uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 65
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the 'Create feeds' function.
  • 1.
    Anderzén, I
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Arnetz, B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    The impact of a prospective survey-based workplace intervention program on employee health, biologic stress markers, and organizational productivity.2005In: J Occup Environ Med, ISSN 1076-2752, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 671-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Psychosocial Factors and Health.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    bNational Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Psychophysiological reactions to international adjustment: Results from a controlled, longitudinal study1999In: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, ISSN 0033-3190, E-ISSN 1423-0348, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 67-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This controlled prospective study examines psychophysiological reactions in employees during their first and second year abroad to identify individual as well as work-related factors predictive of positive adjustment. Methods: Employees (n = 47) relocating from Sweden to a foreign country on a work-related assignment were followed. The subjects completed a questionnaire before relocation and after 1 and 2 years abroad. Blood samples were collected for determination of the stressor-related hormones prolactin, cortisol and testosterone. A matched non-moving reference group of employees (n = 35) responded to the questionnaire at similar time periods, and also provided blood samples. Results: During the years abroad, the expatriate employees experienced increased psychosocial stress as well as negative adjustment as reflected in circulating levels of prolactin and testosterone, worse mental well-being and worsening subjective work environment, as compared with the non-moving group. The greatest change occurred during the first year. Individual factors such as social support, internal locus of control, self-esteem and sense of coherence modified the stress response and predicted employees’ ability to adjust to foreign assignments. Negative changes in the psychosocial work environment explained to a large degree the decrease in work adjustment during the first year and these findings were also reflected in physiological stress indicators. Conclusions: The study emphasises the importance for multinational organisations to look at these individual characteristics before sending employees abroad. They also need to get more involved in supporting employees to manage stressors characteristic of the first year of foreign work.

  • 3.
    Arble, Eamonn
    et al.
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Psychol, 71 W Warren Ave, Detroit, MI 48202 USA..
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Michigan State Univ, Coll Human Med, Dept Family Med, 788 Serv Rd,Rm B106D, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA.
    A Model of First-responder Coping: An Approach/Avoidance Bifurcation2017In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 223-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work of first responders is fraught with numerous stressors, ranging from potentially traumatic critical incidents to institutional strains. The severity and pervasiveness of these difficulties prompt a necessary consideration of the coping methods employed by first responders. The present study developed an empirical model of first-responder coping strategies, based upon a nationally representative survey sample of 6240 first responders. Participants were drawn from Swedish first responders in the following occupations: coast guard, customs control, military, emergency medical services, fire department and police services. In the final model, exposure to stress related to well-being through several indirect paths that in sum accounted for the original direct relationship between these constructs. These several indirect paths were classified theoretically as either approach or avoidance coping behaviours or subsequent health outcomes. In general, approach coping behaviours were related to better well-being; and avoidance was related to a decrease in the outcome. The size of the present sample, as well as the diverse nature of the included first responders, suggests that the resulting model may offer a unique insight into potentially adaptive pathways for first-responder coping.

  • 4. Arfken, CL
    et al.
    Jamil, H
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Marijuana and non-medical prescription drug use among immigrant Arab Americans2012In: New Iraqi Med, Vol. 8, p. 7-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Arfken, Cynthia L
    et al.
    Arnetz, Bengt B
    2.Department of Family Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USA.
    Fakhouri, Monty
    Ventimiglia, Matthew J
    Jamil, Hikmet
    Alcohol use among Arab Americans: what is the prevalence?2011In: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 713-718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information is limited on alcohol use among Arab Americans. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the alcohol use pattern among Arab Americans by reviewing existing surveys using an acculturation model. Secondary data analysis. Nationally, English-speaking immigrant Arab Americans reported lower rates of lifetime alcohol use (50.8%), past month use (26.4%) and binge drinking (10%) than the White majority group. In a state survey, self-identified English-speaking Arab Americans were less likely to report past month use (45.6%) than the White majority group but reported similar rate of binge drinking (17.0%). Locally, lifetime drinking was reported by 46.2% of the immigrants but only 13.4% of refugees fleeing war. Few databases are available to estimate alcohol use pattern among Arab Americans; the limited data suggest a drinking pattern consistent with acculturation. However, the potential influence of other factors is unknown and needs to be investigated.

  • 6.
    Arnetz, B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Subjective indicators as a gauge for improving organizational well-being. An attempt to apply the cognitive activation theory to organizations.2005In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 1022-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Arnetz, B
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Arnetz, J
    Uppsala University.
    Psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal symptoms in a high-tech work environment.1992In: Arbete och Hälsa, no 17, p. 28-30Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 8.
    Arnetz, B
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Arnetz, J
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johansson, A-M
    Rundquist, A
    Patienternas syn på hälso- och sjukvården. Vad berättar klagomål till Patientnämnden?2001Report (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 9.
    Arnetz, B
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fjellner, B
    Stress responsiveness in patients with psoriasis2007In: British Journal of Dermatology, ISSN 0007-0963, E-ISSN 1365-2133, ISSN 0007-0963, Vol. 156, no 2, p. 388-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Arnetz, Bengt B
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Broadbridge, Carissa L
    Ghosh, Samiran
    Longitudinal determinants of energy levels in knowledge workers2014In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 79-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Increasingly, workers in the service, welfare, and health care sectors suffer adverse effects (ie, depression, burnout, etc) of "low-energy syndromes." Less is known about energy-based outcomes among knowledge workers. This study aimed to identify determinants of self-rated energy in knowledge workers and examine how these determinants change over time.

    METHODS: In collaboration with a large union and employer federation, 317 knowledge workers in Sweden responded to the health and productivity survey three times.

    RESULTS: At each assessment, worry, satisfaction with eating habits, and work-effectiveness were predictive of energy levels; however, only work-effectiveness covaried with energy over time.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that perceived work-effectiveness is an important factor in preventing knowledge workers from experiencing "low-energy syndromes." Lifestyle factors also play a role. Therefore, multifaceted interventions for increasing energy are needed.

  • 11.
    Arnetz, Bengt B
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Broadbridge, Carissa L
    Jamil, Hikmet
    Lumley, Mark A
    Pole, Nnamdi
    Barkho, Evone
    Fakhouri, Monty
    Talia, Yousif Rofa
    Arnetz, Judith E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Specific Trauma Subtypes Improve the Predictive Validity of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire in Iraqi Refugees2014In: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 1055-1061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trauma exposure contributes to poor mental health among refugees, and exposure often is measured using a cumulative index of items from the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Few studies, however, have asked whether trauma subtypes derived from the HTQ could be superior to this cumulative index in predicting mental health outcomes. A community sample of recently arrived Iraqi refugees (N = 298) completed the HTQ and measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Principal components analysis of HTQ items revealed a 5-component subtype model of trauma that accounted for more item variance than a 1-component solution. These trauma subtypes also accounted for more variance in PTSD and depression symptoms (12 and 10 %, respectively) than did the cumulative trauma index (7 and 3 %, respectively). Trauma subtypes provided more information than cumulative trauma in the prediction of negative mental health outcomes. Therefore, use of these subtypes may enhance the utility of the HTQ when assessing at-risk populations.

