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  • 1.
    Andersson, Carin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Abrahamson, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Jönsson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Otte, Jens
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Gill filament EROD activity in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) as a biomarker for exposure to Ah receptor agonists in the water2006In: Organohalogen Compounds, 2006, p. 1259-1261Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Brunström, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Lund, Bert-Ove
    Bergman, Anders
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Jensen, Sören
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Reproductive toxicity in mink (Mustela vison) chronically exposed to environmentally relevant PCB concentrations.2001In: Environ. Toxicol. Chem., Vol. 20, p. 2318-2327Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Elmhalli, Fawzeia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Palsson, Katinka
    Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, Dept Chem, Ecol Chem Grp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Grandi, Giulio
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Biomed Sci & Vet Publ Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Acaricidal properties of ylang-ylang oil and star anise oil against nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae)2018In: Experimental & applied acarology, ISSN 0168-8162, E-ISSN 1572-9702, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 209-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ylang-ylang oil (YYO) from Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson and star anise oil (SAO) from Illicium verum Hook.f. were tested at four concentrations 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mu l/cm(2). Mortality rates were obtained by counting dead nymphs at 30-min intervals during the first 5h after the start of exposure and then at 24, 48 and 72h. Mortality increased with increasing oil concentration and time of exposure. The two highest concentrations of YYO (0.2, 0.4 mu l/cm(2)) gave maximum lethal concentrations (LC) of 50 and 95% mortality after 4.5h exposure. Mortality of 95% was obtained after 24h with the next highest dose (0.1 mu l/cm(2)), whereas LC95 required 3days with the lowest YYO (0.05 mu l/cm(2)). The lethal effect time (LT) was correlated with the duration of exposure, with a significant effect at 0.4l YYO/cm(2) after 3h' (LT50=3.2h, LT95=4.3h). In contrast, only the highest concentration of SAO, 0.4 mu l SAO/cm(2), showed increasing mortality with time of exposure. This reached LT50 after 10h and LT95 after 24h. However, with the lower concentration (0.2 mu l/cm(2)) 50% mortality was reached after 24h and 100% at 72h. At to the lowest concentration of SAO (0.1 mu l/cm(2)), 67% mortality after 48h. The study indicates that YYO and SAO exhibit strong acaricidal properties against nymphs of I. ricinus and suggest that both YYO and SAO should be evaluated as potentially useful in the control of ticks.

  • 4.
    Johansson, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lind, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology.
    Håkansson, Helen
    Oxlund, Hans
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology.
    Melhus, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology.
    Subclinical hypervitaminosis A causes fragile bones in rats2002In: Bone, ISSN 8756-3282, E-ISSN 1873-2763, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 685-689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive intake of vitamin A has been associated with an increased risk of hip fracture in humans. This finding has raised the question of whether long-term intake of relatively moderate doses ("subclinical" hypervitaminosis A) contributes to fracture risk. Although it has been known for more than half a century that toxic doses of vitamin A lead to spontaneous fractures in rats, the lowest intake that induces adverse effects is not known, and the result of exposure to excessive doses that do not cause general toxicity has been rarely investigated. In this study, mature female rats were fed a standard diet with 12 IU vitamin A/g pellet (control, C), or standard diet supplemented with either 120 IU ("10 x C") or 600 IU ("50 x C") vitamin A/g pellet for 12 weeks. Fifteen animals were included in each group. The supplemented diets correspond to a vitamin A intake of approximately 1800 IU/day and 9000 IU/day, respectively. The latter dose is about one third of that previously reported to cause skeletal lesions. At the end of the study, serum retinyl esters were elevated 4- (p < 0.01) and 20-fold (p < 0.001) and the total amount of liver retinoid had increased 3- (p < 0.001) and 7-fold (p < 0.001) in the 10 x C and 50 x C group, respectively. The animals showed no clinical signs of general toxicity, and there were no significant bone changes in the 10 x C group. However, in the 50 x C group, a characteristic thinning of the cortex (cortical area -6.5% [p < 0.001]) and reduction of the diameter of the long bones were evident (bone cross-sectional area -7.2% [p < 0.01] at the midshaft and -11.0% [p < 0.01] at the metaphysis), as measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. In agreement with these data and a decreased polar strength strain index (-14.0%, p < 0.01), the three-point bending breaking force of the femur was reduced by 10.3% (p < 0.01) in the 50 x C group. These data indicate that the negative skeletal effects appear at a subchronic vitamin A intake of somewhere between 10 and 50 times the standard diet. This level is considerably lower than previously reported. Our results suggest that long-term ingestion of modest excesses of vitamin A may contribute to fracture risk.

