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  • 1.
    Aftab, Obaid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Engskog, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Haglöf, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Elmsjö, Albert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Hammerling, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    NMR spectroscopy based metabolic profiling of drug induced changes in vitro can discriminate between pharmacological classes2014In: Journal of chemical information and modeling, ISSN 1549-9596, Vol. 54, no 11, p. 3251-3258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drug induced changes in mammalian cell line models have already been extensively profiled at the systemic mRNA level and subsequently used to suggest mechanisms of action for new substances as well as to support drug repurposing, i.e. identifying new potential indications for drugs already licensed for other pharmacotherapy settings. The seminal work in this field, which includes a large database and computational algorithms for pattern matching, is known as the “Connectivity Map” (CMap). The potential of similar exercises at the metabolite level is, however, still largely unexplored. Only recently the first high throughput metabolomic assay pilot study was published, involving screening of metabolic response to a set of 56 kinase inhibitors in a 96-well format. Here we report results from a separately developed metabolic profiling assay, which leverages 1H NMR spectroscopy to the quantification of metabolic changes in the HCT116 colorectal cancer cell line, in response to each of 26 compounds. These agents are distributed across 12 different pharmacological classes covering a broad spectrum of bioactivity. Differential metabolic profiles, inferred from multivariate spectral analysis of 18 spectral bins, allowed clustering of most tested drugs according to their respective pharmacological class. A more advanced supervised analysis, involving one multivariate scattering matrix per pharmacological class and using only 3 spectral bins (three metabolites), showed even more distinct pharmacology-related cluster formations. In conclusion, this kind of relatively fast and inexpensive profiling seems to provide a promising alternative to that afforded by mRNA expression analysis, which is relatively slow and costly. As also indicated by the present pilot study, the resulting metabolic profiles do not seem to provide as information rich signatures as those obtained using systemic mRNA profiling, but the methodology holds strong promise for significant refinement.

  • 2.
    Amini, Ahmad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Lodén, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Principles for different modes of multiple-injection CZE2008In: Electrophoresis, ISSN 0173-0835, E-ISSN 1522-2683, Vol. 29, no 19, p. 3952-3958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces four different modes of multiple-injection CZE (MICZE). The validity of these MICZE models was evaluated by the experimental data. Prior to the application of MICZE, the electrophoretic conditions are developed in the single-injection mode by adjusting different experimental parameters such as pH, type and concentration of buffer additives and temperature. Based on the migration time difference (tmig) between the analyte and the internal standard or injection marker, one or more MICZE modes can be employed. The injection marker is added to the sample to compensate for injection-volume fluctuations. The inter-plug distance is regulated by applying an electrical field over the capillary for a short period of time between each injection. After the final injection, the separation is completed by electrophoresis for a time period corresponding to that in the single-injection mode

  • 3. Amini, Ahmad
    et al.
    Rundlöf, Torgny
    Grön Rydberg, May-Britt
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Analytisk Farmaceutisk kemi.
    Characterization of sulfated beta-cyclodextrins and determination of enantiomeric purity of (1 R,2S)-ephedrine by capillary zone electrophoresis.2004In: J Sep Sci, ISSN 1615-9306, Vol. 27, no 13, p. 1102-8Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 4.
    Bekiroglu, Somer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Myrberg, Olle
    Ostman, Kristina
    Ek, Marianne
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Rundlöf, Torgny
    Hakkarainen, Birgit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Validation of a quantitative NMR method for suspected counterfeit products exemplified on determination of benzethonium chloride in grapefruit seed extracts2008In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 47, no 4-5, p. 958-961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A H-1-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy method for quantitative determination of benzethonium chloride (BTC) as a constituent of grapefruit seed extract was developed. The method was validated, assessing its specificity, linearity, range, and precision, as well as accuracy, limit of quantification and robustness. The method includes quantification using an internal reference standard, 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene, and regarded as simple, rapid, and easy to implement. A commercial grapefruit seed extract was studied and the experiments were performed on spectrometers operating at two different fields, 300 and 600 MHz for proton frequencies, the former with a broad band (BB) probe and the latter equipped with both a BB probe and a CryoProbe (TM). The concentration average for the product sample was 78.0, 77.8 and 78.4 mg/ml using the 300 BB probe, the 600 MHz BB probe and CryoProbe (TM), respectively. The standard deviation and relative standard deviation (R.S.D., in parenthesis) for the average concentrations was 0.2 (0.3%), 0.3 (0.4%) and 0.3 mg/ml (0.4%), respectively.

  • 5.
    Elmsjö, Albert
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Haglöf, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Engskog, Mikael K. R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Nestor, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Med Prod Agcy, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    The co-feature ratio, a novel method for the measurement of chromatographic and signal selectivity in LC-MS-based metabolomics.2017In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 956, p. 40-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of analytical procedures, especially in regards to measuring chromatographic and signal selectivity, is highly challenging in untargeted metabolomics. The aim of this study was to suggest a new straightforward approach for a systematic examination of chromatographic and signal selectivity in LC-MS-based metabolomics. By calculating the ratio between each feature and its co-eluting features (the co-features), a measurement of the chromatographic selectivity (i.e. extent of co-elution) as well as the signal selectivity (e.g. amount of adduct formation) of each feature could be acquired, the co-feature ratio. This approach was used to examine possible differences in chromatographic and signal selectivity present in samples exposed to three different sample preparation procedures. The capability of the co-feature ratio was evaluated both in a classical targeted setting using isotope labelled standards as well as without standards in an untargeted setting. For the targeted analysis, several metabolites showed a skewed quantitative signal due to poor chromatographic selectivity and/or poor signal selectivity. Moreover, evaluation of the untargeted approach through multivariate analysis of the co-feature ratios demonstrated the possibility to screen for metabolites displaying poor chromatographic and/or signal selectivity characteristics. We conclude that the co-feature ratio can be a useful tool in the development and evaluation of analytical procedures in LC-MS-based metabolomics investigations. Increased selectivity through proper choice of analytical procedures may decrease the false positive and false negative discovery rate and thereby increase the validity of any metabolomic investigation.

  • 6.
    Elmsjö, Albert
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Rosqvist, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Engskog, Mikael K R
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Haglöf, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Iggman, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    NMR-based metabolic profiling in healthy individuals overfed different types of fat: links to changes in liver fat accumulation and lean tissue mass.2015In: Nutrition & Diabetes, ISSN 2044-4052, E-ISSN 2044-4052, Vol. 5, no 19, p. e182-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Overeating different dietary fatty acids influence the amount of liver fat stored during weight gain, however, the mechanisms responsible are unclear. We aimed to identify non-lipid metabolites that may differentiate between saturated (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) overfeeding using a non-targeted metabolomic approach. We also investigated the possible relationships between plasma metabolites and body fat accumulation.

    METHODS: In a randomized study (LIPOGAIN study), n=39 healthy individuals were overfed with muffins containing SFA or PUFA. Plasma samples were precipitated with cold acetonitrile and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Pattern recognition techniques were used to overview the data, identify variables contributing to group classification and to correlate metabolites with fat accumulation.

    RESULTS: We previously reported that SFA causes a greater accumulation of liver fat, visceral fat and total body fat, whereas lean tissue levels increases less compared with PUFA, despite comparable weight gain. In this study, lactate and acetate were identified as important contributors to group classification between SFA and PUFA (P<0.05). Furthermore, the fat depots (total body fat, visceral adipose tissue and liver fat) and lean tissue correlated (P(corr)>0.5) all with two or more metabolites (for example, branched amino acids, alanine, acetate and lactate). The metabolite composition differed in a manner that may indicate higher insulin sensitivity after a diet with PUFA compared with SFA, but this needs to be confirmed in future studies.

    CONCLUSION: A non-lipid metabolic profiling approach only identified a few metabolites that differentiated between SFA and PUFA overfeeding. Whether these metabolite changes are involved in depot-specific fat storage and increased lean tissue mass during overeating needs further investigation.

  • 7.
    Engskog, Mikael K R
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Björklund, My
    Haglöf, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Shoshan, Maria
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Metabolic profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines: evaluation of harvesting protocols for profiling using NMR spectroscopy2015In: Bioanalysis, ISSN 1757-6180, E-ISSN 1757-6199, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 157-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Metabolic profiling represents a novel technology for analyzing tumor cells. Epithelial ovarian carcinoma has a low survival rate due to the development of aggressive and chemotherapy-resistant cells. A tailored and reliable protocol is presented for profiling of chemoresistant cells using the cell line SKOV3 and a multiresistant subline SKOV3R.

    RESULTS: Harvesting protocols with cold methanol or MilliQ freeze/thaw cycles were compared. Increased reproducibility using MilliQ was evidenced. Importantly, both approaches resulted in similar profiles. Compared with parental SKOV3, the SKOV3R cells showed a significantly different profile.

    CONCLUSION: The MilliQ protocol is preferred owing to higher reproducibility and increased sample preparation options. The resulting metabolic profiles summarize metabolic alterations in chemoresistant cells consistent with a progressed and aggressive phenotype.