  • 12.
    Arnetz, Bengt B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Ekman, RolfUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Stress in Health and Disease2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This first book to address the most urgent issues combines a solid research approach with applied individual and stress issues. It focuses on our latest knowledge of various causes of stress and its neuro-cognitive and biological implications. World-renowned authors cover all perspectives: societal, individual, organ and molecular level.

  • 13.
    Arnetz, Bengt B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Frenzel, L.
    Åkerstedt, T.
    Lisspers, Jan
    The brief fatigue syndrome scale: validation and utilization in fatigue recovery studies2008In: Fatigue Science for Human Health / [ed] Y. Watanabe, B. Evengård, B.H. Natelson, L. A. Jason and H. Kuratsune, Tokyo: Springer , 2008, p. 55-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Arnetz, Bengt B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Michigan State Univ, E Lansing, USA; Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden.
    Lewalski, Philip
    Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Emergency Med, Detroit, MI USA..
    Arnetz, Judy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Michigan State Univ, E Lansing, USA; Umea Univ, Umea, Sweden.
    Breejen, Karen
    Michigan State Univ, Coll Human Med, Dept Family Med, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Przyklenk, Karin
    Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Emergency Med, Detroit, MI USA.;Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Cardiovasc Res Inst, Detroit, MI USA.;Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Physiol, Detroit, MI 48201 USA..
    Examining self-reported and biological stress and near misses among Emergency Medicine residents: a single-centre cross-sectional assessment in the USA2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 8, article id e016479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To examine the relationship between perceived and biological stress and near misses among Emergency Medicine residents. Design Self-rated stress and stress biomarkers were assessed in residents in Emergency Medicine before and after a day shift. The supervising physicians and residents reported numbers of near misses. Setting The study took place in the Emergency Department of a large trauma 1 centre, located in Detroit, USA. Participants Residents in Emergency Medicine volunteered to participate. The sample consisted of 32 residents, with complete data on 28 subjects. Residents' supervising physicians assessed the clinical performance of each resident. Primary and secondary outcome measures Participants' preshift and postshift stress, biological stress (salivary cortisol, plasma interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), residents' and supervisors' reports of near misses, number of critically ill and patients with trauma seen during the shift. Results Residents' self-reported stress increased from an average preshift level of 2.79 of 10 (SD 1.81) to a postshift level of 5.82 (2.13) (p<0.001). Residents cared for an average of 2.32 (1.52) critically ill patients and 0.68 (1.06) patients with trauma. Residents reported a total of 7 near misses, compared with 11 reported by the supervising physicians. After controlling for baseline work-related exhaustion, residents that cared for more patients with trauma and had higher levels of TNF-a reported a higher frequency of near misses (R-2=0.72; p=0.001). Residents' preshift ratings of how stressful they expected the shift to be were related to the supervising physicians' ratings of residents' near misses during the shift. Conclusion Residents' own ratings of near misses were associated with residents' TNF-alpha, a biomarker of systemic inflammation and the number of patients with trauma seen during the shift. In contrast, supervisor reports on residents' near misses were related only to the residents' preshift expectations of how stressful the shift would be.

  • 15.
    Arnetz, Bengt B
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Templin, Thomas
    Saudi, Waleed
    Jamil, Hikmet
    Obstructive sleep apnea, posttraumatic stress disorder, and health in immigrants2012In: Psychosomatic Medicine, ISSN 0033-3174, E-ISSN 1534-7796, Vol. 74, no 8, p. 824-831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether obstructive sleep apnea mediates the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychosomatic and somatic disorders and its implications for self-rated health (SRH) among Iraqi immigrants in the United States.

    METHODS: A random sample of immigrants who had left Iraq before the 1991 Gulf War (n = 145) or after (n = 205) and are residing in metropolitan Detroit responded to a structured interview covering questions on sociodemographics, premigration trauma, SRH, physician-diagnosed and -treated obstructive sleep apnea, somatic disorders, and psychosomatic disorders. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the relationship between premigration trauma scores and health, as well as to explore mediating pathways between PTSD, obstructive sleep apnea, and health.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea among post-Gulf Warimmigrants (30.2%) was significantly higher than among pre-Gulf War immigrants (0.7%; p < .001). Premigration trauma scores were positively associated with depression and PTSD. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which obstructive sleep apnea mediated the relationship between PTSD and psychosomatic and somatic disorders. Premigration trauma also related directly to SRH.

    CONCLUSIONS: Part of the PTSD-associated adverse health effects observed in Iraqi immigrants is mediated by obstructive sleep apnea. Because sleep apnea in the current study is based on medical history and current treatment, there is a need for future confirmatory polysomnographic studies.

  • 16.
    Arnetz, Bengt B
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Ventimiglia, Matthew
    Beech, Pamela
    DeMarinis, Valerie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Theology, Department of Theology, The Social Sciences of Religion, Psychology of Religions.
    Lökk, Johan
    Arnetz, Judith E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Spiritual values and practices in the workplace and employee stress and mental well-being2013In: Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, ISSN 1476-6086, E-ISSN 1942-258X, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 271-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:

    To determine whether employees’ spiritual values and practicesin the workplace attenuate occupational stress and work-related exhaustion,and promote mental well-being.

    Methods:

    Participants (N = 649) completedvalidated measures of mental well-being, occupational stress, and workrelatedexhaustion, as well as two newly developed measures of individualspiritual values and practices in the workplace.

    Results:

    Factor analysis confirmedthat spirituality items belonged to two separate constructs. In logisticregression models, the Spiritual Values in the Workplace scale was positivelyassociated with mental well-being and low occupational stress. Thespiritual practices at work scale was positively associated with low workrelatedexhaustion.

    Conclusions:

    Employee spiritual values and practices, aswell as workplace acceptance of such practices, appear to promote mentalwell-being and attenuate stress.

