We performed a systematic density functional (DF) study of the adsorption of copper, silver, and gold adatoms on pristine graphene, especially accounting for van der Waals (vdW) interactions by the vdW-DF and PBE + D2 methods. In particular, we analyze the preferred adsorption site (among top, bridge, and hollow positions) together with the corresponding distortion of the graphene sheet and identify diffusion paths. Both vdW schemes show that the coinage metal atoms do bind to the graphene sheet and that in some cases the buckling of the graphene layer can be significant. Only the results for silver are qualitatively at variance with those obtained with the generalized gradient approximation, which gives no binding in this case. However in all three cases, we observe some quantitative differences between the vdW-DF and PBE + D2 methods. For instance the adsorption energies calculated with the PBE + D2 method are systematically higher than the ones obtained with vdW-DF. Moreover, the equilibrium distances computed with PBE + D2 are shorter than those calculated with the vdW-DF method.
Motivated by the experimentally observed high mobility of gold atoms on graphene and their tendency to form nanometer-sized clusters, we present a density functional theory study of the ground state structures of small gold clusters on graphene, their mobility and clustering. Our detailed analysis of the electronic structures identifies the opportunity to form strong gold-gold bonds and the graphene-mediated interaction of the pre-adsorbed fragments as the driving forces behind gold's tendency to aggregate on graphene. While clusters containing up to three gold atoms have one unambiguous ground state structure, both gas phase isomers of a cluster with four gold atoms can be found on graphene. In the gas phase the diamond-shaped Au-4(D) cluster is the ground state structure, whereas the Y-shaped Au-4(Y) becomes the actual ground state when adsorbed on graphene. As we show, both clusters can be produced on graphene by two distinct clustering processes. We also studied in detail the stepwise formation of a gold dimer out of two pre-adsorbed adatoms, as well as the formation of Au-3. All reactions are exothermic and no further activation barriers, apart from the diffusion barriers, were found. The diffusion barriers of all studied clusters range from 4 to 36 meV only, and are substantially exceeded by the adsorption energies of -0.1 to -0.59 eV. This explains the high mobility of Au1-4 on graphene along the C-C bonds.
We report on the experimental realization of tetragonal Fe-Co alloys as a constituent of Fe(0.36)Co(0.64)/Pt superlattices with huge perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy, reaching 210 mu eV/atom, and a saturation magnetization of 2.5 mu(B)/atom at 40 K, in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. At room temperature the corresponding values 150 mu eV/atom and 2.2 mu(B)/atom are achieved. This suggests that Fe-Co alloys with carefully chosen combinations of composition and distortion are good candidates for high-density perpendicular storage materials.
The effect of hydrogenation on the crystalstructure and magneticstate of Pd_{3}Mn has been calculated using a full-potential linear augmented plane wave method in the local spin density approximation.When hydrogenated the system is observed to transform from the tetragonal Al_{3}Zr structure to the cubic Cu_{3}Au structure. When hydrogen is removed the system remains in a meta-stable cubic phase for an extended period of time. The structural transformations are associated with a change in the magneticstate. Our theoretical results of magnetic as well as crystalstructure stability are in agreement with experiments, especially the destabilization of the tetragonal structure for increased hydrogen concentration and complex magneticstructure of the cubic phases. The latter is analyzed in terms of Fermi surface nesting.
We have calculated the change in the electronic structure and the distortion of the lattice in vanadium upon hydrogenation from first principles using the full-potential linear muffin-tin-orbital method and the linear augmented plane-wave method in the local-density approximation. The calculated hydrogen induced volume expansions agree with experiment and the change in the c/a ratio is also in good agreement with observations where such are available for single phase VH_{x}. Among several changes in the electronic structure, we note a hybridization of the d band of vanadium with the hydrogen 1s band. We also observe an antiferromagnetically ordered moment at V/V_{exp}=1.08. The possibility of producing magnetic V by means of hydrogenation in combination with epitaxial growth is suggested.
