations of alpha-T-.. None of the test compounds affected vitamin E metabolism in the hepatocyte cultures. In conclusion, fortification of the diet of Sprague-Dawley rats with Q, EC, or C considerably improved their vitamin E status. The underlying mechanism does not appear to involve vitamin E metabolism but may involve direct quenching of free radicals or reduction of the alpha-T-. by the flavonoids.

  • 28. Frank, J
    et al.
    Eliasson, C
    Leroy-Nivard, D
    Budek, A
    Lundh, T
    Vessby, B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Aman, P
    Kamal-Eldin, A
    Dietary secoisolariciresinol diglucoside and its oligomers with 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaric acid decrease vitamin E levels in rats.2004In: Br J Nutr, ISSN 0007-1145, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 169-76Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Frank, J
    et al.
    Sundberg, B
    Kamal-Eldin, A
    Vessby, B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Aman, P
    Yeast-leavened oat breads with high or low molecular weight beta-glucan do not differ in their effects on blood concentrations of lipids, insulin, or glucose in humans.2004In: J Nutr, ISSN 0022-3166, Vol. 134, no 6, p. 1384-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Freese, Riitta
    et al.
    Korkalo, Liisa
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Tengblad, Siv
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Vaara, Elina M.
    Hauta-Alus, Helena
    Selvester, Kerry
    Mutanen, Marja
    Essential fatty acid intake and serum fatty acid composition among adolescent girls in central Mozambique2015In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 113, no 7, p. 1086-1095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many African diets are low in fat but are currently changing because of nutrition transition. We studied fat and fatty acid (FA) intake and the essential fatty acid (EFA) status of adolescent girls (aged 14-19 years, n 262) in Zambezia Province, central Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a city as well as in the towns and rural villages of a coastal and an inland district. Dietary intake and FA sources were studied in a 24 h dietary recall. FA compositions of cholesteryl esters and phospholipids of non-fasting serum samples were analysed by GLC. Fat intake was low (13-18% of energy) in all areas. Coconut and palm oil were the main sources of fat, and soyabean oil and maize were the main sources of PUFA. Compared to Food and Agriculture Organization/WHO 2010 recommendations, intake of linoleic acid (LA, 18 : 2n-6) was inadequate in the coastal district, and intakes of n-3 PUFA were inadequate in all areas. FA compositions of serum lipids differed between areas. The proportions of LA tended to be highest in the city and lowest in the rural areas. The phospholipid mead (20 : 3n-9): arachidonic acid (20 : 4n-6) ratio did not indicate EFA insufficiency. LA proportions in phospholipids were low, but those of long-chain n-6 and n-3 PUFA were high in comparison with Western adolescents. To conclude, fat sources, FA intake and EFA status differed between adolescent girls living in different types of communities. Fat intake was low, but EFA insufficiency was not indicated.

  • 31. Freund Levi, Y
    et al.
    Vedin, I
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Basun, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Faxén Irving, G
    Eriksdotter, M
    Hjorth, E
    Schultzberg, M
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Wahlund, L-O
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Salem, N
    Palmblad, J
    Transfer of omega-3 fatty acids across the blood-brain barrier after dietary supplementation with a docosahexaenoic acid-rich omega-3 fatty acid preparation in patients with Alzheimer's disease: the OmegAD study2014In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 275, no 4, p. 428-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the transfer of essential fatty acids (FAs) across the human blood-brain barrier (BBB) in adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether oral supplementation with omega-3 (n-3) FAs would change the FA profile of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

    METHODS: A total of 33 patients (18 receiving the n-3 FA supplement and 15 receiving placebo) were included in the study. These patients were participants in the double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized OmegAD study in which 204 patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) received 2.3 g n-3 FA [high in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] or placebo daily for 6 months. CSF FA levels were related to changes in plasma FA and to CSF biomarkers of AD and inflammation.

    RESULTS: At 6 months, the n-3 FA supplement group displayed significant increases in CSF (and plasma) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), DHA and total n-3 FA levels (P < 0.01), whereas no changes were observed in the placebo group. Changes in CSF and plasma levels of EPA and n-3 docosapentaenoic acid were strongly correlated, in contrast to those of DHA. Changes in DHA levels in CSF were inversely correlated with CSF levels of total and phosphorylated tau, and directly correlated with soluble interleukin-1 receptor type II. Thus, the more DHA increased in CSF, the greater the change in CSF AD/inflammatory biomarkers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Oral supplementation with n-3 FAs conferred changes in the n-3 FA profile in CSF, suggesting transfer of these FAs across the BBB in adults.

