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  • 1.
    Andreasson, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Iwan, Bianca Stella
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Andrejczuk, A.
    Abreu, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Bergh, M.
    Caleman, Carl
    Nelson, A. J.
    Bajt, S.
    Chalupsky, J.
    Chapman, H. N.
    Faeustlin, R. R.
    Hajkova, V.
    Heimann, P. A.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Juha, L.
    Klinger, D.
    Krzywinski, J.
    Nagler, B.
    Pålsson, Gunnar Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Singer, W.
    Seibert, Marvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Sobicrajski, R.
    Tolcikis, S.
    Tschentscher, T.
    Vinko, S. M.
    Lee, R. W.
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Saturated ablation in metal hydrides and acceleration of protons and deuterons to keV energies with a soft-x-ray laser2011In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, ISSN 1539-3755, E-ISSN 1550-2376, Vol. 83, no 1, p. 016403-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of materials under extreme conditions have relevance to a broad area of research, including planetary physics, fusion research, materials science, and structural biology with x-ray lasers. We study such extreme conditions and experimentally probe the interaction between ultrashort soft x-ray pulses and solid targets (metals and their deuterides) at the FLASH free-electron laser where power densities exceeding 1017 W/cm2 were reached. Time-of-flight ion spectrometry and crater analysis were used to characterize the interaction. The results show the onset of saturation in the ablation process at power densities above 1016 W/cm2. This effect can be linked to a transiently induced x-ray transparency in the solid by the femtosecond x-ray pulse at high power densities. The measured kinetic energies of protons and deuterons ejected from the surface reach several keV and concur with predictions from plasma-expansion models. Simulations of the interactions were performed with a nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium code with radiation transfer. These calculations return critical depths similar to the observed crater depths and capture the transient surface transparency at higher power densities.

  • 2. Aquila, Andrew
    et al.
    Hunter, Mark S.
    Doak, R. Bruce
    Kirian, Richard A.
    Fromme, Petra
    White, Thomas A.
    Andreasson, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Arnlund, David
    Bajt, Saša
    Barends, Thomas R. M.
    Barthelmess, Miriam
    Bogan, Michael J.
    Bostedt, Christoph
    Bottin, Hervé
    Bozek, John D.
    Caleman, Carl
    Coppola, Nicola
    Davidsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    DePonte, Daniel P.
    Elser, Veit
    Epp, Sascha W.
    Erk, Benjamin
    Fleckenstein, Holger
    Foucar, Lutz
    Frank, Matthias
    Fromme, Raimund
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Grotjohann, Ingo
    Gumprecht, Lars
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Hampton, Christina Y.
    Hartmann, Andreas
    Hartmann, Robert
    Hau-Riege, Stefan
    Hauser, Günter
    Hirsemann, Helmut
    Holl, Peter
    Holton, James M.
    Hömke, André
    Johansson, Linda
    Kimmel, Nils
    Kassemeyer, Stephan
    Krasniqi, Faton
    Kühnel, Kai-Uwe
    Liang, Mengning
    Lomb, Lukas
    Malmerberg, Erik
    Marchesini, Stefano
    Martin, Andrew V.
    Maia, Filipe R.N.C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Messerschmidt, Marc
    Nass, Karol
    Reich, Christian
    Neutze, Richard
    Rolles, Daniel
    Rudek, Benedikt
    Rudenko, Artem
    Schlichting, Ilme
    Schmidt, Carlo
    Schmidt, Kevin E.
    Schulz, Joachim
    Seibert, M. Marvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Soltau, Heike
    Shoeman, Robert L.
    Sierra, Raymond
    Starodub, Dmitri
    Stellato, Francesco
    Stern, Stephan
    Strüder, Lothar
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Ullrich, Joachim
    Wang, Xiaoyu
    Williams, Garth J.
    Weidenspointner, Georg
    Weierstall, Uwe
    Wunderer, Cornelia
    Barty, Anton
    Spence, John C. H.
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Time-resolved protein nanocrystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser2012In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 2706-2716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the use of an X-ray free electron laser synchronized with an optical pump laser to obtain X-ray diffraction snapshots from the photoactivated states of large membrane protein complexes in the form of nanocrystals flowing in a liquid jet. Light-induced changes of Photosystem I-Ferredoxin co-crystals were observed at time delays of 5 to 10 µs after excitation. The result correlates with the microsecond kinetics of electron transfer from Photosystem I to ferredoxin. The undocking process that follows the electron transfer leads to large rearrangements in the crystals that will terminally lead to the disintegration of the crystals. We describe the experimental setup and obtain the first time-resolved femtosecond serial X-ray crystallography results from an irreversible photo-chemical reaction at the Linac Coherent Light Source. This technique opens the door to time-resolved structural studies of reaction dynamics in biological systems.

  • 3. Barty, Anton
    et al.
    Caleman, Carl
    Aquila, Andrew
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Lomb, Lukas
    White, Thomas A.
    Andreasson, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Arnlund, David
    Bajt, Sasa
    Barends, Thomas R. M.
    Barthelmess, Miriam
    Bogan, Michael J.
    Bostedt, Christoph
    Bozek, John D.
    Coffee, Ryan
    Coppola, Nicola
    Davidsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    DePonte, Daniel P.
    Doak, R. Bruce
    Ekeberg, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Elser, Veit
    Epp, Sascha W.
    Erk, Benjamin
    Fleckenstein, Holger
    Foucar, Lutz
    Fromme, Petra
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Gumprecht, Lars
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Hampton, Christina Y.
    Hartmann, Robert
    Hartmann, Andreas
    Hauser, Guenter
    Hirsemann, Helmut
    Holl, Peter
    Hunter, Mark S.
    Johansson, Linda
    Kassemeyer, Stephan
    Kimmel, Nils
    Kirian, Richard A.
    Liang, Mengning
    Maia, Filipe R. N. C.
    Malmerberg, Erik
    Marchesini, Stefano
    Martin, Andrew V.
    Nass, Karol
    Neutze, Richard
    Reich, Christian
    Rolles, Daniel
    Rudek, Benedikt
    Rudenko, Artem
    Scott, Howard
    Schlichting, Ilme
    Schulz, Joachim
    Seibert, M. Marvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Shoeman, Robert L.
    Sierra, Raymond G.
    Soltau, Heike
    Spence, John C. H.
    Stellato, Francesco
    Stern, Stephan
    Strueder, Lothar
    Ullrich, Joachim
    Wang, X.
    Weidenspointner, Georg
    Weierstall, Uwe
    Wunderer, Cornelia B.
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Self-terminating diffraction gates femtosecond X-ray nanocrystallography measurements2012In: Nature Photonics, ISSN 1749-4885, E-ISSN 1749-4893, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 35-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray free-electron lasers have enabled new approaches to the structural determination of protein crystals that are too small or radiation-sensitive for conventional analysis(1). For sufficiently short pulses, diffraction is collected before significant changes occur to the sample, and it has been predicted that pulses as short as 10 fs may be required to acquire atomic-resolution structural information(1-4). Here, we describe a mechanism unique to ultrafast, ultra-intense X-ray experiments that allows structural information to be collected from crystalline samples using high radiation doses without the requirement for the pulse to terminate before the onset of sample damage. Instead, the diffracted X-rays are gated by a rapid loss of crystalline periodicity, producing apparent pulse lengths significantly shorter than the duration of the incident pulse. The shortest apparent pulse lengths occur at the highest resolution, and our measurements indicate that current X-ray free-electron laser technology(5) should enable structural determination from submicrometre protein crystals with atomic resolution.

  • 4.
    Bergh, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Def Res Agcy, S-16490 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics. DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, Hamburg, Germany..
    A Validation Study of the General Amber Force Field Applied to Energetic Molecular Crystals2016In: Journal of Energetic Materials, ISSN 0737-0652, E-ISSN 1545-8822, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 62-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecula dynamics is a well-established tool to computationally study molecules. However, to reach predictive capability at the level required for applied research and design, extensive validation of the available force fields is pertinent. Here we present a study of density, isothermal compressibility and coefficients of thermal expansion of four energetic materials (FOX-7, RDX, CL-20 and HMX) based on molecular dynamics simulations with the General Amber Force Field (GAFF), and compare the results to experimental measurements from the literature. Furthermore, we quantify the accuracy of the calculated properties through hydrocode simulation of a typical impact scenario. We find that molecular dynamics simulations with generic and computationally efficient force fields may be used to understand and estimate important physical properties of nitramine-like energetic materials.