The effect of hydrogenation on the magnetic and electronic state of cubic Pd3Mn has been calculated using a full-potential linear augmented plane-wave method in the local spin-density approximation. A complex magnetic structure is found in very good agreement with experiment. For the nonhydrogenated system we observe a noncommensurate spin spiral although we cannot identify the ground state of the spin structure as the total energy of the trigonal spin structure is almost degenerate with the total energy of the tetragonal spin structure. When hydrogenated the direction of the spiral is aligned along the (001) axis. The spin structures agree with experiment and are connected to features on the calculated Fermi surfaces.
In this paper, we use a multiscale approach to describe a realistic model of a permanent magnet based on MnAl tau-phase and elucidate how the antiphase boundary defects present in this material affect the energy product. We show how the extrinsic properties of a microstructure depend on the intrinsic properties of a structure with defects by performing micromagnetic simulations. For an accurate estimation of the energy product of a realistic permanent magnet based on the MnAl tau-phase with antiphase boundaries, we quantify exchange interaction strength across the antiphase boundary defect with a simple approach derived from first-principles calculations. These two types of calculations, performed at different scales, are linked via atomistic spin-dynamics simulations.
The electronic structure of MgH2 is studied using the state of the art all-electron projector-augmented-wave GW approximation. Both the ground-state and the high-pressure transformations are considered in this investigation. We have found an indirect (direct) band-gap of 5.58 eV (6.52 eV) for α-MgH2, which has a good agreement with the experimental findings. For the γ- and β-phases, we have found indirect (direct) band-gap values of 5.24 eV (5.33 eV) and 3.90 eV (4.72 eV), respectively. The optical properties are investigated by means of the complex dielectric function, which is calculated within the framework of a full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method and corrected by scissor operators. All phases are found to be color neutral insulators.
We report on the magnetic damping properties of polycrystalline Fe−V alloy thin films that are deposited at room temperature. By varying the concentration of V in the alloy, the saturation magnetization can be adjusted from that of Fe to near zero. We show that exceptionally low values of the damping parameter can be maintained over the majority of this range, with a minimum damping at approximately 15%–20% V concentration. Such a minimum is qualitatively reproduced with ab initio calculations of the damping parameter, although at a concentration closer to 10% V. The measured intrinsic damping has a minimum value of (1.53 ± 0.08) × 10^{−3}, which is approximately a factor of 3 higher than our calculated value of 0.48 × 10^{−3}. From first-principles theory, we outline the factors that are mainly responsible for the trend of the damping parameter in these alloys. In particular, the band structure and resulting damping mechanism is shown to change at V concentrations greater than approximately 35% V content.
The spin and orbital moments of Au/Co/Au trilayers grown on a W(110) single crystal substrate have been investigated by means of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Our findings suggest that the orbital moment of Co does not obtain a maximum value along the easy axis, in contrast with previous experience. This is attributed to the large spin-orbit interaction within the Au caps. Both second order perturbation theory and first principles calculations show how the magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MCA) is dramatically influenced by this effect, and how this leads to the fact that the orbital moment anisotropy is not proportional to the MCA.
Continuous variable entanglement between magnon modes in Heisenberg antiferromagnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction is examined. Different bosonic modes are identified, which allows us to establish a hierarchy of magnon entanglement. We argue that entanglement between magnon modes is determined by a simple lattice-specific parameter, together with the ratio of the strengths of the DM and Heisenberg exchange interactions, and that magnon entanglement can be detected by means of quantum homodyne techniques. As an illustration of the relevance of our findings for possible entanglement experiments in the solid state, a typical antiferromagnet with the perovskite crystal structure is considered, and it is shown that long wave length magnon modes have a maximal degree of entanglement.
