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  • 1.
    Blixt., Anna-Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Andersson, Gabriella
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Lu, J
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics.
    Growth and charazterization of Fe0.82Ni0.18/V(001) superlattices2003In: Journal of Physics, Condensed Matter, Vol. 15 (4), no Feb 5, p. 625-633Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Cheah, Seng Kian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Perre, Emilie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Rooth, Mårten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Fondell, Mattis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Hårsta, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Boman, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microstructure Laboratory.
    Simon, Patrice
    CIRIMAT, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Self-Supported Three-Dimensional Nanoelectrodes for Microbattery Applications2009In: Nano letters (Print), ISSN 1530-6984, E-ISSN 1530-6992, Vol. 9, no 9, p. 3230-3233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A nanostructured three-dimensional (3D) microbattery has been produced and cycled in a Li-ion battery. It consists of a current collector of aluminum nanorods, a uniform layer of 17 nm TiO2 covering the nanorods made using ALD, an electrolyte and metallic lithium counter electrode. The battery is electrochemically cycled more than 50 times. The increase in total capacity is 10 times when using a 3D architechture compared to a 2D system for the same footprint area.

  • 3. Dueñas, S
    et al.
    Castán, H
    García, H
    de Castro, A
    Bailón, L
    Kukli, K
    Aidla, A
    Aarik, J
    Mändar, H
    Uustare, T
    Lu, J
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Hårsta, Anders
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Influence of single and double deposition temperatures on the interface quality of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 dielectric thin films on silicon2006In: Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 99, p. 054902-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An electrical characterization of Al2O3 based metal-insulator-semiconductor structures has been carried out by using capacitance-voltage, deep level transient spectroscopy, and conductance-transient (G-t) techniques. Dielectric films were atomic layer deposited (ALD) at temperatures ranging from 300 to 800 °C directly on silicon substrates and on an Al2O3 buffer layer that was grown in the same process by using 15 ALD cycles at 300 °C. As for single growth temperatures, 300 °C leads to the lowest density of states distributed away from the interface to the insulator [disorder-induced gap states (DIGS)], but to the highest interfacial state density (Dit). However, by using 300/500 °C double growth temperatures it is possible to maintain low DIGS values and to improve the interface quality in terms of Dit. The very first ALD cycles define the dielectric properties very near to the dielectric-semiconductor interface, and growing an upper layer at higher ALD temperature produces some annealing of interfacial states, thus improving the interface quality. Also, samples in which the only layer or the upper one was grown at the highest temperature (800 °C) show the poorest results both in terms of Dit and DIGS, so using very high temperatures yield defective dielectric films.

  • 4. Gudmundsson, Valur
    et al.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    Luo, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Östling, Mikael
    Fully Depleted UTB and Trigate N-Channel MOSFETs Featuring Low-Temperature PtSi Schottky-Barrier Contacts With Dopant Segregation2009In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 541-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Schottky-barrier source/drain (SB-S/D) presents a promising solution to reducing parasitic resistance for device architectures such as fully depleted UTB, trigate, or FinFET. In this letter, a low-temperature process (<= 700 degrees C) with PtSi-based S/D is examined for the fabrication of n-type UTB and trigate FETs on SOI substrate (t(si) = 30 nm). Dopant segregation with As was used to achieve the n-type behavior at implantation doses of 1 (.) 10(15) and 5. 10(15) cm(-2). Similar results were found for UTB devices with both doses, but trigate devices with the larger dose exhibited higher on currents and smaller process variation than their lower dose counterparts.

  • 5.
    Heszler, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Carlsson, Jan-Otto
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Lu, J
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Amorphous carbon film deposition by laser induced C60 fragmentation1997In: Applied Surface Science, Vol. 109, p. 457-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is demonstrated that a pure carbon (fullerene) precursor, C60, is appropriate for laser-induced carbon film deposition. Amorphous carbon films were obtained on Si and SiO2 substrates upon ArF excimer laser induced fragmentation of gas phase C60. The depositions were performed in Ar and H2 ambient in a hot-wall reactor at 550°C. Strong C2 emission bands were observed by optical emission spectroscopy during the deposition process indicating that C2 dimers are used for film formation, however, thermal decomposition of C58, C56, etc. high-mass fragments may also contribute to the layer development. Raman and TEM studies showed amorphous (highly disordered, turbostratic) character of the films. Optical absorption spectroscopy indicated semiconductor feature of the layers with optical band gap of 0.7 and 0.9 eV for the films deposited in Ar and H2 ambient, respectively. For the films deposited in H2 atmosphere, changes in the Raman spectrum and an upshift of the optical band gap of the layer indicate amorphous hydrogenated film with diamond-like character, however, degree of the sp3 hybridisation was estimated to be low. The deposition rate was measured to be 200 Å/min at 500°C and 400 mJ/cm2 laser fluence. AFM measurements showed smooth films with low surface roughness, 1 nm on 1 μm scale length.

