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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Magnetic bearings in kinetic energy storage systems for vehicular applications2011In: Journal of Electrical Systems, ISSN 1112-5209, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 225-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rotating Kinetic Energy Storage System (KESS) is suitable as temporary energy storage in electric vehicles due to its insensitivity to the number of charge-discharge cycles and its relatively high specific energy. The size and weight of the KESS for a given amount of stored energy are minimized by decreasing the moment of inertia of the rotor and increasing its speed. A small and fast rotor has the additional benefit of reducing the induced gyroscopic moments as the vehicle turns. The very high resulting rotational speed makes the magnetic bearing an essential component of the system, with the Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) being the most common implementation. The complexity and cost of an AMB can be reduced by integration with the electric machine, resulting in a bearingless and sensorless electric machine. This review article describes the usage of magnetic bearings for FESS in vehicular applications.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    de Santiago, Juan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Oliveira, Janaína Gonçalves de
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Lundin, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Prototype of electric driveline with magnetically levitated double wound motor2010In: Electrical Machines (ICEM), 2010 XIX International Conference on, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the ongoing work of constructing a complete driveline for an electric road vehicle, using a flywheel as auxiliary energy storage. The flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is connected in series between the main energy storage (batteries) and the wheel motor of the vehicle, allowing the batteries to deliver power to the system in an optimized way, while at the same time making efficient use of regenerative braking. A double wound permanent magnet electric machine is used to electrically separate the two sides. In order to minimize losses, the machine has a double rotor configuration and is suspended with magnetic bearings. A bench test set-up is being constructed to investigate the properties of this system in detail. This set-up will achieve a level of power and energy close to that of a full scale system. This will allow measurements of complete drive cycles to be performed, improving the understanding of the constituting components and optimization of the complete system.

  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Gonçalves de Oliveira, Janaína
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    de Santiago, Juan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Lundin, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    On the Efficiency of a Two-Power-Level Flywheel-Based All-Electric Driveline2012In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 5, no 8, p. 2794-2817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents experimental results on an innovative electric driveline employing a kinetic energy storage device as energy buffer. A conceptual division of losses in the system was created, separating the complete system into three parts according to their function. This conceptualization of the system yielded a meaningful definition of the concept of efficiency. Additionally, a thorough theoretical framework for the prediction of losses associated with energy storage and transfer in the system was developed. A large number of spin-down tests at varying pressure levels were performed. A separation of the measured data into the different physical processes responsible for power loss was achieved from the corresponding dependence on rotational velocity. This comparison yielded an estimate of the perpendicular resistivity of the stranded copper conductor of 2.5 x 10(-8) +/- 3.5 x 10(-9). Further, power and energy were measured system-wide during operation, and an analysis of the losses was performed. The analytical solution was able to reproduce the measured distribution of losses in the system to an accuracy of 4.7% (95% CI). It was found that the losses attributed to the function of kinetic energy storage in the system amounted to between 45% and 65%, depending on usage.

  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hedlund, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Prototype of Kinetic Energy Storage System for Electrified Utility Vehicles in Urban Traffic2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hedlund, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Kamf, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    High-Speed Kinetic Energy Buffer: Optimization of Composite Shell and Magnetic Bearings2014In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 61, no 6, p. 3012-3021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the design and optimization of a high-speed (30 000 r/min) kinetic energy storage system. The purpose of the device is to function as an energy buffer storing up to 867 Wh, primarily for utility vehicles in urban traffic. The rotor comprises a solid composite shell of carbon and glass fibers in an epoxy matrix, constructed in one curing. The shell is optimized using a combined analytical and numerical approach. The radial stress in the shell is kept compressive by integrating the electric machine, thereby avoiding delamination. Radial centering is achieved through eight active electromagnetic actuators. The actuator geometry is optimized using a direct coupling between SolidWorks, Comsol, and Matlab for maximum force over resistive loss for a given current density. The optimization results in a system with 300% higher current stiffness than the reference geometry with constant flux area, at the expense of 33% higher power loss. The actuators are driven by semipassive H bridges and controlled by an FPGA. Current control at 20 kHz with a noise of less than 5 mA (95% CI) is achieved, allowing position control at 4 kHz to be implemented.