  • 5.
    Beyerlein, Kenneth
    et al.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Jönsson, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Alonso-Mori, Roberto
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA.
    Aquila, Andrew
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA.
    Bajt, Sasa
    Photon Science, DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Barty, Anton
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Bean, Richard
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Koglin, Jason E.
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA.
    Messerschmidt, Marc
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA.
    Ragazzon, Davide
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Soklaras, Dimosthenis
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA.
    Williams, Garth J.
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA.
    Hau-Riege, Stefan
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA.
    Boutet, Sebastien
    SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, USA.
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science,Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany; Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany .
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. Center for Free-Electron Laser Science,Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Ultrafast non-thermal heating of water initiated by an X-ray laser2018In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray Free-Electron Lasers have opened the door to a new era in structural biology, enabling imaging of biomolecules and dynamics that were impossible to access with conventional methods. A vast majority of imaging experiments, including Serial Femtosecond Crystallography, use a liquid jet to deliver the sample into the interaction region. We have observed structural changes in the carrying water during X-ray exposure, showing how it transforms from the liquid phase to a plasma. This ultrafast phase transition observed in water provides evidence that any biological structure exposed to these X-ray pulses is destroyed during the X-ray exposure.The bright ultrafast pulses of X-ray Free-Electron Lasers allow investigation into the structure of matter under extreme conditions. We have used single pulses to ionize and probe water as it undergoes a phase transition from liquid to plasma. We report changes in the structure of liquid water on a femtosecond time scale when irradiated by single 6.86 keV X-ray pulses of more than 106 J/cm2. These observations are supported by simulations based on molecular dynamics and plasma dynamics of a water system that is rapidly ionized and driven out of equilibrium. This exotic ionic and disordered state with the density of a liquid is suggested to be structurally different from a neutral thermally disordered state.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-10-17 08:00
  • 6. Boutet, Sébastien
    et al.
    Lomb, Lukas
    Williams, Garth J
    Barends, Thomas R M
    Aquila, Andrew
    Doak, R Bruce
    Weierstall, Uwe
    DePonte, Daniel P
    Steinbrener, Jan
    Shoeman, Robert L
    Messerschmidt, Marc
    Barty, Anton
    White, Thomas A
    Kassemeyer, Stephan
    Kirian, Richard A
    Seibert, M Marvin
    Montanez, Paul A
    Kenney, Chris
    Herbst, Ryan
    Hart, Philip
    Pines, Jack
    Haller, Gunther
    Gruner, Sol M
    Philipp, Hugh T
    Tate, Mark W
    Hromalik, Marianne
    Koerner, Lucas J
    van Bakel, Niels
    Morse, John
    Ghonsalves, Wilfred
    Arnlund, David
    Bogan, Michael J
    Caleman, Carl
    Fromme, Raimund
    Hampton, Christina Y
    Hunter, Mark S
    Johansson, Linda C
    Katona, Gergely
    Kupitz, Christopher
    Liang, Mengning
    Martin, Andrew V
    Nass, Karol
    Redecke, Lars
    Stellato, Francesco
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Wang, Dingjie
    Zatsepin, Nadia A
    Schafer, Donald
    Defever, James
    Neutze, Richard
    Fromme, Petra
    Spence, John C H
    Chapman, Henry N
    Schlichting, Ilme
    High-resolution protein structure determination by serial femtosecond crystallography2012In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 337, no 6092, p. 362-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structure determination of proteins and other macromolecules has historically required the growth of high-quality crystals sufficiently large to diffract x-rays efficiently while withstanding radiation damage. We applied serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using an x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) to obtain high-resolution structural information from microcrystals (less than 1 micrometer by 1 micrometer by 3 micrometers) of the well-characterized model protein lysozyme. The agreement with synchrotron data demonstrates the immediate relevance of SFX for analyzing the structure of the large group of difficult-to-crystallize molecules.

  • 7. Caleman, Carl
    et al.
    Bergh, Magnus
    Scott, Howard A.
    Spence, John C. H.
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Simulations of radiation damage in biomolecular nanocrystals induced by femtosecond X-ray pulses2011In: Journal of Modern Optics, ISSN 0950-0340, E-ISSN 1362-3044, Vol. 58, no 16, p. 1486-1497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is the first X-ray free electron laser to achieve lasing at subnanometer wavelengths (6 angstrom). LCLS is poised to reach even shorter wavelengths (1.5 angstrom) and thus holds the promise of single molecular imaging at atomic resolution. The initial operation at a photon energy of 2 keV provides the possibility to perform the first experiments on damage to biological particles, and to assess the limitations to coherent imaging of biological samples, which are directly relevant at atomic resolution. In this paper we theoretically investigate the damage formation and detection possibilities for a biological crystal, by employing and comparing two different damage models with complementary strengths. Molecular dynamics provides a discrete approach which investigates structural details at the atomic level by tracking all atoms in the real space. Our continuum model is based on a non-local thermodynamics equilibrium code with atomic kinetics and radiation transfer and can treat hydrodynamic expansion of the entire system. The latter approach captures the essential features of atomic displacements, without taking into account structural information and intrinsic atomic movements. This proves to be a powerful computational tool for many samples, including biological crystals, which will be studied with X-ray free electron lasers.

  • 8. Caleman, Carl
    et al.
    Hub, Jochen S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
    van Maaren, Paul J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    van der Spoel, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
    Atomistic simulation of ion solvation in water explains surface preference of halides2011In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 108, no 17, p. 6838-6842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water is a demanding partner. It strongly attracts ions, yet some halide anions-chloride, bromide, and iodide-are expelled to the air/water interface. This has important implications for chemistry in the atmosphere, including the ozone cycle. We present a quantitative analysis of the energetics of ion solvation based on molecular simulations of all stable alkali and halide ions in water droplets. The potentials of mean force for Cl-, Br-, and I-have shallow minima near the surface. We demonstrate that these minima derive from more favorable water-water interaction energy when the ions are partially desolvated. Alkali cations are on the inside because of the favorable ion-water energy, whereas F-is driven inside by entropy. Models attempting to explain the surface preference based on one or more ion properties such as polarizability or size are shown to lead to qualitative and quantitative errors, prompting a paradigm shift in chemistry away from such simplifications.

  • 9. Caleman, Carl
    et al.
    Huldt, Gösta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Maia, Filipe R. N. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Ortiz, Carlos
    Parak, Fritz G.
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    van der Spoel, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    On the Feasibility of Nanocrystal Imaging Using Intense and Ultrashort X-ray Pulses2011In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 139-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural studies of biological macromolecules are severely limited by radiation damage. Traditional crystallography curbs the effects of damage by spreading damage over many copies of the molecule of interest in the crystal. X-ray lasers offer an additional opportunity for limiting damage by out-running damage processes with ultrashort and very intense X-ray pulses Such pulses may allow the imaging of single molecules, clusters; Or nanoparticles: Coherent flash Imaging Will also open up new avenues for structural studies on nano- and microcrystalline substances. This paper addresses the theoretical potentials and limitations of nanocrystallography with extremely intense coherent X-ray pulses. We use urea nanocrystals as a model for generic biological substances and simulate the primary and secondary ionization dynamics in the crystalline sample. The results establish conditions for ultrafast single shot nanocrystallography diffraction experiments as a function of X-ray fluence, pulse duration, and the size of nanocrystals. Nanocrystallography using ultrafast X-ray pulses has the potential to open up a new route in protein crystallography to solve atomic structures of many systems that remain Inaccessible using conventional X-ray sources.

  • 10.
    Caleman, Carl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Huldt, Gösta
    Ortiz, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Materials Theory.
    Maia, Filipe R. N. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Marklund, Erik G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Parak, Fritz G.
    van der Spool, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Nanocrystal imaging using intense and ultrashort X-ray pulsesManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Structural studies of biological macromolecules are severely limited by radiation damage. Traditional crystallography curbs the effects of damage by spreading damage over many copies of the molecule of interest in the crystal. X-ray lasers offer an additional opportunity for limiting damage by out-running damage processes with ultrashort and very intense X-ray pulses. Such pulses may allow the imaging of single molecules, clusters or nanoparticles, but coherent flash imaging will also open up new avenues for structural studies on nano- and micro-crystalline substances. This paper addresses the potentials and limitations of nanocrystallography with extremely intense coherent X-ray pulses. We use urea nanocrystals as a model for generic biological substances, and simulate the primary and secondary ionization dynamics in the crystalline sample. The results establish conditions for diffraction experiments as a function of X-ray fluence, pulse duration, and the size of nanocrystals.

  • 11.
    Caleman, Carl
    et al.
    Physik Department E17, Technische Universität München.
    Ortiz, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Materials Theory.
    Marklund, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Bultmark, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Materials Theory.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Parak, F. G.
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Klintenberg, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Materials Theory.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Radiation damage in biological material: electronic properties and electron impact ionization in urea2009In: Europhysics letters, ISSN 0295-5075, E-ISSN 1286-4854, Vol. 85, no 1, p. 18005-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiation damage is an unavoidable process when performing structural investigations of biological macromolecules with X-rays. In crystallography this process can be limited through damage distribution in a crystal, while for single molecular imaging it can be outrun by employing short intense pulses. Secondary electron generation is crucial during damage formation and we present a study of urea, as model for biomaterial. From first principles we calculate the band structure and energy loss function, and subsequently the inelastic electron cross-section in urea. Using Molecular Dynamics simulations, we quantify the damage and study the magnitude and spatial extent of the electron cloud coming from an incident electron, as well as the dependence with initial energy.

  • 12.
    Caleman, Carl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Martin, Andrew V.
    Jönsson, H. Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Aquila, Andrew
    Barty, Anton
    Scott, Howard A.
    White, Thomas A.
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Ultrafast self-gating Bragg diffraction of exploding nanocrystals in an X-ray laser2015In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 1213-1231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In structural determination of crystalline proteins using intense femtosecond X-ray lasers, damage processes lead to loss of structural coherence during the exposure. We use a nonthermal description for the damage dynamics to calculate the ultrafast ionization and the subsequent atomic displacement. These effects degrade the Bragg diffraction on femtosecond time scales and gate the ultrafast imaging. This process is intensity and resolution dependent. At high intensities the signal is gated by the ionization affecting low resolution information first. At lower intensities, atomic displacement dominates the loss of coherence affecting high-resolution information. We find that pulse length is not a limiting factor as long as there is a high enough X-ray flux to measure a diffracted signal.

  • 13.
    Caleman, Carl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Tîmneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Martin, A. V.
    White, T. A.
    Scott, H. A.
    Barty, A.
    Aquila, A.
    Chapman, H. N.
    Modeling of XFEL induced ionization and atomic displacement in protein nanocrystals2012In: Proceedings of SPIE: The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2012, p. 85040H-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray free-electron lasers enable high-resolution imaging of biological materials by using short enough pulses to outrun many of the effects of radiation damage. Experiments conducted at the LCLS have obtained diffraction data from single particles and protein nanocrystals at doses to the sample over 3 GGy. The details of the interaction of the X-ray FEL pulse with the sample determine the limits of this new paradigm for imaging. Recent studies suggest that in the case of crystalline samples, such as protein nanocrystals, the atomic displacements and loss of bound electrons in the crystal (due to the high X- ray intensity) has the effect of gating the diffraction signal, and hence making the experiment less radiation sensitive. Only the incident photon intensity in the first part of the pulse, before the Bragg diffraction has died out, is relevant to acquiring signal and the rest of the pulse will mainly contribute to a diffuse background. In this work we use a plasma based non-local thermodynamic equilibrium code to explore the displacement and the ionization of a protein nanocrystal at various X-ray wavelengths and intensities.

