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  • 1. Argyropoulos, C.
    et al.
    Chatziioannou, A. A.
    Nikiforidis, G.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Kollias, G.
    Aidinis, V.
    Operational criteria for selecting a cDNA microarray data normalization algorithm2006In: Oncology Reports, ISSN 1021-335X, E-ISSN 1791-2431, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 983-996Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microarray technology allows gene expression profiling at a global level. Many algorithms for the normalization of raw microarray data have been proposed, but no attempt has yet been made to propose operationally verifiable criteria for their comparative evaluation, which is necessary for the selection of the most appropriate method for a given dataset. This study develops a set of operational criteria for assessing the impact of various normalization algorithms in terms of accuracy (bias), precision (variance) and over-fitting (information reduction). The use of these criteria is illustrated by applying the three most widely used algorithms (global median normalization, spiked-in based normalization and lowess) on a specifically designed, multiply-controlled dataset.

  • 2.
    Batool, Tahira
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Fang, Jianping
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Barash, Uri
    Rappaport Technion, Fac Med, Canc & Vasc Biol Res Ctr, Haifa, Israel..
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Vlodavsky, Israel
    Rappaport Technion, Fac Med, Canc & Vasc Biol Res Ctr, Haifa, Israel..
    Li, Jin-Ping
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Overexpression of heparanase attenuated TGF-beta-stimulated signaling in tumor cells2017In: International journal of experimental pathology (Print), ISSN 0959-9673, E-ISSN 1365-2613, Vol. 98, no 3, p. A10-A11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Batool, Tahira
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Fang, Jianping
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. GlycoNovo Technol Co Ltd, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Barash, Uri
    Technion, Fac Med, Canc & Vasc Biol Res Ctr Rappaport, Haifa, Israel..
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Vlodavsky, Israel
    Technion, Fac Med, Canc & Vasc Biol Res Ctr Rappaport, Haifa, Israel..
    Li, Jin-Ping
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Overexpression of heparanase attenuated TGF-beta-stimulated signaling in tumor cells2017In: FEBS Open Bio, E-ISSN 2211-5463, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 405-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heparan sulfate (HS) mediates the activity of various growth factors including TGF-beta. Heparanase is an endo-glucuronidase that specifically cleaves and modifies HS structure. In this study, we examined the effect of heparanase expression on TGF-beta 1-dependent signaling activities. We found that overexpression of heparanase in human tumor cells (i.e., Fadu pharyngeal carcinoma, MCF7 breast carcinoma) attenuated TGF-beta 1-stimulated Smad phosphorylation and led to a slower cell proliferation. TGF-beta 1-stimulated Akt and Erk phosphorylation was also affected in the heparanase overexpression cells. This effect involved the enzymatic activity of heparanase, as overexpression of mutant inactive heparanase did not affect TGF-beta 1 signaling activity. Analysis of HS isolated from Fadu cells revealed an increase in sulfation of the HS that had a rapid turnover in cells overexpressing heparanase. It appears that the structural alterations of HS affect the ability of TGF-beta 1 to signal via its receptors and elicit a growth response. Given that heparanase expression promotes tumor growth in most cancers, this finding highlights a crosstalk between heparanase, HS, and TGF-beta 1 function in tumorigenesis.

  • 4.
    Batool, Tahira
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Fang, Jianping
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Glyconovo Technologies Co., Ltd., TianXiong Road, Shanghai International Medical Zone (SIMZ), Pudong New Area, Shanghai 201318, China.
    Jansson, Viktor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Zhao, Hongxing
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Gallant, Caroline J.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Li, Jin-Ping
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Upregulated BMP-Smad signaling activity in the glucuronyl C5-epimerase knock out MEF cells2019In: Cellular Signalling, ISSN 0898-6568, E-ISSN 1873-3913, Vol. 54, p. 122-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glucuronyl C5-epimerase (Hsepi) catalyzes the conversion of glucuronic acid to iduronic acid in the process of heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Targeted interruption of the gene, Glce,in mice resulted in neonatal lethality with varied defects in organ development. To understand the molecular mechanisms of the phenotypes, we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) as a model to examine selected signaling pathways. Our earlier studies found reduced activities of FGF-2, GDNF, but increased activity of sonic hedgehog in the mutant cells. In this study, we focused on the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway. Western blotting detected substantially elevated endogenous Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation in the Hsepi mutant (KO) MEF cells, which is reverted by re-expression of the enzyme in the KO cells. The mutant cells displayed an enhanced proliferation and elevated alkaline phosphatase activity, marking higher differentiation, when cultured in osteogenic medium. The high level of Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation was also found in primary calvarial cells isolated from the KO mice. Analysis of the genes involved in the BMP signaling pathway revealed upregulation of a number of BMP ligands, but reduced expression of several Smads and BMP antagonist (Grem1) in the KO MEF cells. The results suggest that Hsepi expression modulates BMP signaling activity, which, at least partially, is associated with defected molecular structure of heparan sulfate expressed in the cells.   

  • 5.
    Bellomo, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Caja, Laia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Fabregat, Isabel
    Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), L’Hospitalet, and Department of Physiological Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Barcelona, ES-08908, Barcelona, Spain.
    Mikulits, Wolfgang
    Department of Medicine I, Division: Institute of Cancer Research, Comprehensive Cancer Center Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090, Vienna, Austria.
    Kardassis, Dimitris
    Division of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Crete Medical School and Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology of Hellas, GR-71003, Heraklion, Greece.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Snail mediates crosstalk between TGFβ and LXRα in hepatocellular carcinoma2018In: Cell Death and Differentiation, ISSN 1350-9047, E-ISSN 1476-5403, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 885-903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the complexity of changes in differentiation and cell survival in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is essential for the design of new diagnostic tools and therapeutic modalities. In this context, we have analyzed the crosstalk between transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and liver X receptor α (LXRα) pathways. TGFβ is known to promote cytostatic and pro-apoptotic responses in HCC, and to facilitate mesenchymal differentiation. We here demonstrate that stimulation of the nuclear LXRα receptor system by physiological and clinically useful agonists controls the HCC response to TGFβ. Specifically, LXRα activation antagonizes the mesenchymal, reactive oxygen species and pro-apoptotic responses to TGFβ and the mesenchymal transcription factor Snail mediates this crosstalk. In contrast, LXRα activation and TGFβ cooperate in enforcing cytostasis in HCC, which preserves their epithelial features. LXRα influences Snail expression transcriptionally, acting on the Snail promoter. These findings propose that clinically used LXR agonists may find further application to the treatment of aggressive, mesenchymal HCCs, whose progression is chronically dependent on autocrine or paracrine TGFβ.

  • 6.
    Bellomo, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Caja, Laia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Transforming growth factor beta as regulator of cancer stemness and metastasis2016In: British Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0007-0920, E-ISSN 1532-1827, Vol. 115, no 7, p. 761-769Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key elements of cancer progression towards metastasis are the biological actions of cancer stem cells and stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment. Cross-communication between tumour and stromal cells is mediated by secreted cytokines, one of which, the transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), regulates essentially every cell within the malignant tissue. In this article, we focus on the actions of TGF beta on cancer stem cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts and immune cells that assist the overall process of metastatic dissemination. We aim at illustrating intricate connections made by various cells in the tumour tissue and which depend on the action of TGF beta.

  • 7.
    Bellomo, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Gahman, T. C.
    Ludwig Canc Res, La Jolla, CA USA..
    Shiau, A. K.
    Ludwig Canc Res, La Jolla, CA USA..
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    TGF beta and the nuclear receptor LXR alpha crosstalk on lipid metabolism and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma2016In: European Journal of Clinical Investigation, ISSN 0014-2972, E-ISSN 1365-2362, Vol. 46, p. 36-36Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Blokzijl, Andries
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. YUMAB GmbH, Rebenring 33, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Zieba, Agata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular tools.
    Hust, Michael
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Biochem Biotechnol & Bioinformat, Dept Biotechnol, Spielmannstr 7, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Schirrmann, Thomas
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Biochem Biotechnol & Bioinformat, Dept Biotechnol, Spielmannstr 7, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany.;YUMAB GmbH, Rebenring 33, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Helmsing, Saskia
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Biochem Biotechnol & Bioinformat, Dept Biotechnol, Spielmannstr 7, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Grannas, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Hertz, Ellen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Morén, Anita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Chen, Lei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular tools.
    Söderberg, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular tools.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Dubel, Stefan
    Tech Univ Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Inst Biochem Biotechnol & Bioinformat, Dept Biotechnol, Spielmannstr 7, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany..
    Landegren, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular tools.
    Single Chain Antibodies as Tools to Study transforming growth factor--Regulated SMAD Proteins in Proximity Ligation-Based Pharmacological Screens2016In: Molecular & cellular proteomics (online), ISSN 1535-9476, E-ISSN 1535-9484, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 1848-1856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cellular heterogeneity seen in tumors, with subpopulations of cells capable of resisting different treatments, renders single-treatment regimens generally ineffective. Accordingly, there is a great need to increase the repertoire of drug treatments from which combinations may be selected to efficiently target sets of pathological processes, while suppressing the emergence of resistance mutations. In this regard, members of the TGF- signaling pathway may furnish new, valuable therapeutic targets. In the present work, we developed in situ proximity ligation assays (isPLA) to monitor the state of the TGF- signaling pathway. Moreover, we extended the range of suitable affinity reagents for this analysis by developing a set of in-vitro-derived human antibody fragments (single chain fragment variable, scFv) that bind SMAD2 (Mothers against decapentaplegic 2), 3, 4, and 7 using phage display. These four proteins are all intracellular mediators of TGF- signaling. We also developed an scFv specific for SMAD3 phosphorylated in the linker domain 3 (p179 SMAD3). This phosphorylation has been shown to inactivate the tumor suppressor function of SMAD3. The single chain affinity reagents developed in the study were fused tocrystallizable antibody fragments (Fc-portions) and expressed as dimeric IgG-like molecules having Fc domains (Yumabs), and we show that they represent valuable reagents for isPLA. Using these novel assays, we demonstrate that p179 SMAD3 forms a complex with SMAD4 at increased frequency during division and that pharmacological inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4)(1) reduces the levels of p179SMAD3 in tumor cells. We further show that the p179SMAD3-SMAD4 complex is bound for degradation by the proteasome. Finally, we developed a chemical screening strategy for compounds that reduce the levels of p179SMAD3 in tumor cells with isPLA as a read-out, using the p179SMAD3 scFv SH544-IIC4. The screen identified two kinase inhibitors, known inhibitors of the insulin receptor, which decreased levels of p179SMAD3/SMAD4 complexes, thereby demonstrating the suitability of the recombinant affinity reagents applied in isPLA in screening for inhibitors of cell signaling.