  • 8.
    Engskog, Mikael K. R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Ersson, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Haglöf, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Medical Product Agency, Box 26, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 42, 751 03 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) perturbs alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism pathways in human neuroblastoma cells as determined by metabolic profiling2017In: Amino Acids, ISSN 0939-4451, E-ISSN 1438-2199, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 905-919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    β-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that induces long-term cognitive deficits, as well as an increased neurodegeneration and intracellular fibril formation in the hippocampus of adult rodents following short-time neonatal exposure and in vervet monkey brain following long-term exposure. It has also been proposed to be involved in the etiology of neurodegenerative disease in humans. The aim of this study was to identify metabolic effects not related to excitotoxicity or oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The effects of BMAA (50, 250, 1000 µM) for 24 h on cells differentiated with retinoic acid were studied. Samples were analyzed using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy to detect altered intracellular polar metabolites. The analysis performed, followed by multivariate pattern recognition techniques, revealed significant perturbations in protein biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism pathways and citrate cycle. Of specific interest were the BMAA-induced alterations in alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism and as well as alterations in various neurotransmitters/neuromodulators such as GABA and taurine. The results indicate that BMAA can interfere with metabolic pathways involved in neurotransmission in human neuroblastoma cells.

  • 9.
    Engskog, Mikael K R
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Haglöf, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Evaluation of harvesting protocols for metabolic profiling of epithelial ovarian cancer cells2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Engskog, Mikael K. R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Haglöf, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Med Prod Agcy, Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 42,Box 26, SE-75103 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Pettersson, Curt
    LC-MS based global metabolite profiling: the necessity of high data quality2016In: Metabolomics, ISSN 1573-3882, E-ISSN 1573-3890, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 114Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LC-MS based global metabolite profiling currently lacks detailed guidelines to demonstrate that the obtained data is of high enough analytical quality. Insufficient data quality may result in the failure to generate a hypothesis, or in the worst case, a false or skewed hypothesis. After assessing the literature, it is apparent that an analytically focused summary and critical discussion related to this subject would be beneficial for both beginners and experts engaged in this field. A particular focus will be placed on data quality, which we here define as the degree to which a set of parameters fulfills predetermined criteria, similar to the established guidelines for targeted analysis. However, several of these parameters are difficult to assess since holistic approaches measure thousands of metabolites in parallel and seldom include predefined knowledge of which metabolites will differ between sample groups. In this review, the following parameters will be discussed in detail: reproducibility, selectivity, certainty of metabolite identification and metabolite coverage. The review systematically describes the generic workflow for LC-MS based global metabolite profiling and highlights how each separate part may affect data quality. The last part of the review describes how data quality can be evaluated as well as identifies areas where additional improvement is needed. In this review, we provide our own analytical opinions in regards to evaluation and, to some extent, improvement of data quality.

  • 11.
    Engskog, Mikael K R
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Haglöf, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Elmsjö, Albert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    The cyanobacterial amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine perturbs the intermediary metabolism in neonatal rats2017In: Amino Acids, ISSN 0939-4451, E-ISSN 1438-2199, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 905-919, article id 10.1007/s00726-017-2391-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neurotoxic amino acid β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is produced by most cyanobacteria. BMAA is considered as a potential health threat because of its putative role in neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously observed cognitive disturbances and morphological brain changes in adult rodents exposed to BMAA during the development. The aim of this study was to characterize changes of major intermediary metabolites in serum following neonatal exposure to BMAA using a non-targeted metabolomic approach. NMR spectroscopy was used to obtain serum metabolic profiles from neonatal rats exposed to BMAA (40, 150, 460mg/kg) or vehicle on postnatal days 9-10. Multivariate data analysis of binned NMR data indicated metabolic pattern differences between the different treatment groups. In particular five metabolites, d-glucose, lactate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, creatine and acetate, were changed in serum of BMAA-treated neonatal rats. These metabolites are associated with changes in energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism. Further statistical analysis disclosed that all the identified serum metabolites in the lowest dose group were significantly (p<0.05) decreased. The neonatal rat model used in this study is so far the only animal model that displays significant biochemical and behavioral effects after a low short-term dose of BMAA. The demonstrated perturbation of intermediary metabolism may contribute to BMAA-induced developmental changes that result in long-term effects on adult brain function.