  • 14.
    Caleman, Carl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    van der Spoel, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Evaporation from water clusters containing singly charged ions2007In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 9, no 37, p. 5105-5111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the evaporation from water clusterscontaining either ClÀ, H2PO4À, Na+ or NH4+ ions. The simulations ranged between 10 and500 ns, and were performed in vacuum starting at 275 K. A number of different models were usedincluding polarizable models. The clusters contain 216 or 512 molecules, 0, 4 or 8 of which wereions. The ions with hydrogen bonding properties do not affect evaporation, even though thephosphate ions have a pronounced ion–ion structure and tend to be inside the cluster whereasammonium shows little ion–ion structure and has a distribution within the cluster similar to thatof the water molecules. Since the individual ion–water interactions are much stronger in the caseof Na+–water and ClÀ–water clusters, evaporation is somewhat slower for clusters containingthese ions. It seems therefore that the main determinant of the evaporation rate in ion–waterclusters is the strength of the interaction. Fission of droplets that contain more ions than allowedaccording to the Rayleigh limit seems to occur more rapidly in clusters containing ammoniumand sodium ions.

  • 15.
    Caleman, Carl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    van der Spoel, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Picosecond Melting of Ice by an Infrared Laser Pulse2008In: Angewandte Chemie International Edition, ISSN 1433-7851, E-ISSN 1521-3773, Vol. 47, no 8, p. 1417-1420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold as ice: Molecular dynamics simulation provides snapshots of a melting ice crystal (see picture). The laser pulse heats up the system, and the energy is absorbed in the OH bonds. After a few picoseconds, the energy is transferred to rotational and translational energy, causing the crystal to melt. The melting starts as a nucleation process, and even long after the first melting is initialized, pockets of crystalline structures can be found.

  • 16.
    Caleman, Carl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    van der Spoel, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Temperature and structural changes of water clusters in vacuum due to evaporation2006In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 125, no 15, p. 154508-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study on evaporation of pure water clusters. Molecular dynamics simulations between 20 ns and 3 mu s of clusters ranging from 125 to 4096 molecules in vacuum were performed. Three different models (SPC, TIP4P, and TIP5P) were used to simulate water, starting at temperatures of 250, 275, and 300 K. We monitored the temperature, the number of hydrogen bonds, the tetrahedral order, the evaporation, the radial distribution functions, and the diffusion coefficients. The three models behave very similarly as far as temperature and evaporation are concerned. Clusters starting at a higher temperature show a higher initial evaporation rate and therefore reach the point where evaporation stop (around 240 K) sooner. The radius of the clusters is decreased by 0.16-0.22 nm after 0.5 mu s (larger clusters tend to decrease their radius slightly more), which corresponds to around one evaporated molecule per nm(2). The cluster temperature seems to converge towards 215 K independent of cluster size, when starting at 275 K. We observe only small structural changes, but the clusters modeled by TIP5P show a larger percentage of molecules with low diffusion coefficient as t ->infinity, than those using the two other water models. TIP4P seems to be more structured and more hydrogen bonds are formed than in the other models as the temperature falls. The cooling rates are in good agreement with experimental results, and evaporation rates agree well with a phenomenological expression based on experimental observations.

  • 17. Caleman, Carl
    et al.
    van Maaren, Paul J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Hong, Minyan
    Hub, Jochen S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Costa, Luciano T.
    van der Spoer, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
    Force Field Benchmark of Organic Liquids: Density, Enthalpy of Vaporization, Heat Capacities, Surface Tension, Isothermal Compressibility, Volumetric Expansion Coefficient, and Dielectric Constant2012In: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, ISSN 1549-9618, E-ISSN 1549-9626, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 61-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical composition of small organic molecules is often very similar to amino acid side chains or the bases in nucleic acids, and hence there is no a priori reason why a molecular mechanics force field could not describe both organic liquids and biomolecules with a single parameter set. Here, we devise a benchmark for force fields in order to test the ability of existing force fields to reproduce some key properties of organic liquids, namely, the density, enthalpy of vaporization, the surface tension, the heat capacity at constant volume and pressure, the isothermal compressibility, the volumetric expansion coefficient, and the static dielectric constant. Well over 1200 experimental measurements were used for comparison to the simulations of 146 organic liquids. Novel polynomial interpolations of the dielectric constant (32 molecules), heat capacity at constant pressure (three molecules), and the isothermal compressibility (53 molecules) as a function of the temperature have been made, based on experimental data, in order to be able to compare simulation results to them. To compute the heat capacities, we applied the two phase thermodynamics method (Lin et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2003, 119, 11792), which allows one to compute thermodynamic properties on the basis of the density of states as derived from the velocity autocorrelation function. The method is implemented in a new utility within the GROMACS molecular simulation package, named g_dos, and a detailed expose of the underlying equations is presented. The purpose of this work is to establish the state of the art of two popular force fields, OPLS/AA (all-atom optimized potential for liquid simulation) and GAFF (generalized Amber force field), to find common bottlenecks, i.e., particularly difficult molecules, and to serve as a reference point for future force field development. To make for a fair playing field, all molecules were evaluated with the same parameter settings, such as thermostats and barostats, treatment of electrostatic interactions, and system size (1000 molecules). The densities and enthalpy of vaporization from an independent data set based on simulations using the CHARMM General Force Field (CGenFF) presented by Vanommeslaeghe et al. (J. Comput. Chem. 2010, 31, 671) are included for comparison. We find that, overall, the OPLS/AA force field performs somewhat better than GAFF, but there are significant issues with reproduction of the surface tension and dielectric constants for both force fields.

  • 18. Cavalieri, A L
    et al.
    Fritz, D M
    Lee, S H
    Bucksbaum, P H
    Reis, D A
    Rudati, J
    Mills, D M
    Fuoss, P H
    Stephenson, G B
    Kao, C C
    Siddons, D P
    Lowney, D P
    Macphee, A G
    Weinstein, D
    Falcone, R W
    Pahl, R
    Als-Nielsen, J
    Blome, C
    Düsterer, S
    Ischebeck, R
    Schlarb, H
    Schulte-Schrepping, H
    Tschentscher, Th
    Schneider, J
    Hignette, O
    Sette, F
    Sokolowski-Tinten, K
    Chapman, H N
    Lee, R W
    Hansen, T N
    Synnergren, O
    Larsson, J
    Techert, S
    Sheppard, J
    Wark, J S
    Bergh, M
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molekylär biofysik.
    Caleman, C
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molekylär biofysik.
    Huldt, G
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molekylär biofysik.
    van der Spoel, D
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molekylär biofysik.
    Timneanu, N
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molekylär biofysik.
    Hajdu, J
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molekylär biofysik.
    Akre, R A
    Bong, E
    Emma, P
    Krejcik, P
    Arthur, J
    Brennan, S
    Gaffney, K J
    Lindenberg, A M
    Luening, K
    Hastings, J B
    Clocking femtosecond X rays.2005In: Phys Rev Lett, ISSN 0031-9007, Vol. 94, no 11, p. 114801-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linear-accelerator-based sources will revolutionize ultrafast x-ray science due to their unprecedented brightness and short pulse duration. However, time-resolved studies at the resolution of the x-ray pulse duration are hampered by the inability to precisely synchronize an external laser to the accelerator. At the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source at the Stanford Linear-Accelerator Center we solved this problem by measuring the arrival time of each high energy electron bunch with electro-optic sampling. This measurement indirectly determined the arrival time of each x-ray pulse relative to an external pump laser pulse with a time resolution of better than 60 fs rms.

  • 19. Chalupsky, J.
    et al.
    Juha, L.
    Kuba, J.
    Cihelka, J.
    Hajkova, V.
    Koptyaev, S.
    Krasa, J.
    Velyhan, A.
    Bergh, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Bionta, R. M.
    Chapman, H.
    Hau-Riege, S. P.
    London, R. A.
    Jurek, M.
    Krzywinski, J.
    Nietubyc, R.
    Pelka, J. B.
    Sobierajski, R.
    Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.
    Tronnier, A.
    Sokolowski-Tinten, K.
    Stojanovic, N.
    Tiedtke, K.
    Toleikis, S.
    Tschentscher, T.
    Wabnitz, H.
    Zastrau, U.
    Characteristics of focused soft X-ray free-electron laser beam determined by ablation of organic molecular solids2007In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 15, no 10, p. 6036-6043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A linear accelerator based source of coherent radiation, FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) provides ultra-intense femtosecond radiation pulses at wavelengths from the extreme ultraviolet (XUV; lambda< 100nm) to the soft X-ray (SXR; lambda<30nm) spectral regions. 25-fs pulses of 32-nm FLASH radiation were used to determine the ablation parameters of PMMA - poly ( methyl methacrylate). Under these irradiation conditions the attenuation length and ablation threshold were found to be (56.9 +/- 7.5) nm and similar to 2 mJ center dot cm(-2), respectively. For a second wavelength of 21.7 nm, the PMMA ablation was utilized to image the transverse intensity distribution within the focused beam at mu m resolution by a method developed here.

  • 20. Chapman, Henry N.
    et al.
    Barty, Anton
    Bogan, Michael J.
    Boutet, Sebastien
    Frank, Matthias
    Hau-Riege, Stefan P.
    Marchesini, Stefano
    Woods, Bruce W.
    Bajt, Sasa
    Benner, Henry
    London, Richard A.
    Ploenjes, Elke
    Kuhlmann, Marion
    Treusch, Rolf
    Duesterer, Stefan
    Tschentscher, Thomas
    Schneider, Jochen R.
    Spiller, Eberhard
    Moeller, Thomas
    Bostedt, Christoph
    Hoener, Matthias
    Shapiro, David A.
    Hodgson, Keith O.
    van der Spoel, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Bergh, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Huldt, Gösta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Seibert, Marvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Maia, Filipe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Lee, Richard W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Szöke, Abraham
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molekylär Biofysik.
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molekylär Biofysik.
    Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser2006In: Nature Physics, ISSN 1745-2473, E-ISSN 1745-2481, Vol. 2, no 12, p. 839-843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory predicts(1-4) that, with an ultrashort and extremely bright coherent X-ray pulse, a single diffraction pattern may be recorded from a large macromolecule, a virus or a cell before the sample explodes and turns into a plasma. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of this principle using the FLASH soft-X-ray free-electron laser. An intense 25 fs, 4 x 10(13) W cm(-2) pulse, containing 10(12) photons at 32 nm wavelength, produced a coherent diffraction pattern from a nanostructured non-periodic object, before destroying it at 60,000 K. A novel X-ray camera assured single-photon detection sensitivity by filtering out parasitic scattering and plasma radiation. The reconstructed image, obtained directly from the coherent pattern by phase retrieval through oversampling(5-9), shows no measurable damage, and is reconstructed at the diffraction-limited resolution. A three-dimensional data set may be assembled from such images when copies of a reproducible sample are exposed to the beam one by one(10).

  • 21. Chapman, Henry N.
    et al.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Diffraction before destruction2014In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 369, no 1647, p. 20130313-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray free-electron lasers have opened up the possibility of structure determination of protein crystals at room temperature, free of radiation damage. The femtosecond-duration pulses of these sources enable diffraction signals to be collected from samples at doses of 1000 MGy or higher. The sample is vaporized by the intense pulse, but not before the scattering that gives rise to the diffraction pattern takes place. Consequently, only a single flash diffraction pattern can be recorded from a crystal, giving rise to the method of serial crystallography where tens of thousands of patterns are collected from individual crystals that flow across the beam and the patterns are indexed and aggregated into a set of structure factors. The high-dose tolerance and the many-crystal averaging approach allow data to be collected from much smaller crystals than have been examined at synchrotron radiation facilities, even from radiation-sensitive samples. Here, we review the interaction of intense femtosecond X-ray pulses with materials and discuss the implications for structure determination. We identify various dose regimes and conclude that the strongest achievable signals for a given sample are attained at the highest possible dose rates, from highest possible pulse intensities.

  • 22. Chapman, Henry N.
    et al.
    Fromme, Petra
    Barty, Anton
    White, Thomas A.
    Kirian, Richard A.
    Aquila, Andrew
    Hunter, Mark S.
    Schulz, Joachim
    DePonte, Daniel P.
    Weierstall, Uwe
    Doak, R. Bruce
    Maia, Filipe R. N. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Martin, Andrew V.
    Schlichting, Ilme
    Lomb, Lukas
    Coppola, Nicola
    Shoeman, Robert L.
    Epp, Sascha W.
    Hartmann, Robert
    Rolles, Daniel
    Rudenko, Artem
    Foucar, Lutz
    Kimmel, Nils
    Weidenspointner, Georg
    Holl, Peter
    Liang, Mengning
    Barthelmess, Miriam
    Caleman, Carl
    Boutet, Sebastien
    Bogan, Michael J.
    Krzywinski, Jacek
    Bostedt, Christoph
    Bajt, Sasa
    Gumprecht, Lars
    Rudek, Benedikt
    Erk, Benjamin
    Schmidt, Carlo
    Hoemke, Andre
    Reich, Christian
    Pietschner, Daniel
    Strueder, Lothar
    Hauser, Guenter
    Gorke, Hubert
    Ullrich, Joachim
    Herrmann, Sven
    Schaller, Gerhard
    Schopper, Florian
    Soltau, Heike
    Kuehnel, Kai-Uwe
    Messerschmidt, Marc
    Bozek, John D.
    Hau-Riege, Stefan P.
    Frank, Matthias
    Hampton, Christina Y.
    Sierra, Raymond G.
    Starodub, Dmitri
    Williams, Garth J.
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Seibert, M. Marvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Andreasson, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Rocker, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Jönsson, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Svenda, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Stern, Stephan
    Nass, Karol
    Andritschke, Robert
    Schroeter, Claus-Dieter
    Krasniqi, Faton
    Bott, Mario
    Schmidt, Kevin E.
    Wang, Xiaoyu
    Grotjohann, Ingo
    Holton, James M.
    Barends, Thomas R. M.
    Neutze, Richard
    Marchesini, Stefano
    Fromme, Raimund
    Schorb, Sebastian
    Rupp, Daniela
    Adolph, Marcus
    Gorkhover, Tais
    Andersson, Inger
    SLU.
    Hirsemann, Helmut
    Potdevin, Guillaume
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Nilsson, Björn
    Spence, John C. H.
    Femtosecond X-ray protein nanocrystallography2011In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 470, no 7332, p. 73-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray crystallography provides the vast majority of macromolecular structures, but the success of the method relies on growing crystals of sufficient size. In conventional measurements, the necessary increase in X-ray dose to record data from crystals that are too small leads to extensive damage before a diffraction signal can be recorded(1-3). It is particularly challenging to obtain large, well-diffracting crystals of membrane proteins, for which fewer than 300 unique structures have been determined despite their importance in all living cells. Here we present a method for structure determination where single-crystal X-ray diffraction 'snapshots' are collected from a fully hydrated stream of nanocrystals using femtosecond pulses from a hard-X-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source(4). We prove this concept with nanocrystals of photosystem I, one of the largest membrane protein complexes(5). More than 3,000,000 diffraction patterns were collected in this study, and a three-dimensional data set was assembled from individual photosystem I nanocrystals (similar to 200 nm to 2 mm in size). We mitigate the problem of radiation damage in crystallography by using pulses briefer than the timescale of most damage processes(6). This offers a new approach to structure determination of macromolecules that do not yield crystals of sufficient size for studies using conventional radiation sources or are particularly sensitive to radiation damage.

  • 23. Chapman, Henry N
    et al.
    Hau-Riege, Stefan P
    Bogan, Michael J
    Bajt, Sasa
    Barty, Anton
    Boutet, Sébastien
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Marchesini, Stefano
    Frank, Matthias
    Woods, Bruce W
    Benner, W Henry
    London, Richard A
    Rohner, Urs
    Szöke, Abraham
    Spiller, Eberhard
    Möller, Thomas
    Bostedt, Christoph
    Shapiro, David A
    Kuhlmann, Marion
    Treusch, Rolf
    Plönjes, Elke
    Burmeister, Florian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Bergh, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Huldt, Gösta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Seibert, M. Marvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Femtosecond time-delay X-ray holography2007In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 448, no 7154, p. 676-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extremely intense and ultrafast X-ray pulses from free-electron lasers offer unique opportunities to study fundamental aspects of complex transient phenomena in materials. Ultrafast time-resolved methods usually require highly synchronized pulses to initiate a transition and then probe it after a precisely defined time delay. In the X-ray regime, these methods are challenging because they require complex optical systems and diagnostics. Here we propose and apply a simple holographic measurement scheme, inspired by Newton's 'dusty mirror' experiment1, to monitor the X-ray-induced explosion of microscopic objects. The sample is placed near an X-ray mirror; after the pulse traverses the sample, triggering the reaction, it is reflected back onto the sample by the mirror to probe this reaction. The delay is encoded in the resulting diffraction pattern to an accuracy of one femtosecond, and the structural change is holographically recorded with high resolution. We apply the technique to monitor the dynamics of polystyrene spheres in intense free-electron-laser pulses, and observe an explosion occurring well after the initial pulse. Our results support the notion that X-ray flash imaging2, 3 can be used to achieve high resolution, beyond radiation damage limits for biological samples4. With upcoming ultrafast X-ray sources we will be able to explore the three-dimensional dynamics of materials at the timescale of atomic motion.

  • 24.
    Gabrysch, Markus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Marklund, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Twitchen, D. J.
    Element Six Ltd, Ascot SL5 8BP, Berks, England.
    Rudati, J.
    Stanford Linear Accelerator Ctr, PULSE Ctr, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA.
    Lindenberg, A. M.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA; PULSE Center, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Falcone, R. W.
    Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.
    Tschentscher, T.
    Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Moffat, K.
    Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.
    Bucksbaum, P. H.
    PULSE Center, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA.
    Als-Nielsen, J.
    Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.
    Nelson, A. J.
    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA.
    Siddons, D. P.
    National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, USA.
    Emma, P. J.
    Stanford Linear Accelerator Ctr, PULSE Ctr, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA.
    Krejcik, P.
    Stanford Linear Accelerator Ctr, PULSE Ctr, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA.
    Schlarb, H.
    Stanford Linear Accelerator Ctr, PULSE Ctr, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA.
    Arthur, J.
    Stanford Linear Accelerator Ctr, PULSE Ctr, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA.
    Brennan, S.
    Stanford Linear Accelerator Ctr, PULSE Ctr, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA.
    Hastings, J.
    Stanford Linear Accelerator Ctr, PULSE Ctr, Menlo Pk, CA 94025 USA.
    Isberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Formation of secondary electron cascades in single-crystalline plasma-deposited diamond upon exposure to femtosecond x-ray pulses2008In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 103, no 6, article id 064909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary electron cascades were measured in high purity single-crystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond, following exposure to ultrashort hard x-ray pulses (140 fs full width at half maximum, 8.9 keV energy) from the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We report measurements of the pair creation energy and of drift mobility of carriers in two CVD diamond crystals. This was done for the first time using femtosecond x-ray excitation. Values for the average pair creation energy were found to be 12.17 +/- 0.57 and 11.81 +/- 0.59 eV for the two crystals, respectively. These values are in good agreement with recent theoretical predictions. The average drift mobility of carriers, obtained by the best fit to device simulations, was mu(h)= 2750 cm(2)/V s for holes and was mu(e)= 2760 cm(2) / V s for electrons. These mobility values represent lower bounds for charge mobilities due to possible polarization of the samples. The results demonstrate outstanding electric properties and the enormous potential of diamond in ultrafast x-ray detectors.

  • 25. Gaffney, K J
    et al.
    Lindenberg, A M
    Larsson, J
    Sokolowski-Tinten, K
    Blome, C
    Synnergren, O
    Sheppard, J
    Caleman, C
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molecular Biophysics.
    MacPhee, A G
    Weinstein, D
    Lowney, D P
    Allison, T
    Matthews, T
    Falcone, R W
    Cavalieri, A L
    Fritz, D M
    Lee, S H
    Bucksbaum, P H
    Reis, D A
    Rudati, J
    Macrander, A T
    Fuoss, P H
    Kao, C C
    Siddons, D P
    Pahl, R
    Moffat, K
    Als-Nielsen, J
    Duesterer, S
    Ischebeck, R
    Schlarb, H
    Schulte-Schrepping, H
    Schneider, J
    von der Linde, D
    Hignette, O
    Sette, F
    Chapman, H N
    Lee, R W
    Hansen, T N
    Wark, J S
    Bergh, M
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molecular Biophysics.
    Huldt, G
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molecular Biophysics.
    van der Spoel, D
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molecular Biophysics.
    Timneanu, N
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molecular Biophysics.
    Hajdu, J
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molecular Biophysics.
    Akre, R A
    Bong, E
    Krejcik, P
    Arthur, J
    Brennan, S
    Luening, K
    Hastings, J B
    Observation of structural anisotropy and the onset of liquidlike motion during the nonthermal melting of InSb.2005In: Phys Rev Lett, ISSN 0031-9007, Vol. 95, no 12, p. 125701-Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 26.
    Galli, L.
    et al.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.;Univ Hamburg, Dept Phys, D-20355 Hamburg, Germany..
    Son, S. -K
    Klinge, M.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Biochem & Mol Biol, Joint Lab Struct Biol Infect & Inflammat, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.;Univ Lubeck, Inst Biochem, DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Bajt, S.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Photon Sci, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Barty, A.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Bean, R.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Betzel, C.
    Univ Hamburg, DESY, Inst Biochem & Mol Biol, Dept Chem, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Beyerlein, K. R.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics. Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Doak, R. B.
    Max Planck Inst Med Res, Dept Biomol Mech, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Duszenko, M.
    Univ Tubingen, Interfac Inst Biochem, D-72076 Tubingen, Germany..
    Fleckenstein, H.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Gati, C.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Hunt, B.
    Brigham Young Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Provo, UT 84602 USA..
    Kirian, R. A.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Liang, M.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Nanao, M. H.
    EMBL, Grenoble Outstn, F-38042 Grenoble, France..
    Nass, K.
    Max Planck Inst Med Res, Dept Biomol Mech, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Oberthuer, D.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Redecke, L.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Biochem & Mol Biol, Joint Lab Struct Biol Infect & Inflammat, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.;Univ Lubeck, Inst Biochem, DESY, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Shoeman, R.
    Max Planck Inst Med Res, Dept Biomol Mech, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Stellato, F.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Yoon, C. H.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.;European XFEL GmbH, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    White, T. A.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Yefanov, O.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Spence, J.
    Arizona State Univ, Dept Phys, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA..
    Chapman, H. N.
    Deutsch Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany.;Univ Hamburg, Dept Phys, D-20355 Hamburg, Germany.;Hamburg Ctr Ultrafast Imaging, D-22761 Hamburg, Germany..
    Electronic damage in S atoms in a native protein crystal induced by an intense X-ray free-electron laser pulse2015In: STRUCTURAL DYNAMICS, ISSN 2329-7778, Vol. 2, no 4, article id 041703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current hard X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources can deliver doses to biological macromolecules well exceeding 1 GGy, in timescales of a few tens of femtoseconds. During the pulse, photoionization can reach the point of saturation in which certain atomic species in the sample lose most of their electrons. This electronic radiation damage causes the atomic scattering factors to change, affecting, in particular, the heavy atoms, due to their higher photoabsorption cross sections. Here, it is shown that experimental serial femtosecond crystallography data collected with an extremely bright XFEL source exhibit a reduction of the effective scattering power of the sulfur atoms in a native protein. Quantitative methods are developed to retrieve information on the effective ionization of the damaged atomic species from experimental data, and the implications of utilizing new phasing methods which can take advantage of this localized radiation damage are discussed.

  • 27. Galli, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Son, Sang-Kil
    Barends, Thomas R. M.
    White, Thomas A.
    Barty, Anton
    Botha, Sabine
    Boutet, Sébastien
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Doak, R. Bruce
    Nanao, Max H.
    Nass, Karol
    Shoeman, Robert L.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Santra, Robin
    Schlichting, Ilme
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Towards phasing using high X-ray intensity2015In: IUCrJ, ISSN 0972-6918, E-ISSN 2052-2525, Vol. 2, p. 627-634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) show great promise for macromolecular structure determination from sub-micrometre-sized crystals, using the emerging method of serial femtosecond crystallography. The extreme brightness of the XFEL radiation can multiply ionize most, if not all, atoms in a protein, causing their scattering factors to change during the pulse, with a preferential ‘bleaching’ of heavy atoms. This paper investigates the effects of electronic damage on experimental data collected from a Gd derivative of lysozyme microcrystals at different X-ray intensities, and the degree of ionization of Gd atoms is quantified from phased difference Fourier maps. A pattern sorting scheme is proposed to maximize the ionization contrast and the way in which the local electronic damage can be used for a new experimental phasing method is discussed.

  • 28. Harbst, M.
    et al.
    Hansen, T. N.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Fullagar, W.K.
    Jönsson, P.
    Sondhauss, P.
    Synnergren, O.
    Larsson, J.
    Studies if resolidification of non-thermally molten InSb using time-resolved X-ray diffraction2005In: Applied Physics A, Vol. 81, p. 893-900Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Harbst, M
    et al.
    Hansen, TN
    Caleman, C
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molekylär biofysik.
    Fullagar, WK
    Jonsson1, P
    Sondhauss, P
    Synnergren, O
    Larsson, J
    Studies of resolidification of non-thermally molten InSb using time-resolved X-ray diffraction2005In: APPLIED PHYSICS A: MATERIALS SCIENCE & PROCESSING, ISSN 0947-8396, Vol. 5, no 81, p. 893-900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used time-resolved X-ray diffraction to monitor the resolidification process of molten InSb. Melting was induced by an ultra-short laser pulse and the measurement conducted in a high-repetition-rate multishot experiment. The method gives direct information about the nature of the transient regrowth and permanently damaged layers. It does not rely on models based on surface reflectivity or second harmonic generation (SHG). The measured resolidification process has been modeled with a 1-D thermodynamic heat-conduction model. Important parameters like sample temperature, melting depth and amorphous surface layer thickness come directly out of the data, while mosaicity of the sample and free carrier density can be quantified by comparing with models. Melt depths up to 80 nm have been observed and regrowth velocities in the range 2-8 m/s have been measured.

  • 30.
    Hau-Riege, S. P.
    et al.
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron Notkestraße 85, DE-22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Chapman, H. N.
    Kuba, J.
    Spiller, E.
    Baker, S.
    Bionta, R.
    Sokolowski-Tinten, K.
    Stojanovic, N.
    Kjornrattanawanich, B.
    Gullikson, E.
    Plonjes, E.
    Toleikis, S.
    Krzywinski, J.
    Tschentscher, T.
    Sobierajski, R.
    Bajt, S.
    London, R. A.
    Bergh, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Nietubyc, R.
    Juha, L.
    Tschentscher, Thomas
    Force Field Benchmark of Organic Liquids: Density, Enthalpy of Vaporization, Heat Capacities, Surface Tension, Isothermal Compressibility, Volumetric Expansion Coefficient, and Dielectric Constant2007In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 98, no 14, p. 145502-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the recently built FLASH x-ray free-electron laser, we studied the reflectivity of Si/C multilayers with fluxes up to 3×1014W/cm2. Even though the nanostructures were ultimately completely destroyed, we found that they maintained their integrity and reflectance characteristics during the 25-fs-long pulse, with no evidence for any structural changes over lengths greater than 3Å. This experiment demonstrates that with intense ultrafast pulses, structural damage does not occur during the pulse, giving credence to the concept of diffraction imaging of single macromolecules.

  • 31. Hau-Riege, S. P.
    et al.
    London, R. A.
    Bionta, R. M.
    McKernan, M. A.
    Baker, S. L.
    Krzywinski, J.
    Sobierajski, R.
    Nietubyc, R.
    Pelka, J. B.
    Jurek, M.
    Juha, L.
    Chalupsky, J.
    Cihelka, J.
    Hajkova, V.
    Velyhan, A.
    Krasa, J.
    Kuba, J.
    Tiedtke, K.
    Toleikis, S.
    Tschentscher, Th.
    Wabnitz, H.
    Bergh, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Sokolowski-Tinten, K.
    Stojanovic, N.
    Zastrau, U.
    Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength2007In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 90, no 17, p. 173128-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples of B4C, amorphous C, chemical-vapor-deposition-diamond C, Si, and SiC were exposed to single 25 fs long pulses of 32.5 nm free-electron-laser radiation at fluences of up to 2.2 J/cm(2). The samples were chosen as candidate materials for x-ray free-electron-laser optics. It was found that the threshold for surface damage is on the order of the fluence required for thermal melting. For larger fluences, the crater depths correspond to temperatures on the order of the critical temperature, suggesting that the craters are formed by two-phase vaporization.

  • 32. Hau-Riege, S. P.
    et al.
    London, R. A.
    Bionta, R. M.
    Ryutov, D.
    Soufli, R.
    Bajt, S.
    McKernan, M. A.
    Baker, S. L.
    Krzywinski, J.
    Sobierajski, R.
    Nietubyc, R.
    Klinger, D.
    Pelka, J. B.
    Jurek, M.
    Juha, L.
    Chalupsky, J.
    Cihelka, J.
    Hajkova, V.
    Velyhan, A.
    Krasa, J.
    Tiedtke, K.
    Toleikis, S.
    Wabnitz, H.
    Bergh, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Caleman, C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Timneanu, N.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Wavelength dependence of the damage threshold of inorganic materials under extreme-ultraviolet free-electron-laser irradiation2009In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 95, no 11, p. 111104-111104-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We exposed bulk SiC and films of SiC and B4C to single 25 fs long free-electron-laser pulses with wavelengths between 13.5 and 32 nm. The materials are candidates for x-ray free-electron laser optics. We found that the threshold for surface-damage of the bulk SiC samples exceeds the fluence required for thermal melting at all wavelengths. The damage threshold of the film sample shows a strong wavelength dependence. For wavelengths of 13.5 and 21.7 nm, the damage threshold is equal to or exceeds the melting threshold, whereas at 32 nm the damage threshold falls below the melting threshold.

  • 33.
    Hub, Jochen
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
    Caleman, Carl
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestraße 85,.
    van der Spoel, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
    Organic molecules on the surface of water droplets: an energetic perspective2012In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 14, no 27, p. 9537-9545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solubility of organic molecules is a well established property, founded on decades of measurements, the results of which have been tabulated in handbooks. Under atmospheric conditions water droplets may form containing small amounts of other molecules. Such droplets typically have a very large area to volume ratio, which may shift the solvation equilibrium towards molecules residing on the droplet surface. The presence of organic molecules on droplet surfaces is extremely important for reactivity – it is well established that certain chemical reactions are more prevalent under atmospheric conditions than in bulk. Here we present a thermodynamic rationalization of the surface solvation properties of methanol, ethanol, propanoic acid, n-butylamine, diethyl ether, and neopentane based on potential of mean force (PMF) calculations – we have previously demonstrated that an energetic description is a very powerful means of disentangling the factors governing solvation (Caleman et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2011, 108, 6838–6842). All organic molecules investigated here are preferentially solvated on the surface of the droplets rather than in the inside, yet the magnitude of surface preference may differ by orders of magnitude. In order to dissect the energetic contributions that govern surface preference, we decompose the PMF into enthalpic and entropic components, and, in a second step, into contributions from water–water and solute–water interactions. The analysis demonstrates that surface preference is primarily an enthalpic effect, but the magnitude of surface preference of solutes containing large apolar groups is enhanced due to entropy. We introduce an analysis of the droplet PMFs that allows one to extrapolate the results to larger droplets. From this we can estimate the solubility of the solutes in water droplets, demonstrating that the solubility in droplets can be orders of magnitude larger than in bulk water. Our findings have implications for understanding the process of electrospray ionization, an important technique in biological mass spectrometry, since our work strongly suggests that in equilibrium biomolecules would be adsorbed on the droplet surface as well.

  • 34. Hub, Jochen S.
    et al.
    Wolf, Maarten G.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    van Maaren, Paul J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Groenhof, Gerrit
    van der Spoel, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Thermodynamics of hydronium and hydroxide surface solvation2014In: Chemical Science, ISSN 2041-6520, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 1745-1749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentration of hydronium and hydroxide at the water-air interface has been debated for a long time. Recent evidence from a range of experiments and theoretical calculations strongly suggests the water surface to be somewhat acidic. Using novel polarizable models we have performed potential of mean force calculations of a hydronium ion, a hydroxide ion and a water molecule in a water droplet and a water slab and we were able to rationalize that hydronium, but not hydroxide, is slightly enriched at the surface for two reasons. First, because the hydrogen bond acceptance capacity of hydronium is weaker than water and it is more favorable to have the hydronium oxygen on the surface. Second, hydroxide ions are expelled from the surface of the droplets, due to the entropy being lower when a hydroxide ion is hydrated on the surface. As a result, the water dissociation constant pK(w) increases slightly near the surface. The results are corroborated by calculations of surface tension of NaOH solutions that are in reasonable agreement with the experiment. The structural and thermodynamic interpretation of hydronium and hydroxide hydration provided by these calculations opens the route to a better understanding of atmospheric and surface chemistry.

  • 35.
    Iwan, B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Andreasson, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Abreu, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Bergh, M.
    Caleman, Carl
    Hajdu, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Timneanu, N.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Modeling of soft X-ray induced ablation in solids2011In: DAMAGE TO VUV, EUV, AND X-RAY OPTICS III, 2011, Vol. 8077Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Powerful free electron lasers (FELs) operating in the soft X-ray regime are offering new possibilities for creating and probing materials under extreme conditions. We describe here simulations to model the interaction of a focused FEL pulse with metallic solids (niobium, vanadium, and their deuterides) at 13.5 nm wavelength (92 eV) with peak intensities between 10(15) to 10(18) W/cm(2) and a fixed pulse length of 15 femtoseconds (full width at half maximum). The interaction of the pulse with the metallic solids was modeled with a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium code that included radiation transfer. The calculations also made use of a self-similar isothermal fluid model for plasma expansion into vacuum. We find that the time-evolution of the simulated critical charge density in the sample results in a critical depth that approaches the observed crater depths in an earlier experiment performed at the FLASH free electron laser in Hamburg. The results show saturation in the ablation process at intensities exceeding 10(16) W/cm(2). Furthermore, protons and deuterons with kinetic energies of several keV have been measured, and these concur with predictions from the plasma expansion model. The results indicate that the temperature of the plasma reached almost 5 million K after the pulse has passed.

  • 36.
    Iwan, Bianca S
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Andreasson, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Andrejczuk, A.
    Abreu, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Bergh, M.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Nelson, A. J.
    Bajt, S.
    Chalupsky, J.
    Chapman, H. N.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Faeustlin, R. R.
    Hajkova, V.
    Heimann, P. A.
    Hjörvarsson, Björgvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Juha, L.
    Klinger, D.
    Krzywinski, J.
    Nagler, B.
    Pålsson, Gunnar Karl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Physics.
    Singer, W.
    Seibert, Marvin M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Sobierajski, R.
    Toleikis, S.
    Tschentscher, T.
    Vinko, S. M.
    Lee, R. W.
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    TOF-OFF: A method for determining focal positions in tightly focused free-electron laser experiments by measurement of ejected ions2011In: High Energy Density Physics, ISSN 1574-1818, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 336-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulse intensities greater than 1017 Watt/cm2 were reached at the FLASH soft X-ray laser in Hamburg, Germany, using an off-axis parabolic mirror to focus 15 fs pulses of 5–70 μJ energy at 13.5 nm wavelength to a micron-sized spot. We describe the interaction of such pulses with niobium and vanadium targets and their deuterides. The beam produced craters in the solid targets, and we measured the kinetic energy of ions ejected from these craters. Ions with several keV kinetic energy were observed from craters approaching 5 μm in depth when the sample was at best focus. We also observed the onset of saturation in both ion acceleration and ablation with pulse intensities exceeding 1016 W/cm2, when the highest detected ion energies and the crater depths tend to saturate with increasing intensity.

    A general difficulty in working with micron and sub-micron focusing optics is finding the exact focus of the beam inside a vacuum chamber. Here we propose a direct method to measure the focal position to a resolution better than the Rayleigh length. The method is based on the correlation between the energies of ejected ions and the physical dimensions of the craters. We find that the focus position can be quickly determined from the ion time-of-flight (TOF) data as the target is scanned through the expected focal region. The method does not require external access to the sample or venting the vacuum chamber. Profile fitting employed to analyze the TOF data can extend resolution beyond the actual scanning step size.

  • 37. Johansson, Linda C.
    et al.
    Arnlund, David
    Katona, Gergely
    White, Thomas A.
    Barty, Anton
    DePonte, Daniel P.
    Shoeman, Robert L.
    Wickstrand, Cecilia
    Sharma, Amit
    Williams, Garth J.
    Aquila, Andrew
    Bogan, Michael J.
    Caleman, Carl
    Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.
    Davidsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Doak, R. Bruce
    Frank, Matthias
    Fromme, Raimund
    Galli, Lorenzo
    Grotjohann, Ingo
    Hunter, Mark S.
    Kassemeyer, Stephan
    Kirian, Richard A.
    Kupitz, Christopher
    Liang, Mengning
    Lomb, Lukas
    Malmerberg, Erik
    Martin, Andrew V.
    Messerschmidt, Marc
    Nass, Karol
    Redecke, Lars
    Seibert, M. Marvin
    Linac Coherent Light Source, LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, 94025 California, USA.
    Sjoehamn, Jennie
    Steinbrener, Jan
    Stellato, Francesco
    Wang, Dingjie
    Wahlgren, Weixaio Y.
    Weierstall, Uwe
    Westenhoff, Sebastian
    Zatsepin, Nadia A.
    Boutet, Sebastien
    Spence, John C. H.
    Schlichting, Ilme
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Fromme, Petra
    Neutze, Richard
    Structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre determined by serial femtosecond crystallography2013In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 4, no Article nr:2911Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serial femtosecond crystallography is an X-ray free-electron-laser-based method with considerable potential to have an impact on challenging problems in structural biology. Here we present X-ray diffraction data recorded from microcrystals of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction centre to 2.8 angstrom resolution and determine its serial femtosecond crystallography structure to 3.5 angstrom resolution. Although every microcrystal is exposed to a dose of 33MGy, no signs of X-ray-induced radiation damage are visible in this integral membrane protein structure.

  • 38. Johansson, Linda C
    et al.
    Arnlund, David
    White, Thomas A
    Katona, Gergely
    DePonte, Daniel P
    Weierstall, Uwe
    Doak, R Bruce
    Shoeman, Robert L
    Lomb, Lukas
    Malmerberg, Erik
    Davidsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Nass, Karol
    Liang, Mengning
    Andreasson, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Aquila, Andrew
    Bajt, Sasa
    Barthelmess, Miriam
    Barty, Anton
    Bogan, Michael J
    Bostedt, Christoph
    Bozek, John D
    Caleman, Carl
    Coffee, Ryan
    Coppola, Nicola
    Ekeberg, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Epp, Sascha W
    Erk, Benjamin
    Fleckenstein, Holger
    Foucar, Lutz
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Gumprecht, Lars
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Hampton, Christina Y
    Hartmann, Robert
    Hartmann, Andreas
    Hauser, Gunter
    Hirsemann, Helmut
    Holl, Peter
    Hunter, Mark S
    Kassemeyer, Stephan
    Kimmel, Nils
    Kirian, Richard A
    Maia, Filipe R N C
    Marchesini, Stefano
    Martin, Andrew V
    Reich, Christian
    Rolles, Daniel
    Rudek, Benedikt
    Rudenko, Artem
    Schlichting, Ilme
    Schulz, Joachim
    Seibert, M Marvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Sierra, Raymond G
    Soltau, Heike
    Starodub, Dmitri
    Stellato, Francesco
    Stern, Stephan
    Struder, Lothar
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Ullrich, Joachim
    Wahlgren, Weixiao Y
    Wang, Xiaoyu
    Weidenspointner, Georg
    Wunderer, Cornelia
    Fromme, Petra
    Chapman, Henry N
    Spence, John C H
    Neutze, Richard
    Lipidic phase membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography2012In: Nature Methods, ISSN 1548-7091, E-ISSN 1548-7105, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 263-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray free electron laser (X-FEL)-based serial femtosecond crystallography is an emerging method with potential to rapidly advance the challenging field of membrane protein structural biology. Here we recorded interpretable diffraction data from micrometer-sized lipidic sponge phase crystals of the Blastochloris viridis photosynthetic reaction center delivered into an X-FEL beam using a sponge phase micro-jet.

  • 39.
    Jönsson, H. Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. Center for Free- Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron.
    Andreasson, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics. Czech Academy of Science, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Hit detection in serial femtosecond crystallography using X-ray spectroscopy of plasma emission2017In: IUCrJ, ISSN 0972-6918, E-ISSN 2052-2525, Vol. 4, no 6, p. 778-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serial femtosecond crystallography is an emerging and promising method for determining protein structures, making use of the ultrafast and bright X-ray pulses from X-ray free-electron lasers. The upcoming X-ray laser sources will produce well above 1000pulses per second and will pose a new challenge: how to quickly determine successful crystal hits and avoid a high-rate data deluge. Proposed here is a hit-finding scheme based on detecting photons from plasma emission after the sample has been intercepted by the X-ray laser. Plasma emission spectra are simulated for systems exposed to high-intensity femtosecond pulses, for both protein crystals and the liquid carrier systems that are used for sample delivery. The thermal radiation from the glowing plasma gives a strong background in the XUV region that depends on the intensity of the pulse, around the emission lines from light elements (carbon, nitrogen, oxygen). Sample hits can be reliably distinguished from the carrier liquid based on the characteristic emission lines from heavier elements present only in the sample, such as sulfur. For buffer systems with sulfur present, selenomethionine substitution is suggested, where the selenium emission lines could be used both as an indication of a hit and as an aid in phasing and structural reconstruction of the protein.

  • 40.
    Jönsson, H. Olof
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Östlin, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Scott, Howard A.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Simulations of radiation damage as a function of the temporal pulse profile in femtosecond X-ray protein crystallography2015In: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, ISSN 0909-0495, E-ISSN 1600-5775, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 256-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography of protein nanocrystals using ultrashort and intense pulses from an X-ray free-electron laser has proved to be a successful method for structural determination. However, due to significant variations in diffraction pattern quality from pulse to pulse only a fraction of the collected frames can be used. Experimentally, the X-ray temporal pulse profile is not known and can vary with every shot. This simulation study describes how the pulse shape affects the damage dynamics, which ultimately affects the biological interpretation of electron density. The instantaneously detected signal varies during the pulse exposure due to the pulse properties, as well as the structural and electronic changes in the sample. Here ionization and atomic motion are simulated using a radiation transfer plasma code. Pulses with parameters typical for X-ray free-electron lasers are considered: pulse energies ranging from 10$\sp 4$ to 10$\sp 7$Jcm$\sp $-$2$ with photon energies from 2 to 12keV, up to 100fs long. Radiation damage in the form of sample heating that will lead to a loss of crystalline periodicity and changes in scattering factor due to electronic reconfigurations of ionized atoms are considered here. The simulations show differences in the dynamics of the radiation damage processes for different temporal pulse profiles and intensities, where ionization or atomic motion could be predominant. The different dynamics influence the recorded diffracted signal in any given resolution and will affect the subsequent structure determination.

  • 41. Koopmann, Rudolf
    et al.
    Cupelli, Karolina
    Redecke, Lars
    Nass, Karol
    DePonte, Daniel P
    White, Thomas A
    Stellato, Francesco
    Rehders, Dirk
    Liang, Mengning
    Andreasson, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Aquila, Andrew
    Bajt, Sasa
    Barthelmess, Miriam
    Barty, Anton
    Bogan, Michael J
    Bostedt, Christoph
    Boutet, Sebastien
    Bozek, John D
    Caleman, Carl
    Coppola, Nicola
    Davidsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Physical Chemistry.
    Doak, R Bruce
    Ekeberg, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Epp, Sascha W
    Erk, Benjamin
    Fleckenstein, Holger
    Foucar, Lutz
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Gumprecht, Lars
    Hajdu, Janos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Hampton, Christina Y
    Hartmann, Andreas
    Hartmann, Robert
    Hauser, Gunter
    Hirsemann, Helmut
    Holl, Peter
    Hunter, Mark S
    Kassemeyer, Stephan
    Kirian, Richard A
    Lomb, Lukas
    Maia, Filipe R N C
    Kimmel, Nils
    Martin, Andrew V
    Messerschmidt, Marc
    Reich, Christian
    Rolles, Daniel
    Rudek, Benedikt
    Rudenko, Artem
    Schlichting, Ilme
    Schulz, Joachim
    Seibert, M Marvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Shoeman, Robert L
    Sierra, Raymond G
    Soltau, Heike
    Stern, Stephan
    Struder, Lothar
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Ullrich, Joachim
    Wang, Xiaoyu
    Weidenspointner, Georg
    Weierstall, Uwe
    Williams, Garth J
    Wunderer, Cornelia B
    Fromme, Petra
    Spence, John C H
    Stehle, Thilo
    Chapman, Henry N
    Betzel, Christian
    Duszenko, Michael
    In vivo protein crystallization opens new routes in structural biology2012In: Nature Methods, ISSN 1548-7091, E-ISSN 1548-7105, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 259-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein crystallization in cells has been observed several times in nature. However, owing to their small size these crystals have not yet been used for X-ray crystallographic analysis. We prepared nano-sized in vivo–grown crystals of Trypanosoma brucei enzymes and applied the emerging method of free-electron laser-based serial femtosecond crystallography to record interpretable diffraction data. This combined approach will open new opportunities in structural systems biology.

  • 42. Kuepper, Jochen
    et al.
    Stern, Stephan
    Holmegaard, Lotte
    Filsinger, Frank
    Rouzee, Arnaud
    Rudenko, Artem
    Johnsson, Per
    Martin, Andrew V.
    Adolph, Marcus
    Aquila, Andrew
    Bajt, Sasa
    Barty, Anton
    Bostedt, Christoph
    Bozek, John
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Coffee, Ryan
    Coppola, Nicola
    Delmas, Tjark
    Epp, Sascha
    Erk, Benjamin
    Foucar, Lutz
    Gorkhover, Tais
    Gumprecht, Lars
    Hartmann, Andreas
    Hartmann, Robert
    Hauser, Guenter
    Holl, Peter
    Hoemke, Andre
    Kimmel, Nils
    Krasniqi, Faton
    Kuehnel, Kai-Uwe
    Maurer, Jochen
    Messerschmidt, Marc
    Moshammer, Robert
    Reich, Christian
    Rudek, Benedikt
    Santra, Robin
    Schlichting, Ilme
    Schmidt, Carlo
    Schorb, Sebastian
    Schulz, Joachim
    Soltau, Heike
    Spence, John C. H.
    Starodub, Dmitri
    Strueder, Lothar
    Thogersen, Jan
    Vrakking, Marc J. J.
    Weidenspointner, Georg
    White, Thomas A.
    Wunderer, Cornelia
    Meijer, Gerard
    Ullrich, Joachim
    Stapelfeldt, Henrik
    Rolles, Daniel
    Chapman, Henry N.
    X-Ray Diffraction from Isolated and Strongly Aligned Gas-Phase Molecules with a Free-Electron Laser2014In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 112, no 8, p. 083002-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report experimental results on x-ray diffraction of quantum-state-selected and strongly aligned ensembles of the prototypical asymmetric rotor molecule 2,5-diiodobenzonitrile using the Linac Coherent Light Source. The experiments demonstrate first steps toward a new approach to diffractive imaging of distinct structures of individual, isolated gas-phase molecules. We confirm several key ingredients of single molecule diffraction experiments: the abilities to detect and count individual scattered x-ray photons in single shot diffraction data, to deliver state-selected, e.g., structural-isomer-selected, ensembles of molecules to the x-ray interaction volume, and to strongly align the scattering molecules. Our approach, using ultrashort x-ray pulses, is suitable to study ultrafast dynamics of isolated molecules.

  • 43. Kupitz, Christopher
    et al.
    Basu, Shibom
    Grotjohann, Ingo
    Fromme, Raimund
    Zatsepin, Nadia A
    Rendek, Kimberly N
    Hunter, Mark S
    Shoeman, Robert L
    White, Thomas A
    Wang, Dingjie
    James, Daniel
    Yang, Jay-How
    Cobb, Danielle E
    Reeder, Brenda
    Sierra, Raymond G
    Liu, Haiguang
    Barty, Anton
    Aquila, Andrew L
    Deponte, Daniel
    Kirian, Richard A
    Bari, Sadia
    Bergkamp, Jesse J
    Beyerlein, Kenneth R
    Bogan, Michael J
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Chao, Tzu-Chiao
    Conrad, Chelsie E
    Davis, Katherine M
    Fleckenstein, Holger
    Galli, Lorenzo
    Hau-Riege, Stefan P
    Kassemeyer, Stephan
    Laksmono, Hartawan
    Liang, Mengning
    Lomb, Lukas
    Marchesini, Stefano
    Martin, Andrew V
    Messerschmidt, Marc
    Milathianaki, Despina
    Nass, Karol
    Ros, Alexandra
    Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi
    Schmidt, Kevin
    Seibert, Marvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Steinbrener, Jan
    Stellato, Francesco
    Yan, Lifen
    Yoon, Chunhong
    Moore, Thomas A
    Moore, Ana L
    Pushkar, Yulia
    Williams, Garth J
    Boutet, Sébastien
    Doak, R Bruce
    Weierstall, Uwe
    Frank, Matthias
    Chapman, Henry N
    Spence, John C H
    Fromme, Petra
    Serial time-resolved crystallography of photosystem II using a femtosecond X-ray laser2014In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 513, no 7517, p. 261-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photosynthesis, a process catalysed by plants, algae and cyanobacteria converts sunlight to energy thus sustaining all higher life on Earth. Two large membrane protein complexes, photosystem I and II (PSI and PSII), act in series to catalyse the light-driven reactions in photosynthesis. PSII catalyses the light-driven water splitting process, which maintains the Earth's oxygenic atmosphere. In this process, the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII cycles through five states, S0 to S4, in which four electrons are sequentially extracted from the OEC in four light-driven charge-separation events. Here we describe time resolved experiments on PSII nano/microcrystals from Thermosynechococcus elongatus performed with the recently developed technique of serial femtosecond crystallography. Structures have been determined from PSII in the dark S1 state and after double laser excitation (putative S3 state) at 5 and 5.5 Å resolution, respectively. The results provide evidence that PSII undergoes significant conformational changes at the electron acceptor side and at the Mn4CaO5 core of the OEC. These include an elongation of the metal cluster, accompanied by changes in the protein environment, which could allow for binding of the second substrate water molecule between the more distant protruding Mn (referred to as the 'dangler' Mn) and the Mn3CaOx cubane in the S2 to S3 transition, as predicted by spectroscopic and computational studies. This work shows the great potential for time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography for investigation of catalytic processes in biomolecules.

  • 44. Larsson, J.
    et al.
    Synnergren, O.
    Hansen, T.N.
    Sokolowski-Tinten, K.
    Werin, S.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Hajdu, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Shepherd, J.
    Wark, J.S.
    Lindenberg, A.M.
    Gaffney, K.J.
    Hastings, J.B.
    Opportunities and challenges using short-pulse X-ray sources.2005In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series 21: Second International Conference on Photo-induced Phase Transitions, 2005, p. 87-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-electron lasers will change the way we carry out time-resolved X-ray experiments. At present date, we use laser-produced plasma sources or synchrotron radiation. Laser-produced plasma sources have short pulses, but unfortunately large pulse-to-pulse fluctuations and large divergence. Synchrotron radiation from third generation source provide collimated and stable beams, but unfortunately long pulses. This means that either the timeresolution is limited to 100 ps or rather complex set-ups involving slicing or streak cameras are needed. Hard X-ray free-electron lasers will combine the best properties of present-day sources and increase the number of photons by many orders of magnitude. Already today, a precursor to the free-electron lasers has been built at Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre (SLAC). The Sub-Picosecond Photon Source (SPPS) has already shown the opportunities and challenges of using short-pulse X-ray sources.

  • 45. Lindenberg, A M
    et al.
    Larsson, J
    Sokolowski-Tinten, K
    Gaffney, K J
    Blome, C
    Synnergren, O
    Sheppard, J
    Caleman, C
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molekylär biofysik.
    Macphee, A G
    Weinstein, D
    Lowney, D P
    Allison, T K
    Matthews, T
    Falcone, R W
    Cavalieri, A L
    Fritz, D M
    Lee, S H
    Bucksbaum, P H
    Reis, D A
    Rudati, J
    Fuoss, P H
    Kao, C C
    Siddons, D P
    Pahl, R
    Als-Nielsen, J
    Duesterer, S
    Ischebeck, R
    Schlarb, H
    Schulte-Schrepping, H
    Tschentscher, Th
    Schneider, J
    von der Linde, D
    Hignette, O
    Sette, F
    Chapman, H N
    Lee, R W
    Hansen, T N
    Techert, S
    Wark, J S
    Bergh, M
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molekylär biofysik.
    Huldt, G
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molekylär biofysik.
    van der Spoel, D
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molekylär biofysik.
    Timneanu, N
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molekylär biofysik.
    Hajdu, J
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Molekylär biofysik.
    Akre, R A
    Bong, E
    Krejcik, P
    Arthur, J
    Brennan, S
    Luening, K
    Hastings, J B
    Atomic-scale visualization of inertial dynamics.2005In: Science, ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 308, no 5720, p. 392-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The motion of atoms on interatomic potential energy surfaces is fundamental to the dynamics of liquids and solids. An accelerator-based source of femtosecond x-ray pulses allowed us to follow directly atomic displacements on an optically modified energy landscape, leading eventually to the transition from crystalline solid to disordered liquid. We show that, to first order in time, the dynamics are inertial, and we place constraints on the shape and curvature of the transition-state potential energy surface. Our measurements point toward analogies between this nonequilibrium phase transition and the short-time dynamics intrinsic to equilibrium liquids.

  • 46. Lindenberg, A.M.
    et al.
    Gaffney, K.
    Hastings, J.B.
    Larsson, J.
    Synnergren, O.
    Sokolowski-Tinten, K.
    Sheppard, J.
    Blome, C.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Ultrafast x-ray measurements of inertial atomic-scale motion2005In: Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, 2005, p. 742-744Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a new, accelerator-based source of femtosecond x-rays, we directly measure atomic displacements on an optically-modified potential energy surface. It is shown that the short time dynamics are predominantly inertial in character.

  • 47. Lomb, Lukas
    et al.
    Barends, Thomas R. M.
    Kassemeyer, Stephan
    Aquila, Andrew
    Epp, Sascha W.
    Erk, Benjamin
    Foucar, Lutz
    Hartmann, Robert
    Rudek, Benedikt
    Rolles, Daniel
    Rudenko, Artem
    Shoeman, Robert L.
    Andreasson, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Bajt, Sasa
    Barthelmess, Miriam
    Barty, Anton
    Bogan, Michael J.
    Bostedt, Christoph
    Bozek, John D.
    Caleman, Carl
    Coffee, Ryan
    Coppola, Nicola
    DePonte, Daniel P.
    Doak, R. Bruce
    Ekeberg, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Fleckenstein, Holger
    Fromme, Petra
    Gebhardt, Maike
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Gumprecht, Lars
    Hampton, Christina Y.
    Hartmann, Andreas
    Hauser, Guenter
    Hirsemann, Helmut
    Holl, Peter
    Holton, James M.
    Hunter, Mark S.
    Kabsch, Wolfgang
    Kimmel, Nils
    Kirian, Richard A.
    Liang, Mengning
    Maia, Filipe R. N. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Meinhart, Anton
    Marchesini, Stefano
    Martin, Andrew V.
    Nass, Karol
    Reich, Christian
    Schulz, Joachim
    Seibert, M. Marvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Sierra, Raymond
    Soltau, Heike
    Spence, John C. H.
    Steinbrener, Jan
    Stellato, Francesco
    Stern, Stephan
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Wang, Xiaoyu
    Weidenspointner, Georg
    Weierstall, Uwe
    White, Thomas A.
    Wunderer, Cornelia
    Chapman, Henry N.
    Ullrich, Joachim
    Strüder, Lothar
    Schlichting, Ilme
    Radiation damage in protein serial femtosecond crystallography using an x-ray free-electron laser2011In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 84, no 21, p. 214111-1-214111-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray free-electron lasers deliver intense femtosecond pulses that promise to yield high resolution diffraction data of nanocrystals before the destruction of the sample by radiation damage. Diffraction intensities of lysozyme nanocrystals collected at the Linac Coherent Light Source using 2 keV photons were used for structure determination by molecular replacement and analyzed for radiation damage as a function of pulse length and fluence. Signatures of radiation damage are observed for pulses as short as 70 fs. Parametric scaling used in conventional crystallography does not account for the observed effects.

  • 48.
    Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry. Univ Oxford, Dept Chem, Phys & Theoret Chem Lab, South Parks Rd, Oxford GB 0X1 3QZ, England..
    Ekeberg, Tomas
    DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, DE-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Moog, Mathieu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Benesch, Justin L. P.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Chem, Phys & Theoret Chem Lab, South Parks Rd, Oxford GB 0X1 3QZ, England..
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics. DESY, Ctr Free Electron Laser Sci, DE-22607 Hamburg, Germany..
    Controlling Protein Orientation in Vacuum Using Electric Fields2017In: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, ISSN 1948-7185, E-ISSN 1948-7185, Vol. 8, no 18, p. 4540-4544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-particle imaging using X-ray free-electron lasers is an emerging technique that could provide high-resolution structures of macromolecules in the gas phase. One of the largest difficulties in realizing this goal is the unknown orientation of the individual sample molecules at the time of exposure. Preorientation of the molecules has been identified as a possible solution to this problem. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we identify a range of electric field strengths where proteins become oriented without losing their structure. For a number of experimentally relevant cases we show that structure determination is possible only when orientation information is included in the orientation-recovery process. We conclude that nondestructive field orientation of intact proteins is feasible and that it enables a range of new structural investigations with single particle imaging.

  • 49.
    Marklund, Erik G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Larsson, Daniel S. D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    van der Spoel, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Patriksson, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Caleman, Carl
    Physik-Department E17, Technische Universität München,.
    Structural stability of electrosprayed proteins: temperature and hydration effects2009In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 11, no 36, p. 8069-8078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrospray ionization is a gentle method for sample delivery, routinely used in gas-phase studies of proteins. It is crucial for structural investigations that the protein structure is preserved, and a good understanding of how structure is affected by the transition to the gas phase is needed for the tuning of experiments to meet that requirement. Small amounts of residual solvent have been shown to protect the protein, but temperature is important too, although it is not well understood how the latter affects structural details. Using molecular dynamics we have simulated four sparingly hydrated globular proteins (Trp-cage; Ctf, a C-terminal fragment of a bacterial ribosomal protein; ubiquitin; and lysozyme) in vacuum starting at temperatures ranging from 225 K to 425 K. For three of the proteins, our simulations show that a water layer corresponding to 3 angstrom preserves the protein structure in vacuum, up to starting temperatures of 425 K. Only Ctf shows minor secondary structural changes at lower starting temperatures. The structural conservation stems mainly from interactions with the surrounding water. Temperature scales in simulations are not directly translatable into experiments, but the wide temperature range in which we find the proteins to be stable is reassuring for the success of future single particle imaging experiments. The water molecules aggregate in clusters and form patterns on the protein surface, maintaining a reproducible hydrogen bonding network. The simulations were performed mainly using OPLS-AA/L, with cross checks using AMBER03 and GROMOS96 53a6. Only minor differences between the results from the three different force fields were observed.

  • 50. Martin, Andrew V.
    et al.
    Corso, Justine K.
    Caleman, Carl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics.
    Timneanu, Nicusor
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and condensed matter physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular biophysics.
    Quiney, Harry M.
    Single-molecule imaging with longer X-ray laser pulses2015In: IUCrJ, ISSN 0972-6918, E-ISSN 2052-2525, Vol. 2, p. 661-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last five years, serial femtosecond crystallography using X-ray laser pulses has been developed into a powerful technique for determining the atomic structures of protein molecules from micrometre- and sub-micrometre-sized crystals. One of the key reasons for this success is the ‘self-gating’ pulse effect, whereby the X-ray laser pulses do not need to outrun all radiation damage processes. Instead, X-ray-induced damage terminates the Bragg diffraction prior to the pulse completing its passage through the sample, as if the Bragg diffraction were generated by a shorter pulse of equal intensity. As a result, serial femtosecond crystallography does not need to be performed with pulses as short as 5–10fs, but can succeed for pulses 50–100fs in duration. It is shown here that a similar gating effect applies to single-molecule diffraction with respect to spatially uncorrelated damage processes like ionization and ion diffusion. The effect is clearly seen in calculations of the diffraction contrast, by calculating the diffraction of the average structure separately to the diffraction from statistical fluctuations of the structure due to damage (‘damage noise’). The results suggest that sub-nanometre single-molecule imaging with 30–50fs pulses, like those produced at currently operating facilities, should not yet be ruled out. The theory presented opens up new experimental avenues to measure the impact of damage on single-particle diffraction, which is needed to test damage models and to identify optimal imaging conditions.

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