We examine entanglement of thermal states for spin-1/2 dimers in external magnetic fields. Entanglement transition in the temperature-magnetic-field plane demonstrates a duality in spin-spin interactions. This identifies a pair of dual categories of symmetric and antisymmetric dimers with each category classified into toric entanglement classes. The entanglement transition line is preserved from each toric entanglement class to its dual toric class. The toric classification is an indication of the topological signature of the entanglement, which bring about topological stability that could be relevant for quantum information processing.
The detection of magnons and their quantum properties, especially in antiferromagnetic (AFM) materials, is a substantial step to realize many ambitious advances in the study of nanomagnetism and the development of energy efficient quantum technologies. The recent development of hybrid systems based on superconducting circuits provides the possibility to engineer quantum sensors that exploit different degrees of freedom. Here, we examine the magnon-photon-transmon hybridization based on bipartite AFM materials, which gives rise to an effective coupling between a transmon qubit and magnons in a bipartite AFM. We demonstrate how magnon modes, their chiralities, and quantum properties, such as nonlocality and two-mode magnon entanglement in bipartite AFMs, can be characterized through the Rabi frequency of the superconducting transmon qubit.
Quantum magnonics is an emerging research field, with great potential for applications in magnon based hybrid systems and quantum information processing. Quantum correlation, such as entanglement, is a central resource in many quantum information protocols that naturally comes about in any study toward quantum technologies. This applies also to quantum magnonics. Here, we investigate antiferromagnetic coupling of two ferromagnetic sublattices that can have two different magnon modes. We show how this may lead to experimentally measurable bipartite continuous-variable magnon-magnon entanglement. The entanglement can be fully characterized via a single squeezing parameter or, equivalently, entanglement parameter. The clear relation between the entanglement parameter and the Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) function of the ground state opens up for experimental quantification magnon-magnon continuous-variable entanglement and EPR nonlocality. We propose a practical experimental realization to measure the EPR function of the ground state, in a setting that relies on magnon-photon interaction in a microwave cavity.
Giant Gilbert damping anisotropy is identified as a signature of strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a two-dimensional antiferromagnet on a honeycomb lattice. The phenomenon originates in spin-orbit-induced splitting of conduction electron subbands that strongly suppresses certain spin-flip processes. As a result, the spin-orbit interaction is shown to support an undamped nonequilibrium dynamical mode that corresponds to an ultrafast in-plane Neel vector precession and a constant perpendicular-to-the-plane magnetization. The phenomenon is illustrated on the basis of a two-dimensional s-d-like model. Spin-orbit torques and conductivity are also computed microscopically for this model. Unlike Gilbert damping, these quantities are shown to reveal only a weak anisotropy that is limited to the semiconductor regime corresponding to the Fermi energy staying in the close vicinity of the antiferromagnetic gap.
Unlike other transition metals alloyed with a non-magnetic metal, alloys of Ni behave rather differently. This is because of the fragility of the local magnetic moment on Ni. NiMo and NiW do not show any spin-glass phase. However, addition of Fe can bolster the moment on Ni. We wish to study whether the alloy Fe3.3Ni83.2Mo13.5, chosen near a composition where mean-field estimates suggest there could be a spin-glass phase, shows such a phase or not.
The bulk and magnetic properties of MB_{6} and MB_{12} were investigated on the basis of first principles electronic structure calculations. The elastic constants were measured for ZrB_{12}, HoB_{12}, ErB_{12}, TmB_{12}, LuB_{12}, YB_{6} and LaB_{6} compounds at low temperatures. The calculated equations of states and balanced crystal orbital overlap populations have allowed to analyse bonding and magnetic properties of MB_{6} and MB_{12}
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Electronic structure calculations are carried out for the ferromagnetic GdM2 compounds (M=Mg, Al, Fe, Co, Ni, Rh, Ir, Pt). By using the calculated susceptibilities, densities of electronic states, and exchange parameters, the Curie temperatures were evaluated for these compounds in the framework of a modified molecular-field approach. The calculated magnetic ordering temperatures appeared to be in improved agreement with experimental data, in contrast to the results obtained within a conventional mean-field theory.