  • 6.
    Intarasiri, Saweat
    et al.
    Institute for Science and Technology Research and Development, Chiang Mai University.
    Hallén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Jensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Bertilsson, K.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Wolborski, M.
    KTH.
    Singkarat, S.
    FNRF, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Crystalline quality of 3C-SiC formed by high-fluence C+-implanted Si2007In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 253, no 11, p. 4836-4842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon ions at 40 keV were implanted into (1 0 0) high-purity p-type silicon wafers at 400 °C to a fluence of 6.5 × 1017 ions/cm2. Subsequent thermal annealing of the implanted samples was performed in a diffusion furnace at atmospheric pressure with inert nitrogen ambient at 1100 °C. Time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF-E ERDA) was used to investigate depth distributions of the implanted ions. Infrared transmittance (IR) and Raman scattering measurements were used to characterize the formation of SiC in the implanted Si substrate. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to characterize the crystalline quality in the surface layer of the sample. The formation of 3C-SiC and its crystalline structure obtained from the above mentioned techniques was finally confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that 3C-SiC is directly formed during implantation, and that the subsequent high-temperature annealing enhances the quality of the poly-crystalline SiC.

  • 7. Intarasiri, Saweat
    et al.
    Yu, L.D.
    Singkarat, S.
    Hallén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Jensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Ion Physics.
    Effects of low-fluence swift iodine ion bombardment on the crystallization of ion-beam-synthesized silicon carbide2007In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 101, no 8, p. 084311-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion beam synthesis using high-fluence carbon ion implantation in silicon in combination with subsequent or in situ thermal annealing has been shown to be able to form nanocrystalline cubic SiC (3C-SiC) layers in silicon. In this study, a silicon carbide layer was synthesized by 40-keV C 12 + implantation of a p -type (100) Si wafer at a fluence of 6.5× 1017 ions cm2 at an elevated temperature. The existence of the implanted carbon in Si substrate was investigated by time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis. The SiC layer was subsequently irradiated by 10-30 MeV I 127 ions to a very low fluence of 1012 ions cm2 at temperatures from 80 to 800 °C to study the effect on the crystallization of the SiC layer. Infrared spectroscopy and Raman scattering measurement were used to monitor the formation of SiC and detailed information about the SiC film properties was obtained by analyzing the peak shape of the Si-C stretching mode absorption. The change in crystallinity of the synthesized layer was probed by glancing incidence x-ray diffraction measurement and transmission electron microscopy was also used to confirm the results and to model the crystallization process. The results from all these measurements showed in a coherent way that the synthesized structure was a polycrystalline layer with nanometer sized SiC crystals buried in a-Si matrix. The crystallinity of the SiC layer was enhanced by the low-fluence swift heavy ion bombardment and also favored by higher energy, higher fluence, and higher substrate temperature. It is suggested that electronic stopping plays a dominant role in the enhancement.

  • 8. Jogi, Indrek
    et al.
    Kukli, Kaupo
    Ritala, Mikko
    Leskela, Markku
    Aarik, Jaan
    Aidla, Aleks
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microstructure Laboratory.
    Atomic layer deposition of high capacitance density Ta2O5-ZrO2 based dielectrics for metal-insulator-metal structures2010In: Microelectronic Engineering, ISSN 0167-9317, E-ISSN 1873-5568, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 144-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated electrical properties of laminated atomic layer deposited films: ZrO2-Ta2O5, ZrO2-Nb2O5-Ta2O5, ZrO2-TaxNb1-xO5 and Ta2O5-ZrxNbyOz. Even though the capacitances of laminates were often higher compared to films of constituent materials with similar thickness, considerably higher charge storage factors, Q were achieved only when tetragonal ZrO2 was stabilized in ZrO2-Ta2O5 laminate and when the laminate thickness exceeded 50 rim. The decreased Q values in the case of most laminates were the result of increased leakage currents. In the case of thinner films only Ta2O5-ZrxNbyOz, stack possessed capacitance density and Q value higher than reference HfO2. Concerning the conduction mechanisms, in the case of thinner films, the Ta2O5 or TaxNb1-xO5 apparently controlled the leakage either by Richardson-Schottky emission or Poole-Frenkel effect. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

  • 9. Jogi, Indrek
    et al.
    Tamm, Aile
    Kukli, Kaupo
    Kemell, Marianna
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Sajavaara, Timo
    Ritala, Mikko
    Leskelä, Markku
    Investigation of ZrO2-Gd2O3 Based High-k Materials as Capacitor Dielectrics2010In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 157, no 10, p. G202-G210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZrO2-Gd2O3 nanolaminates and mixtures was investigated for the preparation of a high permittivity dielectric material. Variation in the relative number of ALD cycles for constituent oxides allowed one to obtain films with controlled composition. Pure ZrO2 films possessed monoclinic and higher permittivity cubic or tetragonal phases, whereas the inclusion of Gd2O3 resulted in the disappearance of the monoclinic phase. Changes in phase composition were accompanied with increased permittivity of mixtures and laminates with low Gd content. Further increase in the lower permittivity Gd2O3 content above 3.4 cat. % resulted in the decreased permittivity of the mixtures. Leakage currents generally decreased with increasing Gd content, whereby laminated structures demonstrated smaller leakage currents than mixed films at a comparable Gd content. Concerning the bottom electrode materials, the best results in terms of permittivity and leakage currents were achieved with Ru, allowing a capacitance equivalent oxide thickness of similar to 1 nm and a current density of 3 X 10(-8) A/cm(2) at 1 V. Charge storage values up to 60 nC/mm(2) were obtained for mixtures and laminates with thickness below 30 nm. In general, at electric fields below 2-3 MV/cm, normal and trap-compensated Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanisms were competing, whereas at higher fields, Fowler-Nordheim and/or trap-assisted tunneling started to dominate.