  • 17.
    Arnetz, Bengt B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Wiholm, Clairy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Wang, Shinan
    Slatcher, Rich
    Lumley, Mark
    Hytter, Anders
    Sandmark, Helen
    Shi, Weisong
    Real-Time Ecologically-Valid Assessment of Cognitive and Cardiovascular Load in Real-Life in Mid-Career Female Managers2013In: Psychosomatic Medicine, ISSN 0033-3174, E-ISSN 1534-7796, Vol. 75, no 3, p. A100-A100Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Arnetz, Bengt B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    Hillert, Lena
    Lowden, Arne
    Kuster, Niels
    Wiholm, Clairy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    The Effects of 884 MHz GSM Wireless Communication Signals on Self-reported Symptoms and Sleep: An Experimental Provocation Study2007In: PIERS online, ISSN 1931-7360, Vol. 3, no 7, p. 1148-1150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current study we assessed possible effects of prolonged (3 hours) exposure to 884 MHz GSM wireless communication signals on self-reported symptoms, cognitive function, and electroencephalographically (EEG) recorded sleep. The study group consisted of 36 women and 35 men. Twenty-two women and sixteen men reported symptoms they specifically related to mobile phone use (SG). The rest of the participants reported no mobile phone-related symptoms (NG). Potential participants volunteering for the study were evaluated by physicians, including some biochemical assessments, to rule out medical conditions that could interfere with study variables of interest. Once selected, participants spent three different sessions in the laboratory. The habituation session was followed by two subsequent sessions. In these subsequent sessions, subjects were either exposed to sham exposure (sham) or 884 MHz GSM wireless communication signals for 3 hours (an average of 1.4 W/kg including periods of DTX and Non-DTX. Exposure directed to the left hemisphere). Data was collected before, during and following the exposure/sham sessions. Data collected included self-reported symptoms, including headache, cognitive function, mood, and electroencephalographic recordings. During actual exposure, as compared to sham exposure, sleep initiated one hour after exposure was affected. There was a prolonged latency to reach the first cycle of deep sleep (stage 3). The amount of stage 4 sleep was also decreased in exposed subjects. NG subjects reported more headaches during exposures vs. sham exposure. Neither group (SG and NG) was able to detect the true exposure status more frequently than by chance alone. The study indicates that during laboratory exposure to 884 MHz wireless signals, components of sleep, believed to be important for recovery from daily wear and tear, are adversely affected. Moreover, participants that otherwise have no self-reported symptoms related to mobile phone use, appear to have more headaches during actual radiofrequency exposure as compared to sham exposure. However, subjects were not able to detect the true exposure status more often than would have been expected by statistical chance alone. Additional self-reported findings, biochemical, performance and electrophysiological data are currently being analyzed. Possible health implications from the findings will also be further explored.

  • 19.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , CEOS.
    Blomkvist, Vanja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , CEOS.
    Leadership, Mental Health, and Organizational Efficacy in Health Care Organizations: Psychosocial Predictors of Healthy Organizational Development Based on Prospective Data from Four Different Organizations2007In: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, ISSN 0033-3190, E-ISSN 1423-0348, Vol. 76, no 4, p. 242-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Only a few studies of psychosocial determinants of employee health and organizational development have been prospective, involving more than one organization and applying standardized assessment tools. This limits the ability of providing evidence-based guidance as how to carry out healthy organizational transformations. Methods: A total of 6,000 employees responded twice to a validated psychosocial-leadership questionnaire within a 2-year period. The assessment focused on changes over time in the three outcome measures - mental health, efficacy, and leadership, determined to be important indicators of a healthy organization. Changes within and between organization were assessed statistically using regular t tests and general linear modeling. Results: There were major differences between organizations in psychosocial measures, both at the baseline and over time. At the organizational level, changes between study periods in management performance feedback, participatory management, and work tempo were the most consistent predictors of improvements over time in the three outcome measures. Conclusions: Performance feedback and participatory management might be two common predictors of healthy workplaces. Some of the psychosocial determinants of healthy organizations suggested in previous research might not be universally valid. It is suggested that future research should to a larger degree make use of multiple departments and organizations in studies of psychosocial determinants of healthy organizations.

  • 20.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Drutchas, Alexis
    Sokol, Robert
    Kruger, Michael
    Jamil, Hikmet
    1991 Gulf War exposures and adverse birth outcomes2013In: U.S. Army Medical Department journal, ISSN 1524-0436, p. 58-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied 1991 Gulf War (GW)-related environmental exposures and adverse birth outcomes in Iraqis. A random cross-sectional sample of 307 Iraqi families that immigrated to the United States responded to a structured interview covering socioeconomics, lifestyle, environmental exposures, and birth outcome. Data per each family was collected either from the man or the woman in the respective family. The respondents were divided into those that resided in Iraq during and following the GW (post-GW, n=185) and those that had left before (pre-GW, n=122). The primary outcome was lifetime prevalence of adverse birth outcomes, ie, congenital anomalies, stillbirth, low birth weight, and preterm delivery and its relationship to GW exposures. Mean number of adverse birth outcomes increased from 3.43 (SD=2.11) in the pre-GW to 4.63 (SD=2.63) in the post-GW group (P<.001). Mean chemical (Ch) and nonchemical (NCh) environmental exposure scores increased from pre-GW scores of 0.38 units (SD=1.76) and 0.43 (SD=1.86), respectively, to post-GW scores of 5.65 units (SD=6.23) and 7.26 (SD=5.67), P<.001 between groups for both exposures. There was a significant dose-response relationship between Ch environmental exposure (P=.001), but not NCh exposure, and number of adverse birth outcomes. Exposure to burning oil pits and mustard gas increased the risks for specific adverse birth outcomes by 2 to 4 times. Results indicate that Gulf War Ch, but not NCh exposures are related to adverse birth outcomes. Pregnancies in women with a history of war exposures might benefit from more intensive observation.

  • 21.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    et al.
    Wayne State University School of Medicine, Family Medicine, Detroit, MI.
    Sokol, Robert
    Drutchas, Alexis
    Kruger, Michael
    Jamil, Hikmet
    1991 Gulf War exposures and pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective study of Iraqi immigrants2012In: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0002-9378, E-ISSN 1097-6868, Vol. 206, no 1 S, p. 261-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied 1991 Gulf War (GW)-related environmental exposures and adverse birth outcomes in Iraqis. A random cross-sectional sample of 307 Iraqi families that immigrated to the United States responded to a structured interview covering socioeconomics, lifestyle, environmental exposures, and birth outcome. Data per each family was collected either from the man or the woman in the respective family. The respondents were divided into those that resided in Iraq during and following the GW (post-GW, n=185) and those that had left before (pre-GW, n=122). The primary outcome was lifetime prevalence of adverse birth outcomes, ie, congenital anomalies, stillbirth, low birth weight, and preterm delivery and its relationship to GW exposures. Mean number of adverse birth outcomes increased from 3.43 (SD=2.11) in the pre-GW to 4.63 (SD=2.63) in the post-GW group (P<.001). Mean chemical (Ch) and nonchemical (NCh) environmental exposure scores increased from pre-GW scores of 0.38 units (SD=1.76) and 0.43 (SD=1.86), respectively, to post-GW scores of 5.65 units (SD=6.23) and 7.26 (SD=5.67), P<.001 between groups for both exposures. There was a significant dose-response relationship between Ch environmental exposure (P=.001), but not NCh exposure, and number of adverse birth outcomes. Exposure to burning oil pits and mustard gas increased the risks for specific adverse birth outcomes by 2 to 4 times. Results indicate that Gulf War Ch, but not NCh exposures are related to adverse birth outcomes. Pregnancies in women with a history of war exposures might benefit from more intensive observation.