Two-dimensional crystals of beta-copper sulfide are synthesized in an in-situ electron microscopy experiment. Copper crystals are deposited on an amorphous carbon film containing sulfur. The carbon film graphitizes upon heating and electron irradiation and allows the reaction of Cu and S towards two-dimensional Cu_{2}S crystals. These are energetically favourable and bonded via van der Waals interactions to the graphitic substrate.
The chemical bonding at the interface between compound semiconductors and metals is central in determining electronic and optical properties. In this study, new opportunities for controlling this are presented for nanostructures. We investigate Bi adsorption on 2D wurtzite InAs (1120) nanosheets and find that temperature-controlled Bi incorporation in either anionic- or cationic-like bonding is possible in the easily accesible range between room temperature and 400 degrees C. This separation could not be achieved for ordinary zinc blende InAs(110) surfaces. As the crystal structures of the two surfaces have identical nearest neighbour configurations, this indicates that overall geometric differences can significantly alter the adsorption and incorporation. Ab initio theoretical modelling confirms observed adsorption results, but indicate that both the formation energies as well as kinetic barriers contributes to the observed temperature dependent behaviour. Further, we find that the Bi adsorption rate can differ by at least 2.5 times between the two InAs surfaces while being negligible for standard Si substrates under similar deposition conditions. This, in combination with the observed interface control, provides an excellent opportunity for tuneable Bi integration on 2D InAs nanostructures on standard Si substrates.
The magnetic properties of Fe/Co(001) superlattices have been studied using fully-relativistic first-principles theories. The average magnetic moment shows a behavior similar to bulk Fe-Co alloys, i.e., an enhanced magnetic moment for low Co concentrations, as described by the Slater-Pauling curve. The maximum of the magnetization curve, however, is lowered and shifted towards the Fe-rich compositions. The increased average magnetic moment for the Fe-rich superlattices, compared to bulk Fe, is due to an enhancement of the Fe spin moment close to the Fe-Co interface. The orbital moments were found to be of the same size as in bulk. The effect of interface roughness on the magnetic properties was investigated, and it was found that-despite local fluctuations due to the varying coordination-the average magnetic moment is only slightly affected. From a mapping of first-principles interactions onto the screened generalized perturbation method, we calculate the temperatures for when Fe/Co superlattices break up into an alloy configuration. Furthermore, the tetragonal distortion of the superlattice structure was found to only have a minor effect on the magnetic moments. Also, the calculated easy axis of magnetization is in the film plane for all compositions studied. It lies along the [100] direction for Fe-rich superlattices and along the [110] direction for Co-rich compositions. The transition of the easy axis occurs around a Co concentration of 50%.
Motivated by the search for high moment materials, we present first-principles calculations of the magnetic moments for Fe clusters embedded in an Fe-Co alloy as well as in a pure Co matrix. Both spin and orbital contributions have been calculated with the use of a real-space linear muffin-tin orbital method within the atomic sphere approximation. The cluster sizes considered range from 1 to 51 atoms. We find an enhancement of the spin moments of the atoms close to the interface between the cluster and the embedding matrix. The spin moment enhancement is decreasing with increasing Fe content in the surrounding matrix. The slightly lower magnetic moments for the Fe clusters embedded in the Fe rich matrices can nevertheless result in a material with an enhanced saturation magnetization due to the higher moments in the matrix. We argue that the largest average magnetic moments for embedded Fe clusters are obtained for an Fe0.5Co0.5 alloy in the matrix surrounding the clusters.
