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  • 1. Demakopoulou, Katie
    et al.
    Schallin, Ann-Louise
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Antikens kultur och samhällsliv.
    Excavations in Midea 2003: B. East Gate Area. Outside the East Gate: Trench 4 with extensions 4B, 4C and 4D and Cleanings 1-52004In: Opuscula Atheniensia: Annual of the Swedish Institute at Athens, ISSN 0078-5520, Vol. 29, p. 22-25Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Finné, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Holmgren, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Sundqvist, Hanna S.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Lindblom, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Climate in the eastern Mediterranean, and adjacent regions, during the past 6000 years: A review2011In: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238, Vol. 38, no 12, p. 3153-3173Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The eastern Mediterranean, with its long archaeological and historical records, provides a unique opportunity to study human responses to climate variability. We review paleoclimate data and reconstructions from the region with a focus on the last 6000 years. We aim to provide an up-to-date source of information on climate variability and to outline present limitations and future opportunities. The review work is threefold: (1) literature review, (2) spatial and temporal analysis of proxy records, and (3) statistical estimation of uncertainties in present paleoclimate reconstructions (temperature, °C). On a regional scale the review reveals a wetter situation from 6000 to 5400 yrs BP (note: all ages in this paper are in calibrated years before present (i.e. before 1950), abbreviated yrs BP, unless otherwise stated). This is followed by a less wet period leading up to one of fully-developed aridity from c. 4600 yrs BP. There is a need for more high-resolution paleoclimate records, in order to (i) better understand regional patterns and trends versus local climate variability and to (ii) fill the gap of data from some regions, such as the Near East, Greece and Egypt. Further, we evaluate the regional occurrence of a proposed widespread climate event at 4200 yrs BP. This proposed climate anomaly has been used to explain profound changes in human societies at different locations in the region around this time. We suggest that although aridity was widespread around 4200 yrs BP in the eastern Mediterranean region, there is not enough evidence to support the notion of a climate event with rapidly drying conditions in this region.

  • 3. Hughes, Ryan E.
    et al.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Bonnier, Anton
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Finné, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Kaplan, Jed O.
    Quantifying Land Use in Past Societies from Cultural Practice and Archaeological Data2018In: Land, ISSN ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative reconstructions of past land use facilitate comparisons between livelihoods in space and time. However, comparison between different types of land use strategies is challenging as land use has a multitude of expressions and intensities. The quantitative method presented here facilitates the exploration and synthetization of uneven archaeological and textual evidence from past societies. The approach quantifies the area required for habitation, agriculture, arboriculture, pasturage, and fuel supply, based on a combination of archaeological, historical, ethnographic and modern evidence from the relevant geographical region. It is designed to stimulate discussion and can be used to test a wide range of hypotheses regarding local and regional economies, ancient trade and redistribution, and the resilience and/or vulnerability of past societies to environmental change. The method also helps identify where our gaps in knowledge are in understanding past human–environment interaction, the ecological footprint of past cultures and their influence on the landscape in a transparent and quantitative manner. The present article focuses especially on the impact of dietary estimates and crop yield estimates, two main elements in calculating land use in past societies due to their uncertainty as well as their significant impact on calculations. By employing archaeological data, including botanical, zoological and isotopic evidence, alongside available textual sources, this method seeks to improve land use and land cover change models by increasing their representativeness and accuracy.