  • 32. Freund-Levi, Yvonne
    et al.
    Eriksdotter-Jonhagen, Maria
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Basun, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Faxén-Irving, Gerd
    Garlind, Anita
    Vedin, Inger
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Palmblad, Jan
    Omega-3 fatty acid treatment in 174 patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: OmegAD study - A randomized double-blind trial2006In: Archives of Neurology, ISSN 0003-9942, E-ISSN 1538-3687, Vol. 63, no 10, p. 1402-1408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Epidemiologic and animal studies have suggested that dietary fish or fish oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids, for example, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, may prevent Alzheimer disease (AD).

    Objective: To determine effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on cognitive functions in patients with mild to moderate AD.

    Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Participants: Two hundred four patients with AD (age range [mean +/- SD], 74 +/- 9 years) whose conditions were stable while receiving acetylcholine esterase inhibitor treatment and who had a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 15 points or more were randomized to daily intake of 1.7 g of docosahexaenoic acid and 0.6 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (omega-3 fatty acid-treated group) or placebo for 6 months, after which all received omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for 6 months more.

    Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome was cognition measured with the MMSE and the cognitive portion of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale. The secondary outcome was global function as assessed with the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale; safety and tolerability of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation; and blood pressure determinations.

    Results: One hundred seventy-four patients fulfilled the trial. At baseline, mean values for the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, MMSE, and cognitive portion of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale in the 2 randomized groups were similar. At 6 months, the decline in cognitive functions as assessed by the latter 2 scales did not differ between the groups. However, in a subgroup (n=32) with very mild cognitive dysfunction (MMSE > 27 points), a significant (P <.05) reduction in MMSE decline rate was observed in the omega-3 fatty acid-treated group compared with the placebo group. A similar arrest in decline rate was observed between 6 and 12 months in this placebo subgroup when receiving omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. The omega-3 fatty acid treatment was safe and well tolerated.

    Conclusions: Administration of omega-3 fatty acid in patients with mild to moderate AD did not delay the rate of cognitive decline according to the MMSE or the cognitive portion of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale. However, positive effects were observed in a small group of patients with very mild AD (MMSE > 27 points).

  • 33. Freund-Levi, Yvonne
    et al.
    Vedin, Inger
    Hjorth, Erik
    Basun, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Irving, Gerd Faxen
    Schultzberg, Marianne
    Eriksdotter, Maria
    Palmblad, Jan
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation.
    Effects of Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: The OmegAD Study2014In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 823-831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation are two key mechanisms suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FAs) found in fish and fish oil have several biological properties that may be beneficial in AD. However, they may also auto-oxidize and induce in vivo lipid peroxidation. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers following oral supplementation of dietary omega-3 FA. Methods: Forty patients with moderate AD were randomized to receive 1.7 g DHA (22:6) and 0.6 g EPA (20:5) or placebo for 6 months. Urinary samples were collected before and after supplementation. The levels of the major F-2-isoprostane, 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) a consistent in vivo biomarker of oxidative stress, and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF(2 alpha), a major metabolite of PGF(2 alpha) and biomarker of inflammatory response, were measured. Results: F-2-isoprostane in urine increased in the placebo group after 6 months, but therewas no clear difference in treatment effect between supplemented and non-supplemented patients on the urinary levels of F-2-isoprostanes and 15-keto-dihydro-PGF(2 alpha). At baseline, the levels of 15-keto-dihydro-PGF(2 alpha) showed negative correlative relationships to omega-3 FAs, and a positive correlation to linoleic acid. 8-iso-PGF(2 alpha) correlated negatively to the omega-6 FA arachidonic acid. Conclusion: The findings indicate that supplementation of omega-3 FAs to patients with AD for 6 months does not have a clear effect on free radical-mediated formation of F-2-isoprostane or cyclooxygenase-mediated formation of prostaglandin F-2 alpha. The correlative relationships to FAs indicate a potential role of FAs in immunoregulation.

