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  • 1. Ervo, Laura
    et al.
    Gräns, MinnaUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law.Jokela, Antti
    Europeanization of Procedural Law and the New Challenges to Fair Trial2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Användningen av andra vetenskaper2013In: Juridisk Metodlära / [ed] Korling, Fredrik och Zamboni, Mauro, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2013, 1, p. 421-434Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Christian Diesen, Terapeutisk Juridik, LIber, 2011, 407 s.2013In: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 202-212Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law. Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Das risikomateriell fehlerhafter urteile2002Book (Other scientific)
  • 5.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Decisio juris2013 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rättskälleläran grundas på att domare och rättsvetare använder likadana metoder och resonemang vid rättslig problemlösning. Boken ifrågasätter denna teoretiska föreställning. I boken presenteras först några praktiska fall som visar på markanta strukturella och materiella skillnader mellan rättsteori och rättspraxis. Det konstateras att rättskälleläran inte kan användas för att  förklara eller beskriva de metoder som domstolarna i dessa och andra liknande fall har använt sig av. Det är därför viktigt att försöka skapa en ny teori, som gör det möjligt för rättsvetenskapen att förstå rättsfall som avviker från rättskälleläran. I boken hävdas att sådan teori förutsätter att rättskälleläran kombineras med kognitionspsykologiska bedömnings- opch beslutsteorier. Författaren presenterar sedan den kombinerade teorin och visar, genom ett flertal exempel, hur den kan användas för att analysera praktiska rättsfall. I bokens sista del placeras den nya metoden också i ett större, rättsfilosofiskt sammanhang.

  • 6.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law.
    Domstolarna måste särskåda sitt arbetssätt1999Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law.
    Duty of Loyal Interpretation. Theoretical Structures and Practical Solutions.2009In: Europeanization of Procedural Law and the New Challenges for Fair Trial / [ed] Ervo, Laura - Gräns, Minna - Jokela, Antti, Groningen: Europa Law Publishing , 2009, p. 43-86Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law.
    Einseitige nachträgliche Änderung von AGB: Casenote on OGH (Austria), 14. März 2000.2003In: European Review of Private Law, p. 81-90Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law.
    "Law and the Modern Mind", modernt igen2011In: Turun yliopiston oikeustieteellinen tiedekunta 50 vuotta / [ed] Hoffrén, Mia - Länsineva, Pekka - Nousiainen, Kevät - Saarnilehto, Ari - Tapani, Jussi - Hyttinen, Tatu - Weckström, Katja, Porvoo: Bookwell Oy , 2011, p. 203-222Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law.
    Om hjälpvetenskapernas betydelse för rättstillämpningen och rättsvetenskapen2006In: Juridisk Tidskrift, p. 782-792Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law.
    Om interaktiv rättsdogmatik2006In: Interaktiv rättsvetenskap / [ed] Gräns, Minna - Westerlund, Staffan, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, digitala enheten , 2006, p. 59-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Om rättsstatens värdekonflikter2003In: Festskrift till Åke Frändberg, Iustus, Uppsala , 2003, p. 121-136Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 13.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law. Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Onko hyvä kertomus puoli näyttöä? (Är bra berättelse halva beviset?)2003In: Oikeuden tavoitteet ja menettelyt (Rättens ändamål och metoder): Muistokirja Hannu Tapani Klamille (Minnesbok till Hannu Tapani Klami), Edita, Helsinki , 2003, p. 187-214Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 14.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Some Aspects of Legal Decision Making in the Light of Cognitive Consistency Theories2005In: Perspectives on Jurisprudence, Essays in Honor of Jes Bjarup, Stockholm: Stockholm Institute for Scandinavian Law , 2005, p. 99-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Hatakka (g. Gräns), Minna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law.
    Klami, H T
    Evidence and European Law1994In: Juridiska Föreningens Tidskrift, p. 551-561Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. Klami, H T
    et al.
    Hatakka (g. Gräns), Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law.
    Förståelse och Bevisvärde?: Holistisk eller analytisk syn på bevisning angående mänskligt beteende.1989In: Lov og Rett, p. 361-372Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Klami, H T
    et al.
    Hatakka (g. Gräns), Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law.
    Om "vetenskaplig" bevisning1990In: Juridiska Föreningens tidskrift, p. 246-257Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Klami, H T
    et al.
    Sorvettula, Johanna
    Hatakka (g. Gräns), Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law.
    Att bevisa uppsåt.: Synpunkter på bevismekanismen inom dolusläran.1988In: Tidskrift for Rettsvitenskap, p. 387-404Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Klami, H T
    et al.
    Sorvettula, Johanna
    Hatakka (g. Gräns), Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law.
    Evidentiary Value1989In: Juridiska Föreningens Tidskrift, p. 23-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20. Klami,, H T
    et al.
    Sorvettula, Johanna
    Hatakka (g. Gräns), Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law.
    Studies on the Theory of Evidence1989In: Oikeustiede - Jurisprudentia, p. 61-103Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Klami, H T
    et al.
    Sorvettula, Johanna
    Hatakka (g. Gräns), Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law.
    Truth and Law. Is, Ought and Reasoning.1989In: Archiv für Rechts- und Sozialphilosophie, p. 429-446Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Klami, Hannu Tapani
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Johanna, Sorvettula
    Law and truth: a theory of evidence2000Book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Lidén, Moa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    From devil's advocate to crime fighter: confirmation bias and debiasing techniques in prosecutorial decision-making2019In: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 25, no 5, p. 494-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research examines the role of confirmation bias in prosecutorial decisions before, during and after the prosecution. It also evaluates whether confirmation bias is reduced by changing the decision maker between arrest and prosecution. In Experiment 1, Swedish prosecutors (N = 40) assessed 8 scenarios where they either decided themselves or were informed about a colleague's decision to arrest or not arrest a suspect. Participants then rated how trustworthy the suspect's statement was as well as the strength of new ambiguous evidence and the total evidence. They also decided whether to prosecute and what additional investigative measures to undertake. In Experiment 2 the same method was used with Law and Psychology students (N = 60). Overall, prosecutors' assessments before the prosecution indicated that they were able to act as their own devil's advocate. Also, their assessments while deciding about whether to prosecute were reasonably balanced. However, after pressing charges, they displayed a more guilt-confirming mindset, suggesting they then took on the role as crime fighters. This differed from the student sample in which higher levels of guilt confirmation was displayed in relation to arrested suspects consistently before, during and after a prosecution decision. The role of prosecutors' working experience is discussed.

  • 24.
    Lidén, Moa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    "Guilty, No Doubt": Detention Provoking Confirmation Bias in Judges' Guilt Assessments and Debiasing Techniques2019In: Psychology, Crime and Law, ISSN 1068-316X, E-ISSN 1477-2744, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 219-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research examines whether judges’ pretrial detention decisions trigger confirmation bias in their guilt assessments. It also tests two strategies to mitigate confirmation bias: (1) to have different judges decide about detention and guilt and (2) to reduce cognitive load by structuring the evaluation of evidence. In Experiment 1, Swedish judges (N = 64) read 8 scenarios in which they either decided themselves about detention or were informed about a colleague’s decision. Then, participants rated the defendant’s trustworthiness, the strength of each piece of evidence, the total evidence and decided about guilt. In Experiment 2, Law students (N = 80) either first rated each piece of evidence separately and then the total evidence (structured evaluation) or only the total evidence (unstructured evaluation), and then decided about guilt. Overall, detained defendants were considered less trustworthy and when participants themselves detained, they rated the guilt consistent and total evidence as stronger and were more likely convict, compared to when a colleague had detained. The total evidence was considered stronger after unstructured than structured evaluations of the evidence but the evaluation mode did not influence guilt decisions. This suggests that changing decision maker holds greater debiasing potential than structuring evidence evaluation. 

  • 25.
    Lidén, Moa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-correction of wrongful convictions: is there a ‘System-level’ confirmation bias in the Swedish legal system’s appeal procedure for criminal cases?—Part I2018In: Law, Probability and Risk, ISSN 1470-8396, E-ISSN 1470-840X, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 311-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we propose that confirmation bias may not only be present in the behaviors of individual agents in the judicial system but can also be recognized at a system-level as an inability to self-correct, that is, an inability to acquit wrongfully convicted who appeal or petition for a new trial. To assess the self-correctional ability a very low error rate of wrongful convictions in the District Courts in 2010-2014 was tentatively assumed. An empirical review of appeals (Part I) and petitions for new trials (Part II) in the Courts of Appeal and Supreme Court between 2010 and 2014 was carried out to evaluate to what extent these legal remedies can be expected to change wrongful convictions into acquittals. Realistic assumptions and empirical estimates of real-world statistics suggest that at least 34.67 % of the wrongfully convicted remained convicted despite the possibility both to appeal and petition for a new trial. A robustness analysis was performed to ascertain that the conclusions hold under a wide variety of assumptions about the unknown statistics. According to additional analyses the odds of an acquittal were low even for appeals referring to new innocence supportive evidence and for private individuals claiming to be innocent of e.g. assault or murder the odds of being granted new criminal trials were particularly low.

  • 26.
    Lidén, Moa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Self-correction of wrongful convictions: is there a “System-level” confirmation bias in the Swedish legal system’s appeal procedure for criminal cases?—Part II2018In: Law, Probability and Risk, ISSN 1470-8396, E-ISSN 1470-840X, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 337-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we propose that confirmation bias may not only be present in the behaviors of individual agents in the judicial system but can also be recognized at a “system-level” as an inability to self-correct, that is, an inability to acquit wrongfully convicted who appeal or petition for a new trial. To assess the self-correctional ability a very low error rate of wrongful convictions in the District Courts in 2010-2014 was tentatively assumed. An empirical review of appeals (Part I) and petitions for new trials (Part II) in the Courts of Appeal and Supreme Court between 2010 and 2014 was carried out to evaluate to what extent these legal remedies can be expected to change wrongful convictions into acquittals. Realistic assumptions and empirical estimates of real-world statistics suggest that at least 34.67 % of the wrongfully convicted remained convicted despite the possibility both to appeal and petition for a new trial. A robustness analysis was performed to ascertain that the conclusions hold under a wide variety of assumptions about the unknown statistics. According to additional analyses the odds of an acquittal were low even for appeals referring to new innocence supportive evidence and for private individuals claiming to be innocent of e.g. assault or murder the odds of being granted new criminal trials were particularly low.

  • 27.
    Lidén, Moa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Juslin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Presumption of Guilt in Suspect Interrogations: Apprehension as a Trigger of Confirmation Bias and Debiasing Techniques2018In: Law and human behavior, ISSN 0147-7307, E-ISSN 1573-661X, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 336-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research tests whether a police officer’s decision to apprehend a suspect triggers confirmation bias during an interrogation. The study also tests two strategies to reduce confirmation bias: (1) decoupling decision to apprehend from interrogation and (2) reducing cognitive load for the interrogating police officer. In Experiment 1, Swedish police officers (N = 60) were faced with 12 scenarios in which they either had to decide for themselves whether to apprehend a suspect or were informed about the corresponding decision by another police officer or a prosecutor. Participants then prepared questions for a suspect interrogation and evaluated the trustworthiness of the suspect’s denial or confession. The same method was used in Experiment 2 but with law and psychology students (N = 60) as participants. In Experiment 3, psychology students (N = 60) prepared interrogation questions either by freely producing their own or by choosing questions from a preset list. Overall, apprehended suspects were interrogated in a more guilt presumptive way and rated as less trustworthy than non apprehended suspects. However, the tested debiasing techniques, primarily reducing cognitive load for the interrogating police officer, hold some potential in mitigating this bias.

  • 28.
    Wojciechowski, Bartosz Wojciech
    et al.
    Univ Silesia, Inst Psychol, Katowice, Poland.
    Gräns, Minna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law.
    Lidén, Moa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    A true denial or a false confession?: Assessing veracity of suspects' statements using MASAM and SVA2018In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 6, article id e0198211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on statement analysis has mainly concerned accounts by witnesses and plaintiffs. In our studies we examined true and false statements as told by offenders. It was hypothesized that SVA and MASAM techniques would enhance the ability to discriminate between true and false offenders' statements. Truthful and deceptive statements (confessions and denials) were collected from Swedish and Polish criminal case files. In Experiment 1, Swedish law students (N = 39) were asked to assess the veracity of statements either after training in and usage of MASAM or without any training and using their own judgements. In Experiment 2, Polish psychology students (N = 34) assessed veracity after training in and usage of either MASAM or SVA or without prior training using their own judgements. The veracity assessments of participants who used MASAM and SVA were significantly more correct than the assessments of participants that used their own judgements. Results show, that trained coders are much better at distinguishing between truths and lies than lay evaluators. There were significant difference between total scores of truthful and false statements for both total SVA and MASAM and it can be concluded that both veracity assessment techniques are useful in assessing veracity. It was also found, that the content criteria most strongly associated with correct assessments were: logical structure, contextual embedding, self depreciation, volume of statement, contextual setting and descriptions of relations. The results are discussed in relation to statement analysis of offenders' accounts.

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