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  • 1.
    Babakhani, Peyman
    et al.
    Islamic Azad University, Tehran Science and Research Branch, Department of Hydrology Engineering, Tehran, Iran.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Colorado School of Mines, Center for Experimental Study of Subsurface Environmental Processes, Golden, CO, USA.
    Shamsai, Abolfazl
    Islamic Azad University, Tehran Science and Research Branch, Department of Hydrology Engineering, Tehran, Iran; Sharif University of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, Tehran, Iran.
    Lowry, Gregory Victor
    Carnegie Mellon University, Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology (CEINT), Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
    Phenrat, Tanapon
    Naresuan University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Research Unit for Integrated Natural Resources Remediation and Reclamation (IN3R), Phitsanulok, Thailand; Naresuan University, Faculty of Engineering, Center of Excellence for Sustainability of Health, Environment and Industry (SHE&I), Phitsanulok, Thailand.
    Modified MODFLOW-based model for simulating the agglomeration and transport of polymer-modified Fe0 nanoparticles in saturated porous media2018In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 7180-7199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solute transport model MODFLOW has become a standard tool in risk assessment and remediation design. However, particle transport models that take into account both particle agglomeration and deposition phenomena are far less developed. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of adapting the standard code MODFLOW/MT3D to simulate the agglomeration and transport of three different types of polymer-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) in one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) saturated porous media. A first-order decay of the particle population was used to account for the agglomeration of particles. An iterative technique was used to optimize the model parameters. The model provided good matches to 1-D NZVI-breakthrough data sets, with R 2 values ranging from 0.96 to 0.99, and mass recovery differences between the experimental results and simulations ranged from 0.1 to 1.8 %. Similarly, simulations of NZVI transport in the heterogeneous 2-D model demonstrated that the model can be applied to more complicated heterogeneous domains. However, the fits were less good, with the R 2 values in the 2-D modeling cases ranging from 0.75 to 0.95, while the mass recovery differences ranged from 0.7 to 6.5 %. Nevertheless, the predicted NZVI concentration contours during transport were in good agreement with the 2-D experimental observations. The model provides insights into NZVI transport in porous media by mathematically decoupling agglomeration, attachment, and detachment, and it illustrates the importance of each phenomenon in various situations.

  • 2.
    Basirat, Farzad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Denchik, Nataliya
    Univ Montpellier 2, Geosci Montpellier CNRS UMR 5243, Cc 060 Bat 22,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Pezard, Philippe A.
    Univ Montpellier 2, Geosci Montpellier CNRS UMR 5243, Cc 060 Bat 22,Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Numerical modelling of CO2 injection at small-scale field experimental site in Maguelone, France2016In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 54, p. 200-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the performance of downhole and surface geophysical monitoring methods, a series of shallow gas injection-monitoring experiments has been performed in a coastal saline aquifer at Maguelone, France. The recorded data include pressure measurements with a Westbay multilevel completion and CO2 saturation at an observation well derived from electrical resistivity with a modified Waxman-Smits (MWS) model. In this work, the aim is to develop a simulation model capturing the gas transport behavior and consistent with field data. For this purpose, the simulation of the CO2 injection experiment is carried out with two conceptual models, a homogeneous model and a heterogeneous model treated with multiple realization Monte Carlo simulations. Numerical simulator TOUGH2 with the equation of state module EOS7C is used for the simulations. Comparison of the model results with field data suggests that the pressure responses are captured with relatively good accuracy. Similarly, the model also provides an overall reasonable agreement and correct order of magnitude for predicted gas saturation values. However, as the heterogeneity pattern in the field data remains largely unknown, the model predictions can only be used to capture the mean behavior as well as to provide insights into how heterogeneity can influence the system behavior, by means of sensitivity analyses of the influence of heterogeneities on individual realizations.

  • 3.
    Basirat, Farzad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Perroud, Herve
    Universit´e de Montpellier.
    Lofi, Johanna
    Universit´e de Montpellier.
    Denchik, Nataliya
    Universit´e de Montpellier.
    Lods, Gerard
    Universit´e de Montpellier.
    Pezard, Philippe
    Universit´e de Montpellier.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Modeling Gas Transport in the Shallow Subsurface in Maguelone Field Experiment2013In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, p. 337-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, TOUGH2/EOS7CA model is used to simulate the shallow injection-monitoring experiment carried outat Maguelone, France, during 2012 and 2013. The ultimate objective of the work is to improve our understanding ofgas transport in the shallow subsurface as well as to develop and validate the model to monitor it. This workrepresents first results towards modelling the nitrogen and CO2 injection experiments carried out. The pressure datafrom the first injection experiments in summer 2012 is used as basis for comparison. Work is presently going on toincorporate the experimental data into the numerical simulation further.

  • 4.
    Basirat, Farzad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Experimental and modeling investigation of CO2 flow and transport in a coupled domain of porous media and free flow2015In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 42, p. 461-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A solid understanding of the transport mechanisms of gaseous CO2 near the land surface is necessary for developing reliable monitoring techniques and predictive models for possible CO2 leakage from deep underground storage. The objective of this work has been to develop an experimental method along with a simulation model for gaseous CO2 flow and transport in a system including both the porous media and the free air space above it. The experimental system consisted of a two-dimensional bench scale rectangular sandbox containing homogenous sand with an open space of still air above it. Gaseous CO2 was injected in different modes and the CO2 breakthrough was measured on specified ports in the system by using CO2 concentration sensors. A numerical model combining the gas flow in the porous medium and the free flow region was developed and used to model the experimental data. In this quest, the Discontinuous One-Domain approach was selected for modeling transport between the free flow and porous regions. The observed and simulated CO2 breakthrough curves both in the dried sand and in the free flow matched very well in the case of uniform injection and satisfactorily even in the case of point injection. Consequently, it seems that the model reasonably matches the observed data in the cases where the boundary condition is well defined. In summary, our results show that the developed experimental setup provides capability to study gaseous CO2 flow and transport in a coupled porous medium - free flow system and that our modeling approach is able to predict the flow and transport in this system with good accuracy.