  • 22.
    Arnetz, Judith E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Arnetz, Bengt B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Gender differences in patient perceptions of involvement in myocardial infarction care2009In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 174-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Gender differences in the clinical presentation, treatment and outcomes of myocardial infarction (MI) have been demonstrated. However, few studies have examined gender differences in patients' perceptions of involvement in MI care, and whether differing levels of involvement might be associated with gender differences in treatment and outcome. AIM: To examine possible gender differences in MI patients' perceptions of their involvement during hospitalization. METHODS: Questionnaire study conducted in 2005-2006 among MI patients under the age of 75 at eleven hospitals. Patient ratings of their involvement during hospitalization were analyzed for age-stratified gender differences. RESULTS: Younger (<70 years of age) female MI patients placed significantly more value on shared decision-making than younger (<70) men. More than one third of patients would have liked to be more involved in their care during hospitalization and discharge planning, with women significantly more dissatisfied than men. Significantly fewer younger female patients discussed secondary preventive lifestyle changes with cardiology staff prior to hospital discharge. CONCLUSION: Significant age-specific gender differences exist in MI patient ratings of, and satisfaction with, involvement during hospitalization. Further study is needed regarding the possible role of involvement in the recognized gender differences in the treatment and outcomes of MI.

  • 23.
    Arnetz, Judith E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Höglund, Anna T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Arnetz, Bengt B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Winblad, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research.
    Staff views and behaviour regarding patient involvement in myocardial infarction care: development and evaluation of a questionnaire2008In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 27-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Healthcare legislation in several nations now dictates the responsibility of health care professionals to involve patients in decisions concerning care and treatment. However, few studies have examined the impact of patient involvement on the work of health care professionals. A better understanding of staff views and behaviour might enhance patient involvement.

    AIM

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire for measuring views and behaviour regarding patient involvement among physicians and nursing staff caring for patients with myocardial infarction.

    METHODS

    Focus groups among cardiology staff provided the basis for the construction of the questionnaire. Questionnaire validity and reliability were evaluated in a small pilot study and a larger cross-sectional study among cardiology staff at twelve Swedish hospitals.

    RESULTS

    The questionnaire demonstrated good validity and reliability, with two factors measuring staff views and four measuring behaviour.

    CONCLUSION

    The questionnaire appears to be a useful tool for evaluating the perceptions and behaviour of physicians and nursing staff regarding patient involvement in myocardial infarction care. Use of this questionnaire may provide insight regarding areas of staff-patient interaction that need improvement, as well as implications of patient involvement for the work of each professional group on cardiology wards.

  • 24.
    Arnetz, Judith E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Winblad, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Arnetz, Bengt B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Höglund, Anna T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Physicians' and nurses' perceptions of patient involvement in myocardial infarction care2008In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients' involvement in their healthcare has been associated with better health outcomes. However, few studies have examined whether patient involvement affects the work of healthcare professionals. A better understanding of professionals' views and behaviour is necessary for improving clinical practice and optimizing patient involvement. Aim: To measure perceptions and behaviour regarding patient involvement among physicians and nursing staff caring for patients with acute myocardial infarction. Methods: A questionnaire study conducted in 2005 among cardiology staff at twelve Swedish hospitals. The questionnaire included six scales measuring staff views and behaviour. Results: Physicians, registered nurses, and practical nurses did not differ significantly in their views of patient involvement, but did differ significantly in behaviour (p<.001). All three groups felt that an actively involved patient enriched their work, at the same time increasing their work load and taking time from other tasks. Physicians discussed daily activities and lifestyle changes with myocardial infarction patients before hospital discharge to a greater extent than nursing staff (p<.001). Conclusion: Physicians and registered nurses viewed time constraints as a hinder for patient involvement, while practical nurses felt unsure in communicating with patients. Considering these organizational and professional issues may improve patient involvement and health outcomes in myocardial infarction care. (C) 2007 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Arnetz, Judith E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Winblad, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research.
    Höglund, Anna T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Spångberg, Kalle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center.
    Wang, Yun
    Ager, Joel
    Arnetz, Bengt B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Is patient involvement during hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction associated with post-discharge treatment outcome?: an exploratory study2010In: Health Expectations, ISSN 1369-6513, E-ISSN 1369-7625, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 298-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To investigate whether patient involvement during hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (MI) was associated with health and behavioural outcomes 6–10 weeks after hospital discharge.

    Background Patient involvement has been associated with improved health outcomes in chronic disease, but less research has focused on the effects of patient involvement in acute conditions, such as MI.

    Design Self-administered questionnaire study. Questionnaire results were run against medical outcome data in a national database of cardiac patients.

    Setting and participants Cardiac patients (n = 591) on their first follow-up visit after hospitalization for MI at 11 Swedish hospitals.

    Main outcome measures Patient ratings of three questionnaire scales related to involvement; cardiovascular symptoms, medication compliance, participation in cardiac rehabilitation, and achievement of secondary preventive goals.

    Results More positive patient ratings of involvement were significantly associated with fewer cardiovascular symptoms 6–10 weeks after hospital discharge. In contrast, patients who attended cardiac rehabilitation and achieved the goals for smoking cessation and systolic blood pressure were significantly less satisfied with their involvement. No association was found between involvement ratings and medication compliance.

    Conclusion This study represents a first attempt to examine associations between patient involvement in the acute phase of illness and short-term health outcomes. Some significant associations between involvement and health and behavioural outcomes after acute MI were found. However, higher involvement ratings were not consistently associated with more desirable outcomes, and involvement during hospitalization was not associated with MI patient health and behaviour 6–10 weeks after hospital discharge to the extent hypothesized.

  • 26.
    Arnetz, Judith E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Zhdanova, Ludmila S.
    Elsouhag, Dalia
    Lichtenberg, Peter
    Luborsky, Mark R.
    Arnetz, Bengt B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Organizational Climate Determinants of Resident Safety Culture in Nursing Homes2011In: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 51, no 6, p. 739-749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of the Study: In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on the role of safety culture in preventing costly adverse events, such as medication errors and falls, among nursing home residents. However, little is known regarding critical organizational determinants of a positive safety culture in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to identify organizational climate predictors of specific aspects of the staff-rated resident safety culture (RSC) in a sample of nursing homes. Design and Methods: Staff at 4 Michigan nursing homes responded to a self-administered questionnaire measuring organizational climate and RSC. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify organizational climate factors that predicted the safety culture dimensions nonpunitive response to mistakes, communication about incidents, and compliance with procedures. Results: The organizational climate factors efficiency and work climate predicted nonpunitive response to mistakes (p < .001 for both scales) and compliance with procedures (p < .05 and p < .001 respectively). Work stress was an inverse predictor of compliance with procedures (p < .05). Goal clarity was the only significant predictor of communication about incidents (p < .05). Implications: Efficiency, work climate, work stress, and goal clarity are all malleable organizational factors that could feasibly be the focus of interventions to improve RSC. Future studies will examine whether these results can be replicated with larger samples.