  • 10.
    Johansson, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Experimental Physics. oorganisk kemi.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Experimental Physics.
    Carlsson, Jan-Otto
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Experimental Physics. oorganisk kemi.
    Boman, Mats
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Experimental Physics. oorganisk kemi.
    Deposition of palladium nanoparticles on the pore walls of anodic alumina using sequential electroless deposition2004In: Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 96, no 9, p. 5189-5194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Palladium nanoparticles were deposited using a sequential electroless deposition technique on the pore walla of nanoporous anodic alumina. For the particle deposition a Pd(NH3)42+ solution was soaked in the alumina membrane and a heated air flow was applied in order to reduce the palladiumcomplex to palladium metal nanoparticles. By repeating the deposition process the size of the nanoparticles could be tailored in this investgation between 6 and 11 nm. The size of the nanoparticles was also affected by the concentration of the Pd(NH3)42+ solution i.e., highconcentration yielded larger particles mean diameters. The samples were investigated using high resolution scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma with a mass spectometer, high resolution transmission electron microscopy , and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Analysis revealed narrow size distributions of the particles as well as uniform particle coverage of the pore walls. No by-products were observed with EDS, and with the XRD analysis the metallic palladium crystallinity was confirmed.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Widenkvist, Erika
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Boman, Mats
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Fabrication of High-Aspect-Ratio Prussian Blue Nanotubes Using a Porous Alumina Template2005In: Nano Letters, Vol. 5, no 8, p. 1603-1606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prussian blue nanotubes were fabricated by using a sequential deposition technique inside the 60-nm well-ordered pores of anodic alumina. By varying the deposition parameters and the dimensions of the template, we could tailor the length and the outer as well as the inner diameter of the tubes. The nanotubes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  • 12. Katumba, G
    et al.
    Lu, J
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Experimental Physics.
    Olumekor, L
    Westin, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Experimental Physics. oorganisk kemi.
    Wäckelgård, E
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Experimental Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Low Cost Selective Solar Absorber Coatings: Characteristics of Carbon-In-Silica Synthesized with Sol-Gel Technique2005In: Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, ISSN 0928-0707 (Paper) 1573-4846 (Online), Vol. 36, p. 33-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon-silica composite films have been fabricated using sol-gel synthesis of silica-carbon precursor composites, followed by carbonization in an inert atmosphere. Four categories of samples were studied. These were the tetraethyl orthosilicate-only (TEOS-only), methyl trimethoxysilane (MTES), acetic acid anhydride (Ac2O) and soot (SOOT) samples. The carbon-silica films, spin-coated on aluminium and steel substrates, have been investigated for selective solar absorber functionality. Optical measurements were performed on these samples to determine solar absorptance and thermal emittance of each. The morphology of the films was studied by electron microscopy. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) mapping was used to determine the carbon distribution. An optimum performance of 0.88 for solar absorptance and 0.41 for thermal emittance has been achieved. The sol-gel technique produced films with very flat surfaces and uniform thicknesses in the 1 μm range. The fine structure showed homogeneous mixing of the carbon and silica in the TEOS-only samples while the separate additions of MTES and Ac2O resulted in segregation of composition of the silica and carbon at nano-scale. The addition of 20 wt% MTES or 15 wt% Ac2O to the TEOS-only sols also helped to reduce the cracks in the TEOS-only samples. The addition of soot in place of the carbon precursor did not yield a net advantage.

  • 13.
    Keränen, J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. ANALYTICAL MATERIAL PHYSICS.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Barnard, J
    Sterner, Jan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Kessler, John
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Stolt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Matthes, Th W
    Olsson, E
    Effect of Sulfurization on the Microstructure of Chalcopyrite Thin Film Absorbers2001In: Thin Solid Films, Vol. 387, p. 80-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Kessler, John
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Chityuttakan, Chanwit
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Mikrostrukturlaboratoriet.
    Schöldström, Jens
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Stolt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films grown with a Cu-poor/rich/poor sequence: Growth model and structural considerations2003In: Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 11, p. 319-331Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Kukli, K.
    et al.
    Niinistö, J.
    Tamm, A.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Ritala, M.
    Leskelä, M.
    Putkonen, M.
    Niinistö, L.
    Song, F.
    Williams, P.
    Heys, P. N.
    Atomic layer deposition of ZrO2 and HfO2 on deep trenched and planar silicon2007In: Microelectronic Engineering, ISSN 0167-9317, E-ISSN 1873-5568, Vol. 84, no 9-10, p. 2010-2013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conformal ZrO2 and HfO2 thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition using novel liquid cyclopentadienyl precursors at 300 degrees C or 350 degrees C on planar Si wafers and deep trenched Si with an aspect ratio of 60:1. The crystal growth and phase content in as-deposited films depended on the precursor, film thickness, and the material grown. The structural and electrical behaviour of the films were somewhat precursor-dependent, revealing better insulating properties in the films grown from oxygen-containing precursors. Also the HfO2 films showed lower leakage compared to ZrO2.

  • 16. Kukli, Kaupo
    et al.
    Aaltonen, Titta
    Aarik, Jaan
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Ritala, Mikko
    Ferrari, Sandro
    Hårsta, Anders
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Leskelä, Markku
    Atomic Layer Deposition and Characterization of HfO2 Films on Noble Metal2005In: Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 152, no 7, p. F75-F82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HfO2 films were grown by atomic layer deposition from HfCl4 and H2O on atomic layer deposited 40-70 nm thick platinum, iridium, and ruthenium films in the temperature range 200-600°C. The phase formed in the 30-50 nm thick HfO2 films was monoclinic HfO2 dominating over amorphous material without noticeable contribution from metastable crystallographic polymorphs. The metal-dielectric-metal capacitor structures formed after evaporating Al gate electrodes demonstrated effective permittivity values in the range 11-16 and breakdown fields reaching 5 MV/cm. Iridium electrode films showed the highest stability in terms of reliability and reproducibility of dielectric characteristics.