We have calculated spin and orbital moments for Fe clusters of sizes up to 700 atoms embedded as impurities in a bcc Co matrix. The calculations have been carried out using relativistic first-principles real-space density functional theory, and we have made a comparison with earlier experimental studies. For Fe atoms close to theFeCo interface, the spin moments are found to increase while atoms far from the interface exhibit bulklike moments. The Co moments remain essentially unchanged and close to the moment of bulk bcc Co. With increasing cluster size, the average moments of the cluster atoms decrease due to the decreased surface to volume ratio. The orbital moments of both Fe and Co are calculated to be small and they stay almost constant regardless of cluster size. Our results for spin moments agree with experimental data but the calculated orbital moments are slightly underestimated. A simplified model indicates that a compound of close-packed Fe clusters surrounded by Co show higher average total moments compared to bulk and multilayer systems with a similar concentration. This increase seems to disappear when cluster-cluster interactions are taken into account. The general trend is that for a given alloy concentration of Fe_{x}Co_{1−x}, clustering tends to lower the average magnetic moment compared to that of ordered structures and random alloys.
We have studied clusters of Cr on a Au(111) surface by means of a first-principles method that allows for non-collinear magnetic ordering. We find that the Cr atoms possess a large magnetic moment, of order 4 μ_{B}/atom, and have essentially antiferromagnetic interatomic exchange interactions. This leads to collinear magnetic arrangements in linear clusters (dimers and trimers) and non-collinear ordering in clusters where antiferromagnetism becomes frustrated, such as in triangular geometries.
Magnetic properties and electronic structure of V clusters supported on a Cu (111) substrate, have been calculated from a first principles method. We observe in general non-collinear magnetic structures that are the result of antiferromagnetic interactions on a frustrated lattice. The values of the magnetic moments range from similar to 0 to 2.7 mu(B)/atom, depending on cluster geometry.
The magnetic structures of small clusters of Fe, Mn, and Cr supported on a Cu(111) surface have been studied with noncollinear first-principles theory. Different geometries such as triangles, pyramids, and wires are considered and the cluster sizes have been varied between two and ten atoms. The calculations have been performed using a real-space linear muffin-tin orbital method. The Fe clusters are found to order ferromagnetically regardless of the cluster geometry. For Mn and Cr clusters, antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between nearest neighbors are found to cause collinear antiferromagnetic ordering when the geometry allows it. If the antiferromagnetism is frustrated by the cluster geometry, noncollinear ordering is found. A comparison between the calculated structures and ground states obtained from simplified Heisenberg Hamiltonians show that the exchange interaction varies for different atoms in the clusters as a result of the different local structure.
The magnetic properties of Co nanostructures and a Co monolayer on W(001) have been studied in the framework of density functional theory. Different geometries such as planar and three-dimensional clusters have been considered, with cluster sizes varying between 2 and 13 atoms. The calculations were performed using the real-space linear muffin-tin orbital method (RS-LMTO-ASA). With respect to the stability of the magnetic state, we predict an antiferromagnetic (AFM) structure for the ground state of the planar Co clusters and a ferromagnetic (FM) state for the three-dimensional clusters. For the three-dimensional clusters, one of the AFM arrangements leads to frustration due to the competing FM and AFM exchange interactions between different atoms in the cluster, and gives rise to a non-collinear state with energy close to that of the FM ground state. The relative role of the Co-Co and Co-W exchange interactions is also investigated.
It is demonstrated that the magnetic interactions can be drastically different for nanosized systems compared to those of bulk or surfaces. Using a real-space formalism we have developed a method to calculate noncollinear magnetization structures and hence exchange interactions. Our results for magnetic Mn clusters supported on a Cu(111) surface show that the magnetic ordering as a rule is noncollinear and cannot always be described by using a simple Heisenberg Hamiltonian. We argue that the use of ab initio calculations allowing for noncollinear coupling between atomic spins constitutes an efficient and reliable way of analyzing nanosized magnets.
The dynamics of a synthetic antiferromagnet (a metallic trilayer) have been explored and are shown to exhibit ultrafast switching on a time scale of tens of ps. This conclusion is based on first-principles, atomistic spin dynamics simulations. The simulations are performed at finite temperature, as well as at T = 0 K (the macrospin limit), and we observe a marked temperature dependence of the switching phenomenon. It is shown that, to reach very high switching speeds, it is important that the two ferromagnetic components of the synthetic antiferromagnet have oppositely directed external fields to one another. Then a complex collaboration between precession switching of an internal exchange field and the damping switching of the external field occurs, which considerably accelerates the magnetization dynamics. We discuss a possible application of this fast switching as a magnetic random access memory device, which has as a key component intrinsic antiferromagnetic couplings and an applied Oersted field.
We study the Fe/W(110) monolayer system through a combination of first-principles calculations and atomistic spin dynamics simulations. We focus on the dispersion of the spin-waves parallel to the [001] direction. Our results compare favorably with the experimental data of Prokop et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 177206 (2009)] and correctly capture a drastic softening of the magnon spectrum, with respect to bulk bcc Fe. The suggested shortcoming of the itinerant electron model, in particular that given by density functional theory, is refuted. We also demonstrate that finite-temperature effects are significant, and that atomistic spin dynamics simulations represent a powerful tool with which to include these.
We demonstrate that the experimental findings of the magnetic properties of the weakly coupled trilayer system Ni_{4}/Cu_{N}/Co_{2}are reproduced by a theory that combines first principles calculations of the exchange interactions in a classical Heisenberg model with Monte Carlo simulations. Through an analysis of the spin–spin correlation function we show that two distinct temperatures can be identified; a higher temperature where long range magnetic order disappears and a lower temperature where the spin–spin correlation of the Ni atoms undergoes a drastic change. We argue that our findings hold in general for 'weak exchange link' systems.
We present calculations of the exchange interactions and critical temperatures for several diluted magnetic semiconductor systems. It is shown that the exchange interactions are dominated by short-ranged interactions that have a strong directional dependence. Using a combination of first-principles calculations of the exchange interactions together with Monte Carlo simulations of the classical Heisenberg model, in which the positional disorder and spin fluctuations are properly included, the calculated critical temperatures are in good agreement with experimantal observations. It is shown that agreement between theory and experiment, as regards ordering temperatures, is obtained only when the magnetic atoms are randomly positioned in a simulation cell which proves that disorder effects play a very important role. The effect of strong electron-electron interaction has been studied by means of the LSDA+U scheme. We investigate in detail the nature of the anisotropic exchange interactions by means of a Fermi surface analysis.
We demonstrate that the magnetic properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors are dominated by short ranged interatomic exchange interactions that have a strong directional dependence. By combining first principles calculations of interatomic exchange interactions with a classical Heisenberg model and Monte Carlo simulations, we reproduce the observed critical temperatures of a broad range of diluted magnetic semiconductors. We also show that agreement between theory and experiment is obtained only when the magnetic atoms are randomly positioned. This suggests that the ordering of diluted magnetic semiconductors is heavily influenced by magnetic percolation, and that the measured critical temperatures should be very sensitive to details in the sample preparation, in agreement with observations.
We investigate the magnetic properties of a range of low-dimensional ferromagnets using a combination of first-principles calculations and atomistic spin dynamics simulations. This approach allows us to evaluate the ground state and finite temperature properties of experimentally well characterized systems such as Co/Cu(111), Co/Cu(001), Fe/Cu(001) and Fe/W(110), for different thicknesses of the magnetic layer. We compare our calculated spin wave spectra with experimental data available in the literature, and find a good quantitative agreement. We also predict magnon spectra for systems for which no experimental data exist at the moment, and estimate the role of temperature effects.
We demonstrate that an antiferromagnetic coupling between paramagnetic Fe-porphyrin molecules and ultrathin Co and Ni magnetic films on Cu(100) substrates can be established by an intermediate layer of atomic oxygen. The coupling energies have been determined from the temperature dependence of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements. By density functional theory+U calculations the coupling mechanism is shown to be superexchange between the Fe center of the molecules and Co surface-atoms, mediated by oxygen.
We present an approach to control the magnetic structure of adatoms adsorbed on a substrate having a high magnetic susceptibility. Using finite Ni-Pt and Fe-Pt nanowires and nanostructures on Pt(111) surfaces, our ab initio results show that it is possible to tune the exchange interaction and magnetic configuration of magnetic adatoms (Fe or Ni) by introducing different numbers of Pt atoms to link them, or by including edge effects. The exchange interaction between Ni (or Fe) adatoms on Pt(111) can be considerably increased by introducing Pt chains to link them. The magnetic ordering can be regulated allowing for ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic configurations. Noncollinear magnetic alignments can also be stabilized by changing the number of Pt-mediated atoms. An Fe-Pt triangularly-shaped nanostructure adsorbed on Pt(111) shows the most complex magnetic structure of the systems considered here: a spin-spiral type of magnetic order that changes its propagation direction at the triangle vertices.
One of the key factors behind the rapid evolution of molecular spintronics is the efficient realization of spin manipulation of organic molecules with a magnetic center. The spin state of such molecules may depend crucially on the interaction with the substrate on which they are adsorbed. In this paper we demonstrate, using ab initio density functional calculations, that the stabilization of a high spin state of an iron porphyrin (FeP) molecule can be achieved via chemisorption on magnetic substrates of different species and orientations, viz., Co(001), Ni(001), Ni(110), and Ni(111). The signature of chemisorption of FeP on magnetic substrates is evident from broad features in N K x-ray absorption (XA) and Fe L-2,L-3 x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements. Our theoretical calculations show that the strong covalent interaction with the substrate increases Fe-N bond lengths in FeP and hence a switching to a high spin state (S = 2) from an intermediate spin state (S = 1) is achieved. Due to chemisorption, ferromagnetic exchange interaction is established through a direct exchange between Fe and substrate magnetic atoms as well as through an indirect exchange via the N atoms in FeP. The mechanism of exchange interaction is further analyzed by considering structural models constructed from ab initio calculations. Also, it is found that the exchange interaction between Fe in FeP and a Ni substrate is almost 4 times smaller than with a Co substrate. Finally, we illustrate the possibility of detecting a change in the molecular spin state by XMCD, Raman spectroscopy, and spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy.
Spin switching of organometallic complexes by ferromagnetic surfaces is an important topic in the area of molecular nanospintronics. Moreover, graphene has been shown as a 2D surface for physisorption of molecular magnets and strain engineering on graphene can tune the spin state of an iron porphyrin (FeP) molecule from S = 1 to S = 2. Our ab initio density functional calculations suggest that a pristine graphene layer placed between a Ni(111) surface and FeP yields an extremely weak exchange interaction between FeP and Ni whereas the introduction of defects in graphene shows a variety of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. Moreover, these defects control the easy axes of magnetization, strengths of magnetic anisotropy energies and spin-dipolar contributions. Our study suggests a new way of manipulating molecular magnetism by defects in graphene and hence has the potential to be explored in designing spin qubits to realize logic operations in molecular nanospintronics.
We have performed density-functional calculations as well as employed a tight-binding theory, to study the effect of passivation of zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNR) by hydrogen. We show that each edge C atom bonded with 2 H atoms open up a gap and destroys magnetism for small widths of the nanoribbon. However, a re-entrant magnetism accompanied by a metallic electronic structure is observed from eight rows and thicker nanoribbons. The electronic structure and magnetic state are quite complex for this type of termination, with sp(3) bonded edge atoms being nonmagnetic whereas the nearest neighboring atoms are metallic and magnetic. We have also evaluated the phase stability of several thicknesses of ZGNR and demonstrate that sp(3) bonded edge atoms with 2 H atoms at the edge can be stabilized over 1 H atom terminated edge at high temperatures and pressures.