  • 9. Bondestam, Jonas
    et al.
    Huotari, Mar-Anne
    Morén, Anita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Ustinov, Jarkko
    Kaivo-Oja, Noora
    Kallio, Janne
    Horelli-Kuitunen, Nina
    Aaltonen, Johanna
    Fujii, Makiko
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    ten Dijke, Peter
    Otonkoski, Timo
    Ritvos, Olli
    cDNA cloning, expression studies and chromosome mapping of human type I serine/threonine kinase receptor ALK7 (ACVR1C)2001In: Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics, ISSN 0301-0171, E-ISSN 1421-9816, Vol. 95, no 3-4, p. 157-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily related growth factors signal by binding to transmembrane type I and type II receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTK), which phosphorylate intracellular Smad transcription factors in response to ligand binding. Here we describe the cloning of the human type I RSTK activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7), an orthologue of the previously identified rat ALK7. Nodal, a TGF-beta member expressed during embryonic development and implicated in developmental events like mesoderm formation and left-right axis specification, was recently shown to signal through ALK7. We found ALK7 mRNA to be most abundantly expressed in human brain, pancreas and colon. A cDNA encoding the open reading frame of ALK7 was obtained from a human brain cDNA library. Furthermore, a P1 artificial chromosome (PAC) clone containing the human ALK7 gene was isolated and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on metaphase chromosomes identified the gene locus as chromosome 2q24.1-->q3. To test the functionality of the ALK7 signaling, we generated recombinant adenoviruses containing a constitutively active form of ALK7 (Ad-caALK7), which is capable of activating downstream targets in a ligand independent manner. Infection with Ad-caALK7 of MIN6 insulinoma cells, in which ALK7 has previously been shown to be endogenously expressed, led to a marked increase in the phosphorylation of Smad2, a signaling molecule also used by TGF-betas and activins.

  • 10. Bondestam, Jonas
    et al.
    Kaivo-oja, Noora
    Kallio, Janne
    Groome, Nigel
    Hydén-Granskog, Christel
    Fujii, Makiko
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Jalanko, Anu
    ten Dijke, Peter
    Ritvos, Olli
    Engagement of activin and bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway Smad proteins in the induction of inhibin B production in ovarian granulosa cells2002In: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, ISSN 0303-7207, E-ISSN 1872-8057, Vol. 195, no 1-2, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the mammalian ovary cell growth and differentiation is regulated by several members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) superfamily including activins, inhibins, growth differentiation factors and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). The effects of TGF beta family members are mediated to the target cells via heteromeric complexes of type I and II serine/threonine kinase receptors which activate Smad signaling protein pathways in various cell types. We have previously shown that inhibin B, a hormonally important product from human granulosa cells, is up regulated by activin and BMPs. Here, we report the use of adenoviral gene transfer methodology to manipulate the TGF beta growth factor signaling system in primary cultures of human granulosa cells. These cells are exceedingly difficult to transfect by conventional transfection methods, but were virtually 100% infected with recombinant adenoviruses expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Adenoviruses expressing constitutively active forms of the seven known mammalian type I activin receptor-like kinase receptors (Ad-caALK1 through Ad-caALK7) cause activation of endogenous and adenovirally transferred Smad signaling proteins so that Ad-caALK1/2/3/6 and Ad-caALK4/5/7 induced phosphorylation of the Smad1 and Smad2 pathways, respectively. Activin A and BMP-2 activated the Smad1 and Smad2 pathways as well as inhibin B production as did all the Ad-caALKs. Furthermore, overexpression of adenoviral Smad1 and Smad2 proteins without exogenously added ligands induced inhibin B production. The inhibitory Smad7 protein suppressed BMP-2 and activin induced inhibin B production. Collectively, the present data demonstrate that adenoviral gene transfer provides an effective approach for dissecting the TGF beta signaling pathways in primary ovarian cells in vitro and more specifically indicate that the Smad1 and Smad2 pathways are involved in the regulation of inhibin B production by TGF beta family ligands in the ovary.

  • 11.
    Bouris, Panagiotis
    et al.
    Univ Patras, Dept Chem, Biochem Biochem Anal & Matrix Pathobiol Res Grp, Lab Biochem, GR-26110 Patras, Greece.
    Manou, Dimitra
    Univ Patras, Dept Chem, Biochem Biochem Anal & Matrix Pathobiol Res Grp, Lab Biochem, GR-26110 Patras, Greece.
    Sopaki-Valalaki, Anastasia
    Univ Patras, Dept Chem, Biochem Biochem Anal & Matrix Pathobiol Res Grp, Lab Biochem, GR-26110 Patras, Greece.
    Kolokotroni, Anthi
    Univ Patras, Dept Chem, Biochem Biochem Anal & Matrix Pathobiol Res Grp, Lab Biochem, GR-26110 Patras, Greece.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Kapoor, Aastha
    Thomas Jefferson Univ, Sidney Kimmel Med Coll, Dept Pathol Anat & Cell Biol, Philadelphia, PA 19107 USA;Thomas Jefferson Univ, Sidney Kimmel Med Coll, Canc Cell Biol & Signaling Program, Philadelphia, PA 19107 USA.
    Iozzo, Renato V.
    Thomas Jefferson Univ, Sidney Kimmel Med Coll, Dept Pathol Anat & Cell Biol, Philadelphia, PA 19107 USA;Thomas Jefferson Univ, Sidney Kimmel Med Coll, Canc Cell Biol & Signaling Program, Philadelphia, PA 19107 USA.
    Karamanos, Nikos K.
    Univ Patras, Dept Chem, Biochem Biochem Anal & Matrix Pathobiol Res Grp, Lab Biochem, GR-26110 Patras, Greece.
    Theocharis, Achilleas D.
    Univ Patras, Dept Chem, Biochem Biochem Anal & Matrix Pathobiol Res Grp, Lab Biochem, GR-26110 Patras, Greece.
    Serglycin promotes breast cancer cell aggressiveness: Induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, proteolytic activity and IL-8 signaling2018In: Matrix Biology, ISSN 0945-053X, E-ISSN 1569-1802, Vol. 74, p. 35-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serglycin is an intracellular proteoglycan that is expressed and constitutively secreted by numerous malignant cells, especially prominent in the highly-invasive, triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. Notably, de novo expression of serglycin in low aggressive estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha)-positive MCF7 breast cancer cells promotes an aggressive phenotype. In this study, we discovered that serglycin promoted epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in MCF7 cells as shown by increased expression of mesenchymal markers vimentin, fibronectin and EMT-related transcription factor Snail2. These phenotypic traits were also associated with the development of drug resistance toward various chemotherapy agents and induction of their proteolytic potential as shown by the increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases, including MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, MT1-MMP and up-regulation of urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Knockdown of serglycin markedly reduced the expression of these proteolytic enzymes in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, serglycin expression was closely linked to a pro-inflammatory gene signature including the chemokine IL-8 in ER alpha-negative breast cancer cells and tumors. Notably, serglycin regulated the secretion of IL-8 in breast cancer cells independently of their ER alpha status and promoted their proliferation, migration and invasion by triggering IL-8/CXCR2 downstream signaling cascades including PI3K, Src and Rac activation. Thus, serglycin promotes the establishment of a pro-inflammatory milieu in breast cancer cells that evokes an invasive mesenchymal phenotype via autocrine activation of IL-8/CXCR2 signaling axis.

  • 12. Bouris, Panagiotis
    et al.
    Skandalis, Spyros S.
    Piperigkou, Zoi
    Afratis, Nikos
    Karamanou, Konstantina
    Aletras, Alexios J.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Theocharis, Achilleas D.
    Karamanos, Nikos K.
    Estrogen receptor alpha mediates epithelial to mesenchymal transition, expression of specific matrix effectors and functional properties of breast cancer cells2015In: Matrix Biology, ISSN 0945-053X, E-ISSN 1569-1802, Vol. 43, p. 42-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 17 beta-estradiol (E2)/estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) signaling pathway is one of the most important pathways in hormone-dependent breast cancer. E2 plays pivotal roles in cancer cell growth, survival, and architecture as well as in gene expression regulatory mechanisms. In this study, we established stably transfected MCF-7 cells by knocking down the ER alpha gene (designated as MCF-7/SP10 + cells), using specific shRNA lentiviral particles, and compared them with the control cells (MCF-7/c). Interestingly, ERa silencing in MCF-7 cells strongly induced cellular phenotypic changes accompanied by significant changes in gene and protein expression of several markers typical of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Notably, these cells exhibited enhanced cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Moreover, ERa suppression strongly affected the gene and protein expression of EGFR and HER2 receptor tyrosine kinases, and various extracellular matrix (ECM) effectors, including matrix metalloproteinases and their endogenous inhibitors (MMPs/TIMPs) and components of the plasminogen activation system. The action caused by E2 in MCF-7/c cells in the expression of HER2, MT1-MMP, MMP1, MMP9, uPA, tPA, and PAI-1 was abolished in MCF-7/SP10 + cells lacking ERa. These data suggested a regulatory role for the E2/ER alpha pathway in respect to the composition and activity of the extracellular proteolytic molecular network. Notably, loss of ER alpha promoted breast cancer cell migration and invasion by inducing changes in the expression levels of certain matrix macromolecules (especially uPA, tPA, PAI-1) through the EGFR-ERK signaling pathway. In conclusion, loss of ERa in breast cancer cells results in a potent EMT characterized by striking changes in the expression profile of specific matrix macromolecules highlighting the potential nodal role of matrix effectors in breast cancer endocrine resistance.