  • 17. Kukli, Kaupo
    et al.
    Aarik, Jaan
    Aidla, Aleks
    Uustare, Teet
    Jogi, Indrek
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Tallarida, Massimo
    Kemell, Marianna
    Kiisler, Alma-Asta
    Ritala, Mikko
    Leskela, Markku
    Structure and morphology of Ru films grown by atomic layer deposition from 1-ethyl-1 '-methyl-ruthenocene2010In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 312, no 12-13, p. 2025-2032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ru thin films were grown on TiO2, Al2O3, HfO2, and ZrO2 films as well as on HF-etched silicon and SiO2-covered silicon by atomic layer deposition from 1-ethyl-1'-methyl-ruthenocene, (CH3C5H4) (C2H5C5H4)Ru, and oxygen. The growth of Ru was obtained and characterized at temperatures ranging from 250 to 325 degrees C. On epitaxial rutile, highly oriented growth of Ru with hexagonal structure was achieved, while on other substrates the films possessed nonoriented hexagonal structure. Ruthenium oxide was not detected in the films. The lowest resistivity value obtained for 5.0-6.6 nm thick films was 26 mu Omega cm. The conductivity of the films depended somewhat on the deposition cycle time parameters and, expectedly, more strongly on the amount of deposition cycles. Increase in the deposition temperature of underlying metal oxide films increased the conductivity of Ru layers.

  • 18. Kukli, Kaupo
    et al.
    Aarik, Jaan
    Ritala, Mikko
    Uustare, Teet
    Sajavaara, Timo
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Sundqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Aidla, Aleks
    Pung, Lembit
    Hårsta, Anders
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Leskelä, Markku
    Effect of selected atomic layer deposition parameters on the structure and dielectric properties of hafnium oxide films2004In: Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 96, no 9, p. 5298-5307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hf02 films were atomic layer deposited from HfCl4 and H20 on

    Si(lOO) in the temperature range of 226-750 °C. The films consisted of dominantly the monoclinic polymorph. Elastic recoil

    detection analysis revealed high residual chlorine and hydrogen contents (2-5 at. %) in the films grown below 300-350 °C. The content of residual hydrogen and chlorine monotonouslydecreased with increasing growth temperature. The effctive permittivity insignificantly depended on the

    growth temperature and water partial pressure. Capacitance-voltage curves exhibited market hysteresis especially in the films grown at 400-450 ° C, and demonstrated enhanced distortions likely due to the increased trap densities in the films grown at 700-750 °C. Changes in water pressure led to some changes in the extent of crystallization, but did not induce any clear change; in the capacitance of the dielectric layer.

  • 19. Kukli, Kaupo
    et al.
    Aarik, Jaan
    Uustare, Teet
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Ritala, Mikko
    Aidla, Aleks
    Oung, Lembit
    Hårsta, Anders
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Leskelä, Markku
    Kikas, Arvo
    Sammelselg, Väino
    Engineering structure and properties of hafnium oxide films by atomic layer deposition temperature2005In: Thin Solid Films, Vol. 479, no 1-2, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    HfO2 films were atomic layer deposited from HfCl4 and H2O on Si(100) in the temperature range of 300–600 °C. At low temperatures, films grow faster and are structurally more disordered, compared to films grown at high temperatures. At high temperatures, the films are better crystallized, but grow slower and contain grain boundaries extending from substrate to gate electrode. Film growth rate and capacitance of HfO2 dielectric layers was improved by depositing stacked structures with polycrystalline films of higher purity at 600 °C on thin HfO2 sublayer grown on Si at 300 °C.

  • 20. Kukli, Kaupo
    et al.
    Ritala, Mikko
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Hårsta, Anders
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Leskelä, Markku
    Properties of Hf02 Thin Films Grown by ALD from Hafnium tetrakis(ethylmethylamide) and Water2004In: Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 151, no 8, p. F189-F193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hf02 films were grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from

    Hf[N(CH3)(C2H5)]4 and H2O on Si(lOO) substrates. The Thickness of 5-45 nm thick films on HF-etched SI was proportinal to the number of growth cycles. Crystallization was observed

    in the 30-45 nm thick films, containing the monoclinic Hf02 polymorph. Films with thicknesses lower than 10 nm were

    amorphous. The effective permittivity of the dielectric films varied between 6.5 and 17. The leakage and capacitive characteristics did not show any clear dependence on the HfO2 growth temperature.

  • 21.
    Larsson, Mina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Lindgren, Jan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering from analytes adsorbed on gold nanoparticles inside polymer beads2004In: Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, Vol. 35, p. 826-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Porous polymer beads with a large inner area were used as a stabilizing matrix for SERS-active gold particles. A commercially available ion exchanger (SOURCETM) was used together with HAuCl4. Absorbance measurements and an x-ray diffraction study confirmed that nanocrystalline gold was obtained in the polymer beads. Transmission electron microscope measurements were performed and showed that larger nanoparticles, 20-100 nm, were obtained on the surface, whereas in the interior smaller particles, approximately 2-10 nm, could be found. Three analytes, mercaptoethanesulfonate, mercaptopropionic acid and thiocyanate, were adsorbed on the gold particles inside the polymer beads. From all analytes enhanced Raman spectra could be obtained. The distribution of analytes adsorbed on gold nanoparticles was investigated by confocal Raman spectroscopy. SERS spectra from the analytes could be observed throughout the polymer bead, indicating a fairly uniform distribution of analytes adsorbed on gold nanoparticles.