  • 5.
    Basirat, Farzad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University.
    Small scale laboratory design investigation of leakage of gaseous CO2 through heterogeneous subsurface system2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 6.
    Cliffe, Andrew
    et al.
    School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Power, Henry
    University of Nottingham.
    Yang, Zhibing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tian, Liang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Use of Gaussian Process Emulators for Quantifying Uncertainty in CO2 Spreading Predications in Heterogeneous Geological Media2011In: Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 13: EGU2011-11898, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 7. Dean, D.W.
    et al.
    Illangasekare, T.H.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Turner, A.
    Russel, T.F.
    Stochastic approach for modelling DNAPL migration in heterogeneous aquifers: model development and experimental data generation2004In: American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting: December 13 - 17, 2004, San Francisco, California, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Erlström, Mikael
    et al.
    Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning (SGU).
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    The MUSTANG site characterisation programme2011In: Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 13: EGU2011-9743, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 9.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Ahlkrona, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Holmgren, Hanna
    Nielsen, Kristin
    Yang, Zhibing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Kreiss, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Analysis of boundary conditions in numerical simulations of geological CO2 storage2011In: 8th EGU General Assembly, Göttingen, Germany: Copernicus Publications , 2011, p. EGU2011-7410-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 10.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Hedayati, Maryeh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Katyal, Deeksha
    Transport of carbon-based nanoparticles in saturated porous media2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Målqvist, Axel
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Improved Monte Carlo methods for computing failure probabilities of porous media flow systems2015Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Hellman, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Målqvist, Axel
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Multilevel Monte Carlo methods for computing failure probability of porous media flow systems2016In: Advances in Water Resources, ISSN 0309-1708, E-ISSN 1872-9657, Vol. 94, p. 498-509Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Illangasekare, T. H.
    Phenrat, T.
    Kim, H.-J.
    Lowry, G. V.
    PCE dissolution and simultaneous dechlorination by nanoscale zero-valent iron particles in a DNAPL source zone2012In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 131, no 1-4, p. 9-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the capability of nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) to dechlorinate organic compounds in aqueous solutions has been demonstrated, the ability of NZVI to remove dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) from source zones under flow-through conditions similar to a field scale application has not yet been thoroughly investigated. To gain insight on simultaneous DNAPL dissolution and NZVI-mediated dechlorination reactions after direct placement of NZVI into a DNAPL source zone, a combined experimental and modeling study was performed. First, a DNAPL tetrachloroethene (PCE) source zone with emplaced NZVI was built inside a small custom-made flow cell and the effluent PCE and dechlorination byproducts were monitored over time. Second, a model for rate-limited DNAPL dissolution and NZVI-mediated dechlorination of PCE to its three main reaction byproducts with a possibility for partitioning of these byproducts back into the DNAPL was formulated. The coupled processes occurring in I he flow cell were simulated and analyzed using a detailed three-dimensional numerical model. It was found that subsurface emplacement of NZVI did not markedly accelerate DNAPL dissolution or the DNAPL mass-depletion rate, when NZVI at a particle concentration of 10 g/L was directly emplaced in the DNAPL source zone. To react with NZVI the DNAPL PCE must first dissolve into the groundwater and the rate of dissolution controls the longevity of the DNAPL source. The modeling study further indicated that faster reacting particles would decrease aqueous contaminant concentrations but there is a limit to how much the mass removal rate can be increased by increasing the dechlorination reaction rate. To ensure reduction of aqueous contaminant concentrations, remediation of DNAPL contaminants with NZVI should include emplacement in a capture zone down-gradient of the DNAPL source. 

  • 14.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Illangasekare, T.H.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Experimental investigation of NAPL migration and source zone formation in saturated heterogeneous media2005In: Hydrology Days, March 7 – 9, 2005, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA, 2005Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract
  • 15.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Illangasekare, T.H.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    NAPL migration and source zone formation in layered heterogeneous media2005In: Workshop on: Upscaling Flow and Transport in Heterogeneous Porous Media: July 11 – 13, 2005, Zeist, The Netherlands, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 16.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Illangasekare, Tissa H.
    Center for Experimental Study of Subsurface Environmental Processes (CESEP), Environmental Science and Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Nonaqueous-phase liquid infiltration and immobilization in heterogeneous media: 1. Experimental methods and two-layered reference case2007In: Vadose Zone Journal, ISSN 1539-1663, E-ISSN 1539-1663, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 471-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate data to understand the migration and entrapment ofnonaqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs) in heterogeneous formationsare presently lacking. A series of well-controlled laboratoryexperiments were conducted to investigate the infiltration andsubsequent immobilization of dense NAPLs in saturated heterogeneousmedia. The focus of this first study was the development ofa special experimental methodology for measuring the dynamicevolution of a NAPL plume in space and time. To demonstratethe method, a reference case of a two-layered formation consistingof two homogeneous sands separated by a dipping interface ispresented. The dipping formation in the reference case allowsthe study of NAPL behavior at texture interfaces under the influenceof both capillary and gravitational forces. The NAPL-saturationmeasurement methodology, based on a multiple-energy x-ray attenuationtechnique, correctly captured the known injected NAPL volumeas well as the general spreading and entrapment behavior inspace and time. Time-continuous measurements of NAPL saturationsallow the study of the history dependence of entrapped saturations.The Land model predicted the observed trend in the entrapmentbehavior well. The entrapment architecture was parameterizedusing spatial moments and moments of mass distribution at differentsaturations. The general features of the NAPL architecture weresuccessfully characterized by a simultaneous interpretationof these moments, while the domination of discontinuous or continuousNAPL was captured by the ganglia/pool ratio.

