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  • 1.
    Abdeldaim, Guma M. K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Stralin, Kristoffer
    Olcen, Per
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Molling, Paula
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Quantitative fucK gene polymerase chain reaction on sputum and nasopharyngeal secretions to detect Haemophilus influenzae pneumonia2013In: Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, ISSN 0732-8893, E-ISSN 1879-0070, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 141-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the fucK gene was developed for specific detection of Haemophilus influenzae. The method was tested on sputum and nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) from 78 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). With a reference standard of sputum culture and/or serology against the patient's own nasopharyngeal isolate, H. influenzae etiology was detected in 20 patients. Compared with the reference standard, fucK PCR (using the detection limit 10(5) DNA copies/mL) on sputum and NPA showed a sensitivity of 95.0% (19/20) in both cases, and specificities of 87.9% (51/58) and 89.5% (52/58), respectively. In a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, sputum fucK PCR was found to be significantly superior to sputum P6 PCR for detection of H. influenzae CAP. NPA fucK PCR was positive in 3 of 54 adult controls without respiratory symptoms. In conclusion, quantitative fucK real-time PCR provides a sensitive and specific identification of H. influenzae in respiratory secretions.

  • 2.
    Abdeldaim, Guma M. K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Strålin, Kristoffer
    Olcén, Per
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Toward a quantitative DNA-based definition of pneumococcal pneumonia: a comparison of Streptococcus pneumoniae target genes, with special reference to the Spn9802 fragment2008In: Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, ISSN 0732-8893, E-ISSN 1879-0070, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 143-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current shift from phenotypically toward genotypically based microbial diagnosis is not unproblematic. A novel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on the Spn9802 DNA fragment was therefore developed for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Out of 44 bacterial species, only S. pneumoniae and Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae were positive in Spn9802 PCR. In an evaluation on nasopharyngeal aspirates from 166 patients with community-acquired pneumonia, the assay was positive in 49 of 50 culture-positive cases. Of 19 culture-negative but Spn9802 PCR-positive cases, 12 were confirmed as S. pneumoniae by rnpB sequence analysis. With an expanded reference standard, including culture and rnpB sequencing, Spn9802 had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 98%. A cutoff for clinically significant positivity was 10(4) DNA copies/mL, giving 71% sensitivity and 100% specificity. In conclusion, Spn9802 real-time PCR is highly sensitive and specific. The quantification it provides enables differentiation between pneumococcal pathogenicity and commensalism.

  • 3.
    Abdeldaim, Guma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology. Benghazi Univ, Fac Med, Dept Med Microbiol & Parasitol, Benghazi, Libya..
    Svensson, Erik
    Statens Serum Inst, Int Reference Lab Mycobacteriol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Duplex detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and medically important non-tuberculosis mycobacteria by real-time PCR based on the rnpB gene2016In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 124, no 11, p. 991-995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A duplex real-time PCR based on the rnpB gene was developed for Mycobacterium spp. The assay was specific for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) and also detected all 19 tested species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The assay was evaluated on 404 clinical samples: 290 respiratory samples and 114 from tissue and other nonrespiratory body sites. M. tuberculosis was detected by culture in 40 samples and in 30 samples by the assay. The MTB assay showed a sensitivity similar to Roche Cobas Amplicor MTB-PCR (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, CA, USA). There were only nine samples with non-tuberculous mycobacteria detected by culture. Six of them were detected by the PCR assay.

  • 4.
    Albinsson, Bo
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala.
    Vene, Sirkka
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. The Public Health Agency of Sweden, Solna.
    Rombo, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD). Department of Infectious diseases, Eskilstuna.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Rönnberg, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology, Uppsala University Hospital .
    Distinction between serological responses following tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection vs vaccination, Sweden 20172018In: Eurosurveillance, ISSN 1025-496X, E-ISSN 1560-7917, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 2-7, article id 17-00838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an important European vaccine-preventable pathogen. Discrimination of vaccine-induced antibodies from those elicited by infection is important. We studied anti-TBEV IgM/IgG responses, including avidity and neutralisation, by multiplex serology in 50 TBEV patients and 50 TBEV vaccinees. Infection induced antibodies reactive to both whole virus (WV) and non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in 48 clinical cases, whereas 47 TBEV vaccinees had WV, but not NS1 antibodies, enabling efficient discrimination of infection/vaccination.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Ann-Catrin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Yun, Zhihong
    Department of Medical Sciences.
    Sperber, Göran
    Department of Neuroscience.
    Larsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Department of Medical Sciences.
    ERV3 and related sequences in humans: structure and RNA expression.2005In: J Virol, ISSN 0022-538X, Vol. 79, no 14, p. 9270-84Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Benachenhou, Farid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Jern, Patric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Oja, Merja
    Helsinki University of Technology.
    Sperber, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Blikstad, Vidar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Somervuo, Panu
    Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, Department of Computer Science, University of Helsinki.
    Kaski, Samuel
    Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, Department of Computer Science, University of Helsinki.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Evolutionary Conservation of Orthoretroviral Long Terminal Repeats (LTRs) and ab initio Detection of Single LTRs in Genomic Data2009In: PLos ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 4, no 4, p. e5179-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Retroviral LTRs, paired or single, influence the transcription of both retroviral and non-retroviral genomic sequences. Vertebrate genomes contain many thousand endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and their LTRs. Single LTRs are difficult to detect from genomic sequences without recourse to repetitiveness or presence in a proviral structure. Understanding of LTR structure increases understanding of LTR function, and of functional genomics. Here we develop models of orthoretroviral LTRs useful for detection in genomes and for structural analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Although mutated, ERV LTRs are more numerous and diverse than exogenous retroviral (XRV) LTRs. Hidden Markov models (HMMs), and alignments based on them, were created for HML- (human MMTV-like), general-beta-, gamma- and lentiretroviruslike LTRs, plus a general-vertebrate LTR model. Training sets were XRV LTRs and RepBase LTR consensuses. The HML HMM was most sensitive and detected 87% of the HML LTRs in human chromosome 19 at 96% specificity. By combining all HMMs with a low cutoff, for screening, 71% of all LTRs found by RepeatMasker in chromosome 19 were found. HMM consensus sequences had a conserved modular LTR structure. Target site duplications (TG-CA), TATA (occasionally absent), an AATAAA box and a T-rich region were prominent features. Most of the conservation was located in, or adjacent to, R and U5, with evidence for stem loops. Several of the long HML LTRs contained long ORFs inserted after the second A rich module. HMM consensus alignment allowed comparison of functional features like transcriptional start sites (sense and antisense) between XRVs and ERVs. CONCLUSION: The modular conserved and redundant orthoretroviral LTR structure with three A-rich regions is reminiscent of structurally relaxed Giardia promoters. The five HMMs provided a novel broad range, repeat-independent, ab initio LTR detection, with prospects for greater generalisation, and insight into LTR structure, which may aid development of LTR-targeted pharmaceuticals.

  • 7.
    Benachenhou, Farid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Sperber, Göran O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik
    Andersson, Goran
    Boeke, Jef D.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Conserved structure and inferred evolutionary history of long terminal repeats (LTRs)2013In: Mobile DNA, ISSN 1759-8753, E-ISSN 1759-8753, Vol. 4, p. 5-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Long terminal repeats (LTRs, consisting of U3-R-U5 portions) are important elements of retroviruses and related retrotransposons. They are difficult to analyse due to their variability. The aim was to obtain a more comprehensive view of structure, diversity and phylogeny of LTRs than hitherto possible. Results: Hidden Markov models (HMM) were created for 11 clades of LTRs belonging to Retroviridae (class III retroviruses), animal Metaviridae (Gypsy/Ty3) elements and plant Pseudoviridae (Copia/Ty1) elements, complementing our work with Orthoretrovirus HMMs. The great variation in LTR length of plant Metaviridae and the few divergent animal Pseudoviridae prevented building HMMs from both of these groups. Animal Metaviridae LTRs had the same conserved motifs as retroviral LTRs, confirming that the two groups are closely related. The conserved motifs were the short inverted repeats (SIRs), integrase recognition signals (5' TGTTRNR ... YNYAACA 3'); the polyadenylation signal or AATAAA motif; a GT-rich stretch downstream of the polyadenylation signal; and a less conserved AT-rich stretch corresponding to the core promoter element, the TATA box. Plant Pseudoviridae LTRs differed slightly in having a conserved TATA-box, TATATA, but no conserved polyadenylation signal, plus a much shorter R region. The sensitivity of the HMMs for detection in genomic sequences was around 50% for most models, at a relatively high specificity, suitable for genome screening. The HMMs yielded consensus sequences, which were aligned by creating an HMM model (a 'Superviterbi' alignment). This yielded a phylogenetic tree that was compared with a Pol-based tree. Both LTR and Pol trees supported monophyly of retroviruses. In both, Pseudoviridae was ancestral to all other LTR retrotransposons. However, the LTR trees showed the chromovirus portion of Metaviridae clustering together with Pseudoviridae, dividing Metaviridae into two portions with distinct phylogeny. Conclusion: The HMMs clearly demonstrated a unitary conserved structure of LTRs, supporting that they arose once during evolution. We attempted to follow the evolution of LTRs by tracing their functional foundations, that is, acquisition of RNAse H, a combined promoter/polyadenylation site, integrase, hairpin priming and the primer binding site (PBS). Available information did not support a simple evolutionary chain of events.

  • 8.
    Bindra, Amarinder
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Kisekka, Robinah
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Nordgren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Wärnberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Search for DNA of exogenous mouse mammary tumor virus-related virus in human breast cancer samples2007In: Journal of General Virology, ISSN 0022-1317, E-ISSN 1465-2099, Vol. 88, p. 1806-1809Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier reports of a human exogenous retrovirus (HMTV) related closely to mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) led us to search for these viral sequences in breast cancer tissues and normal tissues. A real-time PCR was developed based on MMTV and published HMTV envelope sequences. The real-time PCR method can detect one to ten copies of MMTV target DNA. Tissue samples were collected prospectively from 18 breast cancer patients and 11 non-malignant control cases, as well as peripheral blood leukocytes from the same women. Despite the high sensitivity of the real-time PCR method used, none of the samples were positive for HMTV DNA or RNA. The absence of HMTV DNA in both breast cancer samples and controls indicates either that the concentration of putative HMTV DNA in the breast cancers was too low for detection or that it did not exist there.

  • 9.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Blomberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Sjösten, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Sheikholvaezin, Ali
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Bölin-Wiener, Agnes
    Elfaitouri, Amal
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Hessel, Sanna
    Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard
    Zachrisson, Olof
    Öhrmalm, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Jobs, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Pipkorn, Ruediger
    No Evidence for Xenotropic Murine Leukemia-Related Virus Infection in Sweden Using Internally Controlled Multiepitope Suspension Array Serology2012In: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, ISSN 1556-6811, E-ISSN 1556-679X, Vol. 19, no 9, p. 1399-1410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many syndromes have a large number of differential diagnoses, a situation which calls for multiplex diagnostic systems. Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), also named chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), is a common disease of unknown etiology. A mouse retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukemia-related virus (XMRV), was found in ME/CFS patients and blood donors, but this was not corroborated. However, the paucity of serological investigations on XMRV in humans prompted us to develop a serological assay which cover many aspects of XMRV antigenicity. It is a novel suspension array method, using a multiplex IgG assay with nine recombinant proteins from the env and gag genes of XMRV and 38 peptides based on known epitopes of vertebrate gamma-retroviruses. IgG antibodies were sought in 520 blood donors and 85 ME/CFS patients and in positive-and negative-control sera from animals. We found no differences in seroreactivity between blood donors and ME/CFS patients for any of the antigens. This did not support an association between ME/CFS and XMRV infection. The multiplex serological system had several advantages: (i) biotinylated protein G allowed us to run both human and animal sera, which is essential because of a lack of XMRV-positive humans; (ii) a novel quality control was a pan-peptide positive-control rabbit serum; and (iii) synthetic XMRV Gag peptides with degenerate positions covering most of the variation of murine leukemia-like viruses did not give higher background than nondegenerate analogs. The principle may be used for creation of variant tolerant peptide serologies. Thus, our system allows rational large-scale serological assays with built-in quality control.

  • 10.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard
    Gottfries Clin AB, Molndal, Sweden..
    Elfaitouri, Amal
    Benghazi Univ, Fac Publ Hlth, Dept Infect Dis & Trop Med, Benghazi, Libya..
    Rizwan, Muhammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Rosén, Anders
    Linkoping Univ, Div Cell Biol, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Infection Elicited Autoimmunity and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: An Explanatory Model2018In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 9, article id 229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) often also called chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a common, debilitating, disease of unknown origin. Although a subject of controversy and a considerable scientific literature, we think that a solid understanding of ME/CFS pathogenesis is emerging. In this study, we compiled recent findings and placed them in the context of the clinical picture and natural history of the disease. A pattern emerged, giving rise to an explanatory model. ME/CFS often starts after or during an infection. A logical explanation is that the infection initiates an autoreactive process, which affects several functions, including brain and energy metabolism. According to our model for ME/CFS pathogenesis, patients with a genetic predisposition and dysbiosis experience a gradual development of B cell clones prone to autoreactivity. Under normal circumstances these B cell offsprings would have led to tolerance. Subsequent exogenous microbial exposition (triggering) can lead to comorbidities such as fibromyalgia, thyroid disorder, and orthostatic hypotension. A decisive infectious trigger may then lead to immunization against autoantigens involved in aerobic energy production and/or hormone receptors and ion channel proteins, producing postexertional malaise and ME/CFS, affecting both muscle and brain. In principle, cloning and sequencing of immunoglobulin variable domains could reveal the evolution of pathogenic clones. Although evidence consistent with the model accumulated in recent years, there are several missing links in it. Hopefully, the hypothesis generates testable propositions that can augment the understanding of the pathogenesis of ME/CFS.

  • 11.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Rizwan, Muhammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Böhlin-Wiener, Agnes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Elfaitouri, Amal
    Benghazi Univ, Dept Infect Dis & Trop Med, Fac Publ Hlth, Benghazi, Libya.
    Julin, Per
    Stora Skondal, Neurol Rehabil Clin, Skondal, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zachrisson, Olof
    Gottfries Clin AB, Molndal, Sweden.
    Rosen, Anders
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Div Cell Biol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard
    Gottfries Clin AB, Molndal, Sweden.
    Antibodies to Human Herpesviruses in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients2019In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 10, article id 1946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis, also referred to as chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disease characterized by myalgia and a sometimes severe limitation of physical activity and cognition. It is exacerbated by physical and mental activity. Its cause is unknown, but frequently starts with an infection. The eliciting infection (commonly infectious mononucleosis or an upper respiratory infection) can be more or less well diagnosed. Among the human herpesviruses (HHV-1 -8), HHV-4 (Epstein-Barr virus; EBV), HHV-6 (including HHV-6A and HHV-6B), and HHV-7, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ME/CFS. It was therefore logical to search for serological evidence of past herpesvirus infection/reactivation in several cohorts of ME/CFS patients (all diagnosed using the Canada criteria). Control samples were from Swedish blood donors. We used whole purified virus, recombinant proteins, and synthetic peptides as antigens in a suspension multiplex immunoassay (SMIA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG). The study on herpesviral peptides based on antigenicity with human sera yielded novel epitope information. Overall, IgG anti-herpes-viral reactivities of ME/CFS patients and controls did not show significant differences. However, the high precision and internally controlled format allowed us to observe minor relative differences between antibody reactivities of some herpesviral antigens in ME/CFS versus controls. ME/CFS samples reacted somewhat differently from controls with whole virus HHV-1 antigens and recombinant EBV EBNA6 and EA antigens. We conclude that ME/CFS samples had similar levels of IgG reactivity as blood donor samples with HHV-1-7 antigens. The subtle serological differences should not be over-interpreted, but they may indicate that the immune system of some ME/CFS patients interact with the ubiquitous herpesviruses in a way different from that of healthy controls.

  • 12.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Sheikholvaezin, Ali
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Elfaitouri, Amal
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Blomberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Sjösten, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Mattson Ulfstedt, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Pipkorn, Rüdiger
    Källander, Clas
    Öhrmalm, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Sperber, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Phylogeny-directed search for murine leukemia virus-like retroviruses in vertebrate genomes and in patients suffering from myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer2011In: Advances in Virology, ISSN 1687-8639, E-ISSN 1687-8647, Vol. 2011, p. 341294-Article, book review (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gammaretrovirus-like sequences occur in most vertebrate genomes. Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) like retroviruses (MLLVs) are a subset, which may be pathogenic and spread cross-species. Retroviruses highly similar to MLLVs (xenotropic murine retrovirus related virus (XMRV) and Human Mouse retrovirus-like RetroViruses (HMRVs)) reported from patients suffering from prostate cancer (PC) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) raise the possibility that also humans have been infected. Structurally intact, potentially infectious MLLVs occur in the genomes of some mammals, especially mouse. Mouse MLLVs contain three major groups. One, MERV G3, contained MLVs and XMRV/HMRV. Its presence in mouse DNA, and the abundance of xenotropic MLVs in biologicals, is a source of false positivity. Theoretically, XMRV/HMRV could be one of several MLLV transspecies infections. MLLV pathobiology and diversity indicate optimal strategies for investigating XMRV/HMRV in humans and raise ethical concerns. The alternatives that XMRV/HMRV may give a hard-to-detect "stealth" infection, or that XMRV/HMRV never reached humans, have to be considered.

  • 13.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Sheikholvaezin, Ali
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Elfaitouri, Amal
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Blomberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Sjösten, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Mattson Ulfstedt, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Pipkorn, Rüdiger
    Källander, Clas
    Öhrmalm, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Sperber, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Phylogeny-directed search for murine leukemia virus-like retroviruses in vertebrate genomes and in patients suffering from myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer2011In: Advances in Virology, ISSN 1687-8639, E-ISSN 1687-8647, Vol. 2011, p. 341294-Article, book review (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gammaretrovirus-like sequences occur in most vertebrate genomes. Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) like retroviruses (MLLVs) are a subset, which may be pathogenic and spread cross-species. Retroviruses highly similar to MLLVs (xenotropic murine retrovirus related virus (XMRV) and Human Mouse retrovirus-like RetroViruses (HMRVs)) reported from patients suffering from prostate cancer (PC) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) raise the possibility that also humans have been infected. Structurally intact, potentially infectious MLLVs occur in the genomes of some mammals, especially mouse. Mouse MLLVs contain three major groups. One, MERV G3, contained MLVs and XMRV/HMRV. Its presence in mouse DNA, and the abundance of xenotropic MLVs in biologicals, is a source of false positivity. Theoretically, XMRV/HMRV could be one of several MLLV transspecies infections. MLLV pathobiology and diversity indicate optimal strategies for investigating XMRV/HMRV in humans and raise ethical concerns. The alternatives that XMRV/HMRV may give a hard-to-detect "stealth" infection, or that XMRV/HMRV never reached humans, have to be considered.

  • 14. Bolisetty, M.
    et al.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Benachenhou, Farid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Sperber, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Beemon, K.
    Unexpected diversity and expression of avian endogenous retroviruses2012In: mBio, ISSN 2161-2129, Vol. 3, no 5, p. e00344-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) were identified and characterized in three avian genomes to gain insight into early retroviral evolution. Using the computer program RetroTector to detect relatively intact ERVs, we identified 500 ERVs in the chicken genome, 150 in the turkey genome, and 1,200 in the zebra finch genome. Previous studies suggested that endogenous alpharetroviruses were present in chicken genomes. In this analysis, a small number of alpharetroviruses were seen in the chicken and turkey genomes; however, these were greatly outnumbered by beta-like, gamma-like, and alphabeta proviruses. While the avian ERVs belonged to the same major groups as mammalian ERVs, they were more heterogeneous. In particular, the beta-like viruses revealed an evolutionary continuum with the gradual acquisition and loss of betaretroviral markers and a transition from beta to alphabeta and then to alpharetroviruses. Thus, it appears that birds may resemble a melting pot for early ERV evolution. Many of the ERVs were integrated in clusters on chromosomes, often near centromeres. About 25% of the chicken ERVs were in or near cellular transcription units; this is nearly random. The majority of these integrations were in the sense orientation in introns. A higher-than-random number of integrations were >100 kb from the nearest gene. Deep-sequencing studies of chicken embryo fibroblasts revealed that about 20% of the 500 ERVs were transcribed and translated. A subset of these were also transcribed in vivo in chickens, showing tissue-specific patterns of expression.

  • 15. Cadeddu, Marta
    et al.
    Vargiu, Laura
    Rodriguez-Tome, Patricia
    Sperber, Göran O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Tramontano, Enzo
    Identification and analysis of HML2 sequences in human genome assembly GRCh37/hg192013In: Retrovirology, ISSN 1742-4690, E-ISSN 1742-4690, Vol. 10, no S1, p. P9-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Chang, Ting-Chia
    et al.
    George Washington Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Biochem & Mol Med, Washington, DC 20037 USA.
    Goud, Santosh
    George Mason Univ, Sch Syst Biol, Manassas, VA USA.
    Torcivia-Rodriguez, John
    George Washington Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Biochem & Mol Med, Washington, DC 20037 USA.
    Hu, Yu
    George Washington Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Biochem & Mol Med, Washington, DC 20037 USA.
    Pan, Qing
    George Washington Univ, Dept Stat, Washington, DC 20052 USA.
    Kahsay, Robel
    George Washington Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Biochem & Mol Med, Washington, DC 20037 USA.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Mazumder, Raja
    George Washington Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Biochem & Mol Med, Washington, DC 20037 USA;George Washington Univ, McCormick Genom & Prote Ctr, Washington, DC 20037 USA.
    Investigation of somatic single nucleotide variations in human endogenous retrovirus elements and their potential association with cancer2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 4, article id e0213770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) have been investigated for potential links with human cancer. However, the distribution of somatic nucleotide variations in HERV elements has not been explored in detail. This study aims to identify HERV elements with an over-representation of somatic mutations (hot spots) in cancer patients. Four HERV elements with mutation hotspots were identified that overlap with exons of four human protein coding genes. These hotspots were identified based on the significant over-representation (p<8.62e-4) of non-synonymous single-nucleotide variations (nsSNVs). These genes are TNN (HERV-9/LTR12), OR4K15 (HERV-IP10F/LTR10F), ZNF99 (HERV-W/HERV17/LTR17), and KIR2DL1 (MST/MaLR). In an effort to identify mutations that effect survival, all nsSNVs were further evaluated and it was found that kidney cancer patients with mutation C2270G in ZNF99 have a significantly lower survival rate (hazard ratio = 2.6) compared to those without it. Among HERV elements in the human non-protein coding regions, we found 788 HERVs with significantly elevated numbers of somatic single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) (p<1.60e-5). From this category the top three HERV elements with significantly over-represented SNVs are HERV-H/LTR7, HERV-9/LTR12 and HERV-L/MLT2. Majority of the SNVs in these 788 HERV elements are located in three DNA functional groups: long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) (60%), introns (22.2%) and transcriptional factor binding sites (TFBS) (14.8%). This study provides a list of mutational hotspots in HERVs, which could potentially be used as biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  • 17.
    Danielsson, Axel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Palanisamy, Navaneethan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Golbob, Sultan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Yin, Hong
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Hedlund, Johan
    Sylvan, Staffan
    Lennerstrand, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Transmission of hepatitis C virus among intravenous drug users in the Uppsala region of Sweden2014In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 4, article id 22251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiology and transmission patterns of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are important subjects as we enter a new era of treatment with directly acting antivirals (DAAs). The highest prevalence of HCV in developed countries is found among intravenous drug users (IDUs), where unsafe needle sharing practices provide the main route of infection. Efforts to prohibit the continuous spread of HCV among these groups have been initiated by the community services and health care providers. Our goal was to understand how HCV was transmitted among IDUs within a limited population group. We provide a retrospective study (2005-2007) of the HCV transmission patterns in a population of IDUs in the Uppsala region of Sweden.

    METHOD: Eighty-two serum samples were collected from IDUs in Uppsala County. Our reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) and sequencing method enabled a comprehensive genetic analysis for a broad spectrum of genotypes of two relatively conserved regions, NS5B and NS3, that encodes for the viral polymerase and protease, respectively. HCV RNA in serum samples was amplified and sequenced with in-house primers. Sequence similarities between individuals and subgroups were analyzed with maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic trees. Published HCV reference sequences from other geographic regions and countries were also included for clarity.

    RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis was possible for 59 NS5B (72%) and 29 NS3 (35%) sequences from Uppsala patients. Additionally, we also included 15 NS3 sequences from Örebro patients, making a total of 44 NS3 sequences for the analysis. By analyzing the NS3 sequences, two transmission sets were found between the IDUs (>98% sequence identity), with one set consisting of two individuals and another set consisting of three individuals. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis done with our serum samples displayed clusters that distinguished them from the reference sequences.

    CONCLUSION: Our method seems to enable us to trace the HCV transmission between IDUs. Furthermore, the method is fairly independent of the time of infection because the method uses relatively conserved HCV sequence regions (i.e. NS5B and NS3).

  • 18.
    Elfaitouri, Amal
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Berg, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Frisk, Gun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Yin, Hong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Tuvemo, Torsten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Recent enterovirus infection in type 1 diabetes: evidence with a novel IgM method2007In: Journal of Medical Virology, ISSN 0146-6615, E-ISSN 1096-9071, Vol. 79, no 12, p. 1861-1867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterovirus (EV) infection has been associated with Type 1 (T1D) diabetes and on a few occasions virus could be isolated at onset of the disease. Using two such isolates as antigens in a quantitative PCR enhanced immunoassay (T1D-EV-QPIA) we have measured IgM antibodies against such potentially diabetogenic viruses in serum from 33 newly diagnosed T1D children, 24 siblings, and 27 healthy children. Sera were also analysed with regard to autoantibodies against GAD65, the cytokine TNF-alpha and the chemokine IP-10. EV-RNA detection was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). IgM antibodies against this "new" EV antigen were more frequent in serum from T1D children than in serum from siblings and/or controls (P < 0.001). EV-RNA was detected more frequently in PBMC from T1D children than in healthy control children (P < 0.001) and also compared to the siblings (P < 0.003). The cytokine TNF-alpha was less frequently detected in serum from the T1D children compared with serum from siblings and/controls (P < 0.001). A positive correlation was found between the results obtained with the T1D-EV-QPIA and the EV-PCR (P < 0.001). These findings are in line with earlier findings of an increased frequency of enteroviral infections in newly diagnosed T1D patients. In addition, we found that T1D children at onset of the disease had lower frequencies of the chemokine TNF-alpha in their serum than age- and sex-matched controls had, suggesting an impaired immune response.

  • 19.
    Elfaitouri, Amal
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hammarin, Anna-Lena
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Quantitative real-time PCR assay for detection of human polyomavirus infection.2006In: J Virol Methods, ISSN 0166-0934, Vol. 135, no 2, p. 207-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim was to study factors that affect behaviour related to CVD (cardiovascular diseases). Study I tested whether gender, education and so-cioeconomic status correlated to knowledge about risk factors, and Study II studied knowledge and risk behaviour from a national perspective (Sweden versus Poland). Furthermore, Study III examined whether obese people dif-fered from people of normal weight regarding knowledge about risk factors, and Study IV examined whether risk behaviour is affected by personal ex-perience of illness and family history of CVD.

    The studies are population-based with cross-sectional design. Data were obtained by questionnaires and by screening results of risk factors related to CVD. The studies were carried out among 50-year old men and women in Västmanland, Sweden (n=1011) and in Wroclaw, Poland (n=1043).

    The results show that women are more knowledgeable than men about the risk factors for CVD, and that low education is associated with insufficient knowledge about CVD (Study I). The discrepancy between knowledge and behaviour was greater among the Poles than it was among the Swedes (Study II). Obese individuals did not differ significantly from individuals with a normal weight regarding knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors when education was controlled for (Study III). Individuals with a personal experience of illness may be more inclined to change smoking behaviour than the average person (Study IV).

    In conclusion, knowledge about risk factors for CVD varies with education, gender and, to a certain degree, nationality. However, knowledge does not only consist of the conditions of behaviour change. The results in the thesis substantiate theories suggesting that change in risk behaviour is a process over time. Predictors of risk behaviours on the individual level as well as national level are of importance, and needs to be considered in the every day practice of health care professionals.

  • 20.
    Elfaitouri, Amal
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Herrmann, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Bölin-Wiener, Agnes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Wang, Yilin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard
    Zachrisson, Olof
    Pipkorn, Ruediger
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Epitopes of Microbial and Human Heat Shock Protein 60 and Their Recognition in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 55-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called Chronic Fatigue Syndrome), a common disease with chronic fatigability, cognitive dysfunction and myalgia of unknown etiology, often starts with an infection. The chaperonin human heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) occurs in mitochondria and in bacteria, is highly conserved, antigenic and a major autoantigen. The anti-HSP60 humoral (IgG and IgM) immune response was studied in 69 ME patients and 76 blood donors (BD) (the Training set) with recombinant human and E coli HSP60, and 136 30-mer overlapping and targeted peptides from HSP60 of humans, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma and 26 other species in a multiplex suspension array. Peptides from HSP60 helix I had a chaperonin-like activity, but these and other HSP60 peptides also bound IgG and IgM with an ME preference, theoretically indicating a competition between HSP60 function and antibody binding. A HSP60-based panel of 25 antigens was selected. When evaluated with 61 other ME and 399 non-ME samples (331 BD, 20 Multiple Sclerosis and 48 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients), a peptide from Chlamydia pneumoniae HSP60 detected IgM in 15 of 61 (24%) of ME, and in 1 of 399 non-ME at a high cutoff (p<0.0001). IgM to specific cross-reactive epitopes of human and microbial HSP60 occurs in a subset of ME, compatible with infection-induced autoimmunity.

  • 21.
    Elfaitouri, Amal
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Klinisk virologi.
    Mohamed, Nahla
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Klinisk virologi.
    Fohlman, Jan
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Infektion.
    Aspholm, Robert
    Frisk, Gun
    Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Friman, Göran
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Infektion.
    Magnius, Lars
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Klinisk virologi.
    Quantitative PCR-Enhanced Immunoassay for Measurement of Enteroviral Immunoglobulin M Antibody and Diagnosis of Aseptic Meningitis.2005In: Clin Diagn Lab Immunol, ISSN 1071-412X, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 235-41Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Elfaitouri, Amal
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Shao, Xingwu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Ulfstedt, Johan Mattsson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Böhlin Wiener, Agnes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Golbob, Sultan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Öhrmalm, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Matousek, Michael
    Zachrisson, Olof
    Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Murine Gammaretrovirus Group G3 Was Not Found in Swedish Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 10, article id e24602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The recent report of gammaretroviruses of probable murine origin in humans, called xenotropic murine retrovirus related virus (XMRV) and human murine leukemia virus related virus (HMRV), necessitated a bioinformatic search for this virus in genomes of the mouse and other vertebrates, and by PCR in humans.

    Results: Three major groups of murine endogenous gammaretroviruses were identified. The third group encompassed both exogenous and endogenous Murine Leukemia Viruses (MLVs), and most XMRV/HMRV sequences reported from patients suffering from myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Two sensitive real-time PCRs for this group were developed. The predicted and observed amplification range for these and three published XMRV/HMRV PCRs demonstrated conspicuous differences between some of them, partly explainable by a recombinatorial origin of XMRV. Three reverse transcription real-time PCRs (RTQPCRs), directed against conserved and not overlapping stretches of env, gag and integrase (INT) sequences of XMRV/HMRV were used on human samples. White blood cells from 78 patients suffering from ME/CFS, of which 30 patients also fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia (ME/CFS/FM) and in 7 patients with fibromyalgia (FM) only, all from the Gothenburg area of Sweden. As controls we analyzed 168 sera from Uppsala blood donors. We controlled for presence and amplifiability of nucleic acid and for mouse DNA contamination. To score as positive, a sample had to react with several of the XMRV/HMRV PCRs. None of the samples gave PCR reactions which fulfilled the positivity criteria.

    Conclusions: XMRV/HMRV like proviruses occur in the third murine gammaretrovirus group, characterized here. PCRs developed by us, and others, approximately cover this group, except for the INT RTQPCR, which is rather strictly XMRV specific. Using such PCRs, XMRV/HMRV could not be detected in PBMC and plasma samples from Swedish patients suffering from ME/CFS/FM, and in sera from Swedish blood donors.

  • 23. Escutenaire, Sophie
    et al.
    Mohamed, Nahla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Isaksson, M.
    Thorén, P.
    Klingeborn, B.
    Belák, Sandor
    Berg, Mikael
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for the generic detection of coronaviruses2007In: Archives of Virology, ISSN 0304-8608, E-ISSN 1432-8798, Vol. 152, no 1, p. 41-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coronaviruses are etiologic agents of respiratory and enteric diseases in humans and in animals. In this study, a one-step real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay based on SYBR Green chemistry and degenerate primers was developed for the generic detection of coronaviruses. The primers, designed in the open reading frame 1b, enabled the detection of 32 animal coronaviruses including strains of canine coronavirus, feline coronavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). A specific amplification was also observed with the human coronaviruses (HCoV) HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The real-time RT-PCR detected down to 10 cRNA copies from TGEV, BCoV, SARS-CoV and IBV. In addition, the assay exhibited a high sensitivity and specificity on clinical samples from different animal species. The developed assay represents a potential tool for laboratory diagnostics and for detecting still uncharacterized coronaviruses.

     

  • 24.
    Fohlman, J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Infektion.
    Friman, G
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Infektion.
    Blomberg, J
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Klinisk virologi.
    Froman, G
    Klinisk använding av PCR för mikrobiell diagnostik vid infektionssjukdomar2001In: LäkartidningenArticle in journal (Other scientific)
  • 25.
    Fohlman, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Froman, Gunnar
    Engstrand, Lars
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Johansson, Anders
    Friman, Göran
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Mikrobiell diagnostik med PCR blir kliniskt värdefull när analystiden kortas [Microbial diagnosis with PCR will become clinically beneficial with a faster analysis]2004In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 101, no 17, p. 1488-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Forsman, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Uzameckis, Dmitrijs
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Baecklund, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Åleskog, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Haematology.
    Bindra, Amarinder
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Pipkorn, Rüdiger
    Lejniece, Sandra
    Kozireva, Svetlana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Murovska, Modra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Single-tube nested quantitative PCR: a rational and sensitive technique for detection of retroviral DNA. Application to RERV-H/HRV-5 and confirmation of its rabbit origin2003In: Journal of Virological Methods, ISSN 0166-0934, E-ISSN 1879-0984, Vol. 111, no 1, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It was reported earlier that a few patients suffering from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma had low amounts of DNA from the so-called fifth human exogenous retrovirus, HRV-5. A sensitive and rational method for large-scale screening for HRV-5 DNA was therefore developed. It is a single-tube nested quantitative PCR (stnQPCR), which uses two functionally isolated primer pairs and one probe target distinct from related endogenous retroviral sequences, yet encompassing known HRV-5 variation, allowing optimal use of sequence conservation. DNA from lymphoma, myeloma, and follicular dendritic cell lines was tested for HRV-5 positivity, as was DNA from whole blood of blood donors, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and systemic lupus erythematosus patients, as well as DNA from lymph node biopsies of rheumatoid arthritis patients with lymphoma. One blood donor, one systemic lupus erythematosus patient, two previously known positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients, and one rheumatoid arthritis lymphoma patient, came out positive. They had 24, 2, 148, 480 and 30 proviral copies per microg of DNA from PBMC or lymphoma tissue, respectively. During the completion of this work it was reported that HRV-5 is a rabbit endogenous retrovirus (RERV-H), and that HRV-5 positivity was due to presence of rabbit DNA. DNA from six RERV-H/HRV-5 positive samples was therefore retested. Three also contained rabbit mitochondrial DNA. A search for HRV-5 antibodies using synthetic peptides was negative in sera from three RERV-H/HRV-5 positive individuals, as well as in 144 other sera, according with a noninfectious origin of the RERV-H/HRV-5 DNA in human samples. A search for possible sources of rabbit DNA contamination was negative. Methods for prevention of PCR contamination were strictly adhered to. Three samples from RERV-H/HRV-5 positive individuals positive at the Uppsala laboratory were retested at one or two other laboratories, and all three were positive. Two other samples, which were positive in the Riga laboratory, were tested also in London and also found positive. One non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patient was RERV-H/HRV-5 positive in four consecutive samples, showing that positivity was a property of that patient. It is concluded that the stnQPCR developed to detect and quantify minute amounts of RERV-H/HRV-5 DNA is a principle which can be applied widely and HRV-5 is a RERV-H. Its presence in a few human blood samples could not be explained.

  • 27.
    Forsman, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Yun, Zhihong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Hu, Lijuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Uzhameckis, Dmitrijs
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Jern, Patric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Development of broadly targeted human endogenous gammaretroviralpol-based real time PCRs Quantitation of RNA expression in human tissues2005In: Journal of Virological Methods, ISSN 0166-0934, E-ISSN 1879-0984, Vol. 129, no 1, p. 16-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endogenous retroviral sequences (ERVs) are dynamic genomic components with profound influences on gene expression and genomic structure. Their extent of expression is not well known. Several broadly targeted real-time reverse transcription PCR (QPCRs) systems for surveillance of RNA expression of the major groups of human gammaretroviral ERVs were constructed. The highly conserved reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase (IN) domains of the pol gene were used as targets for the PCRs, which were both probe-based (TaqMan) and probe-less (SYBR Green). Different levels of primer and probe degeneracy, with or without inosine, were tested. Several of the PCRs had sensitivities of a few HERV nucleic acid copies per PCR reaction. Specificities were approximately as expected from the fit of primers and probes. Gammaretroviral HERV RNA expression was studied in different human tissues. Each HERV group had a specific pattern of expression. HERV-E was highly expressed in testis, HERV-I/T in brain and testis, HERV-H in brain and testis, while HERV-W was highly expressed in placenta. Gammaretroviral RNA was not detected in plasma from 50 blood donors in saliva from 20 persons. In conclusion, a set of tools for investigation of gammaretroviral HERV RNA expression was created.

  • 28.
    Frisk, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Enheten för metallbiologisk forskning.
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Friman, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Sequential trace element changes in serum and blood during a common viral infection in mice2007In: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0946-672X, E-ISSN 1878-3252, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When trace elements are used as diagnostic tools during disease, it is important to know whether the balance is changed in free or bound elements. Although acute infections are associated with changed trace element balance in serum/plasma, it is not known whether changes occur concomitantly in serum and blood. In the present study the human coxsackievirus B3 (CB3), here adapted to Balb/c mice, was used to study whether infection alters the normal physiological trace element balance in blood and serum. Virus was quantitatively measured in two target organs (pancreas and liver) of this infection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), showing high concentrations of virus proving ongoing infection. Concentrations of 14 elements were measured in whole blood and serum using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) on days 3, 6 and 9 of the infection. Free and total thyroxine were measured in serum to prove metabolic changes associated with the infection. The thyroxine decreased, while iron and the Cu/Zn ratio in serum increased as a response to the infection. No clear changes in these elements were observed in blood. Cd and Hg tended to decrease in serum but to increase in blood, indicating accumulation in blood cells. Moreover, Al showed a similar decreasing trend in both serum and blood. A correlation between serum and blood levels was observed at different time points of the disease for 9 of the elements. However, As was the only element indicating correlations between serum and blood during the entire course of the disease.

  • 29.
    Frisk, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology.
    Tallkvist, Jonas
    Gadhasson, Inga-Lill
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Friman, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Coxsackievirus B3 infection affects metal-binding/transporting proteins and trace elements in the pancreas in mice2007In: Pancreas, ISSN 0885-3177, E-ISSN 1536-4828, Vol. 35, no 3, p. e37-e44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The trigger of juvenile diabetes has been suggested to be an interaction between a virus and trace elements, where enteroviruses, including coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), have been discussed as potential initiators. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects in the pancreas on gene expressions of metallothionein 1 (MT1), divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), and zinc transporter 5 (ZnT-5) and concomitant changes in iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in serum and pancreas of Balb/c mice on days 3, 6, and 9 of CVB3 infection. Methods: Trace elements were measured through inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and CVB3, MT1, DMT1, and ZnT-5 were measured by reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction. Results: Virus was found in the pancreas on all days, with a peak on day 3. Infection tended to increase Fe in both serum and the pancreas. The Cu/Zn ratio in the pancreas increased early in the infection because of a great decrease in Zn. In serum, the Cu/Zn ratio was not increased until day 9 of the disease. In the pancreas, MT1 decreased, whereas DMT1 tended to increase on day 6, and ZnT-5 increased progressively during the course of the disease. Conclusions: Virus-induced changes in trace elements, MT1, DMT1, and ZnT-5 in the pancreas may reflect early stages of the development of pancreatitis and prestages of diabetic disease.

  • 30.
    Gifford, Robert J.
    et al.
    Univ Glasgow, MRC, Ctr Virus Res, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Coffin, John M.
    Tufts Univ, Dept Mol Biol & Microbiol, Boston, MA 02111 USA.
    Fan, Hung
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Mol Biol & Biochem, Irvine, CA 92697 USA;Univ Calif Irvine, Canc Res Inst, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
    Heidmann, Thierry
    Inst Gustave Roussy, CNRS UMR 9196, Dept Mol Physiol & Pathol Infect & Endogenous Ret, F-94805 Villejuif, France.
    Mayer, Jens
    Univ Saarland, Med Fac, Dept Human Genet, Ctr Human & Mol Biol, Homburg, Germany.
    Stoye, Jonathan
    Francis Crick Inst, Mill Hill Lab, Mill Hill, London, England.
    Tristem, Michael
    Imperial Coll London, Silwood Pk Campus,Buckhurst Rd, Ascot SL5 7PY, Berks, England.
    Johnson, Welkin E.
    Boston Coll, Dept Biol, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 USA.
    Nomenclature for endogenous retrovirus (ERV) loci2018In: Retrovirology, ISSN 1742-4690, E-ISSN 1742-4690, Vol. 15, article id 59Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Retroviral integration into germline DNA can result in the formation of a vertically inherited proviral sequence called an endogenous retrovirus (ERV). Over the course of their evolution, vertebrate genomes have accumulated many thousands of ERV loci. These sequences provide useful retrospective information about ancient retroviruses, and have also played an important role in shaping the evolution of vertebrate genomes. There is an immediate need for a unified system of nomenclature for ERV loci, not only to assist genome annotation, but also to facilitate research on ERVs and their impact on genome biology and evolution. In this review, we examine how ERV nomenclatures have developed, and consider the possibilities for the implementation of a systematic approach for naming ERV loci. We propose that such a nomenclature should not only provide unique identifiers for individual loci, but also denote orthologous relationships between ERVs in different species. In addition, we propose that-where possible-mnemonic links to previous, well-established names for ERV loci and groups should be retained. We show how this approach can be applied and integrated into existing taxonomic and nomenclature schemes for retroviruses, ERVs and transposable elements.

  • 31.
    Grandi, Nicole
    et al.
    Univ Cagliari, Dept Life & Environm Sci, Cagliari.
    Cadeddu, Marta
    Univ Cagliari, Dept Life & Environm Sci, Cagliari.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Mayer, Jens
    Univ Saarland, Inst Human Genet, Homburg.
    Tramontano, Enzo
    Univ Cagliari, Dept Life & Environm Sci, Cagliari; CNR, IRGB, Monserrato.
    HERV-W group evolutionary history in non-human primates: characterization of ERV-W orthologs in Catarrhini and related ERV groups in Platyrrhini2018In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 18, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The genomes of all vertebrates harbor remnants of ancient retroviral infections, having affected the germ line cells during the last 100 million years. These sequences, named Endogenous Retroviruses (ERVs), have been transmitted to the offspring in a Mendelian way, being relatively stable components of the host genome even long after their exogenous counterparts went extinct. Among human ERVs (HERVs), the HERV-W group is of particular interest for our physiology and pathology. A HERV-W provirus in locus 7q21.2 has been coopted during evolution to exert an essential role in placenta, and the group expression has been tentatively linked to Multiple Sclerosis and other diseases. Following up on a detailed analysis of 213 HERV-W insertions in the human genome, we now investigated the ERV-W group genomic spread within primate lineages.

    Results: We analyzed HERV-W orthologous loci in the genome sequences of 12 non-human primate species belonging to Simiiformes (parvorders Catarrhini and Platyrrhini), Tarsiiformes and to the most primitive Prosimians. Analysis of HERV-W orthologous loci in non-human Catarrhini primates revealed species-specific insertions in the genomes of Chimpanzee (3), Gorilla (4), Orangutan (6), Gibbon (2) and especially Rhesus Macaque (66). Such sequences were acquired in a retroviral fashion and, in the majority of cases, by L1-mediated formation of processed pseudogenes. There were also a number of LTR-LTR homologous recombination events that occurred subsequent to separation of Catarrhini sub-lineages. Moreover, we retrieved 130 sequences in Marmoset and Squirrel Monkeys (family Cebidae, Platyrrhini parvorder), identified as ERV1–1_CJa based on RepBase annotations, which appear closely related to the ERV-W group. Such sequences were also identified in Atelidae and Pitheciidae, representative of the other Platyrrhini families. In contrast, no ERV-W-related sequences were found in genome sequence assemblies of Tarsiiformes and Prosimians.

    Conclusions: Overall, our analysis now provides a detailed picture of the ERV-W sequences colonization of the primate lineages genomes, revealing the exact dynamics of ERV-W locus formations as well as novel insights into the evolution and origin of the group.

  • 32.
    Grandi, Nicole
    et al.
    University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.
    Cadeddu, Marta
    University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.
    Pisano, Maria Paola
    University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.
    Esposito, Francesca
    University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Tramontano, Enzo
    University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.
    Identification of a novel HERV-K(HML10): comprehensive characterization and comparative analysis in non-human primates provide insights about HML10 proviruses structure and diffusion2017In: Mobile DNA, ISSN 1759-8753, E-ISSN 1759-8753, Vol. 8, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    About half of the human genome is constituted of transposable elements, including human endogenous retroviruses (HERV). HERV sequences represent the 8% of our genetic material, deriving from exogenous infections occurred millions of years ago in the germ line cells and being inherited by the offspring in a Mendelian fashion. HERV-K elements (classified as HML1-10) are among the most studied HERV groups, especially due to their possible correlation with human diseases. In particular, the HML10 group was reported to be upregulated in persistent HIV-1 infected cells as well as in tumor cells and samples, and proposed to have a role in the control of host genes expression. An individual HERV-K(HML10) member within the major histocompatibility complex C4 gene has even been studied for its possible contribution to type 1 diabetes susceptibility. Following a first characterization of the HML10 group at the genomic level, performed with the innovative software RetroTector, we have characterized in detail the 8 previously identified HML10 sequences present in the human genome, and an additional HML10 partial provirus in chromosome 1p22.2 that is reported here for the first time. Using a combined approach based on RetroTector software and a traditional Genome Browser Blat search, we identified a novel HERV-K(HML10) sequence in addition to the eight previously reported in the human genome GRCh37/hg19 assembly. We fully characterized the nine HML10 sequences at the genomic level, including their classification in two types based on both structural and phylogenetic characteristics, a detailed analysis of each HML10 nucleotide sequence, the first description of the presence of an Env Rec domain in the type II HML10, the estimated time of integration of individual members and the comparative map of the HML10 proviruses in non-human primates. We performed an unambiguous and exhaustive analysis of the nine HML10 sequences present in GRCh37/hg19 assembly, useful to increase the knowledge of the group's contribution to the human genome and laying the foundation for a better understanding of the potential physiological effects and the tentative correlation of these sequences with human pathogenesis.

  • 33. Groenen, M. A.
    et al.
    Archibald, A. L.
    Uenishi, H.
    Tuggle, C. K.
    Takeuchi, Y.
    Rothschild, M. F.
    Rogel-Gaillard, C.
    Park, C.
    Milan, D.
    Megens, H. J.
    Li, S.
    Larkin, D. M.
    Kim, H.
    Frantz, L. A.
    Caccamo, M.
    Ahn, H.
    Aken, B. L.
    Anselmo, A.
    Anthon, C.
    Auvil, L.
    Badaoui, B.
    Beattie, C. W.
    Bendixen, C.
    Berman, D.
    Blecha, F.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Bolund, L.
    Bosse, M.
    Botti, S.
    Bujie, Z.
    Byström, M.
    Capitanu, B.
    Carvalho-Silva, D.
    Chardon, P.
    Chen, C.
    Cheng, R.
    Choi, S. H.
    Chow, W.
    Clark, R. C.
    Clee, C.
    Crooijmans, R. P.
    Dawson, H. D.
    Dehais, P.
    De Sapio, F.
    Dibbits, B.
    Drou, N.
    Du, Z. Q.
    Eversole, K.
    Fadista, J.
    Fairley, S.
    Faraut, T.
    Faulkner, G. J.
    Fowler, K. E.
    Fredholm, M.
    Fritz, E.
    Gilbert, J. G.
    Giuffra, E.
    Gorodkin, J.
    Griffin, D. K.
    Harrow, J. L.
    Hayward, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Howe, K.
    Hu, Z. L.
    Humphray, S. J.
    Hunt, T.
    Hornshoj, H.
    Jeon, J. T.
    Jern, Patric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Jones, M.
    Jurka, J.
    Kanamori, H.
    Kapetanovic, R.
    Kim, J.
    Kim, J. H.
    Kim, K. W.
    Kim, T. H.
    Larson, G.
    Lee, K.
    Lee, K. T.
    Leggett, R.
    Lewin, H. A.
    Li, Y.
    Liu, W.
    Loveland, J. E.
    Lu, Y.
    Lunney, J. K.
    Ma, J.
    Madsen, O.
    Mann, K.
    Matthews, L.
    McLaren, S.
    Morozumi, T.
    Murtaugh, M. P.
    Narayan, J.
    Nguyen, D. T.
    Ni, P.
    Oh, S. J.
    Onteru, S.
    Panitz, F.
    Park, E. W.
    Park, H. S.
    Pascal, G.
    Paudel, Y.
    Perez-Enciso, M.
    Ramirez-Gonzalez, R.
    Reecy, J. M.
    Rodriguez-Zas, S.
    Rohrer, G. A.
    Rund, L.
    Sang, Y.
    Schachtschneider, K.
    Schraiber, J. G.
    Schwartz, J.
    Scobie, L.
    Scott, C.
    Searle, S.
    Servin, B.
    Southey, B. R.
    Sperber, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Stadler, P.
    Sweedler, J. V.
    Tafer, H.
    Thomsen, B.
    Wali, R.
    Wang, J.
    White, S.
    Xu, X.
    Yerle, M.
    Zhang, G.
    Zhang, J.
    Zhao, S.
    Rogers, J.
    Churcher, C.
    Schook, L. B.
    Analyses of pig genomes provide insight into porcine demography and evolution2012In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 491, no 7424, p. 393-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For 10,000 years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparison with the genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Europe and Asia. Wild pigs emerged in South East Asia and subsequently spread across Eurasia. Our results reveal a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian wild boars approximately 1 million years ago, and a selective sweep analysis indicates selection on genes involved in RNA processing and regulation. Genes associated with immune response and olfaction exhibit fast evolution. Pigs have the largest repertoire of functional olfactory receptor genes, reflecting the importance of smell in this scavenging animal. The pig genome sequence provides an important resource for further improvements of this important livestock species, and our identification of many putative disease-causing variants extends the potential of the pig as a biomedical model.

  • 34. Gyarmati, Péter
    et al.
    Mohammed, Nahla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Norder, Helene
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Belák, Sándor
    Widén, Frederik
    Universal detection of hepatitis E virus by two real-time PCR assays: TaqMan((R)) and Primer-Probe Energy Transfer2007In: Journal of Virological Methods, ISSN 0166-0934, E-ISSN 1879-0984, Vol. 146, no 1-2, p. 226-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of food- and waterborne diseases in countries with poor sanitation. Furthermore, travellers to such countries are also at risk of contracting the virus. Noteworthily, during the last decade an increasing number of non-travel-related cases were recorded even in countries with high sanitary standards. An alternative, direct route of infection, from animals to humans (zoonotic transmission) is suspected to be the cause of recent cases of hepatitis E. In order to provide rapid and sensitive methods for detecting the virus in various hosts, two real-time PCR methods were developed and compared: a TaqMan (R) and Primer-Probe Energy Transfer (PriProET) assay. These highly sensitive novel methods provide valuable diagnostic tools to investigate zoonotic transmission, to detect the virus in the food chain and in research related to the potential of hepatitis E virus to cross the species barrier. The results show that the two novel PCR assays are robust, highly sensitive and specific for broad range detection of the four genotypes of HEV. Compared to PriProET, the TaqMan (R) assay appears to perform slightly better, with higher fluorescence values for positive samples. However, the PriProET has the benefit of better tolerating the point mutations in the target nucleic acids. Thus, it provides a more powerful tool to detect new virus variants. These new molecular diagnostic assays are practical tools that can be employed in the area of public health, for disease diagnosis and for tracking outbreaks. In basic research the methods provide new tools to study HEV biology, including virus-host interactions and transmission between various host species.

  • 35.
    Herrmann, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Larsson, Viviana Cavaglia
    Klinisk virologi.
    Rubin, Carl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Bacteriology.
    Sund, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Eriksson, Britt-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Arvidson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Yun, Zhibing
    Bondeson, Kåre
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Comparison of a duplex quantitative real-time PCR assay and the COBAS Amplicor CMV Monitor test for detection of cytomegalovirus2004In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 1909-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was designed to detect both the polymerase gene (pol) and the glycoprotein gene (gB) of cytomegalovirus (CMV). The detection limit of the qPCR was determined to be 1 to 3 copies/reaction and the linear measure interval was 10(3) to 10(8) copies/ml. The qPCR system was compared to the COBAS Amplicor CMV Monitor test (COBAS) by an analysis of 138 plasma samples. Both systems detected CMV in 71 cases and had negative results for 33 samples. In addition, 34 samples were positive by qPCR and negative by the COBAS assay, but in no case was the COBAS result positive and the qPCR result negative. Thus, qPCR detected 48% more positive cases than the COBAS method. For samples with > or = 10(5) copies/ml by qPCR, a saturation effect was seen in the COBAS assay and quantification required dilution. Copy numbers for pol and gB by qPCR generally agreed. However, the reproducibility of qPCR assays and the need for an international standard are discussed. Discrepant copy numbers for pol and gB by qPCR were found for samples from two patients, and sequence analysis revealed that the corresponding CMV strains were mismatched at four nucleotide positions compared with the gB fragment primer sequences. In conclusion, a duplex qPCR assay in a real-time format facilitates quantitative measurements and minimizes the risk of false-negative results.

  • 36. Hornyak, Akos
    et al.
    Balint, Adam
    Farsang, Attila
    Balka, Gyula
    Hakhverdyan, Mikhayil
    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Virology.
    Belak, Sandor
    Detection of subgenomic mRNA of feline coronavirus by real-time polymerase chain reaction based on primer-probe energy transfer (P-sg-QPCR)2012In: Journal of Virological Methods, ISSN 0166-0934, E-ISSN 1879-0984, Vol. 181, no 2, p. 155-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feline infectious peritonitis is one of the most severe devastating diseases of the Felidae. Upon the appearance of clinical signs, a cure for the infected animal is impossible. Therefore rapid and proper diagnosis for both the presence of the causative agent, feline coronavirus (FCoV) and the manifestation of feline infectious peritonitis is of paramount importance. In the present work, a novel real-time RT-PCR method is described which is able to detect FCoV and to determine simultaneously the quantity of the viral RNA. The new assay combines the M gene subgenomic messenger RNA (sg-mRNA) detection and the quantitation of the genome copies of FCoV. In order to detect the broadest spectrum of potential FCoV variants and to achieve the most accurate results in the detection ability the new assay is applying the primer-probe energy transfer (PriProET) principle. This technology was chosen since PriProET is very robust to tolerate the nucleotide substitutions in the target area. Therefore, this technology provides a very broad-range system, which is able to detect simultaneously many variants of the virus(es) even if the target genomic regions show large scale of variations. The detection specificity of the new assay was proven by positive amplification from a set of nine different FCoV strains and negative from the tested non-coronaviral targets. Examination of faecal samples of healthy young cats, organ samples of perished animals, which suffered from feline infectious peritonitis, and cat leukocytes from uncertain clinical cases were also subjected to the assay. The sensitivity of the P-sg-QPCR method was high, since as few as 10 genome copies of FCoV were detected. The quantitative sg-mRNA detection method revealed more than 10-50,000 times increase of the M gene sg-mRNA in organ materials of feline infectious peritonitis cases, compared to those of the enteric FCoV variants present in the faeces of normal, healthy cats. These results indicate the applicability of the new P-sg-QPCR test as a powerful novel tool for the better detection and quantitation of FCoV and for the improved diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis, this important disease of the Felidae, causing serious losses in the cat populations at a global scale.

  • 37.
    Hu, Lijuan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hornung, Daniela
    Kurek, Raffael
    Ostman, Helen
    Helen, Ostman
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Bergqvist, Agneta
    Expression of human endogenous gammaretroviral sequences in endometriosis and ovarian cancer.2006In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, ISSN 0889-2229, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 551-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Hu, Lijuan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Uzhameckis, Dmitrijs
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Hedborg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Dynamic and selective HERV RNA expression in neuroblastoma cells subjected to variation in oxygen tension and demethylation2016In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 124, no 1-2, p. 140-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied HERV expression in cell lines after hypoxia, mitogenic stimulation, and demethylation, to better understand if hypoxia may play a role in ERV activation also within the nervous system, as represented by neuroblastoma cell lines. The level of RNA of four human ERV groups (HERVs) (HERVE, I/T, H, and W), and three housekeeping genes, of different cell lines including A549, COS-1, Namalwa, RD-L and Vero-E6, as well as human neuroblastoma cell lines SH-SY5Y, SK-N-DZ, and SK-N-AS were studied using reverse transcription and real-time quantitative PCR (QPCR). During the course of recovery from hypoxia a pronounced and selective activation of RNA expression of HERVW-like sequences, but not of HERVE, I/T, H, and three housekeeping genes, was found in the neuroblastoma cell lines, most pronounced in SK-N-DZ. In the SK-N-DZ cell line, we also tested the expression of HERVs after chemical treatments. HERVW-like sequences were selectively upregulated by 5-azacytidine, a demethylating agent. Some HERVW loci seem especially responsive to hypoxia and demethylation. HERV expression in neuroblastoma cells is selectively and profoundly influenced by some physiological and chemical stimuli.

  • 39.
    Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Frisk, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology.
    Mohamed, Nahla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Gadhasson, Inga-Lill
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Friman, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Virus induces metal-binding proteins and changed trace element balance in the brain during the course of a common human infection (coxsackievirus B3) in mice2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 381, no 1-3, p. 88-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autopsy of the brain has shown a change in trace element balance in some virus-infected individuals, but it is not known whether this event was a result of the infection. In the present study coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) adapted to Balb/c mice was used to study whether infection induces gene expression of the metal-binding/transporting proteins metallothionein (MT1 and MT3) and divalent-metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and whether it changes the balance of trace elements in the brain. Virus and MT1, MT3, and DMT1 were quantitatively measured by RT-PCR on days 3, 6 and 9 of the infection. Trace elements (13) were measured in serum and the brain by ICP-MS. High numbers of virus were found in the brain on days 3 and 6, but virus counts were decreased and present only in 50% of the mice on day 9. Gene expression of MT1 tended to increase on all days, whereas that of MT3 only showed a minor and not significant increase on day 3. No clear effect was observed in the expression of DMT1. The increase of MT3 was correlated to the brain concentration of Cu. The Cu/Zn ratio in serum increased as a response to the infection. There was a similar decrease in Cd in serum and the brain. On day 6 of the infection, Hg increased in the brain (p<0.05) and was positively correlated to a concomitant decrease (p<0.05) in serum. Virus numbers in the brain were on day 6 positively correlated (p<0.05) to As concentrations. Enteroviral infections may therefore be an underlying factor regarding the changes in essential as well as potentially toxic trace elements in the brain.

  • 40.
    Jern, Patric
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lindeskog, Mats
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Karlsson, Damita
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Full-length HERV-H elements with env SU open reading frames in the human genome.2002In: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, ISSN 0889-2229, Vol. 18, no 9, p. 671-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Jern, Patric
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Sperber, Göran
    Department of Neuroscience.
    Ahlsén, Göran
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Sequence variability, gene structure, and expression of full-length human endogenous2005In: J Virol, ISSN 0022-538X, Vol. 79, no 10, p. 6325-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Jern, Patric
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Sperber, Göran
    Department of Neuroscience.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Definition and variation of human endogenous retrovirus H.2004In: Virology, ISSN 0042-6822, Vol. 327, no 1, p. 93-110Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Jern, Patric
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Sperber, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Divergent patterns of recent retroviral integrations in the human and chimpanzee genomes: probable transmissions between other primates and chimpanzees2006In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 1367-1375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human genome is littered by endogenous retrovirus sequences (HERVs), which constitute up to 8% of the total genomic sequence. The sequencing of the human (Homo sapiens) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) genomes has facilitated the evolutionary study of ERVs and related sequences. We screened both the human genome (version hg16) and the chimpanzee genome (version PanTro1) for ERVs and conducted a phylogenetic analysis of recent integrations. We found a number of recent integrations within both genomes. They segregated into four groups. Two larger gammaretrovirus-like groups (PtG1 and PtG2) occurred in chimpanzees but not in humans. The PtG sequences were most similar to two baboon ERVs and a macaque sequence but neither to other chimpanzee ERVs nor to any human gammaretrovirus-like ERVs. The pattern was consistent with cross-species transfer via predation. This appears to be an example of horizontal transfer of retroviruses with occasional fixation in the germ line.

  • 44.
    Jern, Patric
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Sperber, Göran
    Department of Neuroscience. fysiologi.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Use of Endogenous Retroviral Sequences (ERVs) and structural markers for retroviral2005In: Retrovirology, ISSN 1742-4690, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 50-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Kaarme, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Hickman, Rachel A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Nevéus, Tryggve
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Öhrmalm, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Reassuringly low carriage of enteropathogens among healthy Swedish children in day care centres2016In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 140, p. 221-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases among children and has a considerable impact on health and socio-economy. Day care centres are highrisk environments for infections. The aim of this study was to investigate if asymptomatic preschool children constitute a reservoir for potential enteropathogens. Study design: In total, 438 individual diapers were collected from day care centres in Uppsala, Sweden, during spring and autumn, and molecular techniques were used to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic carriage of multiple enteropathogens. Methods: Faecal samples were analysed with multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (xTAG® Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel; Luminex Corporation, Toronto, Canada) targeting 21 different pathogens. Samples with a median fluorescence intensity above threshold were re-analysed with a second PCR assay. Results: Sixteen of the 438 samples were positive for enteropathogens, 1.6% for enteric adenovirus, 0.7% for Campylobacter spp., and 0.7% for norovirus. Conclusions: Preschool children in Uppsala constitute a limited reservoir for potential enteropathogens

  • 46.
    Krupovic, Mart
    et al.
    Inst Pasteur, Dept Microbiol, Paris, France..
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology.
    Coffin, John M.
    Tufts Univ, Sch Med, Dept Mol Biol & Microbiol, Boston, MA 02111 USA..
    Dasgupta, Indranil
    Univ Delhi, Dept Plant Mol Biol, New Delhi, India..
    Fan, Hung
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Mol Biol & Biochem, Irvine, CA 92717 USA..
    Geering, Andrew D.
    Univ Queensland, Queensland Alliance Agr & Food Innovat, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Gifford, Robert
    Univ Glasgow, Ctr Virus Res, MRC, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Harrach, Balazs
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Ctr Agr Res, Inst Vet Med Res, Budapest, Hungary..
    Hull, Roger
    Child Okeford, Blandford Forum, Dorset, England..
    Johnson, Welkin
    Boston Coll, Biol Dept, Chestnut Hill, MA 02167 USA..
    Kreuze, Jan F.
    Int Potato Ctr CIP, Crop & Syst Sci Div, Lima, Peru..
    Lindemann, Dirk
    Tech Univ Dresden, Inst Virol, Dresden, Germany..
    Llorens, Carlos
    Univ Valencia, Parc Cientif, Biotechvana, Valencia, Spain..
    Lockhart, Ben
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Plant Pathol, St Paul, MN USA..
    Mayer, Jens
    Univ Saarland, Inst Human Genet, Homburg, Germany..
    Muller, Emmanuelle
    CIRAD, UMR BGPI, Montpellier, France.;Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, INRA, BGPI,Montpellier SupAgro, Montpellier, France..
    Olszewski, Neil E.
    Univ Minnesota, Dept Microbial & Plant Biol, St Paul, MN 55108 USA..
    Pappu, Hanu R.
    Washington State Univ, Dept Plant Pathol, Pullman, WA 99164 USA..
    Pooggin, Mikhail M.
    INRA, UMR BGPI, Montpellier, France..
    Richert-Poeggeler, Katja R.
    Julius Kuhn Inst, Inst Epidemiol & Pathogen Diagnost, Braunschweig, Germany..
    Sabanadzovic, Sead
    Mississippi State Univ, Dept Biochem Mol Biol Entomol & & Plant Pathol, Mississippi State, MS 39762 USA..
    Sanfacon, Helene
    Agr & Agrifood Canada, Summerland Res & Dev Ctr, Summerland, BC, Canada..
    Schoelz, James E.
    Univ Missouri, Div Plant Sci, Columbia, MO USA..
    Seal, Susan
    Univ Greenwich, Nat Resources Inst, Chatham, Kent, England..
    Stavolone, Livia
    CNR, Ist Protez Sostenibile Piante, Bari, Italy.;Int Inst Trop Agr, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Stoye, Jonathan P.
    Imperial Coll London, Fac Med, Francis Crick Inst, BB, London, England.;Imperial Coll London, Fac Med, Dept Med, BB, London, England..
    Teycheney, Pierre-Yves
    CIRAD, UMR AGAP, Capesterre Belle Eau, Guadeloupe, France.;Univ Montpellier, INRA, CIRAD, AGAP,Montpellier SupAgro, Montpellier, France..
    Tristem, Michael
    Imperial Coll London, Silwood Pk Campus, Ascot, Berks, England..
    Koonin, Eugene V.
    Natl Lib Med, Natl Ctr Biotechnol Informat, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20894 USA..
    Kuhn, Jens H.
    NIAID, Integrated Res Facil Ft Detrick, NIH, Frederick, MD USA..
    Ortervirales: New Virus Order Unifying Five Families of Reverse-Transcribing Viruses2018In: Journal of Virology, ISSN 0022-538X, E-ISSN 1098-5514, Vol. 92, no 12, article id e00515-18Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Lennerstrand, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Bondeson, Kåre
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Bergqvist, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Öberg, Bo
    Medivir AB.
    Nya antivirala läkemedel mot hepatit C i kliniska studier: Ger hopp om bot - men resistens-problematiken måste bemästras2009In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 106, no 48, p. 3254-3260Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48. Mayer, J.
    et al.
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine, Clinical Virology.
    Seal, RL.
    A revised nomenclature for transcribed human endogenous retroviral loci2011In: Mobile DNA, ISSN 1759-8753, E-ISSN 1759-8753, Vol. 2, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and ERV-like sequences comprise 8% of the human genome. A hitherto unknown proportion of ERV loci are transcribed and thus contribute to the human transcriptome. A small proportion of these loci encode functional proteins. As the role of ERVs in normal and diseased biological processes is not yet established, transcribed ERV loci are of particular interest. As more transcribed ERV loci are likely to be identified in the near future, the development of a systematic nomenclature is important to ensure that all information on each locus can be easily retrieved.

    Results

    Here we present a revised nomenclature of transcribed human endogenous retroviral loci that sorts loci into groups based on Repbase classifications. Each symbol is of the format ERV + group symbol + unique number. Group symbols are based on a mixture of Repbase designations and well-supported symbols used in the literature. The presented guidelines will allow newly identified loci to be easily incorporated into the scheme.

    Conclusions

    The naming system will be employed by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee for naming transcribed human ERV loci. We hope that the system will contribute to clarifying a certain aspect of a sometimes confusing nomenclature for human endogenous retroviruses. The presented system may also be employed for naming transcribed loci of human non-ERV repeat loci.

  • 49. Mezger, Anja
    et al.
    Öhrmalm, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Herthnek, David
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Detection of Rotavirus Using Padlock Probes and Rolling Circle Amplification2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 11, p. e111874-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rotavirus infections are one of the most common reasons for hospitalizations due to gastrointestinal diseases. Rotavirus is often diagnosed by latex agglutination assay, chromatography immunoassay, or by electron microscopy, which are all quite insensitive. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, on the other hand, is very sensitive to variations at the genomic level. We developed a novel assay based on a set of 58 different padlock probes with a detection limit of 1,000 copies. Twenty-two patient samples were analyzed and the assay showed high concordance with a PCR-based assay. In summary, we present a new assay for sensitive and variation tolerant detection of rotavirus.

  • 50.
    Mohamed, Nahla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Belák, Sándor
    Hedlund, Kjell-Olof
    Blomberg, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Experience from the development of a diagnostic single tube real-time PCR for human caliciviruses, Norovirus genogroups I and II.2006In: J Virol Methods, ISSN 0166-0934, Vol. 132, no 1-2, p. 69-76Article in journal (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 68
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