  • 13.
    Caja, Laia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Dituri, Francesco
    S de Bellis Res Hosp, Castellana Grotte, Natl Inst Gastroenterol, Bari, Italy.
    Mancarella, Serena
    S de Bellis Res Hosp, Castellana Grotte, Natl Inst Gastroenterol, Bari, Italy.
    Caballero-Diaz, Daniel
    Bellvitge Biomed Res Inst IDIBELL, TGF-β & Canc Grp, Oncobell Program, Gran Via Hosp, Barcelona, Spain; Inst Salud Carlos III, Natl Biomed Res Inst Liver & Gastrointestinal Dis, Oncol Program, CIBEREHD, Madrid, Spain.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Giannelli, Gianluigi
    S de Bellis Res Hosp, Castellana Grotte, Natl Inst Gastroenterol, Bari, Italy.
    Fabregat, Isabel
    Bellvitge Biomed Res Inst IDIBELL, TGF-β & Canc Grp, Oncobell Program, Gran Via Hosp, Barcelona, Spain; Inst Salud Carlos III, Natl Biomed Res Inst Liver & Gastrointestinal Dis, Oncol Program, CIBEREHD, Madrid, Spain; Univ Barcelona, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Physiol Sci, Barcelona, Spain.
    TGF-β and the Tissue Microenvironment: Relevance in Fibrosis and Cancer2018In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 19, no 5, article id E1294Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a cytokine essential for the induction of the fibrotic response and for the activation of the cancer stroma. Strong evidence suggests that a strong cross-talk exists among TGF-β and the tissue extracellular matrix components. TGF-β is stored in the matrix as part of a large latent complex bound to the latent TGF-β binding protein (LTBP) and matrix binding of latent TGF-β complexes, which is required for an adequate TGF-β function. Once TGF-β is activated, it regulates extracellular matrix remodelling and promotes a fibroblast to myofibroblast transition, which is essential in fibrotic processes. This cytokine also acts on other cell types present in the fibrotic and tumour microenvironment, such as epithelial, endothelial cells or macrophages and it contributes to the cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) phenotype. Furthermore, TGF-β exerts anti-tumour activity by inhibiting the host tumour immunosurveillance. Aim of this review is to update how TGF-β and the tissue microenvironment cooperate to promote the pleiotropic actions that regulate cell responses of different cell types, essential for the development of fibrosis and tumour progression. We discuss recent evidences suggesting the use of TGF-β chemical inhibitors as a new line of defence against fibrotic disorders or cancer.

  • 14.
    Caja, Laia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Kahata, Kaoru
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Context-dependent action of transforming growth factor β family members on normal and cancer stem cells2012In: Current pharmaceutical design, ISSN 1873-4286, Vol. 18, no 27, p. 4072-4086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) family embraces many growth factors including the Activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). The pathways mediated by these growth factors are implicated in many fundamental biological processes such as early embryonic development, organ morphogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis and in a large number of pathologies including cancer. The action of these pathways is often contextual, which means that different cell types present different physiological responses to these ligands or that the response of one cell type to a certain ligand differs depending on the presence of other signaling proteins that stimulate the target cell together with TGFβ/BMP. The latter usually reflects developmental stage or progression to a specific pathological stage. Not only diverse growth factors and cytokines can influence the response of tissues to TGFβ/BMP, but a single cell type may also show drastically different physiological outcomes to TGFβ or Activin signaling as compared to BMP signaling. This review describes differential physiological outcomes of TGFβ and BMP signaling in normal embryonic or adult stem cells and eventually in cancer stem cells and the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We also summarize evidence on the mechanistic antagonism between TGFβ and BMP signaling as established in vascular differentiation and the progression of tissue fibrosis and cancer. The article ends by discussing possible advantages that the acquired knowledge of these signaling mechanisms offers to new regimes of cancer therapy and the ever-lasting problem of drug resistance elicited by tumor initiating cells.

  • 15.
    Caja, Laia Puigsubira
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bellomo, Claudia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Transforming growth factor beta and bone morphogenetic protein actions in brain tumors2015In: FEBS Letters, ISSN 0014-5793, E-ISSN 1873-3468, Vol. 589, no 14, p. 1588-1597Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) family are implicated in the biology of several cancers. Here we focus on malignancies of the brain and examine the TGF beta and the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling branches of the family. These pathways exhibit context-dependent actions during tumorigenesis, acting either as tumor suppressors or as pro-tumorigenic agents. In the brain, the TGF-beta s associate with oncogenic development and progression to the more malignant state. Inversely, the BMPs suppress tumorigenic potential by acting as agents that induce tumor cell differentiation. The latter has been best demonstrated in grade IV astrocytomas, otherwise known as glioblastoma multiforme. We discuss how the actions of TGF-beta s and BMPs on cancer stem cells may explain their effects on tumor progression, and try to highlight intricate mechanisms that may link tumor cell differentiation to invasion. The focus on TGF-beta and BMP and their actions in brain malignancies provides a rich territory for mechanistic understanding of tumor heterogeneity and suggests ways for improved therapeutic intervention, currently being addressed by clinical trials.

  • 16.
    Caja, Laia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Tzavlaki, Kalliopi
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Dadras, Mahsa Shahidi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Tan, E-Jean
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hatem, Gad
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Maturi, Naga Prathyusha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Neuro-Oncology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Morén, Anita
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Wik, Lotta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular tools. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Watanabe, Yukihide
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Univ Tsukuba, Dept Expt Pathol, Fac Med, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Savary, Katia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Univ Reims, UMR CNRS MEDyC 7369, Reims, France.
    Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular tools. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Uhrbom, Lene
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Neuro-Oncology.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Snail regulates BMP and TGF beta pathways to control the differentiation status of glioma-initiating cells2018In: Oncogene, ISSN 0950-9232, E-ISSN 1476-5594, Vol. 37, no 19, p. 2515-2531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a brain malignancy characterized by high heterogeneity, invasiveness, and resistance to current therapies, attributes related to the occurrence of glioma stem cells (GSCs). Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) promotes self-renewal and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) induces differentiation of GSCs. BMP7 induces the transcription factor Snail to promote astrocytic differentiation in GSCs and suppress tumor growth in vivo. We demonstrate that Snail represses stemness in GSCs. Snail interacts with SMAD signaling mediators, generates a positive feedback loop of BMP signaling and transcriptionally represses the TGFB1 gene, decreasing TGF beta 1 signaling activity. Exogenous TGF beta 1 counteracts Snail function in vitro, and in vivo promotes proliferation and re-expression of Nestin, confirming the importance of TGFB1 gene repression by Snail. In conclusion, novel insight highlights mechanisms whereby Snail differentially regulates the activity of the opposing BMP and TGF beta pathways, thus promoting an astrocytic fate switch and repressing stemness in GSCs.

  • 17.
    Carthy, Jon M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala Univ, Ludwig Inst Canc Res, Sci Life Lab, Box 595 Biomed Ctr, SE-75124 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Engstrom, Ulla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Commercially Available Preparations of Recombinant Wnt3a Contain Non-Wnt Related Activities Which May Activate TGF- Signaling2016In: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, ISSN 0730-2312, E-ISSN 1097-4644, Vol. 117, no 4, p. 938-945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Wnt ligands are a family of secreted signaling proteins which play key roles in a number of cellular processes under physiological and pathological conditions. Wnts bind to their membrane receptors and initiate a signaling cascade which leads to the nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of -catenin. The development of purified recombinant Wnt ligands has greatly aided in our understanding of Wnt signaling and its functions in development and disease. In the current study, we identified non-Wnt related signaling activities which were present in commercially available preparations of recombinant Wnt3a. Specifically, we found that treatment of cultured fibroblasts with recombinant Wnt3a induced immediate activation of TGF- and BMP signaling and this activity appeared to be independent of the Wnt ligand itself. Therefore, while purified recombinant Wnt ligands continue to be a useful tool for studying this signaling pathway, one must exercise a degree of caution when analyzing the results of experiments that utilize purified recombinant Wnt ligands.

  • 18.
    Carthy, Jon M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Imperial Coll London, Fac Med, Div Brain Sci, London, England..
    Stoeter, Martin
    Max Planck Inst Mol Cell Biol & Genet, Dresden, Germany..
    Bellomo, Claudia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Vanlandewijck, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Vascular Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Heldin, Angelos
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moren, Anita
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Kardassis, Dimitris
    Univ Crete, Sch Med, Dept Biochem, Iraklion 71003, Crete, Greece..
    Gahman, Timothy C.
    Ludwig Inst Canc Res, Small Mol Discovery Program, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Shiau, Andrew K.
    Ludwig Inst Canc Res, Small Mol Discovery Program, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Bickle, Marc
    Max Planck Inst Mol Cell Biol & Genet, Dresden, Germany..
    Zerial, Marino
    Max Planck Inst Mol Cell Biol & Genet, Dresden, Germany..
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Chemical regulators of epithelial plasticity reveal a nuclear receptor pathway controlling myofibroblast differentiation2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 29868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasticity in epithelial tissues relates to processes of embryonic development, tissue fibrosis and cancer progression. Pharmacological modulation of epithelial transitions during disease progression may thus be clinically useful. Using human keratinocytes and a robotic high-content imaging platform, we screened for chemical compounds that reverse transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In addition to TGF-beta receptor kinase inhibitors, we identified small molecule epithelial plasticity modulators including a naturally occurring hydroxysterol agonist of the liver X receptors (LXRs), members of the nuclear receptor transcription factor family. Endogenous and synthetic LXR agonists tested in diverse cell models blocked alpha-smooth muscle actin expression, myofibroblast differentiation and function. Agonist-dependent LXR activity or LXR overexpression in the absence of ligand counteracted TGF-beta-mediated myofibroblast terminal differentiation and collagen contraction. The protective effect of LXR agonists against TGF-beta-induced pro-fibrotic activity raises the possibility that anti-lipidogenic therapy may be relevant in fibrotic disorders and advanced cancer.

  • 19. Carthy, Jon M.
    et al.
    Sundqvist, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Heldin, Angelos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Van Dam, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Kletsas, Dimitris
    Natl Ctr Sci Res Demokritos, Inst Biosci & Applicat, Lab Cell Proliferat & Ageing, Athens, Greece..
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Tamoxifen Inhibits TGF-beta-Mediated Activation of Myofibroblasts by Blocking Non-Smad Signaling Through ERK1/22015In: Journal of Cellular Physiology, ISSN 0021-9541, E-ISSN 1097-4652, Vol. 230, no 12, p. 3084-3092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional cytokine which stimulates the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Myofibroblasts are critical for normal wound healing, but also accumulate pathologically in a number of chronic inflammatory conditions where they are key contributors to aberrant tissue remodeling and fibrosis, and in cancer stroma. In the current study, we identified a role for tamoxifen as a potent inhibitor of the TGF-beta-mediated activation of primary human skin and breast fibroblasts. Our data indicate that tamoxifen does not interfere with canonical Smad signaling downstream of TGF-beta but rather blocks non-Smad signaling through ERK1/2 MAP-kinase and the AP-1 transcription factor FRA2. We further demonstrate by siRNA-mediated knockdown that FRA2 is critical for the induced expression of myogenic proteins in response to TGF-beta. Functionally, TGF-beta-stimulated fibroblast-mediated contraction of collagen gels was impaired in the presence of tamoxifen. Altogether, these data demonstrate that tamoxifen prevents myofibroblast differentiation and, therefore, may provide therapeutic benefits to patients suffering from chronic inflammatory conditions or cancer.

  • 20.
    Cedervall, Jessica
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Zhang, Yanyu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Ringvall, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Thulin, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Coagulation and inflammation science.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Jahnen-Dechent, Willi
    Biointerface Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany.
    Siegbahn, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Coagulation and inflammation science.
    Olsson, Anna-Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    HRG regulates tumor progression, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and metastasis via platelet-induced signaling in the pre-tumorigenic microenvironment2013In: Angiogenesis, ISSN 0969-6970, E-ISSN 1573-7209, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 889-902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mice lacking histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) display an accelerated angiogenic switch and larger tumors-a phenotype caused by enhanced platelet activation in the HRG-deficient mice. Here we show that platelets induce molecular changes in the pre-tumorigenic environment in HRG-deficient mice, promoting cell survival, angiogenesis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and that these effects involved signaling via TBK1, Akt2 and PDGFR beta. These early events subsequently translate into an enhanced rate of spontaneous metastasis to distant organs in mice lacking HRG. Later in tumor development characteristic features of pathological angiogenesis, such as decreased perfusion and pericyte coverage, are more pronounced in HRG-deficient mice. At this stage, platelets are essential to support the larger tumor volumes formed in mice lacking HRG by keeping their tumor vasculature sufficiently functional. We conclude that HRG-deficiency promotes tumor progression via enhanced platelet activity and that platelets play a dual role in this process. During early stages of transformation, activated platelets promote tumor cell survival, the angiogenic switch and invasiveness. In the more progressed tumor, platelets support the enhanced pathological angiogenesis and hence increased tumor growth seen in the absence of HRG. Altogether, our findings strengthen the notion of HRG as a potent tumor suppressor, with capacity to attenuate the angiogenic switch, tumor growth, EMT and subsequent metastatic spread, by regulating platelet activity.

  • 21.
    Chamcheu, Jean Christopher
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Dermatology and Venereology.
    Pihl-Lundin, Inger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Dermatology and Venereology.
    Eteti Mouyobo, Cedrique
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Dermatology and Venereology.
    Gester, Therese
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Dermatology and Venereology.
    Virtanen, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Dermatology and Venereology.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Navsaria, Harshad
    Centre for Cutaneous Research, Queen Mary’s School of Medicine and Dentistry, London E1 2AT, U.K..
    Vahlquist, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Dermatology and Venereology.
    Törmä, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Dermatology and Venereology.
    Immortalized keratinocytes derived from patients with epidermolytic ichthyosis reproduce the disease phenotype: A useful in vitro model for testing new treatments2011In: British Journal of Dermatology, ISSN 0007-0963, E-ISSN 1365-2133, Vol. 164, no 2, p. 263-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Epidermolytic ichthyosis (EI) is a skin fragility disorder caused by mutations in genes encoding suprabasal keratins 1 and 10. While the aetiology of EI is known, model systems are needed for pathophysiological studies and development of novel therapies. Objectives To generate immortalized keratinocyte lines from patients with EI for studies of EI cell pathology and the effects of chemical chaperones as putative therapies. Methods We derived keratinocytes from three patients with EI and one healthy control and established immortalized keratinocytes using human papillomavirus 16-E6/E7. Growth and differentiation characteristics, ability to regenerate organotypic epidermis, keratin expression, formation of cytoskeletal aggregates, and responses to heat shock and chemical chaperones were assessed. Results The cell lines EH11 (K1-p.Val176-Lys197del), EH21 (K10-p.156Arg>Gly), EH31 (K10-p.Leu161-Asp162del) and NKc21 (wild-type) currently exceed 160 population doublings and differentiate when exposed to calcium. At resting state, keratin aggregates were detected in 9% of calcium-differentiated EH31 cells, but not in any other cell line. Heat stress further increased this proportion to 30% and also induced aggregates in 3% of EH11 cultures. Treatment with trimethylamine N-oxide and 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) reduced the fraction of aggregate-containing cells and affected the mRNA expression of keratins 1 and 10 while 4-PBA also modified heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression. Furthermore, in situ proximity ligation assay suggested a colocalization between HSP70 and keratins 1 and 10. Reconstituted epidermis from EI cells cornified but EH21 and EH31 cells produced suprabasal cytolysis, closely resembling the in vivo phenotype. Conclusions These immortalized cell lines represent a useful model for studying EI biology and novel therapies.

     

  • 22. Chou, Wan-Chih
    et al.
    Prokova, Vassiliki
    Shiraishi, Keiko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Valcourt, Ulrich
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, Margarita
    Zannis, Vassilis I.
    Kardassis, Dimitris
    Mechanism of a transcriptional cross talk between transforming growth factor-beta-regulated Smad3 and Smad4 proteins and orphan nuclear receptor hepatocyte nuclear factor-42003In: Molecular Biology of the Cell, ISSN 1059-1524, E-ISSN 1939-4586, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 1279-1294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have shown previously that the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta)-regulated Sma-Mad (Smad) protein 3 and Smad4 proteins transactivate the apolipoprotein C-III promoter in hepatic cells via a hormone response element that binds the nuclear receptor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF-4). In the present study, we show that Smad3 and Smad4 but not Smad2 physically interact with HNF-4 via their Mad homology 1 domains both in vitro and in vivo. The synergistic transactivation of target promoters by Smads and HNF-4 was shown to depend on the specific promoter context and did not require an intact beta-hairpin/DNA binding domain of the Smads. Using glutathione S-transferase interaction assays, we established that two regions of HNF-4, the N-terminal activation function 1 (AF-1) domain (aa 1-24) and the C-terminal F domain (aa 388-455) can mediate physical Smad3/HNF-4 interactions in vitro. In vivo, Smad3 and Smad4 proteins enhanced the transactivation function of various GAL4-HNF-4 fusion proteins via the AF-1 and the adjacent DNA binding domain, whereas a single tyrosine to alanine substitution in AF-1 abolished coactivation by Smads. The findings suggest that the transcriptional cross talk between the TGFbeta-regulated Smads and HNF-4 is mediated by specific functional domains in the two types of transcription factors. Furthermore, the specificity of this interaction for certain target promoters may play an important role in various hepatocyte functions, which are regulated by TGFbeta and the Smads.

  • 23.
    Coppotelli, Giuseppe
    et al.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mughal, Nouman
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Callegari, Simone
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sompallae, Ramakrishna
    Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
    Caja Puigsubira, Laia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Luijsterburg, Martijn S
    Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZC Leiden, The Netherlands .
    Dantuma, Nico P
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Masucci, Maria G
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1 reprograms transcription by mimicry of high mobility group A proteins2013In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 2950-2962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Viral proteins reprogram their host cells by hijacking regulatory components of protein networks. Here we describe a novel property of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) that may underlie the capacity of the virus to promote a global remodeling of chromatin architecture and cellular transcription. We found that the expression of EBNA1 in transfected human and mouse cells is associated with decreased prevalence of heterochromatin foci, enhanced accessibility of cellular DNA to micrococcal nuclease digestion and decreased average length of nucleosome repeats, suggesting de-protection of the nucleosome linker regions. This is a direct effect of EBNA1 because targeting the viral protein to heterochromatin promotes large-scale chromatin decondensation with slow kinetics and independent of the recruitment of adenosine triphosphate-dependent chromatin remodelers. The remodeling function is mediated by a bipartite Gly-Arg rich domain of EBNA1 that resembles the AT-hook of High Mobility Group A (HMGA) architectural transcription factors. Similar to HMGAs, EBNA1 is highly mobile in interphase nuclei and promotes the mobility of linker histone H1, which counteracts chromatin condensation and alters the transcription of numerous cellular genes. Thus, by regulating chromatin compaction, EBNA1 may reset cellular transcription during infection and prime the infected cells for malignant transformation.

  • 24.
    Dahl, Markus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Maturi, Varun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lönn, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Papoutsoglou, Panagiotis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Zieba, Agata
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Vanlandewijck, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    van der Heide, Lars P
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Watanabe, Yukihide
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Söderberg, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular tools. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hottiger, Michael O
    Institute of Veterinary Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Fine-Tuning of Smad Protein Function by Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerases and Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase during Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 8, p. e103651-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Initiation, amplitude, duration and termination of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling via Smad proteins is regulated by post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination and acetylation. We previously reported that ADP-ribosylation of Smads by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) negatively influences Smad-mediated transcription. PARP-1 is known to functionally interact with PARP-2 in the nucleus and the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) can remove poly(ADP-ribose) chains from target proteins. Here we aimed at analyzing possible cooperation between PARP-1, PARP-2 and PARG in regulation of TGFβ signaling.