  • 27.
    Arnetz, Judith
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Rofa, Yoasif
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Ventimiglia, Matthew
    Jamil, Hikmet
    Resilience as a Protective Factor Against the Development of Psychopathology Among Refugees2013In: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, ISSN 0022-3018, E-ISSN 1539-736X, Vol. 201, no 3, p. 167-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Refugee research, to date, has predominantly focused on factors that make refugees more vulnerable for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or psychological distress. Few articles have studied potential protective factors such as resilience. A targeted nonrandom sample of Iraqi refugees (n = 75) and a control group of non-Iraqi Arab immigrants (n = 53) were recruited from a number of Iraqi/Arab community institutions in Michigan to complete a questionnaire that included measures for psychological distress, PTSD symptoms, exposure to trauma, and resilience. The refugees reported significantly more PTSD symptoms (t-test, p < 0.01) and psychological distress (p < 0.05) compared with the immigrants. There was no difference in resilience between the two groups. In linear regression, premigration exposure to violence was a significant predictor of psychological distress (p < 0.01) and PTSD symptoms (p < 0.01). After controlling for migrant status and violence exposure, resilience was a significant inverse predictor of psychological distress (p < 0.001) but not of PTSD. Resilience is associated with less trauma-related psychological distress and should be considered in assessing risk and protective factors among victims of war-related violence.

  • 28. Blessman, James
    et al.
    Skupski, James
    Jamil, Mada
    Jamil, Hikmet
    Bassett, David
    Wabeke, Roger
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Barriers to at-home-preparedness in public health employees: implications for disaster preparedness training2007In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 318-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To assess "at-home" preparedness and barriers to preparedness in a cohort of public health employees. METHOD: Conducted a cross-sectional survey involving 100 employees attending emergency preparedness training that emphasized incident command training and included a segment on "at-home" preparedness. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of participants were rated as "better prepared," and only 8% of participants would be considered "most prepared." There was no relationship between the concern for bioterrorism and other disasters and preparedness. The principal barrier involved challenges in getting the task done versus lack of desire or knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: There is great potential for distraction of public health workers during an emergent event if they are not prepared at home and have concern for family members. At-home preparedness training efforts that emphasize what should be done and why are likely to have limited impact on changing behavior. Strategies that ensure that small steps are taken are likely to be more successful.

  • 29.
    Branth, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ronquist, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Hambraeus, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Kindgren, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Olsson, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Carlander, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Development of abdominal fat and incipient metabolic syndrome in young healthy men exposed to long-term stress2007In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 427-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The sympathetic nervous system may be involved in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and metabolic cardiovascular syndrome in young men. The aim was to study the effects of long-term stress on different features of the metabolic syndrome (MES) in formerly non-obese healthy young males during 5 months of defined conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen healthy male sailors (mean age 36.5 (SD)+/-7 years) participating in a sailing race around the world were recruited for the study. Investigations were done before the start and at stop overs after finishing laps 1, 2 and 4 (1, 2(1/2) and 5 months, respectively). Anthropometric and blood pressure data as well as biochemical data associated with MES were substantiated. Food intake and exercise were chartered and largely controlled. A mean weight loss of 4.5+/-2 kg (P<0.005), comprising both fat and lean body mass, was recorded during the first lap. Subsequently after 5 months, a weight gain, mainly consisting of 1.2+/-1.1 kg body fat (P<0.05), took place, concomitantly with a protein mass drop of 0.6+/-1.1 kg (P<0.05). The body fat gain accumulated on the abdominal region. Elevated blood levels of HbA1c, insulin and the triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein ratio were also observed during the race. Likewise heart rate and systolic blood pressure increased slightly but to a statistically significant extent. CONCLUSIONS: Non-obese healthy young men exposed to long-term stress developed abdominal obesity and signs of a metabolic syndrome in embryo, also emphasized by biochemical and blood pressure alterations. It is suggested that long-term and sustained stress activation might be an additional risk factor for the development of MES, even after control of dietary and exercise habits.

  • 30.
    Elsouhag, D.
    et al.
    Univ Detroit Mercy, Dept Biomed Sci, Sch Dent, Detroit, MI 48208 USA.;Baker Coll, Dept Hlth Sci, Clinton, MI USA..
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA.;Wayne State Univ, Inst Environm Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA.;Wayne State Univ, Inst Cardiovasc Res, Detroit, MI USA..
    Jamil, H.
    Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA.;Wayne State Univ, Inst Environm Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA..
    Lumley, M. A.
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Psychol, Detroit, MI 48202 USA..
    Broadbridge, C. L.
    Kentucky Wesleyan Coll, Div Social Sci, Owensboro, KY USA..
    Arnetz, Judy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA.;Wayne State Univ, Inst Environm Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI USA..
    Factors Associated with Healthcare Utilization Among Arab Immigrants and Iraqi Refugees2015In: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 1305-1312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arab migrants-both immigrants and refugees-are exposed to pre- and post- migration stressors increasing their risk for health problems. Little is known, however, about rates of, or factors associated with, healthcare utilization among these two groups. A sample of 590 participants were interviewed approximately 1 year post-migration to the United States. Factors associated with healthcare utilization, including active and passive coping strategies, were examined using logistic regressions. Compared to national healthcare utilization data, immigrants had significantly lower, and refugees had significantly higher rates of healthcare utilization. Being a refugee, being married, and having health insurance were significantly associated with medical service utilization. Among refugees, less use of psychological services was associated with the use of medications and having problem-focused (active) strategies for dealing with stress. Healthcare utilization was significantly higher among refugees, who also reported a greater need for services than did immigrants.