  • 34. Gertow, K.
    et al.
    Rosell, M.
    Sjögren, P.
    Eriksson, P.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    de Faire, U.
    Hamsten, A.
    Hellenius, M-L
    Fisher, R.M.
    Fatty acid handling protein expression in adipose tissue, fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and serum, and markers of insulin resistance2006In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 60, no 12, p. 1406-1413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Proteins involved in cellular fatty acid (FA) uptake and metabolism may be of relevance in the context of disturbed FA metabolism associated with insulin resistance. Therefore this study investigated relationships between FA handling protein mRNA expression in adipose tissue, FA composition of adipose tissue and serum, and markers of insulin resistance.

    Subjects: 75 subjects with a range of insulin sensitivities recruited from a cohort of 294 healthy 63-year-old Swedish men.

    Measurements: Anthropometric and biochemical variables (e.g. waist-hip-ratio (WHR) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index of insulin sensitivity), FA composition of the subcutaneous (s.c.) gluteal adipose tissue, serum nonesterified FA (NEFA) and serum phospholipid compartments (by gas-liquid chromatography; n = 294), and mRNA levels of FA handling proteins (adipocyte and keratinocyte lipid binding proteins, fatty acid transport protein (FATP) -1 and -4, CD36/fatty acid translocase, plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein, and acyl-CoA synthase-1 (ACS1)) in s.c. gluteal adipose tissue (by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; n = 75).

    Results: ACS1 expression was negatively correlated with measures of insulin resistance and central obesity ( ACS1 versus HOMA: r = -0.28, P < 0.05; ACS1 versus WHR: r = -0.23, P < 0.05), with an opposite trend for FATP4. Further analysis of ACS1 expression levels revealed correlations with adipose tissue 16:0 (r = -0.27, P < 0.05) and NEFA 16: 1 (r = 0.29, P < 0.05), FA composition variables which in turn correlated with HOMA index (r = 0.39, P < 0.001 and r = -0.23, P < 0.05, respectively, n 75). Moreover, NEFA 16:1 predicted ACS1 expression independently of HOMA, WHR and adipose tissue 16:0 in multiple regression analysis (standardized coefficient = 0.27, P < 0.05).

    Conclusion: Significant associations were found between measures of insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue FA handling protein expression, and specific FA composition variables. Although causal relationships could not be identified these findings suggest a role of FA handling proteins in relation to insulin sensitivity, via their involvement in FA trafficking and metabolism. In particular they indicate links between ACS1 activity, the distribution of 16:0 and 16:1, and insulin sensitivity, which may be of physiological relevance.

  • 35. Giacco, R.
    et al.
    Cuomo, V,
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Uusitupa, M.
    Hermansen, K.
    Meyer, B.J.
    Riccardi, G.
    Rivellese, A.A.
    Fish oil, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and glucose tolerance in healthy people: Is there any effect of fish oil supplementation in relation to the type of background diet and habitual dietary intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids?2007In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 572-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To evaluate whether a moderate supplementation of long-chain n-3 fatty acids is able to modulate insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell function and glucose tolerance in healthy individuals consuming a diet rich in either saturated or monounsaturated fat, also in relation to their habitual dietary intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acid.

    Methods and results

    One hundred and sixty-two healthy individuals were randomly assigned to follow either one of two isoenergetic diets for 3months, one rich in monounsaturated fats and the other rich in saturated fats. Within each group there was a second randomisation to fish oil (n-3 fatty acids 3.6g/day) or placebo. At the beginning and at the end of the treatment periods insulin sensitivity (SI), first phase insulin response (FPIR) and glucose tolerance (KG-value) were evaluated by the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT).

    Fish oil did not have any effect on SI, FPIR, KG-value and disposition index in either diet. Even after dividing subjects according to the median value of n-6/n-3 ratio of serum phospholipids at baseline, there was no change in SI (Δ SI 0.42±0.34 on fish oil vs 0.14±0.23 on placebo for those with n-6/n-3 <4.85; −1.03±0.47 on fish oil vs −0.27±0.32 on placebo for those with n-6/n-3 >4.85) (M±SE), FPIR (Δ FPIR 135.9±78.9 vs 157.2±157.5pmol/L; 38.8±181.7 vs 357.1±181.7pmol/L), KG-value (Δ KG 0.14±0.15 vs 0.12±0.11; −0.32±0.16 vs 0.15±0.15) or disposition index (Δ disposition index 1465.4±830.4 vs 953.8±690.0; −1641.6±1034.3 vs 446.6±905.1). Considering the 75th percentile of n-6/n-3 ratio (5.82) the results on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and disposition index were confirmed, while, in this more extreme situation, n-3 fatty acid supplementation induced a significant deterioration of KG-value (p=0.02).