  • 6.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Avdelningen för elektricitetslära och åskforskning.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Avdelningen för elektricitetslära och åskforskning.
    Conversion of wave energy to electricity2004In: Scandinavian Shipping Gazette, no October 1Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 7.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Sjöstedt, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Wave energy resources in sheltered sea areas: A case study of the Baltic Sea2006In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 31, no 13, p. 2164-2170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wave energy is a renewable source, which has not yet been exploited to a large extent. So far the main focus of wave energy conversion has been on the large wave energy resources of the great oceans on northern latitudes. However, large portions of the world potential wave energy resources are found in sheltered waters and calmer seas, which often exhibit a milder, but still steady wave climate. Examples are the Baltic Sea, the Mediterranean and the North Sea in Europe, and ocean areas closer to the equator. Many of the various schemes in the past consist of large mechanical structures, often located near the sea surface. In the present work we instead focus on wave power plants consisting of a number of small wave energy converters, forming large arrays. In this context, we look at advantageous arrangements of point absorbers, and discuss the potential of the Baltic Sea as a case study.

  • 8.
    Bolund, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Flywheel energy and power storage systems2007In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 235-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For ages flywheels have been used to achieve smooth operation of machines. The early models where purely mechanical consisting of only a stone wheel attached to an axle. Nowadays flywheels are complex constructions where energy is stored mechanically and transferred to and from the flywheel by an integrated motor/generator. The stone wheel has been replaced by a steel or composite rotor and magnetic bearings have been introduced. Today flywheels are used as supplementary UPS storage at several industries world over. Future applications span a wide range including electric vehicles, intermediate storage for renewable energy generation and direct grid applications from power quality issues to offering an alternative to strengthening transmission. One of the key issues for viable flywheel construction is a high overall efficiency, hence a reduction of the total losses. By increasing the voltage, current losses are decreased and otherwise necessary transformer steps become redundant. So far flywheels over 10 kV have not been constructed, mainly due to isolation problems associated with high voltage, but also because of limitations in the power electronics. Recent progress in semi-conductor technology enables faster switching and lower costs. The predominant part of prior studies have been directed towards optimising mechanical issues whereas the electro technical part now seem to show great potential for improvement. An overview of flywheel technology and previous projects are presented and moreover a 200 kW flywheel using high voltage technology is simulated.

  • 9.
    Bolund, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Segergren, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Solum, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Perers, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Lundström, Ludvig
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Lindblom, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Thorburn, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Ericsson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Nilsson, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Ivanova, Irina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Danielsson, O
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Bengtsson, H
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Sjöstedt, E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Sundberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Karlsson, K-E
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Wolfbrandt, Ane
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Ågren, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Rotating and Linear Syncronous Generators for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion: an Update of the Ongoing Research Projects at Uppsala University2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Bouquerel, Mathias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Deglaire, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Fast aeroelastic model for straight bladed vertical axis wind and hydro turbines2010In: Wind Engineering, ISSN 0309-524XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bülow, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    No-load core loss prediction of PM generator at low electrical frequency2012In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 43, p. 389-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for measurement of frequency dependent electromagnetic core loss of a permanent magnet generator is presented. Core loss of a PM generator is measured at electrical frequencies ranging from 4 to 14 Hz. Core loss in the same interval is simulated using the finite element method and frequency domain loss separation. The specific loss is both extrapolated from specific loss at 50 Hz and measured directly at 4, 8, 12 and 16 Hz. Core loss simulations based on extrapolated specific loss are 38–53% smaller than measured loss. Core loss simulations based on specific loss measured at 4, 8, 12 and 16 Hz are 19–23% smaller than measured loss.

  • 12.
    Bülow, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Kjellin, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bergkvist, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ström, P
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Adapting a VAWT with PM generator to telecom applications2010In: European Wind Energy Conference & Exhibition, Warsaw, Poland, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Danielsson, Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Thorburn, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research.
    A direct drive wave energy converter: Simulations and experiments2005In: Proc of 24th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics & Arctic Engineering, American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    David, Österberg
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Deglaire, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    A Multi-Body Vortex Method Applied to Vertical Axis Wind Turbines2010Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    de Santiago, Juan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    3D FEM modeling of ironless Axial Flux Permanent Magnet motor/generators2011In: Journal of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, ISSN 1844-6035, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 53-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    de Santiago, Juan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Calculation of Tooth Ripple Losses in Solid Poles2015In: Electric power components and systems, ISSN 1532-5008, E-ISSN 1532-5016, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 245-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tooth ripple losses in solid salient poles are calculated with analytical and semi-empirical methods. A numerical method based on the finite element method is presented in this article. The distribution of the eddy currents induced by the tooth ripple is obtained with this new method. The traditional analytic approach is based on some assumptions on the eddy current losses distribution that are finally verified with the Finite Element Method simulations presented. Analytic solutions of tooth ripple losses are only applicable to distributed windings with a homogeneous slot pitch while the method presented is applicable both to distributed and concentrated windings.