  • 5.
    Kunce, Warren
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Combination effects of pyrethroids and neonicotinoids on development and survival of Chironomus riparius2015In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 122, p. 426-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard ecotoxicological risk assessments are conducted on individual substances, however monitoring of streams in agricultural areas has shown that pesticides are rarely present alone. In fact, brief but intense pulse events such as storm water runoff and spray drift during application subject freshwater environments to complex mixtures of pesticides at high concentrations. This study investigates the potential risks to non-target aquatic organisms exposed to a brief but intense mixture of the neonicotinoid pesticides imidacloprid and thiacloprid and the pyrethroid pesticides deltamethrin and esfenvalerate, compared to single substance exposure. All four of these pesticides have been detected in surface waters at concentrations higher than benchmark values and both classes of pesticides are known to exert adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms under single substance exposure scenarios. First instar midge larvae of the non-target aquatic organism, Chironomus riparius, were exposed to combinations of these four pesticides at 50% of their LC50 (96 h) values in a 1 h pulse. They were then reared to adulthood in uncontaminated conditions and assessed for survival, development time and fecundity. Our results show that the risk of disruption to survival and development of non-target aquatic organisms under this scenario is not negligible on account of the significant increases in mortality of C. riparius found in the majority of the pesticide exposures and the delays in development after pyrethroid exposure. While none of the deleterious effects appear to be amplified by combination of the pesticides, there is some evidence for antagonism. No effects on fecundity by any of the pesticide treatments were observed.

  • 6.
    Lejonklou, Margareta H.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Christiansen, S.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Div Diet Dis Prevent & Toxicol, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg, Denmark..
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Shen, Ling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Larsson, Sune
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Boberg, J.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Div Diet Dis Prevent & Toxicol, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg, Denmark..
    Hass, U.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Div Diet Dis Prevent & Toxicol, Morkhoj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Soborg, Denmark..
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Low-dose developmental exposure to bisphenol A alters the femoral bone geometry in wistar rats2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 164, p. 339-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical produced in large volumes for use in manufacturing of consumer products and industrial applications, and an endocrine disruptor known to affect several hormonal systems. Bone produces hormones and is additionally a sensitive hormone target tissue, and is thus potentially sensitive to low doses of endocrine disruptors such as BPA, especially during development. Methods: 110 pregnant Wistar rats were gavaged with 0; 25 mu g; 250 mu g; 5000 mu g or 50,000 mu g BPA/kg bodyweight (bw)/day from gestational day 7 until weaning at postnatal day 22. The three-month-old offspring were sacrificed and right femurs collected for length measurements, geometrical measurements by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), as well as for analyses of biomechanical properties using the three-point-bending method. Results: The femur was elongated in female offspring of dams exposed to 25 or 5000 mu g BPA/kg bw/day (1.8% and 2.1%, respectively), and increased cortical thickness (4.7%) was observed in male offspring of dams exposed to 25 mu g BPA/kg bw/day, compared to controls (p < 0.005). The biomechanical properties of the bone were not significantly altered. Conclusions: In utero and lactational exposure to the lowest BPA dose used in this study altered femoral geometry in both male and female offspring. This was observed at 25 mu g BPA/kg bw/day, a dose lower than the Human Equivalent Dose (HED) applied by EFSA to set a temporary TDI (609 mu g BPA/kg bw/day), and far lower than the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) (5000 mu g BPA/kg bw/day) on which the US FDA TDI is based.