  • 17.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Illangasekare, Tissa H.
    Center for Experimental Study of Subsurface Environmental Processes (CESEP), Environmental Science and Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, USA.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Nonaqueous-phase liquid infiltration and immobilization in heterogeneous media: 2. Application to stochastically heterogeneous formations2007In: Vadose Zone Journal, ISSN 1539-1663, E-ISSN 1539-1663, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 483-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed a series of well-controlled laboratory experimentsinvestigating the infiltration and subsequent immobilizationof nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) in saturated heterogeneousmedia. A system of two distinct aquifer zones separated by adipping interface was considered. Heterogeneity was representedby a spatially correlated random field with known geostatisticalparameters in one zone in combination with a homogenous packingof the other zone. The effects of heterogeneity on NAPL flowand entrapment in each of the two zones were investigated. Thetime-varying NAPL saturations were continuously monitored inspace and the final static entrapment–saturation distributionwas accurately measured. The immobilized-NAPL distribution contributesto plume generation from source zones. The results show thatcapillary barriers produced by the small-scale heterogeneitystrongly influenced the migration paths and the final distributionof NAPL both in space and across different saturation ranges.The NAPL was immobilized both by snap-off to discontinuous blobsand ganglia and by capillary barriers at textural interfaces.Heterogeneity generally increased entrapment, because spatialvariations in capillary properties caused NAPL to be entrappedat higher saturations. Heterogeneity in the finer formationprovided points of entry into this formation where the NAPLsubsequently could spread as the pressure built up. The NAPLwas immobilized at high saturations because high displacementpressures in the fine materials inhibited flow at low saturations.The accessibility for water flow through NAPL occurrences andthereby also the dissolution of NAPL is limited by (i) highentrapped NAPL saturations that decrease the aqueous-phase relativepermeability and (ii) the location of NAPL inside a formationwith low average permeability.

  • 18.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Illangasekare, Tissa
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Modeling of NAPL source zone formation in stochastically heterogeneous layered media – a comparison with experimental results.2006In: Proceedings of TOUGH Symposium 2006.: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, May 1-17, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 19.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Mittal, Menka
    Centre for Experimental Study of Subsurface Environmental Processes (CESEP), Env. Sci. and Eng., Colorado School of Mines.
    Illangasekare, Tissa H
    Centre for Experimental Study of Subsurface Environmental Processes (CESEP), Env. Sci. and Eng., Colorado School of Mines.
    Phenrat, Tanapon
    Civil and Environmental Engineering Division, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh.
    Kim, Hye-Jin
    Civil and Environmental Engineering Division, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh.
    Lowry, Gregory Victor
    Civil and Environmental Engineering Division, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh.
    Dissolution Of A Spatially Variable Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Source: Experimental Study And Model Devolpment2009In: PROCEEDINGS, TOUGH Symposium 2009: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, September 14-16, 2009, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass transfer from subsurface occurrences of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) to the surrounding groundwater is a key process, both for persistent contamination problems originating from organic liquid sources, and for dissolution trapping in geological CO2 sequestration. While the dissolution typically is governed by processes that occur on  very small scales (i.e., the pore scale), there is a need to model the mass transfer coupled to transport of dissolved chemical components over field scales that are several orders of magnitude larger. Upscaled models, linking the small-scale characteristics to the total mass transfer from sources of dissolved chemicals, are therefore needed. Well-controlled laboratory experiments conducted in test cells allow for the generation of accurate data to validate such upscaling methods before applying them to much more complex field systems.

     

    Following this approach, a set of experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional sand tank, wherethe dissolution of a spatially variable, 5 cm by 5 cm DNAPL tetrachloroethene (PCE) source was carefully monitored in space and time. With a resolution of 0.2´0.2 cm, NAPL saturations were measured using x-ray attenuation techniques at approximately 1,000 individual pixels in the source zone. By continuously measuring the NAPL saturations, the temporal evolution of DNAPL mass loss by dissolution to groundwater could be measured at each pixel. The rate of dissolution varied spatially and temporally within the source, and was found to be correlated to NAPL morphology, groundwater flow velocity, and position within the source. The dissolution process was modeled using iTOUGH2/T2VOC under assumption of local equilibrium (LE) between the DNAPL and dissolved PCE. A preliminary model of rate-limited (RL) dissolution, based on a Gilland-Sherwood type relation implemented in MODFLOW/RT3D, was also tested. It was found that the LE model could not capture the observed dissolution patterns, although it predicted the total rate of mass transfer well for the given source conditions. The RL model showed potential to better capture the dissolution pattern after further model development. Ongoing work is aimed at addressing these issues by correlating the detailed measurements of NAPL entrapment morphology and local dissolution rates, with the final goal of developing an upscaled model of the total mass transfer from the source zone.

  • 20.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    A partially coupled, fraction-by-fraction modelling approach to the subsurface migration of gasoline spills2007In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 89, no 3-4, p. 174-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The subsurface spreading behaviour of gasoline, as well as several other common soil- and groundwater pollutants (e.g. diesel, creosote), is complicated by the fact that it is a mixture of hundreds of different constituents, behaving differently with respect to e.g. dissolution, volatilisation, adsorption and biodegradation. Especially for scenarios where the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) phase is highly mobile, such as for sudden spills in connection with accidents, it is necessary to simultaneously analyse the migration of the NAPL and its individual components in order to assess risks and environmental impacts.

    Although a few fully coupled, multi-phase, multi-constituent models exist, such models are highly complex and may be time consuming to use. A new, somewhat simplified methodology for modelling the subsurface migration of gasoline while taking its multi-constituent nature into account is therefore introduced here. Constituents with similar properties are grouped together into eight fractions. The migration of each fraction in the aqueous and gaseous phases as well as adsorption is modelled separately using a single-constituent multi-phase flow model, while the movement of the free-phase gasoline is essentially the same for all fractions. The modelling is done stepwise to allow updating of the free-phase gasoline composition at certain time intervals. The output is the concentration of the eight different fractions in the aqueous, gaseous, free gasoline and solid phases with time.

    The approach is evaluated by comparing it to a fully coupled multi-phase, multi-constituent numerical simulator in the modelling of a typical accident-type spill scenario, based on a tanker accident in northern Sweden. Here the PCFF method produces results similar to those of the more sophisticated, fully coupled model. The benefit of the method is that it is easy to use and can be applied to any single-constituent multi-phase numerical simulator, which in turn may have different strengths in incorporating various processes. The results demonstrate that the different fractions have significantly different migration behaviours and although the methodology involves some simplifications, it is a considerable improvement compared to modelling the gasoline constituents completely individually or as one single mixture.

  • 21.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVA.
    Multi-constituent modelling of a gasoline spill using the T2VOC numerical simulator2003In: Proceedings of TOUGH Symposium 2003: May 12–14, 2003, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 22.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tian, Liang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    GII.
    Licha, Tobias
    Applied Geology, University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Design and Analysis of Field Experiments for the Investigation of In-Situ CO2 Trapping2010In: 2010 Fall Meeting, American Geophysical Union (AGU): Abstract H13C-0981, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    Design of a two-well field test to determine in situ residual and dissolution trapping of CO2 applied to the Heletz CO2 injection site2013In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 19, p. 642-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Field testing is a critical step to improve our knowledge on in situ-trapping mechanisms of CO2 injected in geological formations and their relative importance. In this study, we present a two-well test sequence aimed at quantifying field values of both residual and dissolution trapping of CO2. Then, we apply it to the Heletz experimental CO2 injection site, using numerical modelling. The sequence includes a hydraulic test to measure residual scCO(2) saturation and a novel tracer technique, together with measurements of abstracted fluid compositions for quantification of the rate of CO2 dissolution in the reservoir. The proposed tracer technique uses a tracer with negligible aqueous solubility, which is injected with the scCO(2) and enriched in the scCO(2) phase as CO2 dissolves. We show that this tracer can provide direct information about the dissolution of mobile scCO(2). We also show that the rate of abstracted dissolved CO2 can be used to predict the total rate of CO2 dissolution, provided that the amount of dissolved CO2 in the formation stabilizes, and that this can be achieved with the proposed abstraction scheme. We conclude that the combination of these measurements is a promising tool for detailed field-scale characterization of residual and dissolution trapping processes.

  • 24.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE.
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    GII.
    Design of a two-well field test to determine in-situ residual and dissolution trapping of CO2 in a deep saline aquifer2012In: Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14, EGU2012-7231, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 25.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE.
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    GII.
    Evaluation of design options for a field experiment of CO2 injection to a deep layered aquifer at the Heletz site using numerical modelling2011In: Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 13: EGU2011-7291, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE.
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    GII.
    Field Test for Measurement of In-Situ CO2 Dissolution and Residual Phase Trapping at the Heletz Experimental CO2 Injection Site2012In: AGU fall meeting 2011 Abstracts: H14D-06, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 27.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    Interwell field test to determine in-situ CO2 trapping in a deep saline aquifer: Modelling study of the effects of test design and geological parameters2013In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 40, p. 554-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An interwell field test to determine residual phase and dissolution trapping of CO2 is being designed at Heletz, Israel. Effects of test-design options and geological parameters were investigated using numerical modelling. It was found that the interwell distance has large influence on the feasibility of the test both in terms of creation of a zone of residually trapped CO2 and detection of the time when such zone has been created. The optimal distance is site-specific and depends on formation properties. Alternating CO2 and brine injections slightly increased residual trapping, but did not facilitate creation of a well-defined zone of trapping.

  • 28.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE.
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    GII.
    Modelling and Design of Field Tests for Characterization and Monitoring of CO2 Injected to a Deep Saline Aquifer at the Heletz Site2011In: AGU Fall Meeting 2011: Abstract H33B-1321, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 29.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE.
    Yang, Zhibing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    GII.
    Goldberg, I
    GII.
    Simulations of CO2 injection at the Heletz field site – providing guidance for optimal design of a planned field injection experiment2009In: Eos Trans. AGU, 90(52), Fall Meet. Suppl.: Abstract H13A-0921, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE.
    Yang, Zhibing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    GII.
    Goldberg, I
    GII.
    Gendler, M
    GII.
    Model simulations for guiding the design of the CO2 injection experiment at the Heletz site2010In: Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 12: EGU2010-13147, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE.
    Yang, Zhibing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    GII.
    Goldberg, I
    GII.
    Gendler, M
    GII.
    Modeling CO2 injection to aid the design of a field experiment at the Heletz site2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32. Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science. LUVAL.
    Illangasekare, Tissa
    Modeling NAPL migration in heterogeneous media: Effects of hysteresis and fluid immobility in constitutive relations2007In: Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Multiscale Nonlinear Systems: June 25-29, 2007. Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 33.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Illangasekare, Tissa
    Center for Experimental Study of Subsurface Environmental Processes, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, USA. .
    Modeling of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) migration in heterogeneous saturated media: Effects of hysteresis and fluid immobility in constitutive relations2008In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 44, no 3, article id W03409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The confidence in model predictions for nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) transport in stochastically heterogeneous systems is limited. The fundamental approaches as well as the constitutive models have not been sufficiently validated, mainly because of the lack of appropriate experimental data. Recently, Fagerlund et al. (2007a, 2007b) presented a set of well-controlled laboratory data that are used here (1) to analyze the overall performance of the continuum-based approach for predicting two-phase NAPL-water flow in stochastically heterogeneous media and (2) to compare the predictions from different constitutive models. The five models tested were the nonhysteretic Brooks-Corey-Burdine (BCB) and van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM) models, the hysteretic versions of these models (HBCB and HVGM), and the HVGBCB model, a model combining the hysteretic van Genuchten (HVG) P c -S relation and the hysteretic Brooks-Corey-Burdine k r -S relation. Two cases of NAPL migration were considered: a layered system of two homogeneous sands separated by a dipping interface and a system where one of the layers was stochastically heterogeneous. The results showed that the best models could indeed capture the main characteristics of the spreading and immobilization well, demonstrating the validity of the continuum-based approach for this level of stochastic heterogeneity. Implementation of hysteresis was necessary for correct prediction of the observed speed of NAPL migration as well as the amount of immobilized NAPL. The three hysteretic models were similar in their overall prediction error-based performance. The HVGM model produced less overestimation of NAPL saturations but instead underestimated the entrapment at capillary barriers in comparison to the HBCB and HVGBCB models. The HVGM model also overestimated the speed of NAPL migration, which is attributed to its closed-form k r -S function, for which the VG parameter m has to be fitted under the constraint m = 1 − 1/n. The HVG (and VG) P c -S function, in contrast, used a different set of VG parameters produced with no constraint on m, which better represented the pore size distributions of the sands. A relation for partial nonwetting phase immobility during drainage is also presented.

  • 34.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Odén, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Comparison of relative permeability-fluid saturation-capillary pressure relations in the modelling of non-aqueous phase liquid infiltration in variably saturated, layered media2006In: Advances in Water Resources, ISSN 0309-1708, E-ISSN 1872-9657, Vol. 29, no 11, p. 1705-1730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristic functions relating relative permeabilities and capillary pressures to fluid saturations (krSPc models) are of great importance for the modelling of sub-surface multi-phase flow and transport. In order to test their performance and to identify their important parameters, four well-known three-phase krSPc models have been tested against published experimental data on non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) migration in the unsaturated zone. Both homogenous systems and systems with embedded heterogeneities have been analysed.