  • 4.
    Izdebski, Adam
    et al.
    Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Institute of History.
    Holmgren, Karin
    Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Stocker, Sharon R
    University of Cincinnati, Department of Classics.
    Büntgen, Ulf
    Florenzano, Assunta
    Gogou, Alexandra
    Leroy, Suzanne A.G.
    Luterbacher, Jürg
    Martrat, Belen
    Masi, Alessia
    Mercuri, Anna Maria
    Montagna, Paolo
    Sadori, Laura
    Schneider, Adam
    Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine
    Triantaphyllou, Maria
    Xoplaki, Elena
    Realising consilience: How better communication between archaeologists, historians and natural scientists can transform the study of past climate change in the Mediterranean2016In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 136, p. 5-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the methodological and practical issues relevant to the ways in which natural scientists, historians and archaeologists may collaborate in the study of past climatic changes in the Mediterranean basin. We begin by discussing the methodologies of these three disciplines in the context of the consilience debate, that is, attempts to unify different research methodologies that address similar problems. We demonstrate that there are a number of similarities in the fundamental methodology between history, archaeology, and the natural sciences that deal with the past (“palaeoenvironmental sciences”), due to their common interest in studying societal and environmental phenomena that no longer exist. The three research traditions, for instance, employ specific narrative structures as a means of communicating research results. We thus present and compare the narratives characteristic of each discipline; in order to engage in fruitful interdisciplinary exchange, we must first understand how each deals with the societal impacts of climatic change. In the second part of the paper, we focus our discussion on the four major practical issues that hinder communication between the three disciplines. These include terminological misunderstandings, problems relevant to project design, divergences in publication cultures, and differing views on the impact of research. Among other recommendations, we suggest that scholars from the three disciplines should aim to create a joint publication culture, which should also appeal to a wider public, both inside and outside of academia.

  • 5. Schallin, Ann-Louise
    et al.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Excavations in Midea 2002: B. East Gate Area. The area outside the gate (Trench 4)2003In: Opuscula Atheniensia: Annual of the Swedish Institute at Athens, ISSN 0078-5520, Vol. 28, p. 20-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    An Early Helladic burial: Connectingthe living and the dead2013In: Perspectives on ancient Greece: Papers in celebrationof the 60th anniversary ofthe Swedish Institute at Athens / [ed] Ann-Louise Schallin, Stockholm: Svenska institutet i Athen , 2013, p. 29-47Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Contrasting Histories in Early Bronze Age Aegean: Uniformity, Regionalism and the Resilience of Societies in the Northeast Peloponnese and Central Crete2017In: Cambridge Archaeological Journal, ISSN 0959-7743, E-ISSN 1474-0540, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 479-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Late Early Bronze Age (EB IIB-III, 2500-2000 BC) evidence from the northeast Peloponnese and central Crete present two coeval sequences of events with very different societal outcomes. By drawing on resilience theory and the model of adaptive cycles, this article explores when and why the paths of mainland Greece and Crete diverged around 2200 BC, leading to an eventually destabilizing change on the mainland and a more sustainable one on Crete. It is argued that the two EB II societal structures were more similar than current discourse generally allows. However, during some hundred years leading up to the end of the EB II period, an increased societal uniformity and a decrease of social arenas on northeast Peloponnese may in the end have circumscribed the Early Helladic communities' room to manoeuvre. Conversely, through strong regionalism and greater multiplicity of social arenas, Early Minoan societies seem to have retained a greater level of socio-economic variability that enabled proactiveness and sustained expansion through ideological change.

  • 8.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Forntider: Tankar om tidens gång i förhistoriska samhällen2013In: Institutionens historier: En vänbok till Gullög Nordquist / [ed] Erika Weiberg, Susanne Carlsson och Gunnel Ekroth, Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2013, p. 291-301Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Klimat, miljö och forntida samhällen.: Vad vi vill veta - och varför?2016In: Kungl. Humanistiska Vetenskaps-Samfundet i Uppsalas årsbok, Vol. 2014, p. 181-187Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Lerna, A Preclassical Site in the Argolid.: Vol. 6, The Settlement and Architecture of Lerna IV2014In: American Journal of Archaeology, ISSN 0002-9114, E-ISSN 1939-828X, Vol. 118, no 3Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History. Antikens kultur och samhällsliv.
    Levande landskap. Om religiös topografi i antikens Grekland2003In: Medusa. Svensk tidsskrift för antiken, ISSN 0349-456X, Vol. 3, p. 31-41Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Pictures and people: Seals, figurines and Peloponnesian imagery2010In: Opuscula. Annual of the Swedish Institutes at Athens and Rome, ISSN 2000-0898, Vol. 3, p. 185-218Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Production of female figurines at Mastos, Berbati2009In: Encounters with Mycenaean figures and figurines : Papers presented at a seminar at the Swedish Institute at Athens, 27-29 April 2001 / [ed] Ann-Louise Schallin & Petra Pakkanen, Stockholm: Svenska institutet i Athen , 2009, p. 61-75Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Recension: D.J. Pullen, Nemea Valley Archaeological Project Volume I: The Early Bronze Age Village of Tsoungiza Hill, Princeton: The American School of Classical Studies at Athens, 2011.2012In: The Classical journal, ISSN 0009-8353, E-ISSN 2327-5812Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Samhällsomdaning – kris,kollaps eller möjlighet?2017In: Statsvetenskaplig Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-0747, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 315-328Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    The invisible dead: The case of the Argolid and Corinthia during the Early Bronze Age2011In: Honouring the Dead in the Peloponnese: Proceedings of the conference held at Sparta 23-25 April 2009 / [ed] Helen Cavanagh, William Cavanagh, James Roy, 2011, p. 781-796Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of archaeologists finding the dead of any society is ultimately dependent on the way in which groups of people in different cultures and times chose to handle the dead of their communities. For the Argolid and Corinthia during the Early Bronze Age, the mortuary record is very limited. How are we to interpret our failure to locate these Early Helladic dead? This paper sets out to analyse this problem through a consideration of the existingmaterial and comparative Early Helladic data in the search of the missing majority and the meaning of the present few.

  • 17.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Timing, perception and response: Human dimensions of erosison and sedimentation in the Greek Bronze Age2014In: PHYSIS: L'environnement naturel et la relation homme-milieu dans le monde égéen protohistorique: Actes de la 14e Rencontre égéenne internationale,Paris, Institut National d’Histoire de l’Art (INHA), 11-14 décembre 2012 / [ed] Touchais G., Laffineur R., Rougemont F., Liège: Peeters Publishers, 2014, p. 33-40Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Topography and settlement: perception of the bounded space2009In: HELIKE IV: THE FOURTH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ANCIENT HELIKE AND AIGIALEIA : THE EARLY HELLADIC PELOPONNESOS / [ed] Dora Katsonopoulou, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Verkligheten bakom arkeologin?: En berättelse kring ett tidighelladiskt dödsfall2010In: Medusa. Svensk tidsskrift för antiken, ISSN 0349-456X, Vol. 1, p. 34-43Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Weiberg, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    What can Resilience Theory do for (Aegean) Archaeology?2012In: Matters of scale: Processes and courses of events in archaeology and cultural history / [ed] N.M. Burström, F. Fahlander, Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2012, p. 146-165Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Weiberg, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Finné, Martin
    Naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi, Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Mind or matter?: People-Environment Interactions and the Demise of the Early Helladic II Society in the Northeastern Peloponnese2013In: American Journal of Archaeology, ISSN 0002-9114, E-ISSN 1939-828X, Vol. 117, no 1, p. 1-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The centuries surrounding 2200 B.C.E. (the year commonly used to mark the transition between the second and third phases of the Early Bronze Age) were transformative times in the Aegean. At some locations, development continued and accelerated; in many places, however, several societal characteristics and supraregional traits seem to have been abandoned. Life continued through these changes, but it appears to have been altered and simplified. In this review of previous research on the period, the geographic focus is on the northeastern Peloponnese, and the interpretative focus is on the human dimension behind the events. This case study explores the framework of resilience theory - and the new questions it stimulates - to form a better understanding of the actual composition of the changes and their complexity. For archaeology, a focus on resilience could be a focus on human creativity in dealing with life through continually changing circumstances. We argue, therefore, that resilience theory offers a compelling way to map and understand the cultural change documented in the archaeological record of the Mediterranean.

  • 22.
    Weiberg, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Lindblom, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    The Early Helladic II–III Transition at Lerna and Tiryns Revisited: Chronological Difference or Synchronous Variability?2014In: Hesperia, ISSN 0018-098X, E-ISSN 1553-5622, Vol. 83, no 3, p. 383-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lerna and the Lower Citadel of Tiryns are key sites for understanding the Early Helladic II–III transition in the northeastern Peloponnese. We argue that the differences between the two settlements do not reflect chronological variation, but rather the ways in which each settlement responded to events ca. 2200 b.c. The ceramic and architectural sequences are used to illustrate the divergent strategies practiced by the inhabitants of each site. Lerna III–IV epitomizes the renegotiation of social values during a period when centralized decision-making and coordination of economic activities was disintegrating. Activities in the coeval Lower Citadel of Tiryns, on the other hand, reflect the maintenance of continuity in a domestic setting.

  • 23.
    Weiberg, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Lindblom, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Finné, Martin
    Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University.
    Holmgren, Karin
    Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University.
    Svunna landskap2010In: Hellenika, ISSN 0348-0100, Vol. 132, p. 14-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Weiberg, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Lindblom, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Sjöberg, Birgitta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Nordquist, Gullög
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Social and Environmental Dynamics in Bronze and Iron Age Greece2010In: The Urban Mind: Cultural and Environmental Dynamics / [ed] Paul J.J. Sinclair, Gullög Nordquist, Frands Herschend & Christian Isendahl, Uppsala: Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University , 2010, p. 149-194Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors present an overview of cultural and social resilience during more than two thousand years of fluctuating environmental circumstances in the Greek Bronze and Iron Ages. Central for discussions are four case studies focusing on discontinuities during periods of heightened societal stress combined with suggested climatic or environmental instability.

    Topics under discussion are how past environmental changes and cultural responses interact. Attempts to reconstruct human sustainability in the light of shifting environmental circumstances should aim to establish a firm sequence of events. Other important factors are discrepancies and inadequacies of environmental and archaeological datasets in the Aegean, and intra-regional variation where small-scale environmental changes have affected even neighbouring valley systems in different ways. Human decision-making and agency have been continually underestimated and under-explored, and the actual outcome of events after episodes or processes of environmental change lies in how they were perceived and dealt with by the people affected. All four case studies contain discussions on societal complexity, whether waxing or waning, and overexploitation with resulting degradation of lands is a factor for three of the four case studies. A significant change around 2200 and 1100 BCE is the disappearance on a supra-regional scale of common features in material culture, and the shift to regionalism and small-scale life, while a reverse development can be seen around 1600 BCE and 700 BCE. 

  • 25.
    Weiberg, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Classical archaeology and ancient history.
    Unkel, Ingmar
    Kouli, Katerina
    Holmgren, Karin
    Avramidis, Pavlos
    Bonnier, Anton
    Dibble, Flint
    Finné, Martin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden; Navarino Environm Observ, Costa Navarino 24001, Messinia, Greece .
    Izdebski, Adam
    Katrantsiotis, Christos
    Stocker, Sharon R.
    Andwinge, Maria
    Baika, Kalliope
    Boyd, Meighan
    Heymann, Christian
    The socio-environmental history of the Peloponnese during the Holocene: Towards an integrated understanding of the past2016In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 136, p. 40-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Published archaeological, palaeoenvironmental, and palaeoclimatic data from the Peloponnese in Greece are compiled, discussed and evaluated in order to analyse the interactions between humans and the environment over the last 9000 years. Our study indicates that the number of human settlements found scattered over the peninsula have quadrupled from the prehistoric to historical periods and that this evolution occurred over periods of climate change and seismo–tectonic activity. We show that societal development occurs both during periods of harsh as well as favourable climatic conditions. At some times, some settlements develop while others decline. Well-known climate events such as the 4.2 ka and 3.2 ka events are recognizable in some of the palaeoclimatic records and a regional decline in the number and sizes of settlements occurs roughly at the same time, but their precise chronological fit with the archaeological record remains uncertain. Local socio-political processes were probably always the key drivers behind the diverse strategies that human societies took in times of changing climate. The study thus reveals considerable chronological parallels between societal development and palaeoenvironmental records, but also demonstrates the ambiguities in these correspondences and, in doing so, highlights some of the challenges that will face future interdisciplinary projects. We suggest that there can be no general association made between societal expansion phases and periods of advantageous climate. We also propose that the relevance of climatic and environmental regionality, as well as any potential impacts of seismo-tectonics on societal development, need to be part of the interpretative frameworks.

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