  • 7.
    Lind, Monica
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergman, Anders
    Olsson, Mats
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Bone mineral density in male Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus)2003In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 385-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone mineral density (mg cm(-3)) was studied in male Baltic grey seals (4-23 years of age) by noninvasive computed tomography (pQCT). The material was grouped according to year of collection. Group A: 1850-1955, a period before the main introduction of organochlorines (OCs); Group B: 1965-1985, a period with very high OC contamination; and Group C: 1986-1997, a period with decreasing concentrations of OCs. The reproducibility of the measurements was good with a Coefficient of Variation (CV) ranging from 0.1% to 2.1%. Trabecular bone mineral density of the radius was significantly higher in specimens collected 1986-1997 than in those collected 1965-1985 (p < 0.05). Cortical bone mineral density of the mandible was significantly lower in specimens collected 1986-1997 compared with those collected 1850-1955 (p < 0.05). These results indicate different responses over time in trabecular and cortical bone. During the period of very high OC contamination (1965-1985), trabecular bone density was lowest, whereas cortical bone density was lowest in specimens collected 1985-1997, representing a period of fairly low OC contamination. The mechanisms behind these effects are not known. However, it can be assumed that OCs are involved. Information about residue levels of OCs in the studied individuals is lacking and, therefore, it was not possible to evaluate the impact of OCs in this respect.

  • 8.
    Lind, Monica
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine.
    Eriksen, Erik F
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Sahlin, Lena
    Estrogen supplementation modulates effects of the endocrine disrupting pollutant PCB126 in rat bone and uterus: diverging effects in ovariectomized and intact animals.2004In: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 199, no 2-3, p. 129-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the present study are to compare effects of estrogen depletion (OVX) and estradiol (E2) supplementation on the tissue effects of exposure to the endocrine disrupting organochlorine 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). For this purpose two highly estrogen-dependent tissues, bone and uterus, were studied. Forty rats exposed to PCB126 (ip) for 3 months (total dose 384 microg/kg body weight (bw)) were randomized in to OVX/sham operation or E2 supplementation (ip, 23 microg/kg, 3 days weekly) per vehicle (corn oil) groups in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Sham operated rats were treated with vehicle, PCB or PCB plus E2 (sham, sham + PCB and sham + PCB + E2, n=10 per group) whereas ovariectomized were treated with vehicle, PCB or PCB plus E2(OVX, OVX + PCB and OVX + PCB + E2, n=10 per group). As control groups served OVX or sham, and OVX + E2 (n=10 in each group). In OVX rats PCB126 + E2 treatment increased trabecular bone volume (TBV) (P<0.01), whilst the opposite was found in sham-operated rats (P<0.01). In OVX animals exposed to PCB126, E2 supplementation decreased the uterine weight and increased the uterine ERbeta mRNA level, whilst no difference was found between the PCB126 and PCB126 + E2 exposed groups in the sham-operated animals. In conclusion, estrogen modulates PCB126 induced effects on trabecular bone, as well as several uterine parameters. These results further support an important role of estrogen on the toxic effects of PCB126 on bone and uterus.

  • 9.
    Lind, Monica
    et al.
    National Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Larsson, S
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Torsional testing and peripheral quantitative computed tomography in rat humerus2001In: Bone, ISSN 8756-3282, E-ISSN 1873-2763, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 265-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) is a noninvasive method mainly used to evaluate the densitometric and geometric properties of bone. In the present study, we evaluate the different variables provided by pQCT examination and their ability to predict the mechanical strength properties of the rat humerus. Humeri from 68 female rats were utilized. These humeri represented bone with a wide range of mechanical and densitometric properties as well as geometric dimensions. Various characteristics, such as volumetric cortical density, total mineral content, cortical thickness, total cross-sectional area, cortical area, and polar strength strain index (SSI), were measured by pQCT. The reproducibility of these measurements was good, with a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 0.8% to 4.9%. Bone composition (e.g., ash weight, water content, and inorganic content) and bone dimensions (e.g., length, waist, and volume) were also determined. The mechanical properties (maximum torque, torsion at failure, and stiffness) were measured by torsional testing. Stepwise multiple linear regression was performed to identify the best explanatory variables for each mechanical parameter. Total cross-sectional area and polar SSI were equally well correlated to stiffness (r = 0.57, p < 0.001), whereas ash weight was superior to the pQCT variables to explain maximum torque (r = 0.42, p < 0.001). No other independent pQCT variable entered the two models in the stepwise regression analysis. It was found to be feasible to measure properties of the rat humerus with pQCT. Cross-sectional area and the polar SSI were shown to be the best explanatory variables for stiffness, whereas ash weight was the best predictor for maximum torque.

  • 10.
    Lind, Monica
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Milnes, Matthew R
    Lundberg, Rebecca
    Bermudez, Dieldrich
    Orberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Guillette, Louis J
    Abnormal bone composition in female juvenile American alligators from a pesticide-polluted lake (Lake Apopka, Florida)2004In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 112, no 3, p. 359-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproductive disorders have been found in pesticide-exposed alligators living in Lake Apopka, Florida (USA). These disorders have been hypothesized to be caused by exposure to endocrine- disruptive estrogen-like contaminants. The aim of this study was to expand our analysis beyond previous studies by investigating whether bone tissue, known to be affected by sex steroid hormones, is a potential target of endocrine disruptors. Long bones from 16 juvenile female alligators from Lake Apopka (pesticide-contaminated lake) and Lake Woodruff (control lake) were evaluated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. We observed significant differences in bone composition, with female alligators from the contaminated lake having greater trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), total BMD, and trabecular mineral content compared with females from the control lake (p < 0.05). Increased trabecular and total BMD measurements suggest that juvenile female alligators from Lake Apopka were exposed to contaminants that created an internal environment more estrogenic than that normally observed. This estrogenic environment could be caused by both natural and anthropogenic compounds. Effects on BMD indicate interference with bone homeostasis. We hypothesize that contaminants present in the lake inhibit the natural and continuous resorption of bone tissue, resulting in increased bone mass. Although this is the only study performed to date examining effects of environmental estrogenic compounds on alligator bones, it supports previous laboratory-based studies in rodents. Further, this study is important in demonstrating that the alterations in morphology and physiology induced in free-ranging individuals living in environments contaminated with endocrine-active compounds are not limited to a few systems or tissues; rather, effects can be observed in many tissues affected by these hormones.

  • 11. Lind, Monica
    et al.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Edlund, Ulla-Britt
    Sjöblom, Linnea
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    The dioxin-like pollutant PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) affects risk factors for cardiovascular disease in female rats2004In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 150, no 3, p. 293-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to persistent organic pollutants such as organochlorines might induce cardiovascular disorders and diabetes. Some of these organochlorines, such as dioxins and some dioxin-like PCBs, have been characterised as anti-estrogenic due to their inhibition of estrogenic-induced responses. In the present pilot study, 40 female rats were subjected to either exposure to the dioxin-like 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) or vehicle, as well as ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operation in a 2 x 2 factorial design over 12 weeks to explore potential interactions between estrogen status and PCB 126 exposure on cardiovascular risk factors. PCB 126 increased heart weight and serum cholesterol levels in both groups. PCB 126 increased blood pressure in the sham-operated animals only. In conclusion, PCB 126 exposure in female rats resulted in effects on cardiovascular risk factors, such as serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and heart weight. Of these effects of PCB 126, the increase in blood pressure was dependent on estrogen status.

  • 12. Lundberg, Rebecca
    et al.
    Jenssen, Björn Munro
    Leiva-Presa, Angels
    Rönn, Monika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Hernhag, Carolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Wejheden, Carolina
    Larsson, Sune
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Lind, Monica
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Effects of short-term exposure to the DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE on bone tissue in male common frog (Rana temporaria)2007In: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, ISSN 1528-7394, E-ISSN 1087-2620, Vol. 70, no 7, p. 614-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental studies as well as studies in free-ranging animals have shown that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) impair bone tissue composition and strength. The aim of the present study was to expand our studies on bone tissue in a new group of animals by investigating whether bone tissue in frogs is an additional potential target of EDCs. Adult male European common frogs (Rana temporaria) were divided into 5 groups (n = 20) and injected (sc, single injection) with p,p'-DDE, a total dose of 0.01, 0.1, 1, or 10 mg of p,p'-DDE/kg body weight, respectively. A control group was treated with the vehicle (corn oil). Two weeks after injection the frogs were euthanized and samples taken. The diaphysis of the excised left femur was scanned using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and cortical variables, such as cortical bone mineral density (BMD), cortical cross-sectional area (CSA), and periosteal circumference, were determined. In addition, biomechanical three-point bending of the bones was conducted, with the load being applied to the same point as where the pQCT measurement was performed. The results from the pQCT measurements show that bone tissue in male frogs exposed to p,p'-DDE is negatively affected. A significant decrease in cortical BMD at the diaphysis was observed in frogs exposed to 1 mg p,p'-DDE. However, the biomechanical testing of the bones showed no significant differences between exposed and control group. Although this is the only study performed to date examining the possible relationships between EDCs and negative effects on frog bones, it supports both previous experimental findings in rodents and findings in free-ranging animals.

  • 13. Lundberg, Rebecca
    et al.
    Lyche, Jan L.
    Ropstad, Erik
    Aleksandersen, Mona
    Rönn, Monika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Skaare, Janneche U.
    Larsson, Sune
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Lind, Monica
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Perinatal exposure to PCB 153, but not PCB 126, alters bone tissue composition in female goat offspring2006In: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 228, no 1, p. 33-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate if environmentally relevant doses of the putative estrogenic non dioxin-like PCB 153 and the dioxin-like PCB 126 caused changes in bone tissue in female goat offspring following perinatal exposure. Goat dams were orally dosed with PCB 153 in corn oil (98 microg/kg body wt/day) or PCB 126 (49 ng/kg body wt/day) from day 60 of gestation until delivery. The offspring were exposed to PCB in utero and through mother's milk. The suckling period lasted for 6 weeks. Offspring metacarpal bones were analysed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) after euthanisation at 9 months of age. The diaphyseal bone was analysed at a distance of 18% and 50% of the total bone length, and the metaphyseal bone at a distance of 9%. Also, biomechanical three-point bending of the bones was conducted, with the load being applied to the mid-diaphyseal pQCT measure point (50%). PCB 153 exposure significantly decreased the total cross-sectional area (125 mm(2)+/-4) versus non-exposed (142 mm(2)+/-5), decreased the marrow cavity (38 mm(2)+/-4) versus non-exposed (50 mm(2)+/-3) and decreased the moment of resistance (318 mm(3)+/-10) versus non-exposed (371 mm(3)+/-20) at the diaphyseal 18% measure point. At the metaphyseal measure point, the trabecular bone mineral density (121 mg/cm(3)+/-5) was increased versus non-exposed (111 mg/cm(3)+/-3). PCB 126 exposure did not produce any observable changes in bone tissue. The biomechanical testing of the bones did not show any significant changes in bone strength after PCB 153 or PCB 126 exposure. In conclusion, perinatal exposure to PCB 153, but not PCB 126, resulted in altered bone composition in female goat offspring.

  • 14.
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Nylund, Kerstin
    Bignert, Anders
    Tysklind, Mats
    Olsson, Mats
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Multivariate data analysis of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in Baltic Sea guillemot (Uria aalge) egg and muscle2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 65, no 9, p. 1591-1599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) and brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) were determined in guillemot (Uria aalge) eggs from the island of Stora Karlsö in the Baltic Sea where 10 eggs/year were collected in the years 2000, 2001 and 2002. The dominating contaminant in egg was p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) with a geometric mean (GM) concentration of 18 200 ng/g lipid weight (lw). The GM concentration in egg of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) of 140 ng/g lw, was significantly higher than that of polybrominated diphenyl ether (∑PBDE) of 77 ng/g lw.

    For the evaluation of the data multivariate data analysis techniques namely principal components analysis (PCA), partial least squares regression (PLS), soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA classification), and PLS discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), were used. We investigated whether the eggs’ biological characteristics co-varied with egg concentrations of OCs and BFRs, and found e.g., significant negative correlations between egg weight and concentrations of HCB and p,p′-DDE. A PLS model with analyzed BFRs as the Y matrix and OCs as the X matrix could, with varying accuracy, calculate the concentrations of BFRs in the individual egg from their concentrations of OCs (e.g., R2Y of 0.89 for BDE47, and of 0.50 for HBCD).

    Lastly, we compared the contaminant concentrations in the eggs to those in previously analyzed pectoral muscles from adult guillemots from Stora Karlsö, from the year 2000. A PLS-DA model, showed that some of the contaminants (e.g., HBCD and CB28) had significantly higher concentrations in egg than in muscle, although 7 of the 14 contaminants showed no difference in concentrations between the two matrices.

  • 15.
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Lek, Per M.
    Lundstedt, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    QSBMR - Quantitative Structure Biomagnification Relationships: Physicochemical and Structural Descriptors Important for the Biomagnification of Organochlorines and Brominated Flame Retardants2006In: Journal of Chemometrics, ISSN 0886-9383, E-ISSN 1099-128X, Vol. 20, no 8-10, p. 392-401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to establish models to predict the biomagnification of contaminants present in Baltic Sea biota. In this paper a quantitative model that we term QSBMR-Quantitative Structure Biomagnification Relationships is presented. This model describes the relationship between the biomagnification factors (BMFs) for several organochlorines (OCs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs), for example, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and their descriptors, for example, physico-chemical properties and structural descriptors. The concentrations of contaminants in herring (Clupea harengus) muscle and guillemot (Uria aalge) egg from the Baltic Sea were used. The BMFs were calculated with the randomly sampled ratios (RSR) method that denotes the BMFs with a measure of the variation. In order to describe the physico-chemical properties and chemical structures, approximately 100 descriptors for the contaminants were generated: (a), by using the software (TSAR); (b) finding log Kow values from the literature, and (c) creating binary fingerprint variables that described the position of the chlorine and bromine for the respective PCB and PBDE molecules. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to model the relationship between the contaminants' BMF and the descriptors and the resulting QSBMR revealed that more than 20 descriptors in combination were important for the biomagnification of OCs and BFRs between herring and guillemot. The model including all contaminants (R2X=0.73, R2Y=0.87 and Q2=0.63, three components) explained approximately as much of the variation as the model with the PCBs alone (R2X=0.83, R2Y=0.87 and Q2=0.58, two components). The model with the BFRs alone (R2X=0.68, R2Y=0.88 and Q2 = 0.41, two components) had a slightly lower Q2 than the model including all contaminants. For validation, a training set of seven contaminants was selected by multivariate design (MVD) and a model was established. This model was then used to predict the BMFs of the test set (seven contaminants not included in the model). The resulting R2 for the regression Observed BMF versus Predicted BMF was high (0.65). The good models showed that descriptors important for the biomagnification of OCs and BFRs had been used. These types of models will be useful for in silico predictions of the biomagnification of new, not yet investigated, compounds as an aid in risk assessments.

  • 16.
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology. Ekotoxikologi.
    Lek, Per M.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Lundstedt, Torbjörn
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology. Ekotoxikologi.
    Relationships between physicochemical and structural descriptors and biomagnification of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants2007In: BFR2007, The Fourth International Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants: Amsterdam, the Netherlands from 24 to 27 April 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Trygg, Johan
    Schüller, Peter
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Häggberg, Lisbeth
    Odsjö, Tjelvar
    Hjelmberg, Mats
    Olsson, Mats
    Orberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    A statistical resampling method to calculate biomagnification factors exemplified with organochlorine data from herring (Clupea harengus) muscle and guillemot (Uria aalge) egg from the Baltic sea.2005In: Environ Sci Technol, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 39, no 21, p. 8395-402Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Olsman, Helena
    et al.
    Ghebreab, Kifle
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Berg, Håkan
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Bjerselius, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Exposure to sewage water alters goldfish reproductive behaviour2001In: Hormones in the Environment and Animal Production - A Public Health Concern?: Proceedings from a symposium at the Ultuna Campus, Uppsala, March 13, 2001, 2001Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 19.
    Rönn, Monika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Berglund, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Malmberg, Filip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Bisphenol A exposure increases liver fat in juvenile fructose-fed Fischer 344 rats2013In: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 303, no 1, p. 125-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to induce obesity in rodents. To evaluate if exposure also later in life could induce obesity or liver damage we investigated these hypothesises in an experimental rat model.

    METHODS:

    From five to fifteen weeks of age, female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to BPA via drinking water (0.025, 0.25 or 2.5mgBPA/L) containing 5% fructose. Two control groups were given either water or 5% fructose solution. Individual weight of the rats was determined once a week. At termination magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess adipose tissue amount and distribution, and liver fat content. After sacrifice the left perirenal fat pad and the liver were dissected and weighed. Apolipoprotein A-I in plasma was analyzed by western blot.

    RESULTS:

    No significant effects on body weight or the weight of the dissected fad pad were seen in rats exposed to BPA, and MRI showed no differences in total or visceral adipose tissue volumes between the groups. However, MRI showed that liver fat content was significantly higher in BPA-exposed rats than in fructose controls (p=0.04). BPA exposure also increased the apolipoprotein A-I levels in plasma (p<0.0001).

    CONCLUSION:

    We found no evidence that BPA exposure affects fat mass in juvenile fructose-fed rats. However, the finding that BPA in combination with fructose induced fat infiltration in the liver at dosages close to the current tolerable daily intake (TDI) might be of concern given the widespread use of this compound in our environment.

  • 20.
    Rönn, Monika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden; Umea Univ, Ctr Heart, Umea, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Johansson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Ahlström, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Bisphenol A is related to circulating levels of adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin, but not to fat mass or fat distribution in humans2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 112, p. 42-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Since bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to induce obesity in experimental studies, we explored the associations between BPA and fat mass, fat distribution and circulating levels of adiponectin, leptin and ghrelin in humans.

    METHODS: In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS), fat mass and fat distribution were determined in 70-year-old men and women (n=890) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (n=287). Serum levels of BPA were analyzed using isotope liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometer (API4000LC-MS/MS). Hormone levels were analyzed with radioimmunoassays (RIA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Imaging was performed approximately two years following collection of other data.

    RESULTS: Serum concentrations of BPA were not related to adipose tissue measurements by DXA or MRI. BPA associated positively with adiponectin and leptin, but negatively with ghrelin, following adjustments for sex, height, fat mass, lean mass, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, energy intake, and educational levels (p<0.001, p=0.009, p<0.001, respectively). The relationship between BPA and ghrelin was stronger in women than in men.

    CONCLUSION: Although no relationships between BPA levels and measures of fat mass were seen, BPA associated strongly with the adipokines adiponectin and leptin and with the gut-hormone ghrelin suggesting that BPA may interfere with hormonal control of hunger and satiety.

  • 21.
    Rönn, Monika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lind, Monica P.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Cvek, Katarina
    Berglund, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Malmberg, Filip
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Computerized Image Analysis and Human-Computer Interaction. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Visual Information and Interaction.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Ortiz-Nieto, Francisco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Kullberg, Joel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Radiology.
    Quantification of total and visceral adipose tissue in fructose-fed rats using water-fat separated single echo MRI2013In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 21, no 9, p. E388-E395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to setup a rodent model for modest weight gain and an MRI-based quantification of body composition on a clinical 1.5 T MRI system for studies of obesity and environmental factors and their possible association. Design and Methods: Twenty-four 4-week-old female Fischer rats were divided into two groups: one exposed group (n=12) and one control group (n 12). The exposed group was given drinking water containing fructose (5% for 7 weeks, then 20% for 3 weeks). The control group was given tap water. Before sacrifice, whole body MRI was performed to determine volumes of total and visceral adipose tissue and lean tissue. MRI was performed using a clinical 1.5 T system and a chemical shift based technique for separation of water and fat signal from a rapid single echo acquisition. Fat signal fraction was used to separate adipose and lean tissue. Visceral adipose tissue volume was quantified using semiautomated segmentation. After sacrifice, a perirenal fat pad and the liver were dissected and weighed. Plasma proteins were analyzed by Western blot. Results: The weight gain was 5.2% greater in rats exposed to fructose than in controls (P=0.042). Total and visceral adipose tissue volumes were 5.2 cm(3) (P=0.017) and 3.1 cm(3) (P=0.019) greater, respectively, while lean tissue volumes did not differ. The level of triglycerides and apolipoprotein A-I was higher (P=0.034, P=0.005, respectively) in fructose-exposed rats.

  • 22. Stern, Natalia
    et al.
    Öberg, Mattias
    Casabona, Helena
    Trossvik, Christina
    Manzoor, Ellu
    Johansson, Niklas
    Lind, Monica
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Feinstein, Ricardo
    Johansson, Anna
    Chu, Ih
    Poon, Raymond
    Yagminas, Al
    Brouwer, Abraham
    Jones, Bernt
    Håkansson, Helen
    Subchronic toxicity of Baltic herring oil and its fractions in the rat II: Clinical observations and toxicological parameters.2002In: Pharmacology and Toxicology, ISSN 0901-9928, E-ISSN 1600-0773, Vol. 91, no 5, p. 232-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to increase the knowledge about the toxicity of fish-derived organohalogen pollutants in mammals. The strategy chosen was to separate organohalogen pollutants derived from Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) fillet, in order to obtain fractions with differing proportions of identified and unidentified halogenated pollutants, and to perform a subchronic toxicity study in rats, essentially according to the OECD guidelines, at three dose levels. Nordic Sea lodda (Mallotus villosus) oil, with low levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants, was used as an additional control diet. The toxicological examination showed that exposure to Baltic herring oil and its fractions at dose levels corresponding to a human intake in the range of 1.6 to 34.4 kg Baltic herring per week resulted in minimal effects. The spectrum of effects was similar to that, which is observed after low-level exposure to pollutants such as chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (CDD/F) and chlorinated biphenyls, despite the fact that these contaminants contribute to a minor part of the extractable organically bound chlorine (EOCl). The study confirmed previous findings that induction of hepatic ethoxyresorufin deethylase (EROD) activity takes place at daily intake levels 0.15 ng fish-derived CDD/F-TEQs/kg body weight. The study also demonstrated that hepatic vitamin A reduction takes place at somewhat higher daily exposure levels, i.e. 0.16–0.30 ng fish-derived CDD/F-TEQs/kg body weight. Halogenated fatty acids, the major component of EOCl, could not be linked to any of the measured effects. From a risk management point of view, the study provides important new information of effect levels for Ah-receptor mediated responses following low level exposure to organohalogen compounds from a matrix relevant for human exposure.

  • 23.
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Behaviour2007In: Reproductive Toxicology in Environmental Research: a report from the ReproSafe-programme, ISSN 0282-7298, Vol. Report 5729Article, review/survey (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
1 - 23 of 23
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