    The results show that although there are differences between predictions based on the different models, all models exhibit some common problems and it is not obvious that any one model is more accurate than the other three. However, with the inclusion of a non-linear NAPL tortuosity factor, both the Brooks–Corey–Burdine and van Genuchten–Mualem models yield excellent fits to experimental data.

    For NAPLs with non-zero spreading coefficients no exact theory currently exists for scaling two-phase capillary pressure–saturation functions to three-phase systems. Different ways of applying the Parker et al. [Parker JC, Lenhard RJ, Kuppusamy T. A parametric model for constitutive properties governing multi-phase flow in porous media. Water Resour Res 1987;23:618–24] scaling method have therefore been tested. It was found that since the NAPL–gas capillary pressure function has the strongest influence on NAPL migration, the scaling procedure should focus on accuracy in this function.

  • 35.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tong, Fuguo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Licha, Tobias
    Applied Geology, University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Sauter, Martin
    Applied Geology, University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Modelling of novel tracers in a two-phase flow system for characterization of geologically stored CO2 in deep saline formations2011In: Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 13: EGU2011-11814, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Hedayati, Maryeh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    Nalanda Univ, Sch Ecol & Environm Studies, Nalanda 803116, Bihar, India.
    Katyal, Deeksha
    Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha Univ, Sch Environm Management, New Delhi, India.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Transport and retention of carbon-based engineered and natural nanoparticles through saturated porous media2016In: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896X, Vol. 18, no 3, article id 57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon-based engineered nanoparticles have been widely used due to their small size and unique physical and chemical properties. At the same time, the toxic effects of these nanoparticles on human and fish cells have also been observed; therefore, their release and distribution into the surface and subsurface environment is a subject of concern. The aim of this research is to evaluate and compare the transports and retentions of two types of engineered nanoparticles (multiwalled carbon nanotubes and C-60) and the natural carbon nanoparticles collected from a fire accident. Several laboratory experiments were conducted to observe the transport behavior of nanoparticles through a column packed with silica sand. The column experiments were intended to monitor the effect of ionic strength on transport of nanoparticles as a function of their shapes. It was observed that the mobilities of both types of engineered nanoparticles were reduced with the increasing ionic strength from 1.34 to 60 mM. However, at ionic strengths up to 10.89 mM, spherical nanoparticles were more mobile than cylindrical nanoparticles, but the mobility of the cylindrical nanoparticles became significantly higher than spherical nanoparticles at the ionic strength of 60 mM. In comparison with natural fire-born nanoparticles, both types of engineered nanoparticles were much less mobile under the selected experimental condition in this study. Furthermore, inverse modeling was used to calculate parameters such as attachment efficiency, the longitudinal dispersivity, and capacity of the solid phase for the attachment of nanoparticles. The results indicate that the combination of the shape and the solution chemistry of the NPs are responsible for the transport and the retention of nanoparticles in natural environment; however, fire-burned nanoparticles can be highly mobile at the natural groundwater chemistry.

  • 37.
    Illangasekare, Tissa H
    et al.
    Centre for Experimental Study of Subsurface Environmental Processes (CESEP), Env. Sci. and Eng., Colorado School of Mines.
    Mittal, Menka
    Centre for Experimental Study of Subsurface Environmental Processes (CESEP), Env. Sci. and Eng., Colorado School of Mines.
    Phenrat, Tanapon
    Civil and Environmental Engineering Division, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Kim, Hye-Jin
    Civil and Environmental Engineering Division, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh.
    Cihan, Abdullah
    Lowry, Gregory Victor
    Civil and Environmental Engineering Division, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh.
    Use of an Intermediate-Scale Tank to Study Strategies for Modified NZVI Emplacement for Effective Treatment of DNAPL Source Zones2009In: Eos Trans. AGU, 90(52), Fall Meet. Suppl.: Abstract H43B-1028, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Kitron-Belinkov, Myra
    et al.
    Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    Environmental & Water Resources Engineering (EWRE) Ltd., Haifa, Israel.
    Bear, Jacob
    Modeling wellbore and reservoir carbon dioxide flow for the Heletz experiment2012In: Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14: EGU2012-7823, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Field carbon dioxide injection experiments are necessary for demonstration, increasing the scientific understandingand quantification of the relevant processes occurring during geological storage in deep saline aquifers. As part ofthe large scale EU-FP7 project MUSTANG, a carbon dioxide injection experiment is to be carried out at the Heletzsite, Israel. Estimating the well head conditions is an important part of planning the experiment and an approach ispresented here for determining wellhead conditions needed to ensure that at least a specified flow rate is providedto the formation, given target layer conditions, while still respecting pressure buildup constraints. The main partof the study combines the multiphase flow in the target layer using the well known TOUGH2/ECO2N model, withthe flow in the injection pipe solving the 1D steady, real gas, augmented Euler equation. The Matching is carriedon in a two-stage process.The second part consists of a transient simulation of the combined well-reservoir flowusing the new T2WELL software for the same parameters. Preliminary conclusions of the comparison of the twostrategies are derived. Sensitivity analyses were carried out with respect to target layer properties and to pipe modelassumptions.

  • 39.
    Kitron-Belinkov, Myra
    et al.
    Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    Environmental & Water Resources Engineering (EWRE) Ltd., Haifa, Israel.
    Bear, Jacob
    Modeling wellbore and reservoir carbon dioxide flow for the Heletz experiment2012In: Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 14: EGU2012-7823, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Field carbon dioxide injection experiments are necessary for demonstration, increasing the scientific understandingand quantification of the relevant processes occurring during geological storage in deep saline aquifers. As part ofthe large scale EU-FP7 project MUSTANG, a carbon dioxide injection experiment is to be carried out at the Heletzsite, Israel. Estimating the well head conditions is an important part of planning the experiment and an approach ispresented here for determining wellhead conditions needed to ensure that at least a specified flow rate is providedto the formation, given target layer conditions, while still respecting pressure buildup constraints. The main partof the study combines the multiphase flow in the target layer using the well known TOUGH2/ECO2N model, withthe flow in the injection pipe solving the 1D steady, real gas, augmented Euler equation. The Matching is carriedon in a two-stage process.The second part consists of a transient simulation of the combined well-reservoir flowusing the new T2WELL software for the same parameters. Preliminary conclusions of the comparison of the twostrategies are derived. Sensitivity analyses were carried out with respect to target layer properties and to pipe modelassumptions.

  • 40.
    Leroy, Philippe
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. French Geol Survey, BRGM, F-45060 Orleans, France.
    Weigand, Maximilian
    Univ Bonn, Steinmann Inst, Dept Geophys, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Meriguet, Guillaume
    Pierre & Marie Curie Univ, PHENIX, CNRS, UMR 8234, F-75252 Paris, France..
    Zimmermann, Egon
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Cent Inst Engn Elect & Analyt, Elect Syst, ZEA 2, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Tournassat, Christophe
    Univ Orleans, CNRS INSU BRGM, UMR 7327, Inst Sci Terre Orleans, F-45071 Orleans, France..
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Kemna, Andreas
    Univ Bonn, Steinmann Inst, Dept Geophys, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Huisman, Johan Alexander
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Inst Bio & Geosci, IBG 3, Agrosphere Inst, D-52425 Julich, Germany..
    Spectral induced polarization of Na-montmorillonite dispersions2017In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 505, p. 1093-1110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Montmorillonite (Mt) clays have a high specific surface area and surface charge, which confer them remarkable adsorption properties. Nevertheless, their electrochemical and aggregation behavior are not completely elucidated because of the complexity of their microstructural and interfacial properties. In this work, the conductive and dispersive properties of Na-Mt suspensions of weight fractions 0.5-5.2% were investigated for the first time using the spectral induced polarization method. A four-electrode system was used to reduce errors introduced by electrode polarization and contact resistances. Complex conductivity spectra in the low-frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 45 kHz were successfully described using a triple layer model of the basal surface of Mt and a complex conductivity model that considers conduction of the diffuse layer and polarization of the Stern layer. Aggregate size distributions were inferred from inverted relaxation time distributions. We found that the negative and permanent surface charge of the basal plane of Na-Mt controls its quadrature (imaginary) conductivity, which is not very sensitive to pH and salinity (NaCI) in the 100 Hz to 45 kHz frequency range. For lower frequencies, the sudden increase of the quadrature conductivity at the highest salinities was explained by considering coagulation of Na-Mt particles.

  • 41. Mathew, M.
    et al.
    Illangasekare, T.H.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Sensitivity of model parameter in the prediction of DNAPL infiltration and redistribution in heterogeneous porous media2005In: Eos, Transaction, American Geophysical Union 86(52): Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract H23A-1420, American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Mathew, Mini
    et al.
    Colorado School of Mines.
    Illangesekare, Tissa
    Colardo School of Mines.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Air and Water Science.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Parameter Sensitivity in the Prediction of DNAPL Infiltration and Redistribution in Heterogeneous Porous Media2006In: CMWR XVI - Computational Methods in Water Resources, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Mekonen, Abenezer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Sharma, Prabhakar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Transport and mobilization of multiwall carbon nanotubes in quartz sand under varying saturation2014In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, Vol. 71, no 8, p. 3751-3760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a series of sand packed columnswere used to investigate the mobility of multiwall carbonnanotubes (MWCNTs) in unsaturated porous media underunfavorable conditions for deposition. The flow throughcolumn experiments were designed to assess water content,flow rate, and grain size effect on the mobility ofMWCNTs. It was found that variation in water content hadno significant effect on retention of MWCNTs until it waslowered to 16 % effective saturation. Thick water films,high flow rate, and repulsive forces between MWCNTs andporous media made MWCNTs highly mobile. Differentporous media grain sizes (D50 = 150–300 lm) were usedin this study. The mobility of MWCNTs slightly decreasedin finer grain sands, which was deemed to be an effect ofincrease in surface area and the number of depositionalsites, in combination with low-pore water velocity. However,physical straining was not observed in selected finegrainsands and aspect ratio of MWCNTs had low impacton mobility. Variations in pore-water velocity were producedby both changes in water saturation and in flow rate.At high pore-water velocities, the MWCNTs were generallymobile. However, for the combination of low-porewater velocity with either low water saturation or smallgrain size, some retention of MWCNTs was observed.Hence, low velocity in combination with flow throughsmaller pores increased MWCNT deposition.

  • 44.
    Niemi, Auli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Sauter, Martin
    Ghergut, Julia
    Licha, Tobias
    Fierz, Thomas
    Wiegand, Gabriele
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    Gendler, Michael
    Small-Scale CO2 Injection into a Deep Geological Formation at Heletz, Israel2012In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 23, p. 504-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the experimental plans and designs as well as examples of predictive modeling of a pilot-scale CO2 injection experiment at the Heletz site (Israel). The overall objective of the experiment is to find optimal ways to characterize CO2 -relevant in-situ medium properties, including field-scale residual and dissolution trapping, to explore ways of characterizing heterogeneity through joint analysis of different types of data, and to detect leakage. The experiment will involve two wells, an injection well and a monitoring well. Prior to the actual CO2 injection, hydraulic, thermal and tracer tests will be carried out for standard site characterization. The actual CO2 injection experiments will include (i) a single well injection-withdrawal experiment, with the main objective to estimate in-situ residual trapping and (ii) a two-well injection-withdrawal test with injection of CO2 in a dipole mode (injection of CO2 in one well with simultaneous withdrawal of water in the monitoring well), with the objective to understand the CO2 transport in heterogeneous geology as well as the associated dissolution and residual trapping. Tracers will be introduced in both experiments to further aid in detecting the development of the phase composition during CO2 transport. Geophysical monitoring will also be implemented. By means of modeling, different experimental sequences and injection/withdrawal patterns have been analyzed, as have parameter uncertainties. The objectives have been to (i) evaluate key aspects of the experimental design, (ii) to identify key parameters affecting the fate of the CO2 and (iii) to evaluate the relationships between measurable quantities and parameters of interest.

  • 45.
    Niemi, Auli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    Environm & Water Resources Engn EWRE Ltd, POB 6770, IL-31067 Haifa, Israel..
    Shtivelman, Vladimir
    Geophys Inst Israel, POB 182, IL-71100 Lod, Israel..
    Edlmann, Katriona
    Univ Edinburgh, Grant Inst, Sch Geosci, Kings Bldg,James Hutton Rd, Edinburgh EH9 3FE, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Gouze, Philippe
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS Geosci Montpellier, Campus Triolet CC060,Pl Eugene Batalluon, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Luquot, Linda
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS Geosci Montpellier, Campus Triolet CC060,Pl Eugene Batalluon, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France.;IDAEA, CSIC, Pascual Vila Bldg,Off 625 C Jordi Girona,18-26, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Hingerl, Ferdinand
    Stanford Univ, Global Climate & Energy Project, Jerry Yang & Akiko Yamazaki Environm & Energy Bld, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Benson, Sally M.
    Stanford Univ, Global Climate & Energy Project, Jerry Yang & Akiko Yamazaki Environm & Energy Bld, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Pezard, Philippe A.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS Geosci Montpellier, Campus Triolet CC060,Pl Eugene Batalluon, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Villavagen 16B, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Tian, Liang
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Gendler, Michael
    Geophys Inst Israel, POB 182, IL-71100 Lod, Israel..
    Goldberg, Igor
    Geophys Inst Israel, POB 182, IL-71100 Lod, Israel..
    Tatomir, Alexandru
    Univ Gottingen, Angew Geol, Goldschmidtstr 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Lange, Torsten
    Univ Gottingen, Angew Geol, Goldschmidtstr 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Sauter, Martin
    Univ Gottingen, Angew Geol, Goldschmidtstr 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Freifeld, Barry
    Class VI Solut Inc, 711 Jean St, Oakland, CA 94610 USA..
    Heletz experimental site overview, characterization and data analysis for CO2 injection and geological storage2016In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 48, p. 3-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an overview of the site characterization work at the Heletz site, in preparation to scientifically motivated CO2 injection experiments. The outcomes are geological and hydrogeological models with associated medium properties and baseline conditions. The work has consisted on first re-analyzing the existing data base from similar to 40 wells from the previous oil exploration studies, based on which a 3-dimensional structural model was constructed along with first estimates of the properties. The CO2 injection site is located on the saline edges of the Heletz depleted oil field. Two new deep (> 1600 m) wells were drilled within the injection site and from these wells a detailed characterization program was carried out, including coring, core analyses, fluid sampling, geophysical logging, seismic survey, in situ hydraulic testing and measurement of the baseline pressure and temperature. The results are presented and discussed in terms of characteristics of the reservoir and cap-rock, the mineralogy, water composition and other baseline conditions, porosity, permeability, capillary pressure and relative permeability. Special emphasis is given to petrophysical properties of the reservoir and the seal, such as comparing the estimates determined by different methods, looking at their geostatistical distributions as well as changes in them when exposed to CO2.

  • 46. Phenrat, Tanapon
    et al.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Illangasekare, Tissa
    Lowry, Gregory V.
    Tilton, Robert D.
    Polymer-Modified Fe(0) Nanoparticles Target Entrapped NAPL in Two Dimensional Porous Media: Effect of Particle Concentration, NAPL Saturation, and Injection Strategy2011In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 45, no 14, p. 6102-6109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles are delivered into porous media for in situ remediation of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zones. A systematic and quantitative evaluation of NAPL targeting by polymer-modified NZVI in two-dimensional (2-D) porous media under field-relevant conditions has not been reported. This work evaluated the importance of NZVI particle concentration, NAPL saturation, and injection strategy on the ability of polymer-modified NZVI (MRNIP2) to target the NAPL/water interface in situ in a 2-D porous media model. Dodecane was used as a NAPL model compound for this first demonstration of source zone targeting in 2-D. A driving force for NAPL targeting, the surface activity of MRNIP2 at the NAPL/water interface was verified ex situ by its ability to emulsify NAPL in water. MRNIP2 at low particle concentration (0.5 g/L) did not accumulate in or near entrapped NAPL, however, MRNIP2 at moderate and high particle concentrations (3 and 15 g/L) did accumulate preferentially at entrapped NAPL, i.e., it was capable of in situ targeting. The amount of MRNIP2 that targets a NAPL source depends on NAPL saturation (S(n)), presumably because the saturation controls the available NAPL/water interfacial area and the flow field through the NAPL source. At effective S(n) close or equal to 100%, MRNIP2 bypassed NAPL and accumulated only at the periphery of the entrapped NAPL region. At lower S(n), flow also carries MRNIP2 to NAPL/water interfaces internal to the entrapped NAPL region. However, the mass of accumulated MRNIP2 per unit available NAPL/water interfacial area is relatively constant (similar to 0.8 g/m(2) for MRNIP2 = 3 g/L) from S(n) = 13 to similar to 100%, suggesting that NAPL targeting is mostly controlled by MRNIP2 sorption onto the NAPL/water interface.

  • 47.
    Phenrat, Tanapon
    et al.
    Civil and Environmental Engineering Division, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh.
    Kim, Hye-Jin
    Civil and Environmental Engineering Division, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Illangasekare, Tissa H.
    Centre for Experimental Study of Subsurface Environmental Processes (CESEP), Env. Sci. and Eng., Colorado School of Mines.
    Lowry, Gregory Victor
    Civil and Environmental Engineering Division, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh.
    Empirical correlations to estimate agglomerate size and deposition during injection of a polyelectrolyte-modified Fe0 nanoparticle at high particle concentration in saturated sand2010In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 118, no 3-4, p. 152-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlled emplacement of polyelectrolyte-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles at high particle concentration (1-10 g/L) is needed for effective in situ subsurface remediation using NZVI. Deep bed filtration theory cannot be used to estimate the transport and deposition of concentrated polyelectrolyte-modified NZVI dispersions (> 0.03 g/L) because particles agglomerate during transport which violates a fundamental assumption of the theory. Here we develop two empirical correlations for estimating the deposition and transport of concentrated polyelectrolyte-modified NZVI dispersions in saturated porous media when NZVI agglomeration in porous media is assumed to reach steady state quickly. The first correlation determines the apparent stable agglomerate size formed during NZVI transport in porous media for a fixed hydrogeochemical condition. The second correlation estimates the attachment efficiency (sticking coefficient) of the stable agglomerates. Both correlations are described using dimensionless numbers derived from parameters affecting deposition and agglomeration in porous media. The exponents for the dimensionless numbers are determined from statistical analysis of breakthrough data for polyelectrolyte-modified NZVI dispersions collected in laboratory scale column experiments for a range of ionic strength (1, 10, and 50 mM Na + and 0.25, 1, and 1.25 mM Ca2+), approach velocity (0.8 to 55 × 10-4 m/s), average collector sizes (d50 = 99 μm, 300 μm, and 880 μm), and polyelectrolyte surface modifier properties. Attachment efficiency depended on approach velocity and was inversely related to collector size, which is contrary to that predicted from classic filtration models. High ionic strength, the presence of divalent cations, lower extended adsorbed polyelectrolyte layer thickness, decreased approach velocity, and a larger collector size promoted NZVI agglomeration and deposition and thus limited its mobility in porous media. These effects are captured quantitatively in the two correlations developed. The application and limitations of using the correlations for preliminary design of in situ NZVI emplacement strategies is discussed.

  • 48. Phenrat, Tanapon
    et al.
    Kim, Hye-Jin
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Illangasekare, Tissa H.
    Tilton, Robert
    Lowry, Gregory
    Particle size distribution, concentration, and magnetic attraction affect transport of polymer-modified Fe0 nanoparticles in sand columns2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 13, p. 5079-5085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of particle concentration, size distribution (polydispersity) and magnetic attractive forces (Fe(0) content) on agglomeration and transport of poly(styrene sulfonate) (PSS) modified NZVI was studied in water-saturated sand (d(p) = 300 microm) columns. Particle concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 6 g/L in 5 mM NaCl/5 mM NaHCO3 at a pore water velocity of 3.2 x 10(-4) m/s. Three NZVI dispersions with different intrinsic particle size distributions obtained from sequential sedimentation are compared. The influence of magnetic attraction (Fe(0) content) on NZVI agglomeration and deposition in porous media is assessed by comparing the deposition behavior of PSS-modified NZVI (magnetic) having different Fe(0) contents with PSS-modified hematite (nonmagnetic) with the same surface modifier. At low particle concentration (30 mg/L) all particles were mobile in sand columns regardless of size or magnetic attractive forces. At high concentration (1 to 6 g/L), deposition of the relatively monodisperse dispersion containing PSS-modified NZVI (hydrodynamic radius (R(H)) = 24 nm) with the lowest Fe(0) content (4 wt%) is low (attachment efficiency (alpha) = 2.5 x 10(-3)), insensitive to particle concentration, and similar to PSS-modified hematite. At 1 to 6 g/L, the attachment efficiency of polydisperse dispersions containing both primary particles and sintered aggregates (R(H) from 15 to 260 nm) of PSS-modified NZVI with a range of Fe(0) content (10-60%) is greater (alpha = 1.2 x 10(-2) to 7.2 x 10(-2) and is sensitive to particle size distribution. The greater attachment for larger, more polydisperse Fe(0) nanoparticles with higher Fe(0) content is a result of their agglomeration during transport in porous media because the magnetic attractive force between particles increases with the sixth power of particle/agglomerate radius. A filtration model that considers agglomeration in porous media and subsequent deposition explains the observed transport of polydisperse PSS-modified NZVI at high concentration.

  • 49.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, J.
    Tsang, Y.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Analysis of alternative push-pull-test-designs for determining in situ residual trapping of carbon dioxide2014In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 27, p. 155-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide storage in deep saline aquifers is a promising technique to reduce direct emissions of greenhouse gas to the atmosphere. To ensure safe storage the in situ trapping mechanisms, residual trapping being one of them, need to be characterized. This study aims to compare three alternative single-well carbon dioxide push-pull test sequences for their ability to quantify residual gas trapping. The three tests are based on the proposed test sequence by Zhang et al. (2011) for estimating residual gas saturation. A new alternative way to create residual gas conditions in situ incorporating withdrawal and a novel indicator-tracer approach has been investigated. Further the value of additional pressure measurements from a nearby passive observation well was evaluated. The iTOUGH2 simulator with the EOS7C module was used for sensitivity analysis and parameter estimation. Results show that the indicator-tracer approach could be used to create residual conditions without increasing estimation uncertainty of S-gr. Additional pressure measurements from a passive observation well would reduce the uncertainty in the S-gr estimate. The findings of the study can be used to develop field experiments for site characterization.

  • 50.
    Rasmusson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tsang, Chin-Fu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Tsang, Yvonne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Rasmusson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Pan, Lehua
    Univ Calif Berkeley, USA.
    Fagerlund, Fritjof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bensabat, Jacob
    EWRE, Environm & Water Resources Engn Ltd, Haifa, Israel.
    Niemi, Auli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Distribution of injected CO2 in a stratified saline reservoir accounting for coupled wellbore-reservoir flow2015In: Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, E-ISSN 2152-3878, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 419-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geological storage in sedimentary basins is considered a viable technology in mitigating atmospheric CO2 emissions. Alternating high and low permeability strata are common in these basins. The distribution of injected CO2 among such layers affects e.g. CO2 storage efficiency, capacity and plume footprint. A numerical study on the distribution of injected CO2 into a multi-layered reservoir, accounting for coupled wellbore-reservoir flow, was carried out using the T2Well/ECO2N code. A site-specific case as well as a more general case were considered. Properties and processes governing the distribution of sequestrated CO2 were identified and the potential to operationally modify the distribution was investigated. The distribution of CO2 was seen to differ from that of injected water, i.e. it was not proportional to the transmissivity of the layers. The results indicate that caution should be taken when performing numerical simulations of CO2 injection into layered formations. Ignoring coupled wellbore-reservoir flow and instead adopting a simple boundary condition at the injection well, such as an inflow rate proportional to the transmissivity of each layer, may result in significant underestimation of the proportion of CO2 ending up in the shallower layers, as not all relevant processes are accounted for. This discrepancy has been thoroughly investigated and quantified for several CO2 sequestration scenarios.

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