  • 22.
    Li, Ling-Guang
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Vallin, Örjan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microstructure Laboratory.
    Smith, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Norström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Oxygen out-diffusion from buried layers in SOI and SiC-SOI substrates2010In: Solid-State Electronics, ISSN 0038-1101, E-ISSN 1879-2405, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 153-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have made a comparative study of the oxygen out-diffusion process during heat treatment of SOI wafers and SiC-SOI hybrid substrates. SOI materials with three different thicknesses (2, 20 and 410 nm) of buried oxide (BOX) were used in the investigation High-resolution cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (HRXTEM) together with laser interferometry was used to determine the remaining thickness of the BOX-layer after heat treatment. After complete removal of the BOX-layer of SOI wafers, the St/Si interface appears to be sharp and defect-free. Similar results were obtained for SiC-SOI hybrid substrates after removal of the entire buried oxide layer. For all combinations investigated oxide removal was accompanied by a thickness reduction and roughening of the silicon surface layer as verified by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  • 23.
    Lindahl, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microstructure Laboratory.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Carlsson, Jan-Otto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Epitaxial NiO(100) and NiO(111) films grown by atomic layer deposition2009In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 311, no 16, p. 4082-4088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial NiO (1 1 1) and NiO (1 0 0) films have been grown by atomic   layer deposition on both MgO (1 0 0) and alpha-Al2O3 (0 0 1) substrates   at temperatures as low as 200 degrees C by using   bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato)Ni(II) and water as   precursors. The films grown on the MgO (1 0 0) substrate show the   expected cube on cube growth while the NiO (1 1 1) films grow with a   twin rotated 180 degrees on the alpha-Al2O3 (0 0 1) substrate surface.   The films had columnar microstructures on both substrate types. The   single grains were running throughout the whole film thickness and were   significantly smaller in the direction parallel to the surface. Thin   NiO (1 1 1) films can be grown with high crystal quality with a FWHM of   0.02-0.05 degrees in the rocking curve measurements.

  • 24. Liu, Jiurong
    et al.
    Mao, Yuanbing
    Lan, Esther
    Banatao, Diosdado Rey
    Forse, G. Jason
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Yeates, Todd O.
    Dunn, Bruce
    Chang, Jane P.
    Generation of Oxide Nanopatterns by Combining Self-Assembly of S-Layer Proteins and Area-Selective Atomic Layer Deposition2008In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126, Vol. 130, no 50, p. 16908-16913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report an effective method to fabricate two-dimensional (2D) periodic oxide nanopatterns using S-layer proteins as a template. Specifically, S-layer proteins with a unit cell dimension of 20 nm were reassembled on silicon substrate to form 2D arrays with ordered pores of nearly identical sizes (9 nm). Octadecyltrichlorosilane (ODTS) was utilized to selectively react with the S-layer proteins, but not the Si surface exposed through the pores defined by the proteins. Because of the different surface functional groups on the ODTS-modified S-layer proteins and Si surface, area-selective atomic layer deposition of metal oxide-based high-k materials, such as hafnium oxide, in the pores was achieved. The periodic metal oxide nanopatterns were generated on Si substrate after selective removal of the ODTS-modified S-layer proteins. These nanopatterns of high-k materials are expected to facilitate further downscaling of logic and memory nanoelectronic devices.

  • 25.
    Lu, J
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics. MSL.
    Hultåker, A
    Niklasson, G A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Granqvist, C G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Olsson, E
    Microstructure of Sputter Deposited Tin Doped Indium Oxide Films with Silver Additive2005In: Thin Solid Films, Vol. 479, p. 107-112Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Lu, Jun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Aarik, Jaan
    Sundqvist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Kukli, Kaupo
    Hårsta, Anders
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Carlsson, Jan-Otto
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Analytical TEM characterization of the interfacial layer between ALD Hf02 film and silicon substrate2005In: Journal of Crystal Growth, no 273, p. 510-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectrometry were used to characterize

    the interfacial layer formed between the silicon substrate and the HfO2 thin film grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from HfIU4 and O2. The interfacial layer was amorphous and contained SiO2 mixed with a small amount of elemental Si on the atomic level. The interfacial silicon oxide layer was mainly deposited at the beginning of the ALD process since its thickness was insensitive to the number of applied ALD cycles when increased from 50 to 1000.

  • 27.
    Lu, Jun
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Electronics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Bodegård, Marika
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Granath, Karin
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Kessler, John
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Stolt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Olson, E
    The Influence of Na on the Microstructure of Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2 Based Solar Cell Thin Films2001In: 52nd annual meeting of the Scandinavian Society for Electron Microscopy, Stockholm 12-15 June 2001,Book of Abstracts : Abstract No P87, 2001, p. 184-185Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Lundberg, Olle
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Rockett, Angus
    Edoff, M
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Stolt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells2002In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Ternary and Multinary Compounds, Paris, France, October, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Lundberg, Olle
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Analytisk materialfysik.
    Rockett, Angus
    Edoff, Marika
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Stolt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells2003In: Journal of physics and chemistry of solids, Vol. 64, p. 1499-1504Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Niinisto, Jaakko
    et al.
    Kukli, Kaupo
    Tamm, Aile
    Putkonen, Matti
    Dezelah, Charles L.
    Niinisto, Lauri
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Song, Fuquan
    Williams, Paul
    Heys, Peter N.
    Ritala, Mikko
    Leskela, Markku
    Advanced cyclopentadienyl precursors for atomic layer deposition of ZrO2 thin films2008In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, ISSN 0959-9428, E-ISSN 1364-5501, Vol. 18, no 28, p. 3385-3390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ZrO2 thin films were grown onto silicon (100) substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using novel cyclopentadienyl-type precursors, namely (CpMe)(2)ZrMe2 and (CpMe)(2)Zr(OMe) Me (Cp = cyclopentadienyl, C5H5) together with ozone as the oxygen source. Growth characteristics were studied in the temperature range of 250 to 500 degrees C. An ALD-type self-limiting growth mode was verified for both processes at 350 degrees C where highly conformal films were deposited onto high aspect ratio trenches. Signs of thermal decomposition were not observed at or below 400 degrees C, a temperature considerably exceeding the thermal decomposition temperature of the Zr-alkylamides. Processing parameters were optimised at 350 degrees C, where deposition rates of 0.55 and 0.65 angstrom cycle(-1) were obtained for (CpMe)(2)ZrMe2/O-3 and (CpMe)(2)Zr(OMe)Me/O-3, respectively. The films grown from both precursors were stoichiometric and polycrystalline with an increasing contribution from the metastable cubic phase with decreasing film thickness. In the films grown from (CpMe)(2)ZrMe2, the breakdown field did not essentially depend on the film thickness, whereas in the films grown from (CpMe)(2)Zr(OMe)Me the structural homogeneity and breakdown field increased with decreasing film thickness. The films exhibited good capacitive properties that were characteristic of insulating oxides and did not essentially depend on the precursor chemistry.

  • 31.
    Platzer Björkman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Analytisk materialfysik.
    Kessler, John
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Stolt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Interface study of CuInSe2/ZnO and Cu(In,Ga)Se2/ZnO devices using ALD ZnO buffer layers2003In: Thin Solid FIlms, Vol. 431-432, p. 321-325Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Platzer Björkman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Kessler, John
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Stolt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Interface Study of CuInSe2/ZnO and Cu(In,Ga)Se2/ZnO Devices Using ALD ZnO Buffer Layers2002In: Proceedings of the Fifth Baltic Symposium on Atomic Layer Deposition, Tarttu, Estonia, October, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33. Puthenkovilakam, R
    et al.
    Lin, Y-S
    Choi, J
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Experimental Physics. Mikrostrukturlaboratoriet.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Experimental Physics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Pianetta, P
    Devine, D
    Sendler, M
    Chang, J P
    Effects of post-deposition annealing on the material characteristics of ultrathin HfO2 films on silicon2005In: J Appl Phys, Vol. 97, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. Qiu, Z. J.
    et al.
    Zhang, Z.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Lu, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Hellström, P. E.
    Role of Si implantation in control of underlap length in Schottky-barrier source/drain MOSFETs on ultrathin body SOI2008In: Proceedings of ULIS, 2008, p. 175-178Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This works demonstrates a novel approach using Si implantation prior to Pt deposition and PtSi formation to control the underlap length between the PtSi source/drain regions to the gate in Schottky-Barrier (SB-) MOSFETs. Dopant segregation at the PtSi/Si interface is used to enhance device performance. With the lon /Ioff current ratio as an indicator, optimized Si implant doses are found for both n- and p-channel SB-MOSFETs. Through an effective barrier width, the underlap length has direct implication on the leakage current.

  • 35. Romualdo Torres, Gemma
    et al.
    Lindgren, Torbjörn
    Fasta tillståndets fysik. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry I. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry I. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Fasta tillståndets fysik. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry I. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Lindquist, Sten-Eric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Physical Chemistry I. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Photoelectrochemical Study of Nitrogen-Doped Titanium Dioxide for Water Oxidation2004In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 108, no 19, p. 5995-6003Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Santala, Eero
    et al.
    Hamalainen, Jani
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Microstructure Laboratory.
    Leskela, Markku
    Ritala, Mikko
    Metallic Ir, IrO2 and Pt Nanotubes and Fibers by Electrospinning and Atomic Layer Deposition2009In: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters, ISSN 1941-4900, E-ISSN 1941-4919, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 218-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One-dimensional iridium and iridium oxide fibers were prepared by electrospinning of polyvinyl pyrrolidone ethanol solution which contained iridium(III) acetylacetonate as iridium precursor. The Ir precursors/polymer composite fibers were subsequently thermally annealed at 500 degrees C in air for 4 hours to remove the organic parts and leave IrO2 fibers. Metallic iridium fibers were obtained by reducing the IrO2 fibers with hydrogen. Also tubes by fiber templates-process is used to demonstrate how metallic Ir, IrO2 and Pt nanotubes can be produced by combining atomic layer deposition and electrospinning.

  • 37. Sawkar-Mathur, Monica
    et al.
    Perng, Y-C
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Bargar, John
    Chang, Jane P.
    The effect of aluminum oxide incorporation on the material and electrical properties of hafnium oxide on Ge2008In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 93, no 23, p. 233501-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hafnium aluminate thin films were synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to assess the effect of aluminum oxide incorporation on the dielectric/Ge interfacial properties. In these HfxAlyOz thin films, the Hf to Al cation ratio was effectively controlled by changing the ratio of hafnium oxide to aluminum oxide ALD cycles, while their short range order was changed upon increasing aluminum oxide incorporation, as observed by extended x-ray absorption fine structure analysis. The incorporation of aluminum oxide was shown to improve the   electrical characteristics of hafnium oxide/Ge devices, including lower interface state densities and leakage current densities.