    Conclusions

    In healthy individuals a moderate supplementation of fish oil does not affect insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell function or glucose tolerance. The same is true even when the habitual dietary intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids is taken into account.

  • 36.
    Gulliksson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Burell, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Lundin, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Toss, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Svärdsudd, Kurt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs Standard Treatment to Prevent Recurrent Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease Secondary Prevention in Uppsala Primary Health Care Project (SUPRIM)2011In: Archives of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0003-9926, E-ISSN 1538-3679, Vol. 171, no 2, p. 134-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychosocial factors are independently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease(CVD) morbidity and mortality, but the effects of psychosocial factor intervention on CVD are uncertain. We performed a randomized controlled clinical trial of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to measure its effects on CVD recurrence. Methods: The study included 362 women and men 75 years or younger who were discharged from the hospital after a coronary heart disease event within the past 12 months. Patients were randomized to receive traditional care (reference group, 170 patients) or traditional care plus a CBT program (intervention group, 192 patients), focused on stress management, with 20 two-hour sessions during 1 year. Median attendance at each CBT session was 85%. Outcome variables were all-cause mortality, hospital admission for recurrent CVD, and recurrent acute myocardial infarction. Results: During a mean 94 months of follow-up, the intervention group had a 41% lower rate of fatal and non-fatal first recurrent CVD events (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.59 [0.42-0.83]; P=.002), 45% fewer recurrent acute myocardial infarctions (0.55 [0.36-0.85]; P=.007), and a nonsignificant 28% lower all-cause mortality (0.72 [0.40-1.30]; P=.28) than the reference group after adjustment for other outcome-affecting variables. In the CBT group there was a strong dose-response effect between intervention group attendance and outcome. During the first 2 years of follow-up, there were no significant group differences in traditional risk factors. Conclusions: A CBT intervention program decreases the risk of recurrent CVD and recurrent acute myocardial infarction. This may have implications for secondary preventive programs in patients with coronary heart disease.

  • 37.
    Gulliksson, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Burell, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Lundin, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Internal Medicine.
    Toss, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Internal Medicine.
    Svärdsudd, Kurt F
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    A randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral therapy versus standard treatment on recurrent cardiovascular events in coronary heart diseaseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 38. Hagmar, L.
    et al.
    Wallin, E.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jönsson, B.
    Bergman, Å.
    Rylander, L.
    Intra-individual variations and time trends 1991-2001 in human serum levels of PCB, DDE and hexachlorobenzene2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 64, no 9, p. 1507-1513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: An important question is whether human serum levels of persistent organic pollutants has continued to decrease during the last decades. The aim of this study was to assess intra-individual variations over time of serum levels of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), considering the impact of a number of possible determinants.

    Methods: Blood samples were drawn for the same 39 subjects in 1991 and 2001. Interviews were made at both occasions. Lipid adjusted serum concentrations of CB-153, p,p'-DDE and HCB were determined in both sets of blood samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The fatty acid composition of the serum lipids was analyzed by means of gas-liquid chromatography.

    Result: The CB-153 concentrations in serum had averagely decreased with 34% in between 1991 and 2001 (p < 0.001). Of individual determinants only increasing BMI was associated with decreasing CB-153 levels (beta = -1.0, 95% CI -1.8, -0.2, p = 0.01), explaining 13% of the variation. The average decrease of p,p'-DDE was 55%, and could only weakly be associated with a relative increase of BMI (beta = - 1.0, 95% CI-2.3, 0.2, p=0.09), explaining only 5% of the variation. The average decrease of HCB was 53%, and was associated only with high fish consumption in 1991, explaining 12% of the variation.

    Conclusions: The results support a continuing decrease in human body burdens of PCBs, DDE and HCB during the 1990s. The explanatory factors relative change of BMI and fish consumption explained only a minor part of the time-related variations in serum levels.