  • 17.
    de Santiago, Juan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Comparison between axial and radial flux PM coreless machines for flywheel energy storage2010In: Journal of Electrical Systems, ISSN 1112-5209, Vol. 6, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need of a deeper understanding of coreless machines arises with new magnetic materials with higher remanent magnetization and the spread of high speed motors and generators. High energy density magnets allow complete ironless stator motor/generators configurations which are suitable for high speed machines and specifically in flywheel energy storage. Axial-flux and radial-flux machines are investigated and compared. The limits and merits of ironless machines are presented. An analytic solution of Maxwell’s equations is used to calculate the properties of axial-flux and radial-flux ironless generators. This method is used to investigate the influence of several parameters such as diameter and airgap width. Two machines have been calculated with FEM techniques and results are compared to validate the analytic method. Simulations conclude that end winding effects are more significant for axial-flux than for radialflux topologies. Radial-flux machines are more suitable for high speed ironless stators. The optimum values of some machine parameters are significantly different for ironless machines in comparison to slotted and slotless machines, such as outer radius to inner radius for axial-flux topologies. High speed coreless machines for energy storage and other applications required 3D FEM analysis for accurate results.

  • 18.
    de Santiago, Juan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ekergård, Boel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ferhatovic, Senad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Waters, Rafael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Electrical Motor Drivelines in Commercial All Electric Vehicles: a Review2012In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 61, no 2, p. 475-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a critical review of the drivelines in all Electric Vehicles (EVs). The motor topologies that are the best candidates to be used in EVs are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of each electric motor type are discussed from a system perspective. A survey of the electric motors used in commercial EVs is presented. The survey shows that car manufacturers are very conservative when it comes to introducing new technologies. Most of the EV’s in the market mount a single induction or permanent magnet motor with a traditional mechanic driveline with a differential. The study illustrates that comparisons between the different motors are made difficult by the large number of parameters and the lack of a recommended test scheme. The authors propose that a standardized drive cycle is used to test and compare motors.

  • 19.
    de Santiago, Juan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Goncalves de Oliveira, Janaina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Filter Influence on Rotor Losses in Coreless Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Machines2013In: Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering, ISSN 1582-7445, E-ISSN 1844-7600, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 81-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the eddy current losses induced in the rotor of coreless Axial-Flux machines. The calculation of eddy currents in the magnets requires the simulation of the inverter and the filter to obtain the harmonic content of the stator currents and FEM analysis of the magnets in the rotor. Due to the low inductance in coreless machines, the induced eddy current losses in the rotor remain lower than in traditional slotted machines. If only machine losses are considered, filters in DC/AC converters are not required in machines with wide airgaps as time harmonic losses in the rotor are very low. The harmonic content both from simulations and experimental results of a DC/AC converter are used to calculate the eddy currents in the rotor magnets. The properties of coreless machine topologies are investigated and some simplifications are proposed for time efficient 3D-FEM analysis. The time varying magnetic field can be considered constant over the magnets when the pole is divided in several magnets. The simplified FEM method to calculate eddy current losses is applicable to coreless machines with poles split into several magnets, although the conclusions are applicable to all coreless and slotless motors and generators.

  • 20.
    de Santiago, Juan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Larsson, Anders
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Dual voltage driveline for vehicle applications2010In: International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems, ISSN 2194-5756, E-ISSN 1553-779X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 20 pp.-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel driveline where the load and the energy source are operated at different voltage levels and they are galvanically insulated. The element that couples both part of the driveline is a Two Voltage Level Machine (TVLM). The machine is formed of a self-excited rotor and a stator with two sets of electrically isolated windings for adjustable speed drive applications. Both sets of these three phase windings are independently operated at different voltages. The equivalent circuit of the TVLM is deduced and phasor diagrams are presented. A complete driveline is simulated and the performance of the complete system is discussed. The driveline is applicable in flywheel energy storage systems for vehicles and power conditioning in renewable energy production.