  • 38. Schuisky, M
    et al.
    Kukli, K
    Aarik, J
    Lu, J
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Hårsta, Anders
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Epitaxial growth of TiO2 films in a hydroxyl-free atomic layer deposition process.2002In: J. Cryst. Growth, no 235, p. 293-299Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39. Soroka, Inna L.
    et al.
    Stanciu, V
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics III. Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Experimental Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Lu, J
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics III. Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Experimental Physics.
    Nordblad, P
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics III. Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Experimental Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Department of Physics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics III. Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Experimental Physics.
    Structural and magnetic properties of Al2O3/Ni81Fe19 thin films: from superparamagnetic nanoparticles ferromagnetic multilayers2005In: J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, Vol. 17, p. 5027-5036Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Soroka, Inna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Rooth, Mårten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Boman, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Svedlindh, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Carlsson, Jan-Otto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Hårsta, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Template-based multiwalled TiO2/iron oxides nanotubes:: Structure and magnetic properties2009In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 106, no 8, p. 084313-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Double-and triple-walled TiO2/iron oxide nanotubes with well defined interfaces havebeen produced in nanoporous alumina templates using atomic layer depositionmethod. The structural properties of each individual layer are foundto be dependent on the deposition temperatures. The outer layersof TiO2 are polycrystalline and consist of a phase mixtureof anatase and rutile, while the inner TiO2 layers grownat lower temperature are amorphous. The iron oxide layers consistof pure hematite when deposited at 500 °C, while a phasemixture of hematite and magnetite was obtained at 400 °C. Themagnetization measurements reveal that the studied nanotubes exhibit weak ferromagneticbehavior and magnetic anisotropy with an easy axis perpendicular tothe tube axis.

  • 41.
    Stanciu, V
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics IV. Experimental Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Soroka, I L
    Lu, J
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics IV. Experimental Physics.
    Hjörvarsson, B
    Department of Physics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics IV. Experimental Physics.
    Nordblad, P
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics IV. Experimental Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Dynamic Magnetic Properties of Ni81Fe19/Al2O3 Multilayers2005In: J. Magn Magn. Mater., Vol. 286, p. 446-449Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Sterner, Jan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Matthes, Th W
    Kessler, John
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Keränen, J
    Olsson, E
    Stolt, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Materials Science. Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics. Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets elektronik.
    Sulfurization of thin film solar cell absorbers2000In: Sixteent h European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Glasgow, May 1-5, 2000, p. 771-774Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Tanner, C. M.
    et al.
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California.
    Sawkar-Mathur, M.
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Toney, M. F.
    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory.
    Chang, J. P.
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California.
    Structural properties of epitaxial gamma-Al2O3(111) thin films on 4H-SiC(0001)2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 90, no 6, p. 061916-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Al2 O3 thin films were grown on 4H-SiC (0001) by thermal atomic layer deposition and were crystallized to the γ- Al2 O3 phase by rapid thermal annealing in N2 at 1100 °C. The films were found to be chemically stable during processing based on x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The change in film structure was initially confirmed by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. As shown by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images, the abrupt interface of the as-deposited films with the 4H-SiC substrate was preserved during crystallization, indicating no interfacial reaction. Selected area electron diffraction and synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction established an epitaxial relationship of γ- Al2 O3 (111) ∥ 4H-SiC (0001) and in-plane orientation of γ- Al2 O3 (1 1- 0) ∥ 4H-SiC (11 2- 0). No other alumina phases or orientations were observed and no in-plane misorientation was observed in the 27 Å Al2 O3 films. The full width at half maximum of the γ- Al2 O3 (222) rocking curve is 0.056°, indicating a lack of mosaic spread and a high-quality crystalline film. Twinning around the γ- Al2 O3 [111] axis was the only defect observed in these films.

  • 44.
    Tanner, Carey M
    et al.
    Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California.
    Toney, Michael F
    Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Sawkar-Mathur, Monica
    University of California.
    Tafesse, Melat A
    University of California.
    Chang, J P
    University of California.
    Engineering epitaxial gamma-Al2O3 gate dielectric films on 4H-SiC2007In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 102, no 10, p. 104112-104112-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of epitaxial gamma-Al2O3 thin films on 4H-SiC was found to be strongly dependent on the film thickness. An abrupt interface was observed in films up to 200 A thick with an epitaxial relationship of gamma-Al2O3(111)parallel to 4H-SiC(0001) and gamma-Al2O3(4 (4) over bar0)parallel to 4H-SiC(11 (2) over bar0). The in-plane alignment between the film and the substrate is nearly complete for gamma-Al2O3 films up to 115 A thick, but quickly diminishes in thicker films. The films are found to be slightly strained laterally in tension; the strain increases with thickness and then decreases in films thicker than 200 A, indicating strain relaxation which is accompanied by increased misorientation. By controlling the structure of ultrathin Al2O3 films, metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with Al2O3 gate dielectrics on 4H-SiC were found to have a very low leakage current density, suggesting suitability of Al2O3 for SiC device integration.

  • 45.
    Törndahl, Tobias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Carlsson, Jan-Otto
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Epitaxy of copper on α-Al2O3(0 0 1) by atomic layer deposition2005In: Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 276, p. 102-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A combined X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) study have been carried out on copper films grown by atomic layer deposition at 400 °C. The copper films have been grown on single crystalline (0 0 1) oriented α-Al2O3 up to a thickness of 500 nm. The films were relaxed and the diffraction peak broadening in 2θ was mainly dependent on the copper grain size. Broadening of the diffraction peaks in ω was found to be related to defects (mosaicity and intrinsic microstrain). The deposited films were epitaxial and grew with the (1 1 1) plane in parallel to the substrate surface. Extensive twinning in the copper grains in different Cu1 1 1 directions occurred according to the TEM study, both in directions perpendicular to the substrate surface ([1 1 1] and ) and along other 1 1 1 directions as well. As an effect of a twin, an extra Cu(5 1 1) orientation was present in the XRD data.

  • 46.
    Vallin, Örjan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Martin, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Lu, Jun
    Li, L. G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Smith, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Norström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Thermal characterization of Silicon-on-SiC substrates2008In: Proceedings of IEEE International SOI Conference, 2008, p. 69-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal characterization of the new Si-on-SiC hybrid substrate has shown thermal properties superior in comparison with SOI. The thermal resistivity was shown to be a factor of four lower, and the lateral thermal spread was much more efficient, as is explained by the excellent heat conductivity of the SiC substrate. These results correspond well to the absence of MOSFET self-heating effects for the BaSiC. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a defect free bond and recrystallization of the amorphous silicon, which improves the heat conductivity.

  • 47. Van, T. T.
    et al.
    Hoang, J.
    Osrumov, R.
    Wang, K. L.
    Barger, J. R.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics.
    Blom, Hans-Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electronics.
    Nanostructure and Temperature-dependent Photoluminescence of Er-doped Y2O3 Thin Films for Micro-optoelectronic Integrated Circuits2006In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 100, no 7, p. 073512-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nanostructure and photoluminescence of polycrystalline Er-doped Y2O3 thin films, deposited by radical-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD), were investigated in this study. The controlled distribution of erbium separated by layers of Y2O3, with erbium concentrations varied from 6 to 14 at. %, was confirmed by elemental electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) mapping of Er M-4 and M-5. This unique feature is characteristic of the alternating radical-enhanced ALD of Y2O3 and Er2O3. The results are also consistent with the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) modeling of the Er distribution in the Y2O3 thin films, where the EXAFS data were best fitted to a layer-like structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns revealed a preferential film growth in the [111] direction, showing a lattice contraction with increasing Er doping concentration, likely due to Er3+ of a smaller ionic radius replacing the slightly larger Y3+. Room-temperature photoluminescence characteristic of the Er3+ intra-4f transition at 1.54 mu m was observed for the 500 A, 8 at. % Er-doped Y2O3 thin film, showing various well-resolved Stark features due to different spectroscopic transitions from the I-4(13/2)-> I-4(15/2) energy manifold. The result indicates the proper substitution of Y3+ by Er3+ in the Y2O3 lattice, consistent with the EXAFS and XRD analyses. Thus, by using radical-enhanced ALD, a high concentration of optically active Er3+ ions can be incorporated in Y2O3 with controlled distribution at a low temperature, 350 degrees C, making it possible to observe room-temperature photoluminescence for fairly thin films (similar to 500-900 A) without a high temperature annealing.

  • 48.
    Zhang, Z
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Qui, Z
    Hellström, P-E
    Malm, G
    Olsson, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Lu, J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Östling, M
    Zhang, S-L
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    SB-MOSFETs in UTB-SOI featuring PtSi source/drain with dopant segregation2008In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 125-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    MOSFETs of both polarities with PtSi-based Schottky-barrier source/drain (S/D) have been fabricated in ultrathin-body Si-on-insulator. The PtSi is formed in the S/D regions without lateral silicide growth under the gate spacers. This design leads to a 30-nm underlap between the PtSi-Si contacts and the gate edges resulting in low drive currents. Despite the underlap, excellent performance is achieved for both types of MOSFETs with large drive currents and low leakage by means of dopant segregation through As and B implantation into the PtSi followed by drive-in annealing at low temperatures.

  • 49.
    Zhang, Zhen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Lu, Jun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Qiu, Zhijun
    Hellstrom, Per-Erik
    Östling, Mikael
    Zhang, Shi-Li
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics.
    Performance fluctuation of FinFETs with Schottky barrier source/drain2008In: IEEE Electron Device Letters, ISSN 0741-3106, E-ISSN 1558-0563, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 506-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A considerable performance fluctuation of FinFETs featuring PtSi-based Schottky barrier source/drain is found. The Fin-channels measure 27-nm tall and 35-nm wide. Investigation of similarly processed transistors of broad gate-widths reveals a large variation in the position of the PtSi/Si interface with reference to the gate edge along the gate width. This variation suggests an uneven underlap between the PtSi and the gate from device to device for the FinFETs, since essentially only one silicide grain would be in contact with each Fin-channel at the PtSi/Si interface. The size of the underlap is expected to sensitively affect the performance of the FinFETs.

  • 50.
    Zhao, Shuxi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Avendano, E
    Gelin, K
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics.
    Lu, J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Experimental Physics.
    Wäckelgård, Ewa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Optimization of an industrial DC magnetron sputtering process for graded composition solar thermal absorbing layer2006In: Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, no 90, p. 243-261Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 50 of 50
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