  • 39.
    Helmersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Active smoking and a history of smoking are associated with enhanced prostaglandin F(2alpha), interleukin-6 and F(2)-isoprostane formation in elderly men2005In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 181, no 1, p. 201-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The underlying mechanisms by which smoking induces cardiovascular diseases are largely unknown. The effect of smoking status on the cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated inflammatory indicator prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) has never been studied. Associations of cytokines and antioxidants and smoking status, have shown conflicting results. Urinary 15-keto-dihydro-PGF(2alpha) (a major metabolite of PGF(2alpha)), serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), serum amyloid protein A (SAA), urinary 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) (an F(2)-isoprostane, indicator of oxidative stress), and serum alpha-tocopherol were quantified in a population-based sample (n = 642) of 77-year old men without diabetes. Fifty-five men were current smokers and 391 former smokers. Inflammatory indicators were increased in current smokers (15-keto-dihydro-PGF(2alpha), P < 0.001; IL-6, P = 0.01) than non-smokers. 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) was increased (P < 0.01) and alpha-tocopherol reduced (P < 0.001) in current smokers. Further, former smokers had increased formation of 15-keto-dihydro-PGF(2alpha), IL-6 and 8-iso-PGF(2alpha) compared non-smokers. This is the first study to show that smokers have increased PGF(2alpha) formation, thus enhanced COX-mediated inflammation, in addition to elevated levels of cytokines and isoprostanes. Subclinical COX- and cytokine-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress are ongoing processes not only in active smokers but also in former smokers which may contribute to the accelerated atherosclerosis associated with smoking.

  • 40.
    Helmersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Association of type 2 diabetes with cyclooxygenase-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress in an elderly population2004In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 109, no 14, p. 1729-1734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Involvement of cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated inflammation in type 2 diabetes has not been studied, and the association between cytokine-mediated inflammation and diabetes is not fully clarified.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: 15-Keto-dihydro-prostaglandin F2alpha (a metabolite of prostaglandin F2alpha and an indicator of COX-mediated inflammation), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid protein A (SAA), 8-iso-PGF2alpha (a nonenzymatic, free radical product of arachidonic acid and an indicator of oxidative stress), and alpha-tocopherol were measured in a population-based sample of 77-year-old men (n=765), in which 112 men had type 2 diabetes. The inflammatory indicators were increased in men with diabetes (urinary 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2alpha, P<0.001, CRP and SAA, P<0.05). However, when adjusted for body mass index, waist circumference, or fasting insulin, no association was found between diabetes and CRP or SAA. The oxidative stress indicator 8-iso-PGF2alpha in urine was increased (P<0.01) in men with diabetes. Patients who were newly diagnosed with diabetes (<7 years since diagnosis) had increased urinary 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2alpha and decreased alpha-tocopherol, but 8-iso-PGF2alpha was unaltered.

    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that type 2 diabetes in elderly men is related to COX-mediated inflammation, reflected by enhanced prostaglandin formation. The high levels of cytokine-mediated acute-phase proteins observed in men with diabetes appear to be related to obesity and increased fasting insulin. The results further suggest that the appearance of chronic inflammation is an early process in the pathogenesis of diabetes, whereas oxidative injury may be a later process, possibly related to inflammation.

  • 41.
    Helmersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Cyclooxygenase-mediated prostaglandin F2alpha is decreased in an elderly population treated with low-dose aspirin2005In: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, ISSN 0952-3278, E-ISSN 1532-2823, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 227-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-dose aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is used as prophylaxis against cardiovascular diseases. The effect of aspirin on inflammation and oxidative stress, processes known to be involved in cardiovascular diseases, are not fully known. Cyclooxygenase(COX)-mediated inflammatory indicator prostaglandin F2alpha(PGF2alpha (15-keto-dihydro-PGF2alpha), cytokine-mediated inflammatory indicators (interleukin-6, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A protein), and oxidative stress indicators (8-iso-PGF2alpha, tocopherols) were quantified in men with daily 75 mg of aspirin (n = 175) and control men (n = 464), all of age 77, in a cross-sectional study. Men treated with aspirin had decreased levels of urinary 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2alpha than controls (P < 0.01), independent of possible cardiovascular risk factors. Aspirin-treated men had increased levels of alpha-tocopherol than controls (P<0.05). This is the first study to indicate that low-dose aspirin treatment is associated with decreased levels of PGF2alpha. This observation suggests a possible COX-mediated anti-inflammatory effect of low-dose aspirin, which should be further confirmed by intervention studies.

  • 42.
    Helmersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Alfthan, Georg
    Basu, Samar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition Research.
    Serum selenium predicts levels of F2-isoprostanes and prostaglandin F2alpha in a 27 year follow-up study of Swedish men2005In: Free radical research, ISSN 1071-5762, E-ISSN 1029-2470, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 763-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low concentrations of selenium (Se) predict mortality and cardiovascular diseases in some populations. The effect of Se on in vivo indicators of oxidative stress and inflammation, two important features of atherosclerosis, in human populations is largely unexplored. This study investigated the longitudinal association between serum selenium (s-Se) and a golden standard indicator of oxidative stress in vivo (8-iso-prostaglandin F2, a major F2-isoprostane), an indicator of cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated inflammation (prostaglandin F2), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and serum amyloid A protein (SAA) in a follow-up study of 27 years. The s-Se was measured in 615 Swedish men at 50 years of age in a health investigation. The status of oxidative stress and inflammation was evaluated in a re-investigation 27 years later by quantification of urinary 8-iso-PGF2 and 15-keto-dihydro- PGF2 (a major metabolite of PGF2) and serum hsCRP, SAA and IL-6. Men in the highest quartile of s-Se at age 50 had decreased levels of 8-iso-PGF2 compared to all lower quartiles   and decreased levels of PGF2 compared to all lower quartiles   at follow-up. These associations were independent of BMI, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, smoking, -tocopherol and β-carotene at baseline. The s-Se was not associated with hsCRP, SAA or IL-6 at follow-up. In conclusion, high concentrations of s-Se predict reduced levels of oxidative stress and subclinical COX-mediated (but not cytokine-mediated) inflammation in a male population. The associations between Se, oxidative stress and inflammation, respectively, might be related to the proposed cardiovascular protective property of Se.

  • 43. Irving, Gerd Faxén
    et al.
    Freund-Levi, Yvonne
    Eriksdotter-Jönhagen, Maria
    Basun, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Brismar, Kerstin
    Hjorth, Erik
    Palmblad, Jan
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Vedin, Inger
    Wahlund, Lars-Olof
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation effects on weight and appetite in patients with Alzheimer's disease: the omega-3 Alzheimer's disease study2009In: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society, ISSN 0002-8614, E-ISSN 1532-5415, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 11-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of omega (Omega)-3 fatty acid (FA) supplements on weight and appetite in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) in relation to inflammatory biomarkers and apolipoprotein E epsilon4 (APOEepsilon4). DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Specialist memory clinics in the Stockholm catchment area. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred four patients (aged 73+/-9, 52% women) with mild to moderate AD. INTERVENTION: Patients with AD received 1.7 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 0.6 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (Omega-3/Omega-3 group; n=89, aged 73+/-9, 57% women) or placebo 0.6 g of linoleic acid per day (placebo/Omega-3 group; n=85, aged 73+/-9, 46% women) for 6 months. After 6 months, all patients received DHA and EPA for another 6 months. MEASUREMENTS: Anthropometry, biochemical nutritional and inflammatory markers, and appetite assessed by caregiver. RESULTS: Mean weight and body mass index (kg/m(2)) at baseline were 70.0+/-11.8 kg and 24.3+/-3.0 kg/m(2), respectively. At 6- and 12-month follow-up, weight had increased 0.7+/-2.5 kg (P=.02) and 1.4+/-2.9 kg (P<.001) in the Omega-3/Omega-3 group. In the placebo group, weight was unchanged at 6 months but had increased (P=.01) at 12 months follow-up after Omega-3 supplementation was initiated. Appetite improved in the Omega-3/Omega-3 group over the treatment period (P=.01). In logistic regression analyses, not carrying the APOEepsilon4 allele and high plasma DHA concentrations were independently related to weight gain in the combined group of patients at 6 months follow-up. CONCLUSION: A DHA-enriched Omega-3 FA supplement may positively affect weight and appetite in patients with mild to moderate AD. Not carrying the APOEepsilon4 allele and high DHA were independently associated with weight gain.

  • 44. Ishihara, O
    et al.
    Hayashi, M
    Osawa, H
    Kobayashi, K
    Takeda, S
    Vessby, B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Basu, S
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Isoprostanes, prostaglandins and tocopherols in pre-eclampsia, normal pregnancy and non-pregnancy.2004In: Free Radic Res, ISSN 1071-5762, Vol. 38, no 9, p. 913-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Järvi, Anette
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Karlström, Brita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Becker, Wulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Natl Food Agcy, Risk Benefit Assessment Dept, POB 622, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake2016In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 115, no 10, p. 1760-1768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m(2)) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which >= 500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2 alpha) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum a-and beta-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term.

  • 46. Katan, M B
    et al.
    Boekschoten, M V
    Connor, W E
    Mensink, R P
    Seidell, J
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Willett, W
    Which are the greatest recent discoveries and the greatest future challenges in nutrition?2009In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 2-10Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Nutrition science aims to create new knowledge, but scientists rarely sit back to reflect on what nutrition research has achieved in recent decades. METHODS: We report the outcome of a 1-day symposium at which the audience was asked to vote on the greatest discoveries in nutrition since 1976 and on the greatest challenges for the coming 30 years. Most of the 128 participants were Dutch scientists working in nutrition or related biomedical and public health fields. Candidate discoveries and challenges were nominated by five invited speakers and by members of the audience. Ballot forms were then prepared on which participants selected one discovery and one challenge. RESULTS: A total of 15 discoveries and 14 challenges were nominated. The audience elected Folic acid prevents birth defects as the greatest discovery in nutrition science since 1976. Controlling obesity and insulin resistance through activity and diet was elected as the greatest challenge for the coming 30 years. This selection was probably biased by the interests and knowledge of the speakers and the audience. For the present review, we therefore added 12 discoveries from the period 1976 to 2006 that we judged worthy of consideration, but that had not been nominated at the meeting. CONCLUSIONS: The meeting did not represent an objective selection process, but it did demonstrate that the past 30 years have yielded major new discoveries in nutrition and health.

  • 47. Krachler, Benno
    et al.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Eriksson, Jan W
    Hallmans, Göran
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Fatty acid profile of the erythrocyte membrane preceding development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus2008In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 18, no 7, p. 503-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: The respective roles of dietary fatty acids in the pathogenesis of diabetes are as yet unclear. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) composition may provide an estimate of dietary fatty acid intake. This study investigates the relation between EMFA composition and development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods and results: In a nested case-referent design we studied 159 individuals tested as non-diabetic at baseline who after a mean observation time of 5.4 +/- 2.6 years were diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes mellitus and 291 sex- and age-matched referents. Higher proportions of pentadecanoic acid (15: 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0) were associated with a tower risk of diabetes. In accordance with earlier findings, higher proportions of palmitoleic (16:1 n-7), dihomo-gamma-linotenic (20:3 n-6) and adrenic (22:4 n-6) acids were associated with increased risk, whereas linoleic (18:2 n-6) and clupanodonic (22:5 n-3) acids were inversely associated with diabetes. After adjustment for BMI, HbA1c, alcohol intake, smoking and physical activity the only significant predictors were 15:0 and 17:0 as protective factors and 22:4 n6 as risk factor.Conclusion: In accordance with previous studies, our results indicate that EMFA-patterns predict development of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The inverse association with two saturated fatty acids, previously shown to reflect consumption of dairy products, is a new finding.

  • 48. Landberg, Rikard
    et al.
    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf
    Andersson, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Aman, Per
    Alkylresorcinols as biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake: plasma concentration and intake estimated from dietary records.2008In: Am J Clin Nutr, ISSN 0002-9165, Vol. 87, no 4, p. 832-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49. Landberg, Rikard
    et al.
    Linko, Anna-Maria
    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Adlercreutz, Herman
    Aman, Per
    Human plasma kinetics and relative bioavailability of alkylresorcinols after intake of rye bran.2006In: J Nutr, ISSN 0022-3166, Vol. 136, no 11, p. 2760-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. Levi, Freund Y.
    et al.
    Vedin, I
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Basun, H.
    Irving, Faxen G.
    Jonhagen, Eriksdotter M.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Wahlund, L. O.
    Salem, N., Jr.
    Palmblad, J.
    Effects of a DHA rich omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for Alzheimer disease patients on fatty acid composition in cerebrospinal fluid, disease biomarkers and cognition: The OmegAD study2012In: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, ISSN 0895-8696, E-ISSN 1559-1166, Vol. 48, no S1, p. S36-S36Article in journal (Other academic)
123 1 - 50 of 121
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