  • 12.
    Haglind, Alfred
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Hedeland, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Dept. of Chemistry, Environment and Feed Hygiene, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Medical Products Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Curt E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Major signal suppression from metal ion clusters in SFC/ESI-MS: Cause and Effects2018In: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 1084, p. 96-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widening application area of SFC-MS with polar analytes and water-containing samples facilitates the use of quick and simple sample preparation techniques such as “dilute and shoot” and protein precipitation. This has also introduced new polar interfering components such as alkali metal ions naturally abundant in e.g. blood plasma and urine, which have shown to be retained using screening conditions in SFC/ESI-TOF-MS and causing areas of major ion suppression. Analytes co-eluting with these clusters will have a decreased signal intensity, which might have a major effect on both quantification and identification. When investigating the composition of the alkali metal clusters using accurate mass and isotopic pattern, it could be concluded that they were previously not described in the literature. Using NaCl and KCl standards and different chromatographic conditions, varying e.g. column and modifier, the clusters proved to be formed from the alkali metal ions in combination with the alcohol modifier and make-up solvent. Their compositions were [(XOCH3)n+X]+, [(XOH)n+X]+, [(X2CO3)n+X]+ and [(XOOCOCH3)n+X]+ for X= Na+ or K+ in ESI+. In ESI-, the clusters depended more on modifier, with [(XCl)n+Cl]- and [(XOCH3)n+OCH3]- mainly formed in pure methanol and [(XOOCH)n+OOCH]- when 20 mM NH4Fa was added.

    To prevent the formation of the clusters by avoiding methanol as modifier might be difficult, as this is a widely used modifier providing good solubility when analyzing polar compounds in SFC. A sample preparation with e.g. LLE would remove the alkali ions, however also introducing a time consuming and discriminating step into the method. Since the alkali metal ions were retained and affected by chromatographic adjustments as e.g. mobile phase modifications, a way to avoid them could therefore be chromatographic tuning, when analyzing samples containing them.

  • 13.
    Häggblad Sahlberg, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Mortensen, Anja C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Haglöf, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Engskog, Mikael K. R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Glimelius, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Stenerlöw, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Nestor, Marika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Different functions of AKT1 and AKT2 in molecular pathways, cell migration and metabolism in colon cancer cells2017In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 5-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AKT is a central protein in many cellular pathways such as cell survival, proliferation, glucose uptake, metabolism, angiogenesis, as well as radiation and drug response. The three isoforms of AKT (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) are proposed to have different physiological functions, properties and expression patterns in a cell type-dependent manner. As of yet, not much is known about the influence of the different AKT isoforms in the genome and their effects in the metabolism of colorectal cancer cells. In the present study, DLD-1 isogenic AKT1, AKT2 and AKT'/2 knockout colon cancer cell lines were used as a model system in conjunction with the parental cell line in order to further elucidate the differences between the AKT isoforms and how they are involved in various cellular pathways. This was done using genome wide expression analyses, metabolic profiling and cell migration assays. In conclusion, downregulation of genes in the cell adhesion, extracellular matrix and Notch-pathways and upregulation of apoptosis and metastasis inhibitory genes in the p53-pathway, confirm that the knockout of both AKT1 and AKT2 will attenuate metastasis and tumor cell growth. This was verified with a reduction in migration rate in the AKT1 KO and AKT2 KO and most explicitly in the AKT1/2 KO. Furthermore, the knockout of AKT1, AKT2 or both, resulted in a reduction in lactate and alanine, suggesting that the metabolism of carbohydrates and glutathione was impaired. This was further verified in gene expression analyses, showing downregulation of genes involved in glucose metabolism. Additionally, both AKT1 KO and AKT2 KO demonstrated an impaired fatty acid metabolism. However, genes were upregulated in the Wnt and cell proliferation pathways, which could oppose this effect. AKT inhibition should therefore be combined with other effectors to attain the best effect.

  • 14.
    Johansson, Monika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Fransson, Dick
    Rundlöf, Torgny
    Huynh, Ngoc-Hang
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    A general analytical platform and strategy in search for illegal drugs2014In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 100, p. 215-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An effective screening procedure to identify and quantify active pharmaceutical substances in suspected illegal medicinal products is described. The analytical platform, consisting of accurate mass determination with liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) in combination with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy provides an excellent analytical tool to screen for unknowns in medicinal products, food supplements and herbal formulations. This analytical approach has been successfully applied to analyze thousands of samples. The general screening method usually starts with a methanol extraction of tablets/capsules followed by liquid chromatographic separation on a Halo Phenyl-Hexyl column (2.7μm; 100mm×2.1mm) using an acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid gradient as eluent. The accurate mass of peaks of interest was recorded and a search made against an in-house database containing approximately 4200 substances, mostly pharmaceutical compounds. The search could be general or tailored against different classes of compounds. Hits were confirmed by analyzing a reference substance and/or by NMR. Quantification was normally performed with quantitative NMR (qNMR) spectroscopy. Applications for weight-loss substances like sibutramine and orlistat, sexual potency enhancement (PDE-5 inhibitors), and analgesic drugs are presented in this study. We have also identified prostaglandin analogues in eyelash growth serum, exemplified by isopropyl cloprostenate and bimatoprost. For creams and ointments, matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was found to give a clean extracts with high recovery prior to LC-MS analyses. The structural elucidation of cetilistat, a new weight-loss substance recently found in illegal medicines purchased over the Internet, is also presented.

  • 15.
    Lodén, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Amini, Ahmad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Quantitative determination of salbutamol in tablets by multiple-injection capillary zone electrophoresis2008In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1207, no 1-2, p. 181-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multiple-injection capillary zone electrophoresis (MICZE) method has been developed for the assay of salbutamol in Ventoline Depot tablets (GlaxoSmithKline). In the developed method, seven sample sets, each consisting of three samples, were sequentially injected into the capillary and analyzed within a single run. This enabled a total of twenty-one sequential injections, i.e., six standards and fifteen samples, containing salbutamol and the injection marker oxprenolol. The injected sample plugs were separated by plugs of background electrolyte, through application of a short-term voltage (30 kV) over the capillary for different time periods, i.e., tPE1 and tPE2. The samples in each set were isolated from each other by partial electrophoresis for 2.35 min (tPE1), while the sample sets were separated for 10.50 min (tPE2). After the final injection, all the applied samples were subjected to electrophoresis for a time period corresponding to that in conventional single-injection CZE. The method was validated regarding linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness before it was applied to the determination of salbutamol in 15 tablets of Ventoline Depot with a labeled content of 8 mg salbutamol. The average salbutamol content was determined to 7.8 mg (±0.3 mg) from simultaneous analyses of the 15 different tablets.

  • 16. McEwen, I.
    et al.
    Arvidsson, T.
    Medical Products Agency, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Feasibility studies. The use of NMR spectrometry as a possible substitute of or complement to several analytical tests in pharmacopoeia monographs2012In: Pharmeuropa bio & scientific notes, ISSN 2075-2164, Vol. 2012, p. 87-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    NMR spectrometry has many analytical applications; for instance, the identification of known substances; the structure elucidation of unknown ones; the quantifi cation of APIs, impurities, solvent and water; kinetic studies, stereochemistry determinations, and the analyses of complex mixtures as in metabonomics. NMR spectrometry has the potential to substitute or complement existing analyses that are performed on APIs. In this work, 4 different NMR analyses were done on 2 APIs: fluvastatin sodium and benzalkonium chloride with good results.

  • 17.
    Niklison-Chirou, Maria Victoria
    et al.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, Blizard Inst, London E1 2AT, England..
    Erngren, Ida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Engskog, Mikael K R
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Haglöf, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Picard, Daniel
    Heinrich Heine Univ Dusseldorf, Dept Pediat Oncol Hematol & Clin Immunol, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany.;Heinrich Heine Univ Dusseldorf, Dept Neuropathol, Med Fac, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany.;German Canc Consortium DKTK, German Canc Res Ctr DKFZ, Dept Pediat Neurooncogen, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Remke, Marc
    Heinrich Heine Univ Dusseldorf, Dept Pediat Oncol Hematol & Clin Immunol, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany.;Heinrich Heine Univ Dusseldorf, Dept Neuropathol, Med Fac, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany.;German Canc Consortium DKTK, German Canc Res Ctr DKFZ, Dept Pediat Neurooncogen, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    McPolin, Phelim Hugh Redmond
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, Blizard Inst, London E1 2AT, England..
    Selby, Matthew
    Newcastle Univ, Wolfson Childhood Canc Res Ctr, Northern Inst Canc Res, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Williamson, Daniel
    Newcastle Univ, Wolfson Childhood Canc Res Ctr, Northern Inst Canc Res, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Clifford, Steven C.
    Newcastle Univ, Wolfson Childhood Canc Res Ctr, Northern Inst Canc Res, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Michod, David
    UCL, Inst Child Hlth, London WC1N 1EH, England..
    Hadjiandreou, Michalis
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, Blizard Inst, London E1 2AT, England..
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Med Prod Agcy, SE-75103 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Melino, Gerry
    Univ Leicester, MRC, Toxicol Unit, Leicester LE1 9HN, Leics, England..
    Marino, Silvia
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, Blizard Inst, London E1 2AT, England..
    TAp73 is a marker of glutamine addiction in medulloblastoma2017In: Genes & Development, ISSN 0890-9369, E-ISSN 1549-5477, Vol. 31, no 17, p. 1738-1753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medulloblastoma is the most common solid primary brain tumor in children. Remarkable advancements in the understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of these tumors have informed their recent molecular classification. However, the genotype/phenotype correlation of the subgroups remains largely uncharacterized. In particular, the metabolic phenotype is of great interest because of its druggability, which could lead to the development of novel and more tailored therapies for a subset of medulloblastoma. p73 plays a critical role in a range of cellular metabolic processes. We show overexpression of p73 in a proportion of non-WNT medulloblastoma. In these tumors, p73 sustains cell growth and proliferation via regulation of glutamine metabolism. We validated our results in a xenograft model in which we observed an increase in survival time in mice on a glutamine restriction diet. Notably, glutamine starvation has a synergistic effect with cisplatin, a component of the current medulloblastoma chemotherapy. These findings raise the possibility that glutamine depletion can be used as an adjuvant treatment for p73-expressing medulloblastoma.

  • 18.
    Pierre, Pernilla Videhult
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery. Karolinska Inst, Div Audiol, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Alfred Nobels Alle 10 Plan 5, SE-14183 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Haglöf, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Linder, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Engskog, Mikael K R
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Fransson, Anette E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Laurell, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Cisplatin-induced metabolome changes in serum: an experimental approach to identify markers for ototoxicity2017In: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, ISSN 0001-6489, E-ISSN 1651-2251, Vol. 137, no 10, p. 1024-1030Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Ototoxicity from treatment with the anticancer drug cisplatin remains a clinical problem. A wide range of intracellular targets of cisplatin has been found in vivo.

    AIM: To investigate cisplatin-induced change of the serum metabolite profile and its association with ototoxicity.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Guinea pigs (n = 14) were treated with cisplatin (8 mg/kg b.w., i.v.) 30 min after administration of the otoprotector candidate sodium thiosulfate (group STS; n = 7) or sodium chloride (group NaCl; n = 7). Ototoxicity was evaluated by ABR (3-30 kHz) before and 4 d after drug treatment, and by assessment of hair cell loss. A blood sample was drawn before and 4 d after drug treatment and the polar metabolome in serum was analyzed using LC-MS.

    RESULTS: Cisplatin-treatment caused significant threshold elevations and outer hair cell (OHC) loss in both groups. The ototoxicity was generally lower in group STS, but a significant difference was reached only at 30 kHz (p = .007). Cisplatin treatment altered the metabolite profile significantly and similarly in both groups. A significant inverse correlation was found between L-acetylcarnitine, N-acetylneuraminic acid, ceramide, and cysteinylserine and high frequency hearing loss in group NaCl. The implication of these correlations should be explored in targeted studies.

  • 19. Rundlöf, Torgny
    et al.
    McEwen, Ian
    Johansson, Monika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Use and qualification of primary and secondary standards employed in quantitative H-1 NMR spectroscopy of pharmaceuticals2014In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 93, no SI, p. 111-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standards are required in quantitative NMR (qNMR) to obtain accurate and precise results. In this study acetanilide was established and used as a primary standard. Six other chemicals were selected as secondary standards: 3,4,5-trichloropyridine, dimethylterephthalate, maleic acid, 3-sulfolene, 1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene, and 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene. The secondary standards were quantified using the primary standard acetanilide. A protocol for qualification and periodic checks of these secondary standards was developed, and used for evaluation of the stability of the compounds. Periodic monitoring of purity was performed for several years. The purity was higher than 99% for all secondary standards. All standards maintained the initial purity during the time period of monitoring, with very small variations in purity (0.3-0.4%). The selected secondary standards were shown to be suitable qNMR standards and that periodic requalification of the standards by qNMR ensures reliable analytical results. These standards have been used in our laboratory for compliance testing of pharmaceutical active substances and approved medicinal products as well as for analysis of suspected illegal medicines. In total more than 1000 samples have been tested using both internal and external standardization and examples are given.

  • 20.
    Svan, Alfred
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Hedeland, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Arvidsson, Torbjorn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Jasper, Justin T.
    Sedlak, David L.
    Pettersson, Curt E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Rapid chiral separation of atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol and the zwitterionic metoprolol acid using supercritical fluid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry - Application to wetland microcosms2015In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1409, p. 251-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for enantiomeric separation of the three beta-blocking agents atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol and the zwitterionic metoprolol acid, a major metabolite of both metoprolol and in environmental matrices also atenolol, has been developed. By use of supercritical fluid chromatography and the polysaccharide-based Chiralpak (R) IB-3, all four compounds were simultaneously enantiomerically separated (R-s >1.5) within 8 min. Detection was performed using tandem mass spectrometry, and to avoid isobaric interference between the co-eluting metoprolol and metoprolol acid, the achiral column Acquity (R) UPC2 BEH 2-EP was attached ahead of to the chiral column. Carbon dioxide with 18% methanol containing 0.5% (v/v) of the additives trifluoroacetic acid and ammonia in a 2:1 molar ratio were used as mobile phase. A post column make-up flow (0.3 mL/min) of methanol containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid was used to enhance the positive electrospray ionization. Detection was carried out using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the selected reaction monitoring mode, using one transition per analyte and internal standard. The method was successfully applied for monitoring the enantiomeric fraction change over time in a laboratory scale wetland degradation study. It showed good precision, recovery, sensitivity and low effect of the sample matrix.

  • 21.
    Svan, Alfred
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Hedeland, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Natl Vet Inst SVA, Dept Chem Environm & Feed Hyg, SE-75189 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Med Prod Agcy, Box 26, SE-75103 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Jasper, Justin T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Sedlak, David L.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Pettersson, Curt E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Identification of transformation products from -blocking agents formed in wetland microcosms using LC-Q-ToF2016In: Journal of Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 1076-5174, E-ISSN 1096-9888, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 207-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identification of degradation products from trace organic compounds, which may retain the biological activity of the parent compound, is an important step in understanding the long-term effects of these compounds on the environment. Constructed wetlands have been successfully utilized to remove contaminants from wastewater effluent, including pharmacologically active compounds. However, relatively little is known about the transformation products formed during wetland treatment. In this study, three different wetland microcosm treatments were used to determine the biotransformation products of the -adrenoreceptor antagonists atenolol, metoprolol and propranolol. LC/ESI-Q-ToF run in the MSE and MS/MS modes was used to identify and characterize the degradation products through the accurate masses of precursor and product ions. The results were compared with those of a reference standard when available. Several compounds not previously described as biotransformation products produced in wetlands were identified, including propranolol-O-sulfate, 1-naphthol and the human metabolite N-deaminated metoprolol. Transformation pathways were significantly affected by microcosm conditions and differed between compounds, despite the compounds' structural similarities. Altogether, a diverse range of transformation products in wetland microcosms were identified and elucidated using high resolving MS. This work shows that transformation products are not always easily predicted, nor formed via the same pathways even for structurally similar compounds.

  • 22.
    Svan, Alfred
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Hedeland, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Statens veterinärmedicinska anstalt (SVA) Enhet för kemi, miljö och fodersäkerhet.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Läkemedelsverket.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Chiral separation of three β-blocking pharmaceuticals and a majormetabolite using SFC-MS2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Svan, Alfred
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Hedeland, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Matrix effects: Do they differ between SFC/ESI-MS and LC/ESI-MS2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction (120 ord)

    Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is increasingly used in many fields following the new generation of instruments available on the market, often combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS). New methods are developed and validated, often for samples of complex matrices. Thus, measurements of the matrix effects are sometimes included. Comparisons between SFC/ESI/MS and LC/ESI/MS have previously been performed, often focusing on e.g. sensitivity and separation. However, a systematic and qualitative investigation of the matrix effects achieved using same ion source and mass spectrometer, but different types of chromatography, i.e. SFC or LC, is so far lacking.

     

    Methods (120 ord)

    Effluent wastewater was collected and 100.0 ml was extracted using a generic SPE method (Oasis MCX), evaporated and redissolved in 1.0 ml of water:ACN (1:1). A 10 min gradient was developed for each technique, separating eight compounds chosen for being low molecular weight drugs with varying hydrophobicity and proteolytic properties. The mixture of compounds was then added to the ESI make-up solvent (MeOH) for the SFC/ESI/MS method. The extracted wastewater was injected without added compounds, and the SRM channel for each compound was monitored using tandem quadrupole MS (Quattro Micro, Waters®). The same interface and settings were used for LC, but an infusion of compounds was performed through a post-column syringe pump since no make-up flow was used.

     

    Preliminary data – Limit 300 words

    The retention times for the eight model compounds were evenly spread over the chromatographic time scale for both chromatographic methods. When applying the continuous compound infusion through the make-up solution (SFC/ESI/MS) or through a syringe pump (LC/ESI/MS), a stable signal was observed for all compounds. Injection of the extracted wastewater affected the signal in comparison with the blank. The difference in the signal profiles were however larger between LC and SFC than between blank and extracted wastewater. The two separation techniques also gave different levels of noise and variations in the SRM-channels for the different compounds, and occurred at differently time points during the gradients for both the techniques. In summary, the matrix effects seem to affect the detection differently depending on what chromatographic technique that is used. With increased knowledge about this, it could help future method development to minimize the matrix effects.    

     

    Novel aspect – Limit 20 words

    The first systematic comparison between SFC and LC in terms of matrix effects for ESI-MS/MS using qualitative methods (infusion).

  • 24.
    Svan, Alfred
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Hedeland, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Natl Vet Inst SVA, Dept Chem Environm & Feed Hyg, SE-75189 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Med Prod Agcy, Box 26, SE-75103 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    The differences in matrix effect between supercritical fluid chromatography and reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to ESI/MS2018In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 1000, p. 163-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For many sample matrices, matrix effects are a troublesome phenomenon using the electrospray ionization source. The increasing use of supercritical fluid chromatography with CO2 in combination with the electrospray ionization source for MS detection is therefore raising questions: is the matrix effect behaving differently using SFC in comparison with reversed phase LC? This was investigated using urine, plasma, influent-and effluent-wastewater as sample matrices. The matrix effect was evaluated using the post-extraction addition method and through post-column infusions. Matrix effect profiles generated from the post-column infusions in combination with time of flight-MS detection provided the most valuable information for the study. The combination of both qualitative and semi-quantitative information with the ability to use HRMS-data for identifying interfering compounds from the same experiment was very useful, and has to the authors' knowledge not been used this way before. The results showed that both LC and SFC are affected by matrix effects, however differently depending on sample matrix. Generally, both suppressions and enhancements were seen, with a higher amount of enhancements for LC, where 65% of all compounds and all sample matrices were enhanced, compared to only 7% for SFC. Several interferences were tentatively identified, with phospholipids, creatinine, and metal ion clusters as examples of important interferences, with different impact depending on chromatographic technique. SFC needs a different strategy for limiting matrix interferences, owing to its almost reverse retention order compared to RPLC.

  • 25.
    Svan, Alfred
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Hedeland, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    The differences in matrix effects between supercritical fluid chromatography and reversed phase liquid chromatography coupled to ESI/MS analyzing blood plasma2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The increasing popularity of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) in combination with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) within several fields calls for a deeper knowledge regarding this combination of techniques. The ESI source is known for its sensitivity regarding matrix effects, often a factor controlled during method development and validation using LC. The different chemistry and chromatographic selectivity of LC and SFC give potentially different impact on the ionization process in ESI; however, this an area still not well studied.   

    Aim: To investigate how the matrix effects in ESI/MS differ for human plasma samples between SFC and reversed-phase LC, using generic screening conditions for both techniques, and a set of typical low molecular weight drug substances.

    Methods

    Pooled human plasma (500 µl) was precipitated using ice-cold acetonitrile (1000 µl). After mixing and centrifuging, 1200 µl of the supernatant were removed and evaporated at 40 ̊C. When dry, the samples were dissolved in 500µl water+0.1% FA (for LC) or acetonitrile:water 75:25 (for SFC). The samples were analyzed using SFC (Acquity UPC2, Waters®) and LC (Acquity UPLC, Waters®) and general screening conditions, using 10 min gradients. The same MS-system, a Q-ToF (Synapt G2-S, Waters®) acquiring in full scan mode, was used for detection with both separation techniques. The matrix effect was mainly evaluated using the Matrix Effect Profile, achieved from post-column compound infusions and injections of pretreated sample matrix and neat standards. From these data the average ME% was calculated for each data-point in the chromatogram, and through the full-scan mode using ToF, the compounds co-eluting with areas of suppression could be tentatively identified, suspected of creating the suppression. 

     

    Results and discussion The Matrix Effect Profile-evaluation of the experiments, combining qualitative and quantitative information with the added ability to use HRMS-data to identify interfering compounds from the same experiments were most useful for our aim. Phospholipids, creatinine, polyethylene glycol and cluster formations are examples of important interferences co-eluting with areas of ion suppression, but with different impact depending on chromatographic technique. The results also showed several areas of enhancement using LC, an effect not seen using SFC. 

  • 26. Videhult Pierre, Pernilla
    et al.
    Haglöf, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Linder, Birgitta
    Engskog, Mikael K R
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Laurell, Göran
    Ototoxicity of Cisplatin Correlates with Changes in Blood Antioxidant Status2014Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 26 of 26
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