    METHODS:

    A robust cell model of TGFβ signaling, i.e. human HaCaT keratinocytes, was used. Endogenous Smad3 ADP-ribosylation and protein complexes between Smads and PARPs were studied using proximity ligation assays and co-immunoprecipitation assays, which were complemented by in vitro ADP-ribosylation assays using recombinant proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of mRNA levels and promoter-reporter assays provided quantitative analysis of gene expression in response to TGFβ stimulation and after genetic perturbations of PARP-1/-2 and PARG based on RNA interference.

    RESULTS:

    TGFβ signaling rapidly induces nuclear ADP-ribosylation of Smad3 that coincides with a relative enhancement of nuclear complexes of Smads with PARP-1 and PARP-2. Inversely, PARG interacts with Smads and can de-ADP-ribosylate Smad3 in vitro. PARP-1 and PARP-2 also form complexes with each other, and Smads interact and activate auto-ADP-ribosylation of both PARP-1 and PARP-2. PARP-2, similar to PARP-1, negatively regulates specific TGFβ target genes (fibronectin, Smad7) and Smad transcriptional responses, and PARG positively regulates these genes. Accordingly, inhibition of TGFβ-mediated transcription caused by silencing endogenous PARG expression could be relieved after simultaneous depletion of PARP-1.

    CONCLUSION:

    Nuclear Smad function is negatively regulated by PARP-1 that is assisted by PARP-2 and positively regulated by PARG during the course of TGFβ signaling.

  • 25.
    Davis, Hayley
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Gastrointestinal Stem Cell Biol Lab, Oxford, England..
    Raja, Erna
    Univ Tokyo, Grad Sch Med, Dept Mol Pathol, Tokyo, Japan..
    Miyazono, Kohei
    Univ Tokyo, Grad Sch Med, Dept Mol Pathol, Tokyo, Japan..
    Tsubakihara, Yutaro
    Ehime Univ, Grad Sch Med, Dept Mol Med Pathogenesis, Matsuyama, Ehime 790, Japan.;Uppsala Univ, Biomed Ctr, Sci Life Lab, Ludwig Inst Canc Res, Box 595, S-75124 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Mechanisms of action of bone morphogenetic proteins in cancer2016In: Cytokine & growth factor reviews, ISSN 1359-6101, E-ISSN 1879-0305, Vol. 27, p. 81-92Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play fundamental roles in embryonic development and control differentiation of a diverse set of cell types. It is therefore of no surprise that the BMPs also contribute to the process of tumourigenesis and regulate cancer progression through various stages. We summarise here key roles of BMP ligands, receptors, their signalling mediators, mainly focusing on proteins of the Smad family, and extracellular antagonists, that contribute to the onset of tumourigenesis and to cancer progression in diverse tissues. Overall, the BMP pathways seem to act as tumour suppressors that maintain physiological tissue homeostasis and which are perturbed in cancer either via genetic mutation or via epigenetic misregulation of key gene components. BMPs also control the self-renewal and fate choices made by stem cells in several tissues. By promoting cell differentiation, including inhibition of the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, BMPs contribute to the malignant progression of cancer at advanced stages. It is therefore reasonable that pharmaceutical industries continuously develop biological agents and chemical modulators of BMP signalling with the aim to improve therapeutic regimes against several types of cancer.

  • 26.
    Enroth, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics.
    Andersson, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics.
    Bysani, Madhusudhan Reddy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Genetics.
    Wallerman, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Genetics.
    Tuch, Brian
    De la Vega, Fransisco
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Komorowski, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
    Wadelius, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Genetics.
    Nucleosome regulatory dynamics in response to TGF-beta treatment in HepG2 cells2014In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 42, no 11, p. 6921-6934Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Enroth, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics.
    Andersson, Robin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics.
    Bysani, Madhusudhan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Wallerman, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Termén, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Tuch, Brian B
    Applied Biosystems, part of Life Technologies, Foster City, CA 94404, USA.
    De La Vega, Francisco M
    Applied Biosystems, part of Life Technologies, Foster City, CA 94404, USA.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Komorowski, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Institute of Computer Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Jana Kazimierza 5, 01-248 Warszawa, Poland.
    Wadelius, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Genetics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Nucleosome regulatory dynamics in response to TGF beta2014In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 42, no 11, p. 6921-6934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nucleosomes play important roles in a cell beyond their basal functionality in chromatin compaction. Their placement affects all steps in transcriptional regulation, from transcription factor (TF) binding to messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) synthesis. Careful profiling of their locations and dynamics in response to stimuli is important to further our understanding of transcriptional regulation by the state of chromatin. We measured nucleosome occupancy in human hepatic cells before and after treatment with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1), using massively parallel sequencing. With a newly developed method, SuMMIt, for precise positioning of nucleosomes we inferred dynamics of the nucleosomal landscape. Distinct nucleosome positioning has previously been described at transcription start site and flanking TF binding sites. We found that the average pattern is present at very few sites and, in case of TF binding, the double peak surrounding the sites is just an artifact of averaging over many loci. We systematically searched for depleted nucleosomes in stimulated cells compared to unstimulated cells and identified 24 318 loci. Depending on genomic annotation, 44-78% of them were over-represented in binding motifs for TFs. Changes in binding affinity were verified for HNF4α by qPCR. Strikingly many of these loci were associated with expression changes, as measured by RNA sequencing.

  • 28.
    Enroth, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Maturi, Varun
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Berggrund, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bosdotter Enroth, Sofia
    Med Prod Agcy, POB 26, SE-75103 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Johansson, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Gyllensten, Ulf B.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Systemic and specific effects of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medication on plasma protein biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 5531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large fraction of the adult population is on lifelong medication for cardiovascular disorders, but the metabolic consequences are largely unknown. This study determines the effects of common anti-hypertensive and lipid lowering drugs on circulating plasma protein biomarkers. We studied 425 proteins in plasma together with anthropometric and lifestyle variables, and the genetic profile in a cross-sectional cohort. We found 8406 covariate-protein associations, and a two-stage GWAS identified 17253 SNPs to be associated with 109 proteins. By computationally removing variation due to lifestyle and genetic factors, we could determine that medication, per se, affected the abundance levels of 35.7% of the plasma proteins. Medication either affected a single, a few, or a large number of protein, and were found to have a negative or positive influence on known disease pathways and biomarkers. Anti-hypertensive or lipid lowering drugs affected 33.1% of the proteins. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors showed the strongest lowering effect by decreasing plasma levels of myostatin. Cell-culture experiments showed that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors reducted myostatin RNA levels. Thus, understanding the effects of lifelong medication on the plasma proteome is important both for sharpening the diagnostic precision of protein biomarkers and in disease management.

  • 29.
    Gal, Annamaria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Sjöblom, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Fedorova, L.
    Microbiology and Tumour Biology Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Imreh, S.
    Microbiology and Tumour Biology Center, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Beug, Hartmut
    Research Institute of Molecular Pathology, Vienna, Austria.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Sustained TGF beta exposure suppresses Smad and non-Smad signalling in mammary epithelial cells, leading to EMT and inhibition of growth arrest and apoptosis2008In: Oncogene, ISSN 0950-9232, E-ISSN 1476-5594, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 1218-1230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To better understand the dual, tumour-suppressive and tumour-promoting function of transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta), we analysed mammary epithelial NMuMG cells in response to short and long-term TGFbeta exposure. NMuMG cells became proliferation-arrested and apoptotic after exposure to TGFbeta for 2-5 days, whereas surviving cells underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). After chronic TGFbeta exposure (2-3 weeks), however, NMuMG cells became resistant to proliferation arrest and apoptosis, showing sustained EMT instead (TD cells). EMT was fully reversed by a pharmacologic TGFbeta-receptor-I kinase inhibitor or withdrawal of TGFbeta for 6-12 days. Interestingly, both cell cycle arresting/proapoptotic (Smads, p38 kinase) and antiapoptotic, proliferation and EMT-promoting signalling pathways (PI3K-PKB/Akt, ERK) were co-suppressed to low, but significant levels. Except for PI3K-Akt, TGFbeta-dependent downregulation of these signalling pathways in transdifferentiated (TD) cells was fully reversed upon TGFbeta withdrawal, together with partial re-induction of proliferation arrest and apoptosis. Co-injection of non-tumorigenic NMuMG cells with tumour-forming CHO cells oversecreting exogenous TGFbeta1 (CHO-TGFbeta1) allowed outgrowth of epithelioid cells in CHO-TGFbeta1 cell-induced tumours. These epithelial islands enhanced CHO-TGFbeta1 tumour cell proliferation, possibly due to chemokines (for example, JE/MCP-1) secreted by NMuMG/TD cells. We conclude that suppression of antiproliferative, proapoptotic TGFbeta signalling in TD cells may permit TGFbeta-dependent proliferation, survival and EMT-enhancing signalling pathways to act at low levels. Thus, TGFbeta may modulate its own signalling to facilitate switching from tumour suppression to tumour progression.