  • 31.
    Forsberg, E
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Axelsson, R
    Arnetz, B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    The relative importance of leadership and payment system Effects on quality of care and work environment2004In: Health Policy, no 69, p. 73-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Gardulf, A
    et al.
    Soderstrom, I-L
    Orton, M-L
    Eriksson, L E
    Arnetz, B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nordstrom, Gun
    Why do nurses at a university hospital want to quit their jobs?2005In: J Nurs Manag, ISSN 0966-0429, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 329-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33. Gardulf, Ann
    et al.
    Orton, Marie-Louise
    Eriksson, Lars E.
    Undén, Maria
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nilsson Kajermo, Kerstin
    Nordström, Gun
    Factors of importance for work satisfaction among nurses in a university hospital in Sweden2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shortage of registered nurses in the healthcare sector is a problem in most countries. Swedish nurses tend to leave or seek new positions. However, few Swedish studies have addressed questions regarding what factors are of importance for nurses to perceive work satisfaction although satisfied nurses are linked to many positive organizational outcomes, e.g. improved quality of patient care. The aim of this study was to investigate what factors are of importance for nurses at a university hospital to perceive work satisfaction. Eight hundred and thirty-three nurses responded to the mailed Quality Work Competence questionnaire and the Huddinge University Hospital Model Questionnaire. Regression analyses identifies five factors linked to the head nurses leadership contributing to the nurses' feelings of work satisfaction: 'professional competence is made good use of', 'feeling of satisfaction with immediate superior regarding support for nursing research and development', 'opportunities for developing one's own competence for the current job', 'career opportunities in one's own profession' and 'yearly dialogue for performance appraisal with immediate superior'. The nurses also reported work-related exhaustion. Few saw opportunities for making a career as a nurse. In conclusion, the study identified specific amenable factors linked to the head nurses leadership that are of importance in creating attractive workplaces for nurses.

  • 34.
    Halford, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Anderzen, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Endocrine measures of stress and self-rated health: A longitudinal study2003In: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 317-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Simple global self-ratings of health have been found to hold considerable predictive validity in relation to morbidity and mortality. Inverse associations between chronic stress and self-rated health (SRH) have been found and suggested to explain part of the predictive validity of SRH. Studies including biological data are, however, few. The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between endocrine measures of stress and SRH.

    Methods: A longitudinal study of 102 healthy middle-aged men. Written questionnaires and blood samples were collected at baseline and at follow-up 1 year later.

    Results: A decrease in SRH below the level of good was associated with significantly increased s-prolactin and decreased s-testosterone. Poorer SRH and increased levels of s-prolactin were significantly associated with increased vital exhaustion at follow-up.

    Conclusion: Our study identifies a possible biological pathway, which might be of relevance in understanding the well-established association between SRH and health.

  • 35.
    Halford, Christina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Ekselius, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Svärdsudd, Kurt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Self-rated health, life-style, and psychoendocrine measures of stress in healthy adult women2010In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 115, no 4, p. 266-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Self-rated health (SRH) is a robust predictor of subsequent health outcome, independent of objective health measures and life-style-related health risk factors. However, the determinants of SRH are as yet largely unknown. In accordance with the prevailing stress theory, we hypothesized that SRH is associated with personal coping resources, psychological strain, life-style variables, and endocrine variables.

    Methods. A total of 106 healthy women, 22-59 years of age, were followed for up to 3 years with annual blood sampling (cortisol, prolactin, testosterone) and written questionnaires in which information on SRH, psychological strain, coping resources, socio-economic and life-style variables was sought.

    Results. In bivariate, screening logistic regression analyses, intended to find candidate variables for a final analysis model, all coping resource variables (sense of coherence, mastery, and self-esteem) were significantly related to SRH, and so were two psychological strain variables (vital exhaustion, and sleep disturbances), one life-style variable (fitness), but none of the endocrine variables. In the final multivariate analysis model, including all candidate variables, only vital exhaustion (P < 0.0001), fitness (P = 0.0002), and sense of coherence (P = 0.0006) were independently associated with SRH, together explaining 74% of the SRH variance.

    Conclusion. Some elements of the hypothesis, i.e. the effects of coping resources, psychological strain, and life-style variables on SRH, were supported by the results, while others, i.e. effects of endocrine measures on SRH, were not, indicating a possible gender difference.

  • 36.
    Hasson, D
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Arnetz, B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Theorell, T
    Anderberg, U M
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Predictors of self-rated health. A 12-month prospective study of IT and media workers.2006In: Popul Health Metr, ISSN 1478-7954, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 8-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Hasson, Dan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anderberg, Ulla Maria
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Theorell, Töres
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Psychophysiological effects of a web-based stress management system: a prospective , randomized controlled intervention study of IT and media workers [ISRCTN54254861]2005In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 78-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The aim of the present study was to assess possible effects on mental and physical well-being and stress-related biological markers of a web-based health promotion tool.

    Methods

    A randomized, prospectively controlled study was conducted with before and after measurements, involving 303 employees (187 men and 116 women, age 23–64) from four information technology and two media companies. Half of the participants were offered web-based health promotion and stress management training (intervention) lasting for six months. All other participants constituted the reference group. Different biological markers were measured to detect possible physiological changes.

    Results

    After six months the intervention group had improved statistically significantly compared to the reference group on ratings of ability to manage stress, sleep quality, mental energy, concentration ability and social support. The anabolic hormone dehydroepiandosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) decreased significantly in the reference group as compared to unchanged levels in the intervention group. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) increased significantly in the intervention group compared to the reference group. Chromogranin A (CgA) decreased significantly in the intervention group as compared to the reference group. Tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) decreased significantly in the reference group compared to the intervention group. Logistic regression analysis revealed that group (intervention vs. reference) remained a significant factor in five out of nine predictive models.

    Conclusion

    The results indicate that an automatic web-based system might have short-term beneficial physiological and psychological effects and thus might be an opportunity in counteracting some clinically relevant and common stress and health issues of today.

  • 38.
    Hasson, Dan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Socialmedicin.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Socialmedicin.
    Validation and Findings Comparing VAS vs. Likert Scales for Psychosocial Measurements2005In: The International Electronic Journal of Health Education (www.iejhe.org), ISSN 1529-1944, Vol. 8, p. 178-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Psychosocial exposures commonly show large variation over time and are usually assessed using multi-item Likert indices. A construct requiring a five-item Likert index could possibly be replaced by a single visual analogue scale (VAS).

    Objective: To: a) evaluate validity and relative reliability of a single VAS compared to previously validated Likert based items and indices measuring the same construct, b) detect possible statistically significant differences in absolute levels between the single VAS and Likert items and indices respectively. Design: Cross-sectional study conducted in May 2004.

    Methods: 805 participants responded to a web-based questionnaire including both VAS and Likert based items. Intraclass correlations were utilized to assess agreement between VAS and Likert scales/indices and Marginal homogeneity tests were utilized to detect possible differences in absolute levels.

    Results: Moderate to strong correlations were found in responses between VAS and Likert based items and indices, and significant differences in absolute levels in seven out of eleven scales.

    Conclusion: Single VAS questions can, in some cases of uniform construct, replace a single Likert item and also be comparable, but not interchangeable, with multi-item Likert indices.

  • 39. Hillert, Lena
    et al.
    Akerstedt, Torbjörn
    Lowden, Arne
    Wiholm, Clairy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kuster, Niels
    Ebert, Sven
    Boutry, Clementine
    Moffat, Scott Douglas
    Berg, Mats
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    The effects of 884 MHz GSM wireless communication signals on headache and other symptoms: An experimental provocation study2008In: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 0197-8462, E-ISSN 1521-186X, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 185-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Findings front prior studies of possible health and physiological effects from mobile phone use have been inconsistent. Exposure periods in Provocation studies have been rather short and personal characteristics of the participants poorly defined. We studied the effect of radiofrequency field (RF) on self-reported symptoms and detection of fields after a prolonged exposure time and with a well defined study group including Subjects reporting symptoms attributed to mobile phone use. The design was a double blind, cross-over provocation study testing a 3-h long GSM handset exposure versus sham. The study group was 7 1 subjects age 18-45, including 38 subjects reporting headache or vertigo in relation to mobile phone use (symptom group) and 33 non-symptomatic Subjects. Symptoms were scored on a 7-point Likert scale before, after 11/2 and 23/4 It of exposure. Subjects reported their belief of actual exposure status. The results showed that headache was more commonly reported after RE exposure than sham, mainly due to an increase in the non-symptom group. Neither group could detect RF exposure better than by chance. A belief that the RF exposure had been active was associated with skin symptoms. The higher prevalence of headache in the non-symptom group towards the end of RE exposure justifies further investigation of possible physiological correlates. The current study indicates a need to better characterize study participants in mobile phone exposure Studies and differences between symptom and non-symptom groups.

  • 40. Jamil, H.
    et al.
    Aldhalimi, A.
    Arnetz, Bengt B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Post-Displacement Employment and Health in Professional Iraqi Refugees vs. Professional Iraqi Immigrants2012In: Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, ISSN 1556-2948, E-ISSN 1556-2956, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 395-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates employment and health outcomes in Iraqi refugees compared to Iraqi immigrants. We surveyed 148 Iraqi professional refugees and 111 Iraqi professional immigrants residing in the United States. We hypothesized that Iraqi refugees would report lower employment and worse self-rated health as compared to Iraqi immigrants. Logistic regression was used to test various models. Results showed that more immigrants were employed, as well as employed in their original profession as compared to refugees. Regardless of immigration status, participants' age and the way they rated their job played a larger role in health. The study is the first to demonstrate that, controlling for professional, ethnic, and cultural background, there are unknown mechanisms resulting in lower employment and skilled employment in refugees as compared to matched immigrant controls. Furthermore, satisfaction with the new work appears more important than employment, per se.

  • 41. Jamil, H
    et al.
    Raymind, D
    Fakhouri, M
    Templin, T
    Khory, R
    Fakhouri, H
    Arnetz, Bengt
    1.Department of Family Medicine & Public Health Sciences, Division of Occupation and Environmental Health, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 3939 Woodward Ave., 3rd floor, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.
    Self-reported asthma in Chaldeans, Arabs, and African Americans: factors associated with asthma2011In: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 568-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the prevalence of asthma is increasing worldwide, there are striking, and largely unexplained differences across various racial and ethnic groups. The current study looks at the prevalence of asthma and risk factors between Chaldeans, Arabs, and African Americans. We used Health Assessment Survey data representing 3,136 respondents. Prevalence across the three ethnic groups were compared using unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios, accounting for multiple risk factors. There were significant socio-demographic differences across all ethnic groups. Asthma prevalence was significantly lower in Arabs (9.4%) and Chaldeans (5.4%) than in Non-Middle Eastern Whites (14.4%). African American prevalence was 14.4%. The significantly lower prevalence of asthma among Chaldean and Arabs, as compared to African Americans, were not explained by traditional risk factors included in our models. We therefore, suggest that future studies should explore the possible role of ethnic-specific differences in gene × environmental interactions in the precipitation and/or exacerbation of asthma.

  • 42. Jamil, Hikmet
    et al.
    Geeso, Sanabil G
    Arnetz, Bengt B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Arnetz, Judith E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Risk Factors for Hookah Smoking Among Arabs and Chaldeans2014In: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 501-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hookah smoking is more prevalent among individuals of Middle Eastern descent. This study examined general and ethnic-specific risk factors for hookah smoking among Arabs and Chaldeans. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was conducted among 801 adults residing in Southeast Michigan. Binary logistic regression modeling was used to predict risk factors for hookah smoking. Hookah smoking was significantly more prevalent among Arabs (32 %) than Chaldeans (26 %, p < 0.01) and being Arab was a risk factor for lifetime hookah use. Younger age (<25 years), being male, higher annual income, and having health insurance were significant risk factors for hookah use. Chaldeans believed to a greater extent than Arabs that smoking hookah is less harmful than cigarette smoking (75 vs. 52 %, p < 0.001). Hookah smoking is prevalent in both ethnic groups, but significantly higher among Arabs. Results indicate that prevention efforts should target younger males with higher incomes.

  • 43. Jamil, Hikmet
    et al.
    Hamdan, Thamer A
    Grzyybowski, Mary
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Health effects associated with geographical area of residence during the 1991 Gulf War: a comparative health study of Iraqi soldiers and civilians2011In: US Army Med Dep J, ISSN 1524-0436, Vol. Jul-Sep, p. 86-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context

    Although Iraqis sustained the gravest exposure conditions during the 1991 Gulf War (GW), little is known about the possible relationship between environmental exposures during the GW and long-term health in Iraqis.

    Objective

    To study the relationship between distance from Kuwait during the GW and somatic health among Iraqi Soldiers vs civilians.

    Methods

    A survey questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 742 GW veterans and 413 civilians in Iraq. The odds ratios were calculated for somatic disorders as a function of distance from Kuwait during the GW, as well as a self-reported environmental exposure index.

    Results

    Soldiers reported a significantly higher prevalence of somatic disorders as compared to civilians. Soldiers closest to Kuwait reported significantly more somatic disorders as compared to Soldiers deployed further away from Kuwait.

    Conclusion

    Iraqi GW veterans are at an increased risk of numerous somatic disorders. Soldiers are at an increased risk compared to civilians, suggesting that war-associated exposures are of etiologic relevance.

     

  • 44. Jamil, Hikmet J
    et al.
    Kariaparambil Rajan, Ambili
    Grzybowski, Mary
    Fakhouri, Monty
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Obesity and overweight in ethnic minorities of the detroit metropolitan area of michigan.2014In: Journal of community health, ISSN 0094-5145, E-ISSN 1573-3610, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 301-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Race, ethnicity and socioeconomic factors influence the prevalence of obesity and overweight, which are major public health problems. Our objectives were (1) to calculate the prevalence of self-reported obesity and overweight in whites, blacks, Chaldeans, and Arabs in the Detroit metropolitan area; and (2) to examine the odds for self-reported overweight and obesity in the racial and ethnic minorities when compared to whites. The responses to a self-administered survey conducted among the adult residents (n = 2,883) of the Detroit metropolitan area of Michigan were analyzed. Prevalence of overweight and obesity were 47.4 and 34.6 % respectively for the whole sample, while it was 39.9 and 43.6 % for whites, 42.3 and 47.8 % for blacks, 46.2 and 30.3 % for Chaldeans, and 52.2 and 28.5 % for Arabs. The odds for obesity was significantly lower in Arabs [odds ratio (OR) 0.31; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.72] and Chaldeans (OR 0.14; 95 % CI 0.06-0.33) when compared to whites. Chaldeans (OR 0.36; 95 % CI 0.15-0.86) had significantly decreased likelihood for being overweight compared to whites. Odds for obesity and overweight can vary in the different ethnic minorities within whites. Sharing similar living conditions decreases the differences in the odds for overweight and obesity between whites and blacks. Taking into consideration the racial and ethnic differences of the target population may help in developing better programs for fighting overweight and obesity.

  • 45. Jamil, Hikmet
    et al.
    Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia
    Lambert, Richard
    Wang, Yun
    Ager, Joel
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Wayne State University, Department of Family Medicine and Public Health Sciences, Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Michigan, USA.
    Pre- and post-displacement stressors and time of migration as related to self-rated health among Iraqi immigrants and refugees in Southeast Michigan2010In: Medicine, conflict and survival, ISSN 1362-3699, E-ISSN 1743-9396, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 207-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to determine whether perceived health status of Iraqi immigrants and refugees residing in the United States was related to pre-migration environmental stress, current unemployment, and if they had emigrated before or after the 1991 Gulf War. A random sample of Iraqis residing in Southeast Michigan, US, was interviewed using an Arab language structured survey. The main outcome measure was self-rated health (SRH). Major predictors included socioeconomics, employment status, pre-migration environmental stress, and health disorders. Path analysis was used to look at mediating effects between predictors and SRH. We found that SRH was significantly worse among participants that had left Iraq after the 1991 Gulf War. Unemployment and environmental stress exposure were inversely related to SRH. There was a direct path between Gulf War exposure and poor health. In addition, there were indirect paths mediated through psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders to SRH. Another path went from Gulf War exposure, via environmental stress and somatic health to poor health. Unemployment had a direct path, as well as indirect paths mediated through psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders, to poor self-rated health. In conclusion, these results suggest that pre- as well as post-migration factors, and period of migration, affect health.

  • 46. Jamil, Hikmet
    et al.
    Ventimiglia, Matthew
    Makki, Hyder
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Division of Occupational & Environmental Health, Department of Family Medicine & Public Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, USA.
    Mental health and treatment response among Iraqi refugees as compared to other non-war exposed Arab immigrants: a pilot study in Southeast Michigan2010In: Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, ISSN 1556-2948, E-ISSN 1556-2956, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 431-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the distribution of mental health disorders and treatment outcomes among Iraqi refugees as compared to nonrefugee Arab immigrants. Chart review data were obtained from 191 Iraqi refugees and 94 nonrefugees. There were no significant differences between refugees and nonrefugees in terms of major psychiatric disorders. However, treatment response, which was poor among the entire group, was significantly worse among Iraqi refugees. Although this is a pilot study, results suggest that treatment offered to refugees is far from effective, which has implications not only from a theoretical point of view but also in terms of health care policy and allocation of resources.

  • 47.
    Jansson von Vultée, Pia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Differences between male and female physicians, with and without management positions, according to organisational influence, skills development, well-being and health2004In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Jansson von Vultée, Pia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    The impact of management programs on physicians’ work environment and health: A prospective, controlled study comparing different interventions2004In: Journal of Health Organisation & Management, ISSN 1477-7266, E-ISSN 1758-7247, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 25-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Female physicians have less influence over their daily work conditions and exhibit slower career advancement as compared to their male colleagues. The aim of this study is to assess the impact on individual and organizational well being from different kinds of management programs. Female physicians participating in management intervention programs were compared with a reference group of matched physicians and sickness absenteeism was significantly lower in the intervention group. No significant differences were found between the groups with regard to career advancement, individual, organizational and professional well being. Health care organizations spend a substantial amount of resources on management programs in order to improve leadership, autonomy and the work-environment of physicians in times of increasing discontent among this key group of health care employees. Our study indicates some beneficial health effects from structured management programs but there is a need to develop and assess the efficacy of these programs further.

  • 49.
    Jansson von Vultée, Pia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Axelsson, Runo
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    The impact of organisational settings on physician wellbeing2007In: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, ISSN 0952-6862, E-ISSN 1758-6542, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 506-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this research is to show that the Swedish health care system has undergone major changes during the last decades, which have exerted strong influence on the operational freedom of physicians. Design/methodology/approach – This study consisted of 169 physicians in management positions, who answered a questionnaire assessing the relationship between their organizational settings and their perceived wellbeing. The organizational setting was defined as contact with top management, decision-making influence, well defined organization and whether the physician is acting as a leader. The perceived wellbeing was defined as social climate, work related exhaustion, work satisfaction, influence, development ability and supportive leadership. Findings – According to the results, organizational support improves work satisfaction and mental energy, and decreases work related exhaustion among physicians. This all leads to decreasing turnover rate among physicians. Originality/value – These results point to the importance of maintaining a positive and supportive atmosphere for physicians in their work environment in order to encourage physicians to remain and take on management positions in the health care system. Furthermore enhancing physician influence over decision making processes is important to counteract work-related exhaustion and it might also contribute to a more efficient organization.

  • 50.
    Jen, K. -L. Catherine
    et al.
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Nutr & Food Sci, Detroit, MI 48202 USA..
    Zhou, Kequan
    Wayne State Univ, Dept Nutr & Food Sci, Detroit, MI 48202 USA..
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Wayne State Univ, Inst Environm Hlth Sci, Div Occupat & Environm Hlth, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI 48201 USA..
    Jamil, Hikmet
    Wayne State Univ, Inst Environm Hlth Sci, Div Occupat & Environm Hlth, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth Sci, Detroit, MI 48201 USA..
    Pre- and Post-displacement Stressors and Body Weight Development in Iraqi Refugees in Michigan2015In: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 1468-1475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Refugees have typically experienced stress and trauma before entering the US. Stressors and mental health disorders may contribute to obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the body mass index (BMI) in Iraqi refugees settled in Michigan in relationship to pre- and post-migration stressors and mental health. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected from 290 Iraqi refugees immediately after they arrived in Michigan and one year after settlement. Significant increases were observed in BMI (+0.46 +/- A 0.09 kg/m(2), p < 0.0001) and the percentage of refugees suffering from hypertension (from 9.6 to 13.1 %, p < 0.05). Significant increases in stress, depression and acculturation, as well as decreases in post-migration trauma and social support, were also observed. Linear regression analyses failed to link stressors, well-being, and mental health to changes in BMI. It is likely that acculturation to a new lifestyle, including dietary patterns and physical activity levels, may have contributed to these changes.

12 1 - 50 of 65
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf