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  • 1.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Berga, Mercè
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    The spatial structure of bacterial communities is influenced by historical environmental conditions2014In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 95, no 5, p. 1134-1140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial structure of ecological communities, including that of bacteria, is often influenced by species sorting by contemporary environmental conditions. Moreover, historical processes, i.e., ecological and evolutionary events that have occurred at some point in the past, such as dispersal limitation, drift, priority effects, or selection by past environmental conditions, can be important, but are generally investigated much less. Here, we conducted a field study using 16 rock pools, where we specifically compared the importance of past vs. contemporary environmental conditions for bacterial community structure by correlating present differences in bacterial community composition among pools to environmental conditions measured on the same day, as well as to those measured 2, 4, 6, and 8 d earlier. The results prove that selection by past environmental conditions exists, since we were able to show that bacterial communities are, to a greater extent, an imprint of past compared to contemporary environmental conditions. We suggest that this is the result of a combination of different mechanisms, including priority effects that cause rapid adaptation to new environmental conditions of taxa that have been initially selected by past environmental conditions, and slower rates of turnover in community composition compared to environmental conditions.

  • 2. Beisner, Beatrix E.
    et al.
    Peres-Neto, Pedro R.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Barnett, Alain
    Longhi, Maria Lorena
    The role of environmental and spatial processes in structuring lake communities from bacteria to fish2006In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 87, no 12, p. 2985-2991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed the relative roles of local environmental conditions and dispersal on community structure in a landscape of lakes for the major trophic groups. We use taxonomic presence–absence and abundance data for bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fish from 18 lakes in southern Quebec, Canada. The question of interest was whether communities composed of organisms with more limited dispersal abilities, because of size and life history (zooplankton and fish) would show a different effect of lake distribution than communities composed of good dispersers (bacteria and phytoplankton). We examine the variation in structure attributable to local environmental (i.e., lake chemical and physical variables) vs. dispersal predictors (i.e., overland and watercourse distances between lakes) using variation partitioning techniques. Overall, we show that less motile species (crustacean zooplankton and fish) are better predicted by spatial factors than by local environmental ones. Furthermore, we show that for zooplankton abundances, both overland and watercourse dispersal pathways are equally strong, though they may select for different components of the community, while for fish, only watercourses are relevant dispersal pathways. These results suggest that crustacean zooplankton and fish are more constrained by dispersal and therefore more likely to operate as a metacommunity than are bacteria and phytoplankton within this studied landscape.

  • 3.
    Berga, Mercè
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Östman, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Combined effects of zooplankton grazing and dispersal on the diversity and assembly mechanisms of bacterial metacommunities2015In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 2275-2287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of dispersal and the presence of predators on diversity, assembly and functioning of bacterial communities are well studied in isolation. In reality, however, dispersal and trophic interactions act simultaneously and can therefore have combined effects, which are poorly investigated. We performed an experiment with aquatic metacommunities consisting of three environmentally different patches and manipulated dispersal rates among them as well as the presence or absence of the keystone species Daphnia magnaDaphnia magnareduced both local and regional diversity, whereas dispersal increased local diversity but decreased beta-diversity having no net effect on regional diversity. Dispersal modified the assembly mechanisms of bacterial communities by increasing the degree of determinism. Additionally, the combination of the D. magna and dispersal increased the importance of deterministic processes, presumably because predator-tolerant taxa were spread in the metacommunity via dispersal. Moreover, the presence of D. magna affected community composition, increased community respiration rates but did not affect bacterial production or abundance, whereas dispersal slightly increased bacterial production. In conclusion, our study suggests that predation by a keystone species such as D. magna and dispersal additively influence bacterial diversity, assembly processes and ecosystem functioning.

  • 4. Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Bigler, Christian
    Stensdotter, Ulrika
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Composition and dispersal of riverine and lake phytoplankton communities in connected systems with different hydraulic retention times2008In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 53, no 12, p. 2520-2529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Lake phytoplankton community structure may be influenced by both internal factors (predation, competition, resource constraints) and external ones, such as dispersal of materials and cells between connected habitats. However, little is known about the importance of cell dispersal for phytoplankton community structure in lakes.

    2. We investigated the abundance and dispersal of phytoplankton cells between connected rivers and lakes, and analysed whether similarities in phytoplankton community composition between rivers and lakes were primarily related to cell import rates or to characteristics of the local habitat. We focused on lakes along a gradient of theoretical water retention times (TWRT). Two data sets from Swedish lakes were used; a seasonal study of two connected boreal forest lakes, differing in TWRT, and a multi-lake study of 13 lakes with a continuous range of TWRTs.

    3. Phytoplankton cells were transported and dispersed in all investigated rivers. In the seasonal study, cell import rates and similarities in phytoplankton community composition between the lake and its inlet(s) were much higher in the lake with a shorter TWRT. Phytoplankton community structure in different habitats was associated with total organic carbon (TOC). This indicates that local habitat characteristics may be important in determining lake phytoplankton community composition, even in the presence of substantial cell import.

    4. The multi-lake study also showed a negative relationship between TWRT and similarities in phytoplankton community composition between inlets and lakes. Moreover, similarity in community structure was related to both cell import rates from inlet to lake and differences in habitat characteristics between inlet and lake. However, the variable most strongly correlated with community structure was TOC, indicating that species sorting rather than a mass effect was the most important mechanism underlying the correlation between community structure and retention time.

    5. Overall, our data suggest that local habitat characteristics may play a key role in determining community similarity in this set of lakes covering a large range of habitat connectedness. Due to the strong co-variations between cell dispersal and TOC, it was hard to unequivocally disentangle the different mechanisms; hence, there is a need for further studies of the role of dispersal for phytoplankton community structures

  • 5. Besemer, Katharina
    et al.
    Peter, Hannes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Logue, Jürg B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Battin, Tom J.
    Unraveling assembly of stream biofilm communities2012In: The ISME Journal: multidisciplinary journal of microbial ecology, ISSN 1751-7362, Vol. 6, no 8, p. 1459-1468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial biofilms assemble from cells that attach to a surface, where they develop into matrix-enclosed communities. Mechanistic insights into community assembly are crucial to better understand the functioning of natural biofilms, which drive key ecosystem processes in numerous aquatic habitats. We studied the role of the suspended microbial community as the source of the biofilm community in three streams using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and the 16S rRNA gene (as a measure for the active and the bulk community, respectively). Diversity was consistently lower in the biofilm communities than in the suspended stream water communities. We propose that the higher diversity in the suspended communities is supported by continuous inflow from various sources within the catchment. Community composition clearly differed between biofilms and suspended communities, whereas biofilm communities were similar in all three streams. This suggests that biofilm assembly did not simply reflect differences in the source communities, but that certain microbial groups from the source community proliferate in the biofilm. We compared the biofilm communities with random samples of the respective community suspended in the stream water. This analysis confirmed that stochastic dispersal from the source community was unlikely to shape the observed community composition of the biofilms, in support of species sorting as a major biofilm assembly mechanism. Bulk and active populations generated comparable patterns of community composition in the biofilms and the suspended communities, which suggests similar assembly controls on these populations.

  • 6.
    Comte, Jerome
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Lindström, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Eiler, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Can marine bacteria be recruited from freshwater sources and the air?2014In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 2423-2430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is now clear evidence that microorganisms present biogeographic patterns, yet the processes that create and maintain them are still not well understood. In particular, the contribution of dispersal and its exact impact on local community composition is still unclear. For example, dispersing cells may not thrive in recipient environments, but may still remain part of the local species pool. Here, we experimentally tested if marine bacteria can be retrieved from freshwater communities (pelagic and sediment) and the atmosphere by exposing bacteria from three lakes, that differ in their proximity to the Norwegian Sea, to marine conditions. We found that the percentage of freshwater taxa decreased with increasing salinities, whereas marine taxa increased along the same gradient. Our results further showed that this increase was stronger for lake and sediment compared with air communities. Further, significant increases in the average niche breadth of taxa were found for all sources, and in particular lake water and sediment communities, at higher salinities. Our results therefore suggests that marine taxa can readily grow from freshwater sources, but that the response was likely driven by the growth of habitat generalists that are typically found in marine systems. Finally, there was a greater proportion of marine taxa found in communities originating from the lake closest to the Norwegian Sea. In summary, this study shows that the interplay between bacterial dispersal limitation and dispersal from internal and external sources may have an important role for community recovery in response to environmental change.

  • 7.
    Comte, Jérôme
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Berga, Mercè
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Biological Oceanography, Leibniz-Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Germany.
    Severin, Ina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Logue, Jürg Brendan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Contribution of different bacterial dispersal sources to lakes: Population and community effects in different seasons2017In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 2391-2404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diversity and composition of lake bacterial communities are driven by the interplay between local contemporary environmental conditions and dispersal of cells from the surroundings, i.e. the metacommunity. Still, a conceptual understanding ofthe relative importance of the two types of factors is lacking. For instance, it is unknown which sources ofdispersal are most important and under which circumstances. Here, we investigated the seasonal variation in the importance of dispersal from different sources (mixing, precipitation, surface runoff and sediment resuspension) for lake bacterioplankton community and population dynamics. For that purpose, two small forest lakes and their dispersal sources were sampled over a period of 10 months.The influence of dispersal on communities and populations was determined by 454 sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and Source Tracker analysis. On the community level direct effects of dispersal were questionable from all sources. Instead we found that the community of the preceding sampling occasion, representing growth of resident bacteria, was of great importance. On the population level, however, dispersal of individual taxa from the inlet could be occasionally important even under low water flow. The effect of sediment resuspension and precipitation appeared small.

  • 8.
    Comte, Jérôme
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Environm & Climate Change Canada, Canada Ctr Inland Waters, Watershed Hydrol & Ecol Res Div, Water Sci & Technol, Burlington, ON L7S 1A1, Canada..
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Berga, Mercè
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Leibniz Inst Balt Sea Res, Biol Oceanog, Seestr 15, D-18119 Rostock, Germany..
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Contribution of different dispersal sources to the metabolic response of lake bacterioplankton following a salinity change2017In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 251-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersal can modify how bacterial community composition (BCC) changes in response to environmental perturbations, yet knowledge about the functional consequences of dispersal is limited. Here we hypothesize that changes in bacterial community production in response to a salinity disturbance depend on the possibility to recruit cells from different dispersal sources. To investigate this, we conducted an in situ mesocosm experiment where bacterial communities of an oligotrophic lake were exposed to different salinities (0, 18, 36 psu) for two weeks and subjected to dispersal of cells originating from sediments, air (mesocosms open to air deposition), both or none. BCC was determined using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and bacterial production was measured by 3H leucine uptake. Bacterial production differed significantly among salinity treatments and dispersal treatments, being highest at high salinity. These changes were associated with changes in BCC and it was found that the identity of the main functional contributors differed at different salinities. Our results further showed that after a salinity perturbation, the response of bacterial communities depended on the recruitment of taxa, including marine representatives (e.g. Alphaproteobacteria Loktanella, Erythrobacter and the Gammaproteobacterium Rheiheimera) from dispersal sources, in which atmospheric deposition appeared to play a major role.

  • 9.
    Eiler, Alexander
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Drakare, S.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Pernthaler, J.
    Peura, S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Rofner, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Simek, K.
    Yang, Yang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics.
    Znachor, P.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Unveiling Distribution Patterns of Freshwater Phytoplankton by a Next Generation Sequencing Based Approach2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 1, p. e53516-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recognition and discrimination of phytoplankton species is one of the foundations of freshwater biodiversity research and environmental monitoring. This step is frequently a bottleneck in the analytical chain from sampling to data analysis and subsequent environmental status evaluation. Here we present phytoplankton diversity data from 49 lakes including three seasonal surveys assessed by next generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S ribosomal RNA chloroplast and cyanobacterial gene amplicons and also compare part of these datasets with identification based on morphology. Direct comparison of NGS to microscopic data from three time-series showed that NGS was able to capture the seasonality in phytoplankton succession as observed by microscopy. Still, the PCR-based approach was only semi-quantitative, and detailed NGS and microscopy taxa lists had only low taxonomic correspondence. This is probably due to, both, methodological constraints and current discrepancies in taxonomic frameworks. Discrepancies included Euglenophyta and Heterokonta that were scarce in the NGS but frequently detected by microscopy and Cyanobacteria that were in general more abundant and classified with high resolution by NGS. A deep-branching taxonomically unclassified cluster was frequently detected by NGS but could not be linked to any group identified by microscopy. NGS derived phytoplankton composition differed significantly among lakes with different trophic status, showing that our approach can resolve phytoplankton communities at a level relevant for ecosystem management. The high reproducibility and potential for standardization and parallelization makes our NGS approach an excellent candidate for simultaneous monitoring of prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton in inland waters.

  • 10.
    Graham, Emily B.
    et al.
    Univ Colorado, Inst Arctic & Alpine Res, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Pacific NW Natl Lab, Div Biol Sci, Richland, WA 99352 USA..
    Knelman, Joseph E.
    Univ Colorado, Inst Arctic & Alpine Res, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Joint Genome Inst, US Dept Energy, Walnut Creek, CA USA..
    Schindlbacher, Andreas
    Bundesforsch & Ausblldungszentrum VVald, Fed Res & Tr 3Thing Ctr Forests, Dept Forest Ecol, Vienna, Austria..
    Siciliano, Steven
    Univ Saskatchewan, Dept Soil Sci, Saskatoon, SK, Canada..
    Breulmann, Marc
    Helmholtz Ctr Environm Res, Ctr Environm Biotechnol, Leipzig, Germany..
    Yannarell, Anthony
    Univ Illinois, Dept Nat Resources & Environm Sci, Urbana, IL USA..
    Bemans, J. M.
    Univ Calif Merced, Life & Environm Sci & Sierra Nevada Res Inst, Merced, CA USA..
    Abell, Guy
    Flinders Univ S Australia, Sch Med, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia..
    Philippot, Laurent
    Inst Natl Rech Agron Agroecol, Dijon, France..
    Prosser, James
    Univ Aberdeen, Inst Biol & Environm Sci, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Foulquier, Arnaud
    UR MALY, Irstea, Ctr Lyon Villeurbanne, Villeurbanne, France..
    Yuste, Jorge C.
    CSIC, Museo Nacl Ciencias Nat, Dept Biogeog & Global Change, Madrid, Spain..
    Glanville, Helen C.
    Bangor Univ, Environm Ctr Wales, Gwynedd, England..
    Jones, Davey L.
    Bangor Univ, Environm Ctr Wales, Gwynedd, England..
    Angel, Foey
    Univ Vienna, Dept Microbiol & Ecosyst Sci, Vienna, Austria..
    Salminen, Janne
    Hame Univ Appl Sci, Hameenlinna, Finland..
    Newton, Ryan J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Sch Freshwater Sci, Milwaukee, WI 53201 USA..
    Buergmann, Helmut
    Eawag Swiss Fed Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, Dept Surface Waters, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland..
    Ingram, Lachlan J.
    Univ Sydney, Ctr Carbon Water & Food, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Hamer, Ute
    Univ Munster, Inst Landscape Ecol, D-48149 Munster, Germany..
    Siljanen, Henri M. P.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Dept Environm & Biol Sci, Kuopio, Finland..
    Peltoniemi, Krista
    Nat Resources Inst, Vantaa, Finland..
    Potthast, Karin
    Tech Univ Dresden, Inst Soil Sci & Site Ecol, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Baneras, Lluis
    Univ Girona, Fac Ciencies, Inst Aquat Ecol, Girona, Spain..
    Hartmann, Martin
    Inst Sustainabil Sci Agroscope, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Banerjee, Samiran
    CSIRO Agr Flagship, Crace, ACT, Australia..
    Yu, Ri-Qing
    Univ Texas Tyler, Dept Biol, Tyler, TX 75799 USA..
    Nogaro, Geraldine
    EDF R&D, Alat Hydraul & Environm Lab, Chatou, France..
    Richter, Andreas
    Univ Vienna, Dept Microbiol & Ecosyst Sci, Vienna, Austria..
    Koranda, Marianne
    Univ Vienna, Dept Microbiol & Ecosyst Sci, Div Terr Ecosyst Res, Vienna, Austria..
    Castle, Sarah C.
    Univ Montana, Dept Ecosyst & Conservat Sci, Missoula, MT 59812 USA..
    Goberna, Marta
    CSIC, Ctr Invest & Docencia Econ, Valencia, Spain..
    Song, Bongkeun
    Virginia Inst Marine Sci, Dept Biol Sci, Gloucester Point, VA USA..
    Chatterjee, Amitava
    N Dakota State Univ, AES Sch Nat Resources Sci, Fargo, ND 58105 USA..
    Nunes, Olga C.
    Lopes, Ana R.
    Univ Porto, Fac Engn, Lab Proc Engn Environm Biotechnol & Energy, LEPABE, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Cao, Yiping
    Southern Calif Coastal Water Res Project Author, Costa Mesa, CA USA..
    Kaisermann, Aurore
    INRA Bordeaux, Interact Sol Plante Atmosphere, UMR, Villenave Dornon, France..
    Hallin, Sara
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Mycol & Plant Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Strickland, Michael S.
    State Univ, Virginia Polytech Inst, Dept Biol Sci, Blacksburg, VA USA..
    Garcia-Pausas, Jordi
    Ctr Tecnol Forestal Catalunya, Solsona, Spain..
    Barba, Josep
    Ctr Recerca Ecol & Aplicac Forestals, Barcelona, Spain..
    Kang, Hojeong
    Yonsei Univ, Sch Civil & Environm Engn, Seoul 120749, South Korea..
    Isobe, Kazuo
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Appl Biol Chem, Tokyo, Japan..
    Papaspyrou, Sokratis
    Univ Cadiz, Dept Biomed Biotechnol & Publ Hlth, Puerto Real, Spain..
    Pastorelli, Roberta
    Res Ctr Agrobiol & Pedol, Florence, Italy..
    Lagomarsino, Alessandra
    Res Ctr Agrobiol & Pedol, Florence, Italy..
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Basiliko, Nathan
    Laurentian Univ, Vale Living Lakes Ctr, Sudbury, ON P3E 2C6, Canada.;Laurentian Univ, Dept Biol, Sudbury, ON P3E 2C6, Canada..
    Nemergut, Diana R.
    Univ Colorado, Inst Arctic & Alpine Res, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.;Duke Univ, Dept Biol, Durham, NC USA..
    Microbes as Engines of Ecosystem Function: When Does Community Structure Enhance Predictions of Ecosystem Processes?2016In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 7, article id 214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms are vital in mediating the earth's biogeochemical cycles; yet, despite our rapidly increasing ability to explore complex environmental microbial communities, the relationship between microbial community structure and ecosystem processes remains poorly understood. Here, we address a fundamental and unanswered question in microbial ecology: 'When do we need to understand microbial community structure to accurately predict function?' We present a statistical analysis investigating the value of environmental data and microbial community structure independently and in combination for explaining rates of carbon and nitrogen cycling processes within 82 global datasets. Environmental variables were the strongest predictors of process rates but left 44% of variation unexplained on average, suggesting the potential for microbial data to increase model accuracy. Although only 29% of our datasets were significantly improved by adding information on microbial community structure, we observed improvement in models of processes mediated by narrow phylogenetic guilds via functional gene data, and conversely, improvement in models of facultative microbial processes via community diversity metrics. Our results also suggest that microbial diversity can strengthen predictions of respiration rates beyond microbial biomass parameters, as 53% of models were improved by incorporating both sets of predictors compared to 35% by microbial biomass alone. Our analysis represents the first comprehensive analysis of research examining links between microbial community structure and ecosystem function. Taken together, our results indicate that a greater understanding of microbial communities informed by ecological principles may enhance our ability to predict ecosystem process rates relative to assessments based on environmental variables and microbial physiology.

  • 11. Hessen, Dag O.
    et al.
    Blomqvist, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Dahl-Hansen, Geir
    Drakare, Stina
    Limnologi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Limnologi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Production and food web interactions of Arctic freshwater plankton and responses to increased DOC2004In: Archiv für Hydrobiologie, ISSN 0003-9136, Vol. 159, no 3, p. 289-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A gradient of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was added to enclosures in a high Arctic lake (Svalbard, 79 N). The aim was to simulate the effect of increased concentrations of DOC that will be a predicted effect of increased temperature and precipitation. The study aimed to provide information on the overall effects of such increased levels of DOC on the pelagic food-web, as well as the increased attenuation of UV-radiation (UV-R) caused by increased DOC. The biomass development of phytoplankton, heterotrophic bacteria and ciliates from 15. July (shortly after ice-off) to 8. August revealed a consistent pattern across all enclosures. Initial phytoplankton biomass decreased from maxima around 600g Cl-1 towards 50g Cl-1 by the end of July. Similarly, ciliate biomass decreased from ~100 to 5g Cl-1, while heterotrophic bacteria decreased from initially 280 g Cl-1 to biomasses near 100 g Cl-1. Over the same period, zooplankton biomass (almost a monoculture of Daphnia tenebrosa) increased from <40 to some 170g Cl-1. These patterns were reflected also in decreasing absolute production of bacteria and phytoplankton, while production:biomass ratio remained fairly constant. In general, the study demonstrated a very dynamic system over the brief ice-free season, where Daphnia grazing had a strong impact on the unicellular biota. Additions of DOC initially stimulated planktonic production, yet this effect was soon overruled by Daphnia grazing. This stimulating effect could be a result both of increased UV-R attenuation and some growth stimulating effect. Since no corresponding stimulating effect was observed in the bag shielded with Mylar filter to screen off UV-B, the latter cause seems most likely.

  • 12. Hillebrand, Helmut
    et al.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Lebret, Karen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Östman, Örjan
    Striebel, Maren
    Decomposing multiple dimensions of stability in global change experiments2018In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 21-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological stability is the central framework to understand an ecosystem's ability to absorb or recover from environmental change. Recent modelling and conceptual work suggests that stability is a multidimensional construct comprising different response aspects. Using two freshwater mesocosm experiments as case studies, we show how the response to single perturbations can be decomposed in different stability aspects (resistance, resilience, recovery, temporal stability) for both ecosystem functions and community composition. We find that extended community recovery is tightly connected to a nearly complete recovery of the function (biomass production), whereas systems with incomplete recovery of the species composition ranged widely in their biomass compared to controls. Moreover, recovery was most complete when either resistance or resilience was high, the latter associated with low temporal stability around the recovery trend. In summary, no single aspect of stability was sufficient to reflect the overall stability of the system.

  • 13. Jezberova, Jitka
    et al.
    Jezbera, Jan
    Brandt, Ulrike
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Hahn, Martin W.
    Ubiquity of Polynucleobacter necessarius ssp asymbioticus in lentic freshwater habitats of a heterogenous 2000 km2 area2010In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 658-669Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a survey on the distribution and habitat range of Polynucleobacter necessarius ssp. asymbioticus (PnecC), a numerically and functionally important taxon in the plankton of freshwater systems. We systematically sampled stagnant freshwater habitats in a heterogeneous 2000 km2 area, together with ecologically different habitats outside this area. In total, 137 lakes, ponds and puddles were investigated, which represent an enormous diversity of habitats differing, e.g. in depth (< 10 cm - 171 m) and pH (3.9-8.5). PnecC bacteria were detected by cultivation-independent methods in all investigated habitats, and their presence was confirmed by cultivation of strains from selected habitats representing the whole studied ecological range. The determined relative abundance of the subspecies ranged from values close to the detection limit of FISH (0.2%) to 67% (average 14.5%), and the highest observed absolute abundance was 5.3 x 106 cells ml-1. Statistical analyses revealed that the abundance of PnecC bacteria was partially controlled by factors linked to concentrations of humic substances, which support the hypothesis that these bacteria utilize photodegradation products of humic substances. Based on the revealed statistical relationships, an average relative abundance of this subspecies of 20% in global freshwater habitats was extrapolated. Our study provides important implications for the current debate on ubiquity and biogeography in microorganisms.

  • 14. Kritzberg, Emma S.
    et al.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Limnologi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Limnologi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Influence of dissolved organic matter source on lake bacterioplankton community structure and function: implications for seasonal dynamics of community structure.2006In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, ISSN 0168-6496, E-ISSN 1574-6941, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 406-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that autochthonous (internally produced) organic carbon and allochthonous (externally produced) organic carbon are utilized by phylogenetically different bacterioplankton. We examined the relationship between the source of organic matter and the structure and function of lake bacterial communities. Differences and seasonal changes in bacterial community composition in two lakes differing in their source of organic matter were followed in relation to environmental variables. We also performed batch culture experiments with amendments of various organic substrates, namely fulvic acids, leachates from algae, and birch and maple leaves. Differences in bacterial community composition between the lakes, analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, correlated with variables related to the relative loading of autochthonous and allochthonous carbon (water colour, dissolved organic carbon, nutrients, and pH). Seasonal changes correlated with temperature, chlorophyll and dissolved organic carbon in both lakes. The substrate amendments led to differences in both structure and function, i.e. production, respiration and growth yield, of the bacterial community. In conclusion, our results suggest that the source of organic matter influences community composition both within and among lakes and that there may be a coupling between the structure and function of the bacterial community.

  • 15.
    Langenheder, Silke
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Comte, Jérôme
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Univ Laval, Ctr Etud Nord, UMI Takuvik, Dept Biol IBIS, Pavillon Charles Eugene Marchand,1030 Ave Med, Quebec City, PQ G1V 0A6, Canada.
    Zha, Yinghua
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Samad, Md Sainur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Univ Otago, Dept Microbiol & Immunol, 720 Cumberland St North Dunedin, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand.
    Sinclair, Lucas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Eiler, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Remnants of marine bacterial communities can be retrieved from deep sediments in lakes of marine origin2016In: Environmental Microbiology Reports, ISSN 1758-2229, E-ISSN 1758-2229, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 479-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some bacteria can be preserved over time in deep sediments where they persist either in dormant or slow-growing vegetative stages. Here, we hypothesized that such cells can be revived when exposed to environmental conditions similar to those before they were buried in the sediments. To test this hypothesis, we collected bacteria from sediment samples of different ages (140–8500 calibrated years before present, cal BP) from three lakes that differed in the timing of their physical isolation from the Baltic Sea following postglacial uplift. After these bacterial communities were grown in sterile water from the Baltic Sea, we determined the proportion of 16S rRNA sequence reads associated with marine habitats by extracting the environment descriptive terms of homologous sequences retrieved from public databases. We found that the proportion of reads associated with marine descriptive term was significantly higher in cultures inoculated with sediment layers formed under Baltic conditions and where salinities were expected to be similar to current levels. Moreover, a similar pattern was found in the original sediment layers. Our study, therefore, suggests that remnants of marine bacterial communities can be preserved in sediments over thousands of years and can be revived from deep sediments in lakes of marine origin.

  • 16.
    Langenheder, Silke
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. Limnologi.
    Kisand, Veljo
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Lindström, Eva S
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. Limnologi.
    Wikner, Johan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Tranvik, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. Limnologi.
    Growth dynamics within bacterial communities in riverine and estuarine batch cultures2004In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, Vol. 37, p. 137-148Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Langenheder, Silke
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. limnologi.
    Lindström, Eva S
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. limnologi.
    Tranvik, Lars J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. limnologi.
    Structure and function of bacterial communities emerging from different sources under identical conditions.2006In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 72, p. 212-220Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Langenheder, Silke
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Weak coupling between community composition and functioning of aquatic bacteria2005In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 957-967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed a batch culture experiment with a factorial design in which sterile water from four lakes and bacterial assemblages (size-fractionated lake water) from the same lakes were set up in all possible combinations. The functional performance (biomass yield, respiration, growth rates, and growth efficiency) of bacterial communities growing in the cultures depended primarily on the type of the medium and to a much lesser extent on the origin of the bacterial assemblage. Functional changes were only partly paralleled by changes in community composition, as indicated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Similar bacterial communities developed in different cultures as a result of receiving either the same medium or the same inoculum, indicating that bacterial communities are comprised of populations of generalists that can grow under most conditions as well as populations with the life strategy of specialists. However, bacteria originating from a slightly acidic polyhumic lake failed to grow, grew unsteadily, or exhibited an extended lag phase when exposed to media originating from other lakes, indicating that the bacterial community in the polyhumic lake was not able to adapt rapidly to changes in environmental conditions.

  • 19.
    Lebret, Karen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Colinas, Noemi
    Östman, Örjan
    Lindström, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Increased water colour affects freshwater plankton communities in a mesocosm study2018In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 81, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Lindstrom, ES
    Uppsala University.
    Bacterioplankton community composition in a boreal forest lake1998In: FEMS MICROBIOLOGY ECOLOGY, ISSN 0168-6496, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 163-174Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The composition of the dominating populations within a bacterioplankton community was investigated in a mesotrophic, boreal forest lake. Composite samples were collected monthly throughout the lake for two years. The community composition was determined b

  • 21.
    Lindström, E.S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. limnologi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Kamst-Van Agterveld, M.P.
    Zwart, G.
    Distribution of typical freshwater bacterial groups is associated with pH, temperature and lake water retention time.2005In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology ., no 71:, p. 8201-8206Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Lindström, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Increased water colour affects freshwater plankton communities but not ecosystem functions in a mesocosm study2017Data set
  • 23.
    Lindström, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Investigating Influential Factors on BacterioplanktonCommunity Composition: Results from a Field Study of Five Mesotrophic Lakes2001In: Microbial Ecology, Vol. 42, p. 598-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate which biotic and abiotic factors may have an impact on the community composition of bacterioplankton, five mesotrophic lakes were studied. The composition of the bacterioplankton communities was determined by denaturing gradient ge

  • 24.
    Lindström, Eva S
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Bacterioplankton community composition in a boreal forest lake1998In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology, Vol. 27, p. 163-174Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Lindström, Eva S
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Bacterioplankton community composition in five lakes differing in trophic status and humic content2000In: MICROBIAL ECOLOGY, ISSN 0095-3628, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 104-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate the relation between lake type and bacterioplankton community composition, five Swedish lakes, which differed from each other in nutrient content and water color, were studied. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of I6S rDNA was

  • 26.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Characterisation of the bacterioplankton community in a moderately humic, oligotrophic lake1998In: Verhandlungen / Internationale Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie, ISSN 0368-0770, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 1625-1625Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    High abundances of Gonyostomum semen in brown water lakes are associated with high concentrations of iron: Fluorescence and abosrbance data2018Data set
  • 28.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Repeated disturbances affect functional but not compositional resistance and resilience in aquatic bacterioplankton communities - supporting data2017Data set
    The full text will be freely available from 2018-05-31 14:08
  • 29.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Supporting data version 22017Data set
  • 30.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Andersson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Effects of sterilization on composition and bacterial utilization of dissolved organic carbon2017Data set
  • 31.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Andersson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Effects of sterilization on composition and bacterial utilization of dissolved organic carbon2017Data set
    The full text will be freely available from 2018-05-31 14:31
  • 32.
    Lindström, Eva S
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. limnologi.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Community composition of bacterioplankton and cell transport in lakes in two different drainage areas.2005In: Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 67, p. 210-219Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Lindström, Eva S
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. Limnologi.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Influence of inlet bacteria on bacterioplankton assemblage composition in lakes of different hydraulic retention time2004In: Limnol. Oceanogr., Vol. 49, no 1, p. 125–136-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of inlet bacteria on the assemblage composition of bacterioplankton was investigated in two Swedish forest lakes of different hydraulic retention time. Assemblage composition of the bacteria in lakes and running waters was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified 16S rDNA. The amount of bacterial cells imported via the inlets in relation to bacterioplankton cells produced in the epilimnion of the lakes was also determined. In the lake with short retention time (theoretical hydraulic retention time of 0.3 yr) the lake bacterioplankton assemblage largely resembled the riverine assemblages, although the extent of similarity varied among inlets, depending on water flow. In the lake with long retention time (theoretical hydraulic retention time of 10 yr) the bacterioplankton assemblage in the lake had low similarity to the inlet assemblages. The degree of similarity between inlets and lakes was well correlated to the amount of imported cells. Thus, our data suggest that import of inlet bacteria could have a large effect on the composition of lake bacterioplankton assemblages and that hydrological factors determined the magnitude of this effect. Since short hydraulic retention times are very common in lakes in the boreal zone, input of allochthonous bacteria can be one major factor influencing bacterioplankton assemblage composition in boreal lakes.

  • 34.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    del Giorgio, Paul A.
    Départment des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal (UQÀM), Montréal, QC H3C 3P8, Canada .
    Progress and perspectives in aquatic microbial ecology: highlights of the SAME 14, Uppsala, Sweden, 20152017In: Aquatic Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0948-3055, E-ISSN 1616-1564, Vol. 80, p. 101-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentations and discussion during the Symposium of Aquatic Microbial Ecology (SAME) in Uppsala, Sweden, in August 2015 highlighted new directions and challenges in the study of aquatic microbial communities. In this virtual Special Issue, plenary speakers and meeting awardees explore these challenges. The contributions cover a wide range of topics from the use of molecular analyses of microbial communities to cultivation and stoichiometric analyses. The virtual Special also includes theoretical developments on the concept of rarity to community assembly. A common theme for the Special is, however, the importance of a combination of different approaches in order to deepen our understanding of the ecology of microbial communities.

    The full text will be freely available from 2022-11-24 14:31
  • 35.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Eiler, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Drakare, Stina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Ragnarsson, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Does ecosystem size determine aquatic bacterial richness? Comment2007In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 252-253Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Feng, Xin Mei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Granéli, Wilhelm
    Kritzberg, Emma S.
    The interplay between bacterial community composition and the environment determining function of inland water bacteria2010In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 2052-2060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We hypothesized that habitats differing in water flow regime would differ in bacterial function either because of differences in the local environment, in bacterial community composition (BCC), or in the mechanism shaping BCC (community assembly). In 20 lakes and 17 inlet streams BCC was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene coding for 16S ribosomal RNA, and bacterial function was estimated as bacterial production rate (BP, measured as leucine incorporation) per content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (BP : DOC). BCC in both lakes and streams appeared to be shaped by local environmental forces (i.e., species sorting according to metacommunity theory), but not by massive introduction of cells from the drainage area (mass effect). BP : DOC was lower in streams than in lakes, which appeared to be both because of differences in BCC and environment between lakes and streams, independent of each other. We found no support for an effect of water flow regime in itself (i.e., cell dispersal rate) causing the lower functionality of the streams. In streams, BP : DOC was correlated to both BCC and environment, independent of each other, while in lakes function could not be explained by either BCC or environment. The greater environmental variability among our streams than among our lakes may be the cause for the stronger BCC-function coupling in our streams, since smaller environmental variation among our lakes would allow a greater functional redundancy.

  • 37.
    Lindström, Eva S
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. limnologi.
    Forslund, Markus
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. limnologi.
    Algesten, Grete
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    External control of bacterial community structure in lakes.2006In: Limnology & Oceanography, Vol. 51, p. 339-342Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Local and regional factors influencing bacterial community assembly2012In: Environmental Microbiology Reports, ISSN 1758-2229, E-ISSN 1758-2229, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-9Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The classical view states that microbial biogeography is not affected by dispersal barriers or historical events, but only influenced by the local contemporary habitat conditions (species sorting). This has been challenged during recent years by studies suggesting that also regional factors such as mass effect, dispersal limitation and neutral assembly are important for the composition of local bacterial communities. Here we summarize results from biogeography studies in different environments, i.e. in marine, freshwater and soil as well in human hosts. Species sorting appears to be the most important mechanism. However, this result might be biased since this is the mechanism that is easiest to measure, detect and interpret. Hence, the importance of regional factors may have been underestimated. Moreover, our survey indicates that different assembly mechanisms might be important for different parts of the total community, differing, for example, between generalists and specialists, and between taxa of different dispersal ability and motility. We conclude that there is a clear need for experimental studies, first, to clearly separate regional and local factors in order to study their relative importance, and second, to test whether there are differences in assembly mechanisms depending on different taxonomic or functional groups.

  • 39.
    Lindström, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    S, Leskinen
    Do neighboring lakes share common taxa of bacterioplankton? Comparison of16S rDNA fingerprints and sequencesfrom three geographic regions2002In: Microbial Ecology, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do neighboring lakes share common

  • 40.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Stadler, Peter
    Weisse, Thomas
    Live sorting and survival of unstained and DAPI-stained ciliates by flow cytometry2003In: Arch. Hydrobiol, Vol. 157, p. 173-184Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Lindström, Eva S
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. Limnologi.
    Vrede, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology. Limnologi.
    Leskinen, Elina
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Response of a member of the Verrucomicrobia, among the dominating bacteria in a hypolimnion, to increased phosphorus availability2004In: Journal of Plankton Research, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 241-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Lake Siggeforasjön, Sweden, a member of the Verrucomicrobia was found to be a large constituent of the bacteria in the hypolimnion, but not in the epilimnion. In a mesocosm experiment in the epilimnion, this particular Verrucomicrobia was favoured by increased phosphorus availability. The community composition of bacterioplankton was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of 16S rDNA.

    During the last decade, molecular studies of the taxonomic composition of bacterioplankton communities in lakes and oceans have led to the discovery of a large number of ‘new’ bacteria (Giovannoni and Rappé, 2000; Glöckner et al., 2000). The occurrence of different bacterial taxa in the plankton community varies in time and space, and thus these taxa are likely to play different roles in the ecosystems. Recent results have indicated that the number of bacterioplankton taxa that still remain to be discovered is limited (Hagström et al., 2002; Zwart et al., 2002). However, so far, very little is known about the ecology of individual bacterioplankton species, for instance about which environmental factors can impact their abundance (Zwart et al., 2002).

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that affect the composition of bacterioplankton at different depths in lakes. We compared the bacterioplankton communities in the epilimnion and the hypolimnion of a lake, and performed a 4 day mesocosm experiment where phosphorus (P) availability was manipulated to test whether it contributed to differences in bacterioplankton community composition between the layers.

    The community composition of bacterioplankton was investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA, as described previously (Lindström, 1998). DGGE is a method that can be used to obtain an overview of the composition of the most dominant bacterioplankton taxa [e.g. (Torsvik et al., 1998)]. The pairwise similarity of the gel patterns of the samples was calculated using Sørensen’s index (Sørensen, 1948).

    Samples were taken from the temperate dimictic Lake Siggeforasjön, located near Uppsala, in the southern part of central Sweden (59°N, 17°E). This lake is oligo-mesotrophic and moderately humic (Table I). The community composition of the bacterioplankton in the lake has been investigated previously (Lindström, 1998, 2000; Lindström and Leskinen, 2002).

  • 42.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Östman, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    The Importance of Dispersal for Bacterial Community Composition and Functioning2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 10, p. e25883-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a metacommunity experiment to investigate the role of dispersal for bacterial community composition (BCC) and function of freshwater bacteria. Bacteria were dispersed from a common source pool into three different lake communities in their natural lake water. The experiment was conducted in dialysis bags to enable a decoupling between a change in the local environment and dispersal. BCC was determined by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (tRFLP) of the 16S rRNA gene. We show that the greatest changes in BCC occurred between 10% and 43% of dispersal of standing stock per day. Functioning, measured as growth rate, was also affected by dispersal in all three communities but the qualitative pattern differed between communities, sometimes showing a hump-shaped relationship to dispersal and sometimes decreasing with increasing dispersal. In all waters, functioning was related to BCC. Our results show that dispersal does affect BCC and functioning but that high dispersal rates are needed. Further, the effect of dispersal on BCC and function seem to depend on the quality of the habitat to which bacteria disperse into.

  • 43.
    Lindström, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Weisse, Thomas
    Stadler, Peter
    Enumeration of small ciliates in culture by flow cytometry and nucleic acid staining2002In: Journal of Microbiological Methods, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 173-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed a fast and simple protocol for accurate quantification of small freshwater ciliates by flow cytometry (FCM). The ciliates were stained

  • 44.
    Logares, Ramiro
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Logue, Jürg Brendan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Paterson, Harriet
    Laybourn-Parry, Johanna
    Rengefors, Karin
    Tranvik, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Biogeography of bacterial communities exposed to progressive long-term environmental change2013In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 937-948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The response of microbial communities to long-term environmental change is poorly understood. Here, we study bacterioplankton communities in a unique system of coastal Antarctic lakes that were exposed to progressive long-term environmental change, using 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA gene (V3-V4 regions). At the time of formation, most of the studied lakes harbored marine-coastal microbial communities, as they were connected to the sea. During the past 20 000 years, most lakes isolated from the sea, and subsequently they experienced a gradual, but strong, salinity change that eventually developed into a gradient ranging from freshwater (salinity 0) to hypersaline (salinity 100). Our results indicated that present bacterioplankton community composition was strongly correlated with salinity and weakly correlated with geographical distance between lakes. A few abundant taxa were shared between some lakes and coastal marine communities. Nevertheless, lakes contained a large number of taxa that were not detected in the adjacent sea. Abundant and rare taxa within saline communities presented similar biogeography, suggesting that these groups have comparable environmental sensitivity. Habitat specialists and generalists were detected among abundant and rare taxa, with specialists being relatively more abundant at the extremes of the salinity gradient. Altogether, progressive long-term salinity change appears to have promoted the diversification of bacterioplankton communities by modifying the composition of ancestral communities and by allowing the establishment of new taxa. The ISME Journal (2013) 7, 937-948; doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.168; published online 20 December 2012

  • 45.
    Logue, Jurg B.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol Aquat Ecol, Solvegatan 37, S-22362 Lund, Sweden.;Sci Life Lab, Solna, Sweden..
    Stedmon, Colin A.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Natl Inst Aquat Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark..
    Kellerman, Anne M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Nielsen, Nikoline J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Plant & Environm Sci, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Andersson, Anders F.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Sci Life Lab, Div Gene Technol, Solna, Sweden..
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Ecol & Management, S-90183 Umea, Sweden..
    Lindstrom, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Kritzberg, Emma S.
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol Aquat Ecol, Solvegatan 37, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Experimental insights into the importance of aquatic bacterial community composition to the degradation of dissolved organic matter2016In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 533-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteria play a central role in the cycling of carbon, yet our understanding of the relationship between the taxonomic composition and the degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is still poor. In this experimental study, we were able to demonstrate a direct link between community composition and ecosystem functioning in that differently structured aquatic bacterial communities differed in their degradation of terrestrially derived DOM. Although the same amount of carbon was processed, both the temporal pattern of degradation and the compounds degraded differed among communities. We, moreover, uncovered that low-molecular-weight carbon was available to all communities for utilisation, whereas the ability to degrade carbon of greater molecular weight was a trait less widely distributed. Finally, whereas the degradation of either low-or high-molecular-weight carbon was not restricted to a single phylogenetic clade, our results illustrate that bacterial taxa of similar phylogenetic classification differed substantially in their association with the degradation of DOM compounds. Applying techniques that capture the diversity and complexity of both bacterial communities and DOM, our study provides new insight into how the structure of bacterial communities may affect processes of biogeochemical significance.

  • 46.
    Logue, Jürg Brendan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Andersson, Anders F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Drakare, Stina
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Lanzén, Anders
    Centre for Geobiology and Department of Biology, University of Bergen.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Freshwater bacterioplankton richness in oligotrophic lakes depends on nutrient availability rather than on species-area relationships2012In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 1127-1136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central goal in ecology is to grasp the mechanisms that underlie and maintain biodiversity and patterns in its spatial distribution can provide clues about those mechanisms. Here, we investigated what might determine bacterioplankton richness (BR) in lakes by means of 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We further provide a BR estimate based upon a sampling depth and accuracy, which, to our knowledge, are unsurpassed for freshwater bacterioplankton communities. Our examination of 22 669 sequences per lake showed that freshwater BR in fourteen nutrient-poor lakes was positively influenced by nutrient availability. Our study is, thus, consistent with the finding that the supply of available nutrients is a major driver of species richness; a pattern that may well be universally valid to the world of both micro- and macro-organisms. We, furthermore, observed that BR increased with elevated landscape position, most likely as a consequence of differences in nutrient availability. Finally, BR decreased with increasing lake and catchment area that is negative species-area relationships (SARs) were recorded; a finding that re-opens the debate about whether positive SARs can indeed be found in the microbial world and whether positive SARs can in fact be pronounced as one of the few “laws” in ecology.

  • 47.
    Logue, Jürg Brendan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Biogeography of bacterioplankton in inland waters.2008In: Freshwater Reviews, ISSN 1755-084X, E-ISSN 1755-084X, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 99-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacteria are among the most abundant groups of organisms.  They mediate key ecological processes.  Recent molecular advances have provided greater insight into bacterial diversity as well as allowing a more thorough examination of patterns in the spatial and temporal distribution of bacteria.  Thus, the study of bacterial biodiversity and biogeographical distribution has stimulated considerable interest and dispute over the last decade. This review summarises the findings obtained from studies on the biogeography of bacterioplankton in inland waters.  We examine factors and processes that may determine and maintain bacterial diversity and biogeography, and relate these to the theoretical metacommunity framework. We conclude that the importance of local environmental factors (such as lake character) for local bacterioplankton community compositions (BCC) is much more intensively studied than the importance of regional factors, such as dispersal.  Further, few attempts have been made to evaluate simultaneously the relative importance of the two types of factors for BCC.  Finally, we summarise gaps in knowledge, delineate challenges and put forward possible future research directions.

  • 48. Lundin, Daniel
    et al.
    Severin, Ina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Logue, Jürg Brendan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Östman, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Population and Conservation Biology.
    Andersson, Anders F
    Lindström, Eva S
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Which sequencing depth is sufficient to describe patterns in bacterial a- and b-diversity?2012In: Environmental Microbiology Reports, ISSN 1758-2229, E-ISSN 1758-2229, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 367-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vastness of microbial diversity implies that an almost infinite number of individuals needs to be identified to accurately describe such communities. Practical and economical constraints may therefore prevent appropriate study designs. However, for many questions in ecology it is not essential to know the actual diversity but rather the trends among samples thereof. It is, hence, important to know to what depth microbial communities need to be sampled to accurately measure trends in diversity. We used three data sets of freshwater and sediment bacteria, where diversity was explored using 454 pyrosequencing. Each data set contained 6–15 communities from which 15 000–20 000 16S rRNA gene sequences each were obtained. These data sets were subsampled repeatedly to 10 different depths down to 200 sequences per community. Diversity estimates varied with sequencing depth, yet, trends in diversity among samples were less sensitive. We found that 1000 denoised sequences per sample explained to 90% the trends in β-diversity (Bray-Curtis index) among samples observed for 15 000–20 000 sequences. Similarly, 5000 denoised sequences were sufficient to describe trends in α-diversity (Shannon index) with the same accuracy. Further, 5000 denoised sequences captured to more than 80% the trends in Chao1 richness and Pielou's evenness.

  • 49.
    Lymer, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution.
    Lindström, Eva
    The importance of nutrient concentration and prophage induction for freshwater viral community compositionManuscript (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Lymer, David
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Lindström, Eva S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Changing phosphorus concentration and subsequent prophage induction alter composition of a freshwater viral assemblage2010In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 55, no 9, p. 1984-1996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    P>1. The effects of nutrients on the temporal variation in viral assemblage composition, and in particular the occurrence of temperate phages, were assessed in mesotrophic Lake Erken over 5 months of the ice-free period. The percentage of the bacterial community that contained inducible prophages (lysogenic bacteria, LB) changed over the season, being lowest in late spring and highest in early autumn. The most important variables for predicting LB were concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and temperature. 2. The viral assemblage composition, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), also changed over the season. Prophages were induced by incubations with mitomycin C and we show, for the first time for natural communities, that the resulting temperate phages could be detected using PFGE. 3. A substantial fraction (19%) of the number of detected operational taxonomic units (OTUs: defined as unique genome sizes) appeared unique to temperate phages and 41% of OTUs increased in relative abundance after treatment with mitomycin C. 4. Different viral OTUs were induced at different times during the season. The most important environmental factor covarying with viral assemblage composition over the period of study, as determined by multivariate analysis, was concentration of TP. In re-growth cultures with natural bacteria and lowered viral abundance (VA) (decreased virus to bacteria ratio), addition of PO4-P induced prophages and resulted in subsequent production of temperate phages, as indicated by a decreased percentage of LB and increased VA. Incubations of natural bacterial communities with mitomycin C (field data) or PO4-P (experiment) changed the viral assemblage composition at a similar rate as the observed monthly changes in the lake.

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