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  • 1.
    Asplund, Basse
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Mathisen, Torbjörn
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Variable Hard Segment Length in Poly(urethane urea) through Excess of Diisocyanate and Vapor Phase Addition of Water2006In: Macromolecules, Vol. 39, p. 4380-4385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(urethane urea)s with hard segments derived only from diisocyanate linked via urea linkages were synthesized using a new and simple one-pot method. The creation of urea linkages were done via creating the amine in situ by adding water in vapor phase slowly and continuously. This synthesis method eliminates the tedious control to approach stoichiometry, is less sensitive to impurities, involves no intermediate isolation steps, and does not involve any chain extender. A study using a two-armed poly(-caprolactone) as soft segment and methyl 2,6-diisocyantohexanoate (LDI) as the hard segment was performed. The length of the hard segment was varied from 4.8 to 11.6 LDI units. Stress-strain measurements showed an increase in elastic modulus, 146 to 235 MPa, when increasing the hard segment length, while the elongation at break decreased, 980 to 548%. IR spectroscopy showed an increase in hydrogen bonding when increasing the hard segment length. The synthesis was also shown to be applