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  • 1.
    Bu, Shizhong
    et al.
    Ludwiginstitutet för Cancerforskning.
    Blaukat, Andree
    Ludwiginstitutet för Cancerforskning.
    Fu, Xin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Heldin, Nils-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Landström, Maréne
    Ludwiginstitutet för Cancerforskning.
    Mechanisms for 2-methoxyestradiol-induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells2002In: FEBS Letters, ISSN 0014-5793, E-ISSN 1873-3468, Vol. 531, no 2, p. 141-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate and breast carcinomas are sex hormone-related carcinomas, which are known to be associated with an over-expression of the proto-oncogene Bcl-2. Here, we report that 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), an endogenous metabolite of estrogen that does not bind to nuclear estrogen receptors, effectively induces apoptosis in Bcl-2-expressing human prostate and breast carcinoma cells in vitro and in a rat prostate tumor model in vivo. In several cell lines derived from prostate, breast, liver and colorectal carcinomas, 2-ME treatment led to an activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and phosphorylation of Bcl-2, which preceded the induction of apoptosis. In summary, our data suggest that 2-ME induces apoptosis in epithelial carcinomas by causing phosphorylation of JNK, which appears to be correlated with phosphorylation of Bcl-2.

  • 2.
    Davoodpour, Padideh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Bergström, Mats
    Landström, Maréne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Effects of 2-methoxyestradiol on proliferation, apoptosis and PET-tracer uptake in human prostate cancer cell aggregates2004In: Nuclear Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0969-8051, E-ISSN 1872-9614, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 867-874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential use of PET in vivo to record cytotoxic effects of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), an endogenous metabolite of 17beta-estradiol. The anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of 2-ME on human prostate cancer cell (PC3) aggregates in vitro, were correlated with the uptake of fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose, FMAU and choline labelled with 18F, 11C, or 3H. 2-ME clearly reduced growth of PC3 aggregates and induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. However, the uptake of the putative proliferation markers 11C-FMAU or 3H-choline failed to record the growth inhibitory effects of 2-ME on PC3 cell aggregates. The uptake of 18F-FDG was used as a marker for effects on cellular metabolism and also failed to show any dose-dependent effects in PC3 aggregates. The use of these PET-tracers in vivo is therefore not recommended in order to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of 2-ME on human prostate cancer cells.

  • 3.
    Davoodpour, Padideh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Landström, Maréne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    2-Methoxyestradiol-induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells requires Smad72005In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 280, no 15, p. 14773-14779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of death related to cancer in Western society. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME), an endogenous metabolite of estradiol-17beta, inhibits tumor angiogenesis while also exerting potent cytotoxic effects on various cancer cells. 2-ME has been shown to activate the p38 MAPK and JNK pathways and to induce apoptosis in cells, although the underlying molecular mechanisms for this are unknown. Here we report that the expression of Smad7, an adaptor molecule required to activate p38 MAPK in the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway, is also required for 2-ME-induced p38 activation and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells (PC-3U). PC-3U/AS-S7 cells stably transfected with an antisense Smad7 construct, or PC-3U cells transiently transfected with short interfering RNA for Smad7, were protected against 2-ME-induced apoptosis. 2-ME-induced apoptosis was found to involve p38 MAPK and JNK, because simultaneous treatments with 2-ME and a specific p38 inhibitor (SB203580) or an inhibitor of JNK (L-JNK1) prevented 2-ME-induced apoptosis. Most interestingly, Smad7 was shown by both antisense and short interfering RNA techniques to affect levels of beta-catenin, which has been implicated previously in the regulation of apoptosis. Moreover, Smad7 was found to be important for the basal expression of Bim, a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, and for 2-ME-induced expression of Bim. These results suggest that expression of Smad7 is crucial for 2-ME-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells.

  • 4.
    Davoodpour, Padideh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Landström, Maréne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Welsh, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Reduced tumor growth in vivo and increased c-Abl activity in PC3 prostate cancer cells overexpressing the Shb adapter protein2007In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 7, p. 161-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Induction of apoptosis is one strategy for treatment of prostate cancer. The Shb adapter protein has been found to regulate apoptosis in various cell types and consequently human prostate cancer 3 (PC3) cells were transfected to obtain cells overexpressing Shb in order to increase our understanding of the mechanisms regulating PC3 cell apoptosis. METHODS: Human prostate cancer cells (PC3) were transfected with control vector or a vector containing the Shb cDNA. Clones overexpressing Shb were studied with respect to apoptosis (Dapi, M30) and c-Abl activation (Western blot for pY-245-Abl). The cells were exposed to the anti-tumor agent 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) and the p38 MAPK and c-Abl inhibitors SB203580 and STI-571, respectively, after which cell death was determined. In vivo tumor growth and tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67 staining) or apoptosis (active caspase 3 staining) were also determined in nude mice. RESULTS: PC3 cells overexpressing Shb exhibited increased rates of apoptosis in the presence of the anti-tumor agent 2-ME. The Shb cells displayed increased activity of the pro-apoptotic kinase c-Abl. Pre-treatment with p38 MAPK (SB203580) or c-Abl (STI-571) inhibitors completely blocked 2-ME-induced apoptosis, implicating these two pathways in the response. The PC3-Shb cells displayed reduced tumor growth in vivo, an effect occurring as a consequence of increased apoptosis and reduced DNA synthesis. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that Shb promotes 2-ME-induced PC3 cell apoptosis by increased pro-apoptotic signaling via the c-Abl pathway and that this causes reduced tumor growth in vivo.

  • 5.
    Edlund, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Bu, Shizhong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Schuster, Norbert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Aspenström, Pontus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Heuchel, Rainer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Heldin, Nils-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    ten Dijke, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Landström, Maréne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Transforming growth factor-beta1-induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells involves Smad7-dependent activation of p38 by TGF-beta-activated kinase 1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 32003In: Molecular Biology of the Cell, ISSN 1059-1524, E-ISSN 1939-4586, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 529-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inhibitory Smad7, a direct target gene for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), mediates TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis in several cell types. Herein, we report that apoptosis of human prostate cancer PC-3U cells induced by TGF-beta1 or Smad7 overexpression is caused by a specific activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in a TGF-beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)- and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (MKK3)-dependent manner. Expression of dominant negative p38, dominant negative MKK3, or incubation with the p38 selective inhibitor [4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole], prevented TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis. The expression of Smad7 was required for TGF-beta-induced activation of MKK3 and p38 kinases, and endogenous Smad7 was found to interact with phosphorylated p38 in a ligand-dependent manner. Ectopic expression of wild-type TAK1 promoted TGF-beta1-induced phosphorylation of p38 and apoptosis, whereas dominant negative TAK1 reduced TGF-beta1-induced phosphorylation of p38 and apoptosis. Endogenous Smad7 was found to interact with TAK1, and TAK1, MKK3, and p38 were coimmunoprecipitated with Smad7 in transiently transfected COS1 cells. Moreover, ectopically expressed Smad7 enhanced the coimmunoprecipitation of HA-MKK3 and Flag-p38, supporting the notion that Smad7 may act as a scaffolding protein and facilitate TAK1- and MKK3-mediated activation of p38.

  • 6.
    Edlund, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Landström, Maréne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Aspenström, Pontus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Smad7 is required for TGF-ß-induced activation of the small GTPase Cdc422004In: Journal of Cell Science, ISSN 0021-9533, E-ISSN 1477-9137, Vol. 117, no Pt 9, p. 1835-1847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a potent regulator of cell growth and differentiation in many cell types. The Smad signaling pathway constitutes a main signal transduction route downstream of TGF-beta receptors. The inhibitory Smads, Smad6 and Smad7, are considered to function as negative regulators of the TGF-beta/Smad signaling cascade. In a previous study, we found that TGF-beta induces rearrangements of the actin filament system in human prostate carcinoma cells and that this response requires the small GTPases Cdc42 and RhoA. On the basis of the current view on the function of Smad7 in TGF-beta signaling, we hypothesized that Smad7 would function as a negative regulator of the TGF-beta-induced activation of Cdc42 and RhoA, but instead we found that the reverse is the case; Smad7 is required for the TGF-beta-induced activation of Cdc42 and the concomitant reorganization of the actin filament system. These observations propose a novel role for Smad7 in TGF-beta-dependent activation of Rho GTPases.

  • 7.
    Edlund, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Landström, Maréne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Aspenström, Pontus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Transforming growth factor-beta-induced mobilization of actin cytoskeleton required signaling by small GTPases Cdc42 and RhoA2002In: Molecular Biology of the Cell, ISSN 1059-1524, E-ISSN 1939-4586, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 902-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a potent regulator of cell growth and differentiation in many cell types. The Smad signaling pathway constitutes a main signal transduction route downstream of TGF-beta receptors. We studied TGF-beta-induced rearrangements of the actin filament system and found that TGF-beta 1 treatment of PC-3U human prostate carcinoma cells resulted in a rapid formation of lamellipodia. Interestingly, this response was shown to be independent of the Smad signaling pathway; instead, it required the activity of the Rho GTPases Cdc42 and RhoA, because ectopic expression of dominant negative mutant Cdc42 and RhoA abrogated the response. Long-term stimulation with TGF-beta 1 resulted in an assembly of stress fibers; this response required both signaling via Cdc42 and RhoA, and Smad proteins. A known downstream effector of Cdc42 is p38(MAPK); treatment of the cells with the p38(MAPK) inhibitor 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(pyridyl)1H-imidazole (SB203580), as well as ectopic expression of a kinase-inactive p38(MAPK), abrogated the TGF-beta-induced actin reorganization. Moreover, treatment of cells with the inhibitors of the RhoA target-protein Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (+)-R-trans-4-(aminoethyl)-N-(4-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide (Y-27632) and 1-5(-isoquinolinesulfonyl)homopiperazine (HA-1077), as well as ectopic expression of kinase-inactive Rho coiled-coil kinase-1, abrogated the TGF-beta 1-induced formation of stress fibers. Collectively, these data indicate that TGF-beta-induced membrane ruffles occur via Rho GTPase-dependent pathways, whereas long-term effects require cooperation between Smad and Rho GTPase signaling pathways.

  • 8.
    Edlund, Sofia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Lee, So Young
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Grimsby, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Zhang, Shouthing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Aspenström, Pontus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Landström, Maréne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Interaction between Smad7 and beta-catenin: importance for transforming growth factor beta-induced apoptosis2005In: Molecular and Cellular Biology, ISSN 0270-7306, E-ISSN 1098-5549, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1475-1488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and Wnt/wingless superfamilies regulate cell fate during development and tissue maintenance. Here we report that Smad7 interacts with beta-catenin and lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1/T-cell-specific factor (LEF1/TCF), transcriptional regulators in Wnt signaling, in a TGF-beta-dependent manner. Smad7 was found to be required for TGF-beta1-induced accumulation of beta-catenin and LEF1 in human prostate cancer (PC-3U) cells as well as in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). Moreover, when the endogenous Smad7 was repressed by specific small interfering RNA, TGF-beta-induced increase of activated p38, Akt phosphorylated on Ser473, glycogen synthase kinase 3beta phosphorylated on Ser9 was prevented, as well as the TGF-beta-induced association between beta-catenin and LEF1. Notably, the observed physical association of Smad7 and beta-catenin was found to be important for TGF-beta-induced apoptosis, since suppression of beta-catenin expression by small interfering RNA decreased the apoptotic response to TGF-beta.

  • 9.
    Ekman, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Mu, Yabing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Lee, So Young
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Edlund, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Kozakai, Takaharu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Thakur, Noopur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Tran, Hoanh
    Qian, Jiang
    Groeden, Joanna
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Landström, Maréne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    APC and Smad7 link the TGFβ type I receptors to the microtubule system to promote cell migration2012In: Molecular Biology of the Cell, ISSN 1059-1524, E-ISSN 1939-4586, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 2109-2121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell migration occurs by activation of complex regulatory pathways that are spatially and temporally integrated in response to extracellular cues. Binding of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) to the microtubule plus ends in polarized cells is regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3 beta). This event is crucial for establishment of cell polarity during directional migration. However, the role of APC for cellular extension in response to extracellular signals is less clear. Smad7 is a direct target gene for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) and is known to inhibit various TGF beta-induced responses. Here we report a new function for Smad7. We show that Smad7 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase together regulate the expression of APC and cell migration in prostate cancer cells in response to TGF beta stimulation. In addition, Smad7 forms a complex with APC and acts as an adaptor protein for p38 and GSK-3 beta kinases to facilitate local TGF beta/p38-dependent inactivation of GSK-3 beta, accumulation of beta-catenin, and recruitment of APC to the microtubule plus end in the leading edge of migrating prostate cancer cells. Moreover, the Smad7-APC complex links the TGF beta type I receptor to the microtubule system to regulate directed cellular extension and migratory responses evoked by TGF beta.

  • 10.
    Gudey, Shyam Kumar
    et al.
    Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, SE-901 85 Umeå.
    Sundar, Reshma
    Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, SE-901 85 Umeå.
    Mu, Yabing
    Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, SE-901 85 Umeå.
    Wallenius, Anders
    Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, SE-901 85 Umeå.
    Zang, Guangxiang
    Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, SE-901 85 Umeå.
    Bergh, Anders
    Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, SE-901 85 Umeå.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Landström, Marene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, SE-901 85 Umeå.
    TRAF6 Stimulates the Tumor-Promoting Effects of TGFβ Type I Receptor Through Polyubiquitination and Activation of Presenilin 12014In: Science signaling, ISSN 1937-9145, Vol. 7, no 307, p. ra2-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) can be both a tumor promoter and suppressor, although the mechanisms behind the protumorigenic switch remain to be fully elucidated. The TGFβ type I receptor (TβRI) is proteolytically cleaved in the ectodomain region. Cleavage requires the combined activities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and TNF-α-converting enzyme (TACE). The cleavage event occurs selectively in cancer cells and generates an intracellular domain (ICD) of TβRI, which enters the nucleus to mediate gene transcription. Presenilin 1 (PS1), a γ-secretase catalytic core component, mediates intramembrane proteolysis of transmembrane receptors, such as Notch. We showed that TGFβ increased both the abundance and activity of PS1. TRAF6 recruited PS1 to the TβRI complex and promoted lysine-63-linked polyubiquitination of PS1, which activated PS1. Furthermore, PS1 cleaved TβRI in the transmembrane domain between valine-129 and isoleucine-130, and ICD generation was inhibited when these residues were mutated to alanine. We also showed that, after entering the nucleus, TβRI-ICD bound to the promoter and increased the transcription of the gene encoding TβRI. The TRAF6- and PS1-induced intramembrane proteolysis of TβRI promoted TGFβ-induced invasion of various cancer cells in vitro. Furthermore, when a mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer was treated with the γ-secretase inhibitor DBZ {(2S)-2-[2-(3,5-difluorophenyl)-acetylamino]-N-(5-methyl-6-oxo-6,7-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,d]azepin-7-yl)-propionamide}, generation of TβRI-ICD was prevented, transcription of the gene encoding the proinvasive transcription factor Snail1 was reduced, and tumor growth was inhibited. These results suggest that γ-secretase inhibitors may be useful for treating aggressive prostate cancer.

  • 11.
    Hamidi, Anahita
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Song, Jie
    Umea Univ, Dept Med Biosci, Unit Pathol, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden.
    Thakur, Noopur
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Itoh, Susumu
    Showa Pharmaceut Univ, Biochem Lab, Tokyo 1948543, Japan.
    Marcusson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bergh, Anders
    Umea Univ, Dept Med Biosci, Unit Pathol, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Landström, Maréne
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Umea Univ, Dept Med Biosci, Unit Pathol, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden.
    TGF-β promotes PI3K-AKT signaling and prostate cancer cell migration through the TRAF6-mediated ubiquitylation of p85α2017In: Science Signaling, ISSN 1945-0877, E-ISSN 1937-9145, Vol. 10, no 486, article id eaal4186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor-b (TGF-beta) is a pluripotent cytokine that regulates cell fate and plasticity in normal tissues and tumors. The multifunctional cellular responses evoked by TGF-beta are mediated by the canonical SMAD pathway and by noncanonical pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways and the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (AKT) pathway. We found that TGF-b activated PI3K in a manner dependent on the activity of the E3 ubiquitin ligase tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). TRAF6 polyubiquitylated the PI3K regulatory subunit p85 alpha and promoted the formation of a complex between the TGF-beta type I receptor (T beta RI) and p85 alpha, which led to the activation of PI3K and AKT. Lys(63)-linked polyubiquitylation of p85 alpha on Lys(513) and Lys(519) in the iSH2 (inter-Src homology 2) domain was required for TGF-beta-induced activation of PI3K-AKT signaling and cell motility in prostate cancer cells and activated macrophages. Unlike the activation of SMAD pathways, the TRAF6-mediated activation of PI3K and AKT was not dependent on the kinase activity of TbRI. In situ proximity ligation assays revealed that polyubiquitylation of p85a was evident in aggressive prostate cancer tissues. Thus, our data reveal a molecular mechanism by which TGF-b activates the PI3K-AKT pathway to drive cell migration.

  • 12.
    Landström, Maréne
    et al.
    Ludwiginstitutet för Cancerforskning.
    Heldin, Nils-Erik
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Bu, Shizhong
    Ludwiginstitutet för Cancerforskning.
    Hermansson, Annika
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Itoh, Susumo
    Ludwiginstitutet för Cancerforskning.
    ten Dijke, Peter
    Ludwiginstitutet för Cancerforskning.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Ludwiginstitutet för Cancerforskning.
    Smad7 mediates TGF-beta-induced apoptosis in prostatic carcinoma cells.2000In: Current Biol., Vol. 10, p. 535-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Li, Li
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Bu, Shizhong
    Ludwiginstitutet för Cancerforskning.
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Landström, Maréne
    Ludwiginstitutet för Cancerforskning.
    Ulmsten, Ulf
    Fu, Xin
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Induction of apoptosis and G2/M arrest by 2-methoxyestradiol in human cervical cancer HeLaS3 cells.2004In: Anticancer Res, ISSN 0250-7005, Vol. 24, no 2B, p. 873-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME), one of the estrogen metabolites, induces apoptosis in many different tumor cell lines. In the present study, the effects of 2-ME on human cervical cancer HeLaS3 cells and on normal cervical epithelial cells were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acridine orange staining, DNA fragmentation arrays and flow cytometry were used to measure the apoptosis and cell cycle progression. In addition, the effect of 2-ME on expression of iNOS was measured by Western blot. RESULTS: 2-ME inhibited the growth of HeLaS3 cells. This growth inhibition was accompanied by apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest. 2-ME increased the expression of iNOS in parallel with apoptosis. Moreover, apoptosis was prevented by the iNOS inhibitor 1400W. 2-ME treatment resulted in a slight increase of the G2/M population, but no apoptosis, in normal cervical epithelial cells. There was no synergetic effect between E2 and 2-ME. CONCLUSION: 2-ME induced apoptosis via the iNOS pathway and caused G2/M cell cycle arrest in human cervical cancer HeLaS3 cells, but showed only slight effects on normal cervical epithelial cells. These data suggest that 2-ME might be an adjuvant agent in the treatment of cervical cancer.

  • 14.
    Li, Li
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Da, Jiping
    Landström, Marené
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Ulmsten, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Fu, Xin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Antiproliferative activity and toxicity of 2-Methoxyestradiol in cervical cancer xenograft mice2005In: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, ISSN 1048-891X, E-ISSN 1525-1438, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 301-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) is considered to be an effective anticancer compound for many types of tumors. We have previously demonstrated that 2-ME inhibits the growth of human cervical cancer HeLaS3 cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the antitumoral effects of 2-ME on human cervical carcinoma in severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice. The potential side effects of 2-ME on the SCID mice were also investigated. SCID mice were injected with HeLaS3 cells (3 x 10(6) to 4 x 10(6)/mouse) and a 15-day administration of 2-ME followed after a 1-week cell implantation. Tumor weight, volume, body weight, and blood chemistry were determined. Tumor tissues were examined with an antibody against the proliferative cell nuclear antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. Liver, spleen, kidney, heart, and lung were screened by pathologic examinations. 2-ME (75 mg/kg p.o.) inhibited growth of human cervical carcinoma by 34% (P < 0.05) as compared with control. Necrosis was found in both 2-ME-treated and untreated tumor tissues, but the necrotic area was larger in 2-ME-treated mice. A low expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen and an increased number of apoptotic cells were found in 2-ME-treated tumor sections as compared to those in controls. No significant difference was detected in blood chemistry. In addition, the liver showed hyperplastic Kupffer cells, hydropic swelling of hepatocytes, and liquefactive necrosis. The spleen showed an increased number of megakaryocytes and apoptotic cells after 2-ME treatment. Thus, 2-ME has an antitumor effect on human cervical carcinoma, and it is toxic to liver and spleen in this mouse model.

  • 15.
    Mu, Yabing
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Gudey, Shyam Kumar
    Medical Biosciences, Umeå University, SE-901 85 Umeå, Sweden.
    Landström, Maréne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Non-Smad signaling pathways2012In: Cell and Tissue Research, ISSN 0302-766X, E-ISSN 1432-0878, Vol. 347, no 1, p. 11-20Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) is a key regulator of cell fate during embryogenesis and has also emerged as a potent driver of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition during tumor progression. TGF beta signals are transduced by transmembrane type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors (T beta RI and T beta RII, respectively). The activated T beta R complex phosphorylates Smad2 and Smad3, converting them into transcriptional regulators that complex with Smad4. TGF beta also uses non-Smad signaling pathways such as the p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways to convey its signals. Ubiquitin ligase tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and TGF beta-associated kinase 1 (TAK1) have recently been shown to be crucial for the activation of the p38 and JNK MAPK pathways. Other TGF beta-induced non-Smad signaling pathways include the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt-mTOR pathway, the small GTPases Rho, Rac, and Cdc42, and the Ras-Erk-MAPK pathway. Signals induced by TGF beta are tightly regulated and specified by post-translational modifications of the signaling components, since they dictate the subcellular localization, activity, and duration of the signal. In this review, we discuss recent findings in the field of TGF beta-induced responses by non-Smad signaling pathways.

  • 16.
    Pulaski, Lukasz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Landström, Maréne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Souchelnytskyi, Serhiy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Phosphorylation of Smad7 at Ser-249 does not interfere with its inhibitory role in transforming growth factor-beta-dependent signaling but affects Smad7-dependent transcriptional activation2001In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 276, no 17, p. 14344-14349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smad proteins are major components in the intracellular signaling pathway of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and phosphorylation is an important mechanism in regulation of their functions. Smad7 was identified as a potent inhibitor of TGF-beta-dependent signaling. We have identified serine 249 in Smad7 as a major phosphorylation site, the phosphorylation of which was not affected by TGF-beta1. Abrogation of the phosphorylation by substitution of Ser-249 with alanine or aspartic acid residues did not affect the ability of Smad7 to inhibit TGF-beta1 and BMP7 signaling. No differences were found in the stability or in the intracellular distribution of Smad7 mutants compared with the wild-type molecule. However, Smad7 fused to the DNA-binding domain of GAL4 induced transcription from a reporter with mutated TATA minimal promoter in a Ser-249-dependent manner. Moreover, a reporter with the SV40 minimal promoter was inhibited by GAL4-Smad7, and this effect was also dependent on Ser-249 phosphorylation. The amplitude of effects on transcriptional regulation was dependent on cell type. Our results suggest that phosphorylation of Smad7, unlike phosphorylation of the receptor-regulated Smads, does not regulate TGF-beta signaling but rather affects TGF-beta-independent effects of Smad7 on transcriptional regulation.

  • 17.
    Roswall, Pernilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Bu, Shizhong
    Rubin, Kristofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Landström, Maréne
    Ludwiginstitutet för Cancerforskning.
    Heldin, Nils-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    2-methoxyestradiol induces apoptosis in cultured human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells2006In: Thyroid, ISSN 1050-7256, E-ISSN 1557-9077, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 143-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is one of the most malignant tumors in humans, and currently there is no effective treatment. In the present study we investigated the effect of an endogenous estrogen metabolite, 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), on the growth of human ATC cells. 2-ME treatment had a strong growth inhibitory effect on five human ATC cell lines (HTh7, HTh 74, HTh83, C643, and SW1736), but showed no effect on one cell line (KAT-4). Cell cycle analysis of the growth-inhibited cells showed that 2-ME induced a G2/M-arrest, followed by an increased fraction of cells in sub-G1. Analysis of internucleosomal DNA laddering as well as DNA fragmentation in a terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay demonstrated a high number of cells undergoing apoptosis after 2-ME treatment. An increased activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8 by 2-ME was observed, and inhibition of caspase-3 decreased the apoptotic effect. Addition of 2-ME increased activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the sensitive HTh7 as well as the refractory KAT-4 cells, however, activation of stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun aminoterminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) was seen only in the HTh7 cells. Inhibitors of p38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK significantly attenuated the 2-ME effect. Taken together, our data demonstrate an antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of 2-ME on ATC cells involving activation of MAPKs.

  • 18.
    Sorrentino, Alessandro
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Thakur, Noopur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Grimsby, Susanne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Marcusson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    von Bulow, Verena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Schuster, Norbert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Zhang, Shouting
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Landström, Maréne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    The type I TGF-beta receptor engages TRAF6 to activate TAK1 in a receptor kinase-independent manner2008In: Nature Cell Biology, ISSN 1465-7392, E-ISSN 1476-4679, Vol. 10, no 10, p. 1199-1207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates embryonic development and tissue homeostasis; however, aberrations of its activity occur in cancer. TGF-β signals through its Type II and Type I receptors (TβRII and TβRI) causing phosphorylation of Smad proteins. TGF-β-associated kinase 1 (TAK1), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) family, was originally identified as an effector of TGF-β-induced p38 activation. However, the molecular mechanisms for its activation are unknown. Here we report that the ubiquitin ligase (E3) TRAF6 interacts with a consensus motif present in TβRI. The TβRI–TRAF6 interaction is required for TGF-β-induced autoubiquitylation of TRAF6 and subsequent activation of the TAK1–p38/JNK pathway, which leads to apoptosis. TβRI kinase activity is required for activation of the canonical Smad pathway, whereas E3 activity of TRAF6 regulates the activation of TAK1 in a receptor kinase-independent manner. Intriguingly, TGF-β-induced TRAF6-mediated Lys 63-linked polyubiquitylation of TAK1 Lys 34 correlates with TAK1 activation. Our data show that TGF-β specifically activates TAK1 through interaction of TβRI with TRAF6, whereas activation of Smad2 is not dependent on TRAF6.

  • 19.
    Thakur, Noopur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Sorrentino, Alessandro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Landström, Maréne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    TGF-beta uses the E3-ligase TRAF6 to turn on the kinase TAK1 to kill prostate cancer cells2009In: Future oncology (London, England), ISSN 1479-6694, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    -

  • 20.
    Trani, Marianna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Sorrentino, Alessandro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Busch, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Landström, Maréne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Pro-apoptotic effect of aurothiomalate in prostate cancer cells2009In: Cell Cycle, ISSN 1538-4101, E-ISSN 1551-4005, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 306-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been recently demonstrated that small gold compounds could have a potential anti-tumoral activity. Here, we report that aurothiomalate (ATM), a gold compound already used in clinical therapy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, has a pro-apoptotic effect in aggressive prostate cancer (PC3U) cells. In contrast, treatment of human primary epithelial prostate cells (PrEC) with ATM did not cause apoptosis. We demonstrated that ATM is able to disrupt the PKCiota-Par6 complex in PC3U cells and that this disruption leads to the activation of ERK in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, we also showed that ERK acts upstream of the activation of caspase 3, leading to apoptosis. ATM treatment also causes activation of p38 and JNK MAP kinases. Moreover we could link ATM treatment to activation of the mitochondrial or so called intrinsic pathway, as we observed release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm, suggesting that the mitochondrial pathway is involved in the pro-apoptotic effect mediated by ATM. Taken together our data suggest that ATM could be a new promising drug for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

  • 21.
    Yakymovych, Ihor
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Yakymovych, Mariya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Zang, Guangxiang
    Mu, Yabing
    Bergh, Anders
    Landström, Marene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    CIN85 modulates TGF beta signaling by promoting the presentation of TGF beta receptors on the cell surface2015In: Journal of Cell Biology, ISSN 0021-9525, E-ISSN 1540-8140, Vol. 210, no 2, p. 319-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) family initiate cellular responses by binding to TGF beta receptor type II (Tf3R11) and type I (TpRI) serine/threonine kinases, whereby Srnad2 and Smad3 are phosphorylated and activated, promoting their association with Smadzi. We report here that T beta RI interacts with the SH3 domains of the adaptor protein CIN85 in response to TGF beta stimulation in a TRAF6-dependent manner. Small interfering RNA mediated knockdown of CIN85 resulted in accumulation of T beta RI in intracellular compartments and diminished TGF beta-stimulated Sniad2 phosphorylation. Overexpression of CIN85 instead increased the amount of T beta RI at the cell surface. This effect was inhibited by a dominant-negative mutant of Rab11, suggesting that CIN85 promoted recycling of TGF beta receptors. CIN85 enhanced TGF beta-stimulated Smad2 phosphorylation, transcriptional responses, and cell migration. CIN85 expression correlated with the degree of malignancy of prostate cancers. Collectively, our results reveal that CIN85 promotes recycling of TGF beta receptors and thereby positively regulates TGF beta signaling.

1 - 21 of 21
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