  • 21.
    de Santiago Ochoa, Juan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Goncalves de Oliveira, Janaína
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Lundin, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Abrahamsson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Design Parameters Calculation of a Novel Driveline for Electric Vehicles2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    de Santiago Ochoa, Juan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Goncalves de Oliveira, Janaína
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Lundin, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Losses in Axial-Flux Permanent-Magnet Coreless Flywheel Energy Storage Systems2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    de Santiago Ochoa, Juan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Oliveira, Janaína Goncalves de
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Lundin, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Abrahamsson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Design Parameters Calculation of a Novel Driveline for Electric Vehicles2009In: World Electric Vehicle Journal, ISSN 2032-6653, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A driveline for electric vehicles is presented. The propulsion system is operated at a higher voltage than the primary energy source. The batteries selected as the primary energy source deliver power to the vehicle through a motor-generator wounded with two electrically isolated sets of windings, named Two Voltage Level Machine (TVLM). The dynamic behaviour of a vehicle operating according to a standard drive cycle is studied. Parameters of the driveline such as power rates and size of the flywheel are obtained by optimization. A description of the performance of a TVLM is also presented through its equivalent circuit and the control of the machine. Special attention to the system losses is presented. A scale prototype has been constructed and tested under a drive cycle, demonstrating the system performance of the system.

  • 24.
    Deglaire, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Engblom, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Numerical Analysis.
    Ågren, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Analytical solutions for a single blade in vertical axis turbine motion in two dimensions2009In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 28, p. 506-520Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Deglaire, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Kjellin, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Experimental results from a 12 kW vertical axis wind turbine with a direct driven PM synchronous generator2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental results from a three bladed vertical axis wind turbine with a direct driven PM synchronous generatorare presented. The H-rotor turbine, independent of wind direction, does not require any yaw mechanism.Furthermore, the variable speed, stall regulated turbine does not require pitch mechanism. The specifically designeddirectly driven generator eliminates the need for a gearbox. All electrical equipment, including generator, are placedon the ground. This reduces the weight that has to be supported by the structure and simplifies maintenance. Thus, theoverall strength of this concept is simplicity.The H-rotor has five meter long blades that are tapered at the tips. The aerodynamic torque is transferred to thegenerator via a 5.4 meter long drive shaft supported by a tower. A universal joint connects the drive shaft to thegenerator shaft, cancelling any transverse bending moments from the turbine on the generator. The generator acts as amotor to start up the turbine using a separate auxiliary winding. The turbine has a swept area of 30 m2 and is rated at12 kW in 12 m/s winds for 127 rpm.The turbine has been placed on a site where the wind resources have been extensively documented. The wind datarecord is more then ten years and includes data from various heights giving an accurate wind mapping of the area.The experimental aerodynamic power curve in turbulent wind conditions is presented. Considering the highlyturbulent wind conditions and the small size of the wind turbine these results are encouraging.

  • 26.
    Deglaire, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ågren, Olov
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Conformal mapping and efficient boundary element method without, boundary elements for fast vortex particle simulations2008In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 150-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a revitalization of conformal mapping methods applied to fluid flows in two dimensions is proposed. The present work addresses several important issues concerning their application for vortex particle flow solvers. Difficulties of past conformal based method are reviewed. One difficulty concerns the ability of a mapping procedure to represent complicated shapes. The present paper improves past algorithms to be able to map new shapes, including multiply connected domains. A new fast procedure allows transferring a set of points in the mapped simplified plane to the complicated domain and vice versa. After a mapping construction, it is demonstrated how basic exact solutions to potential flow problems with vortices can be put in a new form which provides a faster and more accurate computation than with distributed singularity methods.

  • 27.
    Dyachuk, Eduard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Goude, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Berhnoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Simulating Pitching Blade With Free Vortex Model Coupled With Dynamic Stall Model For Conditions Of Straight Bladed Vertical Axis Turbines2014In: 33Rd International Conference On Ocean, Offshore And Arctic Engineering, 2014, Vol 9A: Ocean Renewable Energy, AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is on the straight bladed vertical axis turbines, which can be utilized for both wind and marine current energy. Vertical axis turbines have the potential of lower installation and maintenance cost. However complex unsteady fluid mechanics of these turbines imposes significant challenges to the simulation tools. Dynamic stall is one of the phenomena associated with the unsteady conditions, and it is in the focus of the study. The dynamic stall effects are very important for vertical axis turbines, since they are usually passively controlled through the dynamic stall. A free vortex model is used to calculated unsteady attached flow, while the separatedflow is handled by the dynamic stall model. This is compared to the model based solely on the Leishman-Beddoes algorithm. The results are assessed against the measured data on pitching airfoils. A comparison of force coefficients between the simulations and experiments is done at the conditions similar to the conditions of H-rotor type vertical axis turbines.

  • 28.
    Dyachuk, Eduard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Goude, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Dynamic Stall Modeling for the Conditions of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines2014In: AIAA Journal, ISSN 0001-1452, E-ISSN 1533-385X, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 72-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unsteady aerodynamics imposes additional demands on the modeling of vertical axis wind turbines. Large variations in the angles of attack of the blades cause force oscillations, which can lead to the fatigue-associated problems. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the dynamic loads is essential for the vertical axis wind turbines design. Dynamic stall modeling is in focus because it represents complex phenomena associated with the unsteady flow conditions. The purpose of the study is to find a suitable dynamic stall model for the vertical axis wind turbine conditions. Three versions of the Leishman-Beddoes model are explicitly presented. Additional modifications are implemented for the model to work when the angles of attack change sign and have high amplitudes. All the model parameters are presented. The model is assessed against measured data. The conditions for the simulation tests are close to the vertical axis wind turbine operational conditions. Aversion of the model, originally designed for low Mach numbers, is the most accurate throughout a number of tests.

  • 29.
    Dyachuk, Eduard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Goude, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Simulating Pitching Blade With Free Vortex Model Coupled With Dynamic Stall Model for Conditions of Straight Bladed Vertical Axis Turbines2015In: Journal of solar energy engineering, ISSN 0199-6231, E-ISSN 1528-8986, Vol. 137, no 4, article id 041008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is on the straight bladed vertical axis turbines (VATs), which can be utilized for both wind and marine current energy. VATs have the potential of lower installation and maintenance cost. However, complex unsteady fluid mechanics of these turbines imposes significant challenges to the simulation tools. Dynamic stall is one of the phenomena associated with the unsteady conditions, and it is in the focus of the study. The dynamic stall effects are very important for VATs, since they are usually passively controlled through the dynamic stall. A free vortex model is used to calculated unsteady attached flow, while the separated flow is handled by the dynamic stall model. This is compared to the model based solely on the Leishman-Beddoes algorithm. The results are assessed against the measured data on pitching airfoils. A comparison of force coefficients between the simulations and experiments is done at the conditions similar to the conditions of H-rotor type VATs.

  • 30.
    Dyachuk, Eduard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Goude, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Lalander, Emilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Influence of incoming flow direction on spacing between vertical axis marine current turbines placed in a row2012In: Proceedings of the ASME 31th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Artic Engineering, vol. 7, 2012, p. 285-291Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From the commercial point of view it may be beneficial to installa set of marine current turbines forming a park, by analogy with windparks. Consequently, this motivates research on park configurations.An array of ten vertical axis marine current turbines is simulatedto study how the distance between the turbines affects the performanceof the park for different flow directions. The simulations are performedusing a two-dimensional vortex method. An array of identical turbinesis created, where all turbines are on a single line. The turbinesare operated at the tip speed ratio, which corresponds to the highestpower coefficient for a single turbine. The distance between the turbinesis varied and the total power from the array is compared to the turbinespacing for different flow directions.Additionally, flow data from a real site is used to find an optimalorientation of the line of turbines. The performance of the arrayis estimated for the site as a function of turbine spacing.

  • 31.
    Dyachuk, Eduard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rossander, Morgan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Goude, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Measurements of the Aerodynamic Normal Forces on a 12-kW Straight-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine2015In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 8, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge of unsteady forces is necessary when designing vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). Measurement data for turbines operating at an open site are still very limited. The data obtained from wind tunnels or towing tanks can be used, but have limited applicability when designing large-scale VAWTs. This study presents experimental data on the normal forces of a 12-kW straight-bladed VAWT operated at an open site north of Uppsala, Sweden. The normal forces are measured with four single-axis load cells. The data are obtained for a wide range of tip speed ratios: from 1.7 to 4.6. The behavior of the normal forces is analyzed. The presented data can be used in validations of aerodynamic models and the mechanical design for VAWTs.

  • 32.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Avdelningen för elektricitetslära och åskforskning.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Avdelningen för elektricitetslära och åskforskning.
    Generator-Damped Torsional Vibrations of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine2006In: Wind Engineering, Vol. 29, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Loss evaluation and design optimisation for direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generators for wind power2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 1, p. 265-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing a generator for a wind turbine it is important to adapt the generator to the source, i.e. the wind conditions at the specific site. Furthermore, the variable speed operation of the generator needs to be considered. In this paper, electromagnetic losses in direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generators are evaluated through simulations. Six different generators are compared to each other. The simulations are performed by using an electromagnetic model, solved in a finite element environment and a control model developed in MATLAB. It is shown that when designing a generator it is important to consider the statistical wind distribution, control system, and aerodynamic efficiency in order to evaluate the performance properly. In this paper, generators with high overload capability are studied since they are of interest for this specific application. It is shown that a generator optimised for a minimum of losses will have a high overload capability.

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rotor design for PM generators reflecting the unstable neodymium price2012In: Electrical Machines (ICEM), 2012 XXth International Conference, 2012, p. 1419-1423Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The price of rare earth metals such as neodymium is very unstable and has in recent years increased more than 1000%. This leaves the wind power business that uses permanent magnet generators with large insecurity. In this paper, a generator design with an interchangeable rotor is presented, which gives the option of having a rotor with different material depending on the current neodymium price. Thereby, the wind turbine has the same properties with only the generator rotor changing. The suggested alternative, a ferrite rotor, is much heavier than a neodymium rotor. The heavy ferrite rotor indicates an advantage for the vertical axis wind turbine technology with the generator placed on ground level, where the weight is not as important as in the hub. Two similar generator designs are presented, magnet material differences are discussed and the neodymium price limit for when the ferrite rotor is to be preferred is calculated.

  • 35.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bergkvist, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Design of a unique direct driven PM generator adapted for a telecom tower wind turbine2012In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 44, p. 453-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vertical axis wind turbine has been designed to electrify a novel kind of telecommunication tower. This paper presents the design of a generator for this purpose. The generator is a permanent magnet generator rated at 10 kW. It has an unusually large diameter to fit on the outside of the telecommunication tower. The generator has been designed by using a two-dimensional FEM model. Simulations show that the generator has high efficiency through the whole operational interval. Furthermore, the generator has a high overload capability enabling electric control of the turbine. The generator has been built and the design shown feasible. Preliminary experimental results show that the induced voltage is lower than expected from simulations indicating insufficient modelling of three-dimensional effects, which are particularly large in a generator with these unusual dimensions.

  • 36.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    A 225 kW Direct Driven PM Generator Adapted to a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine2011In: Advances in Power Electronics, ISSN 2090-181X, Vol. 2011, p. 239061-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A unique direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generator has been designed and constructed. Results from simulations as well as from the first experimental tests are presented. The generator has been specifically designed to be directly driven by a vertical axis wind turbine and has an unusually low reactance. Generators for wind turbines with full variable speed should maintain a high efficiency for the whole operational regime. Furthermore, for this application, requirements are placed on high generator torque capability for the whole operational regime. These issues are elaborated in the paper and studied through simulations. It is shown that the generator fulfils the expectations. An electrical control can effectively substitute a mechanical pitch control. Furthermore, results from measurements of magnetic flux density in the airgap and no load voltage coincide with simulations. The electromagnetic simulations of the generator are performed by using an electromagnetic model solved in a finite element environment.

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Evaluation of different turbine concepts for wind power2008In: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 1419-1434Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    FEM simulations and experiments of different loading conditions for a 12 kW direct driven PM synchronous generator for wind power2009In: International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems, ISSN 2194-5756, E-ISSN 1553-779X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 3-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from experiments on a direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generator are presented. Dynamic simulations have been performed using the finite element method in order to study the generator. The simulations are performed by using an electromagnetic model, which is described by a combined field and circuit equation model and is solved in a finite element environment. The stator winding of the generator consists of circular cables and the rotor has surface-mounted, arched, permanent magnets. A complete experimental setup has been used consisting of a motor, a frequency converter, a gearbox and electrical loads. The generator is connected to a purely resistive load. Measurements have been performed for different rotational speeds and different loads. Furthermore, the generator has been studied for the realistic wind turbine loading conditions for operation at the optimum tip speed ratio. The variable speed operation in a wind turbine is evaluated and discussed. The agreement between experimental results and simulations based on finite element calculations is high, indicating precise simulations. The measurement errors are calculated and discussed. Furthermore, other sources of error are suggested and discussed that could explain the differences between the simulations and the measured data. 2009 The Berkeley Electronic Press. All rights reserved.

  • 39.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Kjellin, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Tip Speed ratio control of a 200 kW VAWT with synchronous generator and variable DC voltage2013In: Energy Science & Engineering, ISSN 2050-0505, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 135-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel control method for a fixed-pitch variable speed wind turbine is introduced and experimental results are presented. The measured absorbed power and rotational speed, together with a look-up table for the aerodynamic efficiency, are used to estimate the wind speed reaching the turbine as well as the tip speed ratio. Thereby, the control is independent on wind speed measurements and the wind turbine itself is used as an anemometer. Tip speed ratio control is implemented by comparing the estimated tip speed ratio to a reference value and adjusting the DC voltage level accordingly. Tip speed ratio control benefits from that the aerodynamic efficiency hardly varies with changing tip speed ratio when close to its optimum value. Experimental results from a 200 kW vertical axis wind turbine are presented. The voltage from the permanent magnet generator is passively rectified and the alternating DC voltage is then inverted, filtered, transformed, and grid connected. The estimated wind speed is compared with the measured wind speed. The absorbed power when tip speed ratio control has been implemented is shown. It is concluded that the presented control method works and some future improvements are discussed.

  • 40.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Semberg, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    A 225 kW direct driven PM generator for a vertical axis wind turbine2010In: European Wind Energy Conference & Exhibition, Warsaw, Poland, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Semberg, Tobias
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Gerador de ímãs permanentes de acionamento direto para turbina de eixo vertical2011In: Eletricidade Moderna, ISSN 0100-2104, p. 160-165Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Solum, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Leijon, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Simulations and experiments on a 12 kW direct driven PM synchronous generator for wind power2008In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 674-681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A direct driven permanent magnet (PM) synchronous generator has been designed and constructed and results from the first experimental tests are presented. The generator has been designed using the finite element method (FEM) and dynamic simulations have been performed to study the generator. The simulations are performed by using an electromagnetic model, which is described by a combined field and circuit equation model and is solved in a finite element environment. The stator winding of the generator consists of circular cables and the rotor has surface mounted, arched PMs. A complete experimental setup has been constructed consisting of a motor, a frequency converter, a gearbox and electrical loads. Oscilloscopes are used to measure the voltage and the current for each phase. Measurements have been performed for both full load and no load at rated speed. The harmonic content of the voltage is analyzed and compared to results from simulations. Furthermore, the generated electric power has been calculated from knowing the voltage and current and is compared to the simulated power. The agreement between experimental results and results from simulations based on finite element calculations is very high.. especially considering harmonics. Several sources of error are suggested that could cause the small differences between the simulated results and the measured data for the constructed generator.

  • 43.
    Goncalves de Oliveira, Janaina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Abrahamsson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Battery discharging power control in a double-wound flywheel system applied to electric vehicles2011In: International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems, ISSN 2194-5756, E-ISSN 1553-779X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Goncalves de Oliveira, Janaina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Power electronics and control of two-voltage-level flywheel based all-electric driveline2011In: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 1659-1665Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel all-electric driveline comprising a flywheel with a permanent magnet doubly wound synchronous motor/generator is presented. The flywheel machine with a double set of windings divides the system in two voltage levels: a low voltage/power level, which is connected to the main energy storage source (e. g. battery) and a high voltage/power level, which is connected to the traction machine. A DC/DC + DC/AC converter makes the connection between the battery and the flywheel low voltage windings. An AC/DC/AC converter connects the flywheel high voltage windings to the wheel machine. A complete simulation of the system has been made in Simulink. Vector control based speed regulators have been designed and successfully simulated. DC link voltage control has been achieved by using synchronous rectification. Power estimation has been used during regenerative braking in order to charge the flywheel with the power generated from the vehicle speed reduction. Simulations have verified the functionality of the proposed system.

  • 45.
    Goncalves de Oliveira, Janaina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Carvalho, Renato
    Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
    Gama, Vinicius
    Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
    Schettino, Henrique
    Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Implementation of an AC/DC/AC converter for electric vehicle application2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Goncalves de Oliveira, Janaina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Lundin, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Experimental investigation of standard drive cycles in a flywheel based propulsion system2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Goncalves de Oliveira, Janaina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Lundin, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Power balance control in an AC/DC/AC converter for regenerative braking in a two-voltage-level flywheel based driveline2011In: International Journal of Vehicular Technology, ISSN 1687-5702, E-ISSN 1687-5710, Vol. 2011, p. 934023-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of a flywheel as a power handling can increase the energy storage capacity and reduce the number of battery charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, the ability of recovering energy of the vehicle during breaking can increase the system efficiency. The flywheel-based all-electric driveline investigated here has its novelty in the use of a double-wound flywheel motor/generator, which divides the system in two different voltage levels, enhancing the efficiency of the electric driveline. The connection of two AC electrical machines (i.e., the flywheel and the wheel motor) with different and variable operation frequency is challenging. A power matching control applied to an AC/DC/AC converter has been implemented. The AC/DC/AC converter regenerates the electric power converted during braking to the flywheel machine, used here as power handling device. By controlling the power balance, the same hardware can be used for acceleration and braking, providing the reduction of harmonics and robust response. A simulation of the complete system during braking mode has been performed both in Matlab and Simulink, and their results have been compared. The functionality of the proposed control has been shown and discussed, with full regeneration achieved. A round-trip efficiency (wheel to wheel) higher than 80% has been obtained.

  • 48.
    Goncalves de Oliveira, Janaina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Schettino, H.
    Electrical Engineering Dept, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brasilien.
    Gama, V.
    Electrical Engineering Dept, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brasilien.
    Carvalho, R.
    Electrical Engineering Dept, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brasilien.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Implementation and Control of an AC/DC/AC Converter for Double Wound Flywheel Application2012In: Advances in Power Electronics, ISSN 2090-1828, Vol. 2012, p. 604703-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An all-electric driveline based on a double wound flywheel, connected in series between main energy storage and a wheel motor, is presented. The flywheel works as a power buffer, allowing the battery to deliver optimized power. It also separates electrically the system in two sides, with the battery connected to the low voltage side and the wheel motor connected to the high voltage side. This paper presents the implementation and control of the AC/DC/AC converter, used to connect the flywheel high voltage windings to the wheel motor. The converter general operation and the adopted control strategy are discussed. The implementation of the AC/DC/AC converter has been described from a practical perspective. Results from experimental tests performed in the full-system prototype are presented. The prototype system is running with satisfactory stability during acceleration mode. Good efficiency and unity power factor could be achieved, based on vector control and space vector modulation.

  • 49.
    Goncalves de Oliveira, Janaina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Schettino, H.
    Gama, V.
    Carvalho, R.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Study on a doubly-fed flywheel machine-based driveline with an AC/DC/AC converter2012In: Electrical Systems in Transportation, IET, ISSN 2042-9738, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 51-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of a flywheel device with a battery source has several advantages, such as high-peak power capacity, high energy density and reduction in the number of charging/discharging cycles in the battery. The flywheel system investigated here uses a double-wound flywheel motor/generator to divide the system into two different voltage/power levels. An AC/DC/AC converter is used to connect the high-power windings of the flywheel machine to the traction motor. The control strategy of the AC/DC/AC converter is discussed. The simulations of the complete system are carried out using Simulink and are compared with the experimental results, obtained from a scaled experimental test set-up. Simulations and experimental results show good agreement, where the designed controllers have managed to keep the different controlled signals almost equal to their reference values. Unity power factor and low distortion has been obtained in the flywheel voltage and current. The average efficiency of the driveline during a simple drive cycle has been obtained, being approximately 87%. A theoretical calculation, based on the real parameters of the system, was made, and it showed good agreement with the simulation and experimental results.

  • 50.
    Goncalves de Oliveira, Janaina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Schettino, Henrique
    Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
    Gama, Vinicius
    Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
    Carvalho, Renato
    Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
    Bernhoff, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Study on doubly fed flywheel machine based driveline withan AC/DC/AC converter2012In: IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, ISSN print 2042-9738; online 2042-9746, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 51-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of a flywheel device with a battery source has several advantages, such as high-peak power capacity, high energy density and reduction in the number of charging/discharging cycles in the battery. The flywheel system investigated here uses a double-wound flywheel motor/generator to divide the system into two different voltage/power levels. An AC/DC/AC converter is used to connect the high-power windings of the flywheel machine to the traction motor. The control strategy of the AC/DC/AC converter is discussed. The simulations of the complete system are carried out using Simulink and are compared with the experimental results, obtained from a scaled experimental test set-up. Simulations and experimental results show good agreement, where the designed controllers have managed to keep the different controlled signals almost equal to their reference values. Unity power factor and low distortion has been obtained in the flywheel voltage and current. The average efficiency of the driveline during a simple drive cycle has been obtained, being approximately 87%. A theoretical calculation, based on the real parameters of the system, was made, and it showed good agreement with the simulation and experimental results.

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