  • 30.
    García de Herreros, Antonio
    et al.
    Cancer Research Program; Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mèdiques and Departament de Ciències Experimentals i de la Salut; Universitat Pompeu Fabra; Barcelona, Spain.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Invasive cells follow Snail's slow and persistent pace2014In: Cell Cycle, ISSN 1538-4101, E-ISSN 1551-4005, Vol. 13, no 15, p. 2320-2321Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Giannelli, Gianluigi
    et al.
    Univ Bari, Dept Biomed Sci & Human Oncol, Sch Med, Bari, Italy..
    Mikulits, Wolfgang
    Med Univ Vienna, Ctr Comprehens Canc, Div Inst Canc Res, Dept Med 1, Vienna, Austria..
    Dooley, Steven
    Mannheim Heidelberg Univ, Fac Med, Dept Med 2, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Fabregat, Isabel
    Bellvitge Biomed Res Inst IDIBELL, Barcelona, Spain..
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    ten Dijke, Peter
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Canc Genom Ctr Netherlands, Dept Mol Cell Biol, Postbus 9600, NL-2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands..
    Portincasa, Piero
    Univ Bari, Dept Biomed Sci & Human Oncol, Sch Med, Bari, Italy..
    Winter, Peter
    GenXPro GmbH, Frankfurt, Germany..
    Janssen, Richard
    Galapagos, Leiden, Netherlands..
    Leporatti, Stefano
    CNR, NANOTEC Inst Nanotechnol, Lecce, Italy..
    Herrera, Blanca
    Univ Complutense, Inst Invest Sanitaria Hosp Clin San Carlos IdISSC, Dept Bioquim & Biol Mol 2, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Sanchez, Aranzazu
    Univ Complutense, Inst Invest Sanitaria Hosp Clin San Carlos IdISSC, Dept Bioquim & Biol Mol 2, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    The rationale for targeting TGF-beta in chronic liver diseases2016In: European Journal of Clinical Investigation, ISSN 0014-2972, E-ISSN 1365-2362, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 349-361Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundTransforming growth factor (TGF)- is a pluripotent cytokine that displays several tissue-specific biological activities. In the liver, TGF- is considered a fundamental molecule, controlling organ size and growth by limiting hepatocyte proliferation. It is involved in fibrogenesis and, therefore, in worsening liver damage, as well as in triggering the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). TGF- is known to act as an oncosuppressor and also as a tumour promoter in HCC, but its role is still unclear. DesignIn this review, we discuss the potential role of TGF- in regulating the tumoural progression of HCC, and therefore the rationale for targeting this molecule in patients with HCC. ResultsA considerable amount of experimental preclinical evidence suggests that TGF- is a promising druggable target in patients with HCC. To support this hypothesis, a phase II clinical trial is currently ongoing using a TGF- pathway inhibitor, and results will soon be available. ConclusionsThe identification of new TGF- related biomarkers will help to select those patients most likely to benefit from therapy aimed at inhibiting the TGF- pathway. New formulations that may provide a more controlled and sustained delivery of the drug will improve the therapeutic success of such treatments.

  • 32.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    A new twist in Smad signaling2006In: Developmental Cell, ISSN 1534-5807, E-ISSN 1878-1551, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 685-686Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Signaling by members of the TGFbeta family is much dependent on the common-mediator Smad4, which forms transcriptionally active complexes with all receptor-activated Smads (R-Smads). New findings demonstrate that transcriptional intermediary factor 1gamma (TIF1gamma) also can bind to R-Smads, as an alternative to Smad4, and mediate different transcriptional effects.

  • 33.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Role of Smads in TGFβ signaling2012In: Cell and Tissue Research, ISSN 0302-766X, E-ISSN 1432-0878, Vol. 347, no 1, p. 21-36Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is the prototype for a large family of pleiotropic factors that signal via heterotetrameric complexes of type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors. Important intracellular mediators of TGFβ signaling are members of the Smad family. Smad2 and 3 are activated by C-terminal receptor-mediated phosphorylation, whereafter they form complexes with Smad4 and are translocated to the nucleus where they, in cooperation with other transcription factors, co-activators and co-repressors, regulate the transcription of specific genes. Smads have key roles in exerting TGFβ-induced programs leading to cell growth arrest and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The activity and stability of Smad molecules are carefully regulated by a plethora of post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, acetylation and poly(ADP)-ribosylation. The Smad function has been shown to be perturbed in certain diseases such as cancer.

  • 34.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Vanlandewijck, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Regulation of EMT by TGFβ in cancer2012In: FEBS Letters, ISSN 0014-5793, E-ISSN 1873-3468, Vol. 586, no 14, p. 1959-1970Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) suppresses tumor formation since it inhibits cell growth and promotes apoptosis. However, in advanced cancers TGF beta elicits tumor promoting effects through its ability to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which enhances invasiveness and metastasis; in addition, TGF beta exerts tumor promoting effects on non-malignant cells of the tumor, including suppression of immune surveillance and stimulation of angiogenesis. TGF beta promotes EMT by transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of a group of transcription factors that suppresses epithelial features, such as expression of components of cell junctions and polarity complexes, and enhances mesenchymal features, such as production of matrix molecules and several cytokines and growth factors that stimulate cell migration. The EMT program has certain similarities with the stem cell program. Inducers and effectors of EMT are interesting targets for the development of improved diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of cancer. 

  • 35. Itoh, Susumu
    et al.
    Thorikay, Midory
    Kowanetz, Marcin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Itoh, Fumiko
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    ten Dijke, Peter
    Elucidation of Smad requirement in transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor-induced responses2003In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 278, no 6, p. 3751-3761Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) elicits cellular effects by activating specific Smad proteins that control the transcription of target genes. Whereas there is growing evidence that there are TGF-beta type I receptor-initiated intracellular pathways that are distinct from the pivotal Smad pathway, their physiological importance in TGF-beta signaling is not well understood. Therefore, we generated TGF-beta type I receptors (also termed ALK5s) with mutations in the L45 loop of the kinase domain, termed ALK5(D266A) and ALK5(3A). These mutants showed retained kinase activity but were unable to activate Smads. Characterization of their signaling properties revealed that the two L45 loop mutants did not mediate Smad-dependent transcriptional responses, TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition, and fibronectin and plasminogen activator-1 production in R4-2 mink lung epithelial cells lacking functional ALK5 protein. Mutation in the L45 loop region did not affect the binding of inhibitory Smads but did abrogate the weak binding of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and Disabled-2 to ALK5. This suggests that the L45 loop in the kinase domain is important for docking of other binding proteins. Interestingly, JNK MAP kinase activity was found to be activated by the ALK5(3A) mutant in various cell types. In addition, TGF-beta-induced inhibition of cyclin D1 expression and stimulation of PMEPA1 (androgen-regulated prostatic mRNA) expression were found to occur, albeit weakly, in an Smad-independent manner in normal murine mammary gland cells. However, the TGF-beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation was found to require an intact L45 loop and is likely to be dependent on the Smad pathways.

  • 36.
    Kahata, Kaoru
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Dadras, Mahsa Shahidi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    TGF-beta Family Signaling in Epithelial Differentiation and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition2018In: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, ISSN 1943-0264, E-ISSN 1943-0264, Vol. 10, no 1, article id a022194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epithelia exist in the animal body since the onset of embryonic development; they generate tissue barriers and specify organs and glands. Through epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs), epithelia generate mesenchymal cells that form new tissues and promote healing or disease manifestation when epithelial homeostasis is challenged physiologically or pathologically. Transforming growth factor-beta s (TGF-beta s), activins, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and growth and differentiation factors (GDFs) have been implicated in the regulation of epithelial differentiation. These TGF-beta family ligands are expressed and secreted at sites where the epithelium interacts with the mesenchyme and provide paracrine queues from the mesenchyme to the neighboring epithelium, helping the specification of differentiated epithelial cell types within an organ. TGF-beta ligands signal via Smads and cooperating kinase pathways and control the expression or activities of key transcription factors that promote either epithelial differentiation or mesenchymal transitions. In this review, we discuss evidence that illustrates how TGF-beta family ligands contribute to epithelial differentiation and induce mesenchymal transitions, by focusing on the embryonic ectoderm and tissues that form the external mammalian body lining.

  • 37.
    Kahata, Kaoru
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Maturi, Varun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    TGF-beta Family Signaling in Ductal Differentiation and Branching Morphogenesis2018In: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, ISSN 1943-0264, E-ISSN 1943-0264, Vol. 10, no 3, article id a031997Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epithelial cells contribute to the development of various vital organs by generating tubular and/or glandular architectures. The fully developed forms of ductal organs depend on processes of branching morphogenesis, whereby frequency, total number, and complexity of the branching tissue define the final architecture in the organ. Some ductal tissues, like the mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation, disintegrate and regenerate through periodic cycles. Differentiation of branched epithelia is driven by antagonistic actions of parallel growth factor systems that mediate epithelial-mesenchymal communication. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members and their extracellular antagonists are prominently involved in both normal and disease-associated (e.g., malignant or fibrotic) ductal tissue patterning. Here, we discuss collective knowledge that permeates the roles of TGF-beta family members in the control of the ductal tissues in the vertebrate body.

  • 38. Kaivo-Oja, Noora
    et al.
    Bondestam, Jonas
    Kämäräinen, Meerit
    Koskimies, Janne
    Vitt, Ursula
    Cranfield, Mark
    Vuojolainen, Kaisa
    Kallio, Janne P.
    Olkkonen, Vesa M.
    Hayashi, Masaru
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Groome, Nigel P.
    ten Dijke, Peter
    Hsueh, Aaron J. W.
    Ritvos, Olli
    Growth differentiation factor-9 induces Smad2 activation and inhibin B production in cultured human granulosa-luteal cells2003In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 755-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The TGF beta family member growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) is an oocyte-derived factor that is essential for mammalian ovarian folliculogenesis. GDF-9 mRNAs have been shown to be expressed in the human ovarian follicle from the primary follicle stage onward, and recombinant GDF-9 has been shown to promote human ovarian follicle growth in vitro. In this study with primary cultures of human granulosa-luteal (hGL) cells, we investigated whether recombinant GDF-9 activates components of the Smad signaling pathways known to be differentially activated by TGF beta and the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). As with TGF beta, GDF-9 treatment caused the phosphorylation of endogenous 53-kDa proteins detected in Western blots with antiphospho-Smad2 antibodies (alpha PS2). However, unlike BMP-2, GDF-9 did not activate the phosphorylation of antiphospho-Smad1 antibody (alphaPS1)-immunoreactive proteins in hGL cells. Infection of hGL cells with an adenovirus expressing Smad2 (Ad-Smad2) confirmed that GDF-9 activates specifically phosphorylation of the Smad2 protein. Infection of hGL cells with Ad-Smad7, which expresses the inhibitory Smad7 protein, suppressed the levels of both GDF-9-induced endogenous and adenoviral alpha PS2-reactive proteins. Furthermore, GDF-9 increased the steady state levels of inhibin beta(B)-subunit mRNAs in hGL cells and strongly stimulated the secretion of dimeric inhibin B. Again, Ad-Smad7 blocked GDF-9-stimulated inhibin B production in a concentration-dependent manner. We identify here for the first time distinct molecular components of the GDF-9 signaling pathway in the human ovary. Our data suggest that GDF-9 mediates its effect through the pathway commonly activated by TGF beta and activin, but not that activated by many BMPs. The results are also consistent with the suggestion that in addition to endocrine control of inhibin production by gonadotropins, a local paracrine control of inhibin production is likely to occur via oocyte-derived factors in the human ovary.

  • 39. Kintscher, Ulrich
    et al.
    Lyon, Christopher
    Wakino, Shu
    Bruemmer, Dennis
    Feng, Xu
    Goetze, Stephan
    Graf, Kristof
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Staels, Bart
    Fleck, Eckart
    Hsueh, Willa A.
    Law, Ronald E.
    PPARalpha inhibits TGF-beta-induced beta5 integrin transcription in vascular smooth muscle cells by interacting with Smad42002In: Circulation Research, ISSN 0009-7330, E-ISSN 1524-4571, Vol. 91, no 11, p. e35-e44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrins play an important role in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, a crucial event in the development of restenosis and atherosclerosis. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is highly expressed in restenotic and atherosclerotic lesions, and known to induce integrin expression. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, regulates gene expression in a variety of vascular cells. We investigated the effects of PPARalpha ligands on TGF-beta-induced beta3 and beta5 integrin expression and potential interaction between PPARalpha and TGF-beta signaling. PPARalpha ligands WY-14643 (100 micromol/L) and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetranoic acid (ETYA, 50 micromol/L) inhibited TGF-beta-induced beta5 integrin protein expression by 72+/-6.8% and 73+/-7.1%, respectively (both P<0.05). TGF-beta-stimulated beta3 integrin expression was not affected by PPARalpha ligands. Both PPARalpha ligands also suppressed TGF-beta-induced beta5 integrin mRNA levels. PPARalpha ligands inhibited TGF-beta-inducible transcription of beta5 integrin by an interaction with a TGF-beta response element between nucleotides -63 and -44, which contains a Sp1/Sp3 transcription factor binding site. Nuclear complexes binding to the TGF-beta response region contained Sp1/Sp3 and TGF-beta-regulated Smad 2, 3, and 4 transcription factors. TGF-beta-stimulated Sp1/Smad4 nuclear complex formation was inhibited by WY-14643 and ETYA with a parallel induction of PPARalpha/Smad4 interactions. However, in vitro pull-down experiments failed to demonstrate direct binding between PPARalpha/Smad4. Both PPARalpha ligands blocked PDGF-directed migration of TGF-beta-pretreated VSMCs, a process mediated, in part, by beta5 integrins. The present study demonstrates that PPARalpha activators inhibit TGF-beta-induced beta5 integrin transcription in VSMCs through a novel indirect interaction between ligand-activated PPARalpha and the TGF-beta-regulated Smad4 transcription factors.

  • 40.
    Kolliopoulos, Constantinos
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lin, Chun-Yu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Sepsis Research Center, Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Heldin, Paraskevi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Has2 natural antisense RNA and Hmga2 promote Has2 expression during TGFβ-induced EMT in breast cancer2019In: Matrix Biology, ISSN 0945-053X, E-ISSN 1569-1802, Vol. 80, p. 29-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan has a crucial role in tissue organization and cell signaling. Hyaluronan accumulates in conjunction with rapid tissue remodeling during embryogenesis, as well as in inflammatory conditions and cancer. We report a negative correlation between the expression of genes encoding hyaluronan synthase HAS2, its natural antisense transcript HAS2-AS, the chromatin modulating factor HMGA2 and transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), and survival of patients with invasive breast carcinomas. In mouse mammary epithelial cells, TGFβ activates Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways, resulting in the transcriptional induction of Has2, Has2as (the mouse ortholog of HAS2-AS) and Hmga2, as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-promoting transcription factors, such as Snail. Importantly, Has2as abrogation suppressed the TGFβ induction of EMT markers, including Snai1, Hmga2, Fn1, and suppressed the mesenchymal phenotype. TGFβ induction of Hmga2, Has2as and Has2, and synthesis of hyaluronan were accompanied with activation of Akt and Erk1/2 MAP-kinase signaling and were required for breast cancer cell motility. Importantly, the hyaluronan receptor Cd44, but not Hmmr, was required for TGFβ-mediated EMT phenotype. Interestingly, Has2as was found to contribute to the maintenance of stem cell factors and breast cancer stemness. Our findings show that Has2as has a key role in TGFβ- and HAS2-induced breast cancer EMT, migration and acquisition of stemness.

  • 41.
    Kolliopoulos, Constantinos
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Raja, Erna
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Razmara, Masoud
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Heldin, Paraskevi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    van der Heide, Lars P
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) induces NUAK kinase expression to fine-tune its signaling output2019In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 294, no 11, p. 4119-4136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TGFβ signaling via SMAD proteins and protein kinase pathways up- or down-regulates the expression of many genes and thus affects physiological processes, such as differentiation, migration, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis during developmental or adult tissue homeostasis. We here report that NUAK family kinase 1 (NUAK1) and NUAK2 are two TGFβ target genes. NUAK1/2 belong to the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family, whose members control central and protein metabolism, polarity and overall cellular homeostasis. We found that TGFβ-mediated transcriptional induction of NUAK1 and NUAK2 requires SMAD family members 2, 3 and 4 (SMAD2/3/4) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities, which provided immediate and early signals for the transient expression of these two kinases. Genomic mapping identified an enhancer element within the first intron of the NUAK2 gene that can recruit SMAD proteins, which, when cloned, could confer induction by TGFβ.  Furthermore, NUAK2 formed protein complexes with SMAD3 and the TGFβ type I receptor. Functionally, NUAK1 suppressed and NUAK2 induced TGFβ signaling. This was evident during TGFβ-induced epithelial cytostasis, mesenchymal differentiation and myofibroblast contractility, in which NUAK1 or NUAK2 silencing enhanced or inhibited these responses, respectively. In conclusion, we have identified a bifurcating loop during TGFβ signaling, whereby transcriptional induction of NUAK1 serves as a negative checkpoint and NUAK2 induction positively contributes to signaling and terminal differentiation responses to TGFβ activity.

  • 42.
    Konstantinidis, Georgios
    et al.
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion, Greece.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Stournaras, Christos
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion, Greece.
    Regulation of Myosin Light Chain Function by BMP Signaling Controls Actin Cytoskeleton Remodeling2011In: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, ISSN 1015-8987, E-ISSN 1421-9778, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 1031-1044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims:

    Actin cytoskeleton dynamics support and coordinate signaling events that control cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Growth factors provide essential signals that act on multi-protein complexes that regulate actin assembly with myosin. We previously analyzed the action of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and now extend our studies to the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 7, an important regulator of stem cell function and bone differentiation.

    Methods:

    Using a well-established cell model of actin dynamics, Swiss3T3 fibroblasts, we applied cell biological and biochemical approaches to monitor the pathway that links the BMP-7 receptors to the acto-myosin complex.

    Results:

    We demonstrate that BMP-7 induces actin and focal adhesion remodeling in starved fibroblasts as potently as TGF-β. BMP-7 mediates changes of actin dynamics via the kinase ROCK1 and induces rapid activation of RhoA and RhoB with concomitant inactivation of Cdc42. These molecular events correlate well with induction of phosphorylation on Ser19 of the myosin light chain, but not with LIMK1 kinase activation. Depletion of endogenous myosin light chain inhibits actin remodeling induced by BMP-7. This novel pathway regulates fibroblast migration without affecting cell proliferation.

    Conclusion:

    We establish a BMP-Rho-ROCK1 pathway, which targets myosin light chain to control actin remodeling in fibroblasts.

  • 43.
    Korpetinou, Angeliki
    et al.
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Patras, Greece.
    Skandalis, Spyros S.
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Patras, Greece.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Happonen, Kaisa E.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Medical Protein Chemistry, Lund University, Malmo¨ , Sweden.
    Tveit, Heidi
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Prydz, Kristian
    Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Labropoulou, Vassiliki T.
    Karamandaneion Childrens’ Hospital, Patras, Greece.
    Giannopoulou, Efstathia
    Clinical Oncology Laboratory, Division of Oncology, University Hospital of Patras, Patras Medical School, Patras, Greece.
    Kalofonos, Haralambos P.
    Clinical Oncology Laboratory, Division of Oncology, University Hospital of Patras, Patras Medical School, Patras, Greece.
    Blom, Anna M.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Medical Protein Chemistry, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Karamanos, Nikos K.
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Patras, Greece,.
    Theocharis, Achilleas D.
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Patras, Greece.
    Serglycin Is Implicated in the Promotion of Aggressive Phenotype of Breast Cancer Cells2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 10, p. e78157-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serglycin is a proteoglycan expressed by some malignant cells. It promotes metastasis and protects some tumor cells from complement system attack. In the present study, we show for the first time the in situ expression of serglycin by breast cancer cells by immunohistochemistry in patients' material. Moreover, we demonstrate high expression and constitutive secretion of serglycin in the aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Serglycin exhibited a strong cytoplasmic staining in these cells, observable at the cell periphery in a thread of filaments near the cell membrane, but also in filopodia-like structures. Serglycin was purified from conditioned medium of MDA-MB-231 cells, and represented the major proteoglycan secreted by these cells, having a molecular size of similar to 250 kDa and carrying chondroitin sulfate side chains, mainly composed of 4-sulfated (similar to 87%), 6-sulfated (similar to 10%) and non-sulfated (similar to 3%) disaccharides. Purified serglycin inhibited early steps of both the classical and the lectin pathways of complement by binding to C1q and mannose-binding lectin. Stable expression of serglycin in less aggressive MCF-7 breast cancer cells induced their proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration and invasion. Interestingly, over-expression of serglycin lacking the glycosaminoglycan attachment sites failed to promote these cellular functions, suggesting that glycanation of serglycin is a pre-requisite for its oncogenic properties. Our findings suggest that serglycin promotes a more aggressive cancer cell phenotype and may protect breast cancer cells from complement attack supporting their survival and expansion.

  • 44. Koutsodontis, George
    et al.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Kardassis, Dimitris
    The role of Sp1 family members, the proximal GC-rich motifs, and the upstream enhancer region in the regulation of the human cell cycle inhibitor p21WAF-1/Cip1 gene promoter2002In: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, E-ISSN 1520-4995, Vol. 41, no 42, p. 12771-12784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study we establish that specific members of the Sp1 family of transcription factors (Sp1 and Sp3) bind to all six GC-rich motifs (elements 1-6) present in the proximal promoter of the human cell cycle inhibitor p21(WAF-1/Cip1) gene. Competition analysis showed that Sp1 and Sp3 bound with high affinity to elements 1, 3, 4, and 5/6 and with lower affinity to element 2. Transfection experiments in the Sp1-deficient Drosophila SL2 cells established that Sp1 and Sp3 but not Sp2 are potent transactivators of the p21 promoter. Transactivation by Sp1 was compromised either by deletion of element 1 (-119/-114) or by using a truncated Sp1 form lacking the C-terminal regulatory domain D. Point mutagenesis of the -2325/+8 p21 promoter, targeting individual elements 1-6, showed that mutations in element 3 (-82/-77) caused a dramatic reduction (90%) in p21 promoter activity whereas mutations in other elements had a less severe effect. The mutations in element 3 abolished p21 promoter induction by upstream enhancer elements in HepG2 cells. Sp1, but not Sp3, mediated the transactivation of the p21 promoter by the TGFbeta signaling mediator Smad3 and Smad4 proteins whereas none of the individual mutations in elements 1-6 affected the transactivation of the p21 promoter by Smad proteins in HepG2 cells. Our results suggest that functional interactions between Sp1 family members bound to specific elements of the proximal promoter and factors bound to distal enhancer elements govern the hepatic activity of the human p21 promoter under basal or inducible conditions.

  • 45.
    Kowanetz, Marcin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Lönn, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Vanlandewijck, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Kowanetz, Katarzyna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    TGFβ induces SIK to negatively regulate type I receptor kinase signaling2008In: Journal of Cell Biology, ISSN 0021-9525, E-ISSN 1540-8140, Vol. 182, no 4, p. 655-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Signal transduction by transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) coordinates physiological responses in diverse cell types. TGFbeta signals via type I and type II receptor serine/threonine kinases and intracellular Smad proteins that regulate transcription. Strength and duration of TGFbeta signaling is largely dependent on a negative-feedback program initiated during signal progression. We have identified an inducible gene target of TGFbeta/Smad signaling, the salt-inducible kinase (SIK), which negatively regulates signaling together with Smad7. SIK and Smad7 form a complex and cooperate to down-regulate the activated type I receptor ALK5. We further show that both the kinase and ubiquitin-associated domain of SIK are required for proper ALK5 degradation, with ubiquitin functioning to enhance SIK-mediated receptor degradation. Loss of endogenous SIK results in enhanced gene responses of the fibrotic and cytostatic programs of TGFbeta. We thus identify in SIK a negative regulator that controls TGFbeta receptor turnover and physiological signaling.

  • 46.
    Kurisaki, Akira
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Kose, Shingo
    Yoneda, Yoshihiro
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Transforming growth factor-beta induces nuclear import of Smad3 in an importin-beta1 and Ran-dependent manner2001In: Molecular Biology of the Cell, ISSN 1059-1524, E-ISSN 1939-4586, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 1079-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smad proteins are cytoplasmic signaling effectors of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family cytokines and regulate gene transcription in the nucleus. Receptor-activated Smads (R-Smads) become phosphorylated by the TGF-beta type I receptor. Rapid and precise transport of R-Smads to the nucleus is of crucial importance for signal transduction. By focusing on the R-Smad Smad3 we demonstrate that 1) only activated Smad3 efficiently enters the nucleus of permeabilized cells in an energy- and cytosol-dependent manner. 2) Smad3, via its N-terminal domain, interacts specifically with importin-beta1 and only after activation by receptor. In contrast, the unique insert of exon3 in the N-terminal domain of Smad2 prevents its association with importin-beta1. 3) Nuclear import of Smad3 in vivo requires the action of the Ran GTPase, which mediates release of Smad3 from the complex with importin-beta1. 4) Importin-beta1, Ran, and p10/NTF2 are sufficient to mediate import of activated Smad3. The data describe a pathway whereby Smad3 phosphorylation by the TGF-beta receptor leads to enhanced interaction with importin-beta1 and Ran-dependent import and release into the nucleus. The import mechanism of Smad3 shows distinct features from that of the related Smad2 and the structural basis for this difference maps to the divergent sequences of their N-terminal domains.

  • 47.
    Kurisaki, Akira
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Kurisaki, Keiko
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Kowanetz, Marcin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Sugino, Hiromu
    Yoneda, Yoshihiro
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    The mechanism of nuclear export of smad3 involves exportin 4 and Ran2006In: Molecular and Cellular Biology, ISSN 0270-7306, E-ISSN 1098-5549, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 1318-1332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) receptors phosphorylate Smad3 and induce its nuclear import so it can regulate gene transcription. Smad3 can return to the cytoplasm to propagate further cycles of signal transduction or to be degraded. We demonstrate that Smad3 is exported by a constitutive mechanism that is insensitive to leptomycin B. The Mad homology 2 (MH2) domain is responsible for Smad3 export, which requires the GTPase Ran. Inactive, GDP-locked RanT24N or nuclear microinjection of Ran GTPase activating protein 1 blocked Smad3 export. Inactivation of the Ran guanine nucleotide exchange factor RCC1 inhibited Smad3 export and led to nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated Smad3. A screen for importin/exportin family members that associate with Smad3 identified exportin 4, which binds a conserved peptide sequence in the MH2 domain of Smad3 in a Ran-dependent manner. Exportin 4 is sufficient for carrying the in vitro nuclear export of Smad3 in cooperation with Ran. Knockdown of endogenous exportin 4 completely abrogates the export of endogenous Smad3. A short peptide representing the minimal interaction domain in Smad3 effectively competes with Smad3 association to exportin 4 and blocks nuclear export of Smad3 in vivo. We thus delineate a novel nuclear export pathway for Smad3.

  • 48.
    Kurisaki, Keiko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Kurisaki, Akira
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Valcourt, Ulrich
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Terentiev, Alexei A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Pardali, Katerina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    ten Dijke, Peter
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Ericsson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Nuclear factor YY1 inhibits transforming growth factor beta- and bone morphogenetic protein-induced cell differentiation2003In: Molecular and Cellular Biology, ISSN 0270-7306, E-ISSN 1098-5549, Vol. 23, no 13, p. 4494-4510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smad proteins transduce transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals that regulate cell growth and differentiation. We have identified YY1, a transcription factor that positively or negatively regulates transcription of many genes, as a novel Smad-interacting protein. YY1 represses the induction of immediate-early genes to TGF-beta and BMP, such as the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene (PAI-1) and the inhibitor of differentiation/inhibitor of DNA binding 1 gene (Id-1). YY1 inhibits binding of Smads to their cognate DNA elements in vitro and blocks Smad recruitment to the Smad-binding element-rich region of the PAI-1 promoter in vivo. YY1 interacts with the conserved N-terminal Mad homology 1 domain of Smad4 and to a lesser extent with Smad1, Smad2, and Smad3. The YY1 zinc finger domain mediates the association with Smads and is necessary for the repressive effect of YY1 on Smad transcriptional activity. Moreover, downregulation of endogenous YY1 by antisense and small interfering RNA strategies results in enhanced transcriptional responses to TGF-beta or BMP. Ectopic expression of YY1 inhibits, while knockdown of endogenous YY1 enhances, TGF-beta- and BMP-induced cell differentiation. In contrast, overexpression or knockdown of YY1 does not affect growth inhibition induced by TGF-beta or BMP. Accordingly, YY1 does not interfere with the regulation of immediate-early genes involved in the TGF-beta growth-inhibitory response, the cell cycle inhibitors p15 and p21, and the proto-oncogene c-myc. In conclusion, YY1 represses Smad transcriptional activities in a gene-specific manner and thus regulates cell differentiation induced by TGF-beta superfamily pathways.

  • 49.
    Lehmann, Laura C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Systems Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Hewitt, Graeme
    Francis Crick Inst, 1 Midland Rd, London NW1 1AT, England..
    Aibara, Shintaro
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Biochem & Biophys, Sci Life Lab, S-17165 Solna, Sweden..
    Leitner, Alexander
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Inst Mol Syst Biol, Dept Biol, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Marklund, Emil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Systems Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Maslen, Sarah L.
    MRC Lab Mol Biol, Francis Crick Ave,Cambridge Biomed Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH, England..
    Maturi, Varun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Chen, Yang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Systems Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    van der Spoel, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics.
    Skehel, J. Mark
    MRC Lab Mol Biol, Francis Crick Ave,Cambridge Biomed Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH, England..
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Boulton, Simon J.
    Francis Crick Inst, 1 Midland Rd, London NW1 1AT, England..
    Deindl, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Systems Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Mechanistic Insights into Autoinhibition of the Oncogenic Chromatin Remodeler ALC12017In: Molecular Cell, ISSN 1097-2765, E-ISSN 1097-4164, Vol. 68, no 5, p. 847-859.e7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human ALC1 is an oncogene-encoded chromatin-remodeling enzyme required for DNA repair that possesses a poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)-binding macro domain. Its engagement with PARylated PARP1 activates ALC1 at sites of DNA damage, but the underlying-mechanism remains unclear. Here, we establish a dual role for the macro domain in autoinhibition of ALC1 ATPase activity and coupling to nucleosome mobilization. In the absence of DNA damage, an inactive conformation of the ATPase is maintained by juxtaposition of the macro domain against predominantly the C-terminal ATPase lobe through conserved electrostatic interactions. Mutations within this interface displace the macro domain, constitutively activate the ALC1 ATPase independent of PARylated PARP1, and alter the dynamics of ALC1 recruitment at DNA damage sites. Upon DNA damage, binding of PARylated PARP1 by the macro domain induces a conformational change that relieves autoinhibitory interactions with the ATPase motor, which selectively activates ALC1 remodeling upon recruitment to sites of DNA damage.

  • 50.
    Lönn, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Vanlandewijck, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Kowanetz, Marcin
    Kowanetz, Katarzyna
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Moustakas, Aristidis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    SIK and Smurf2 cooperate to downregulate the TGF-β type I receptorManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
123 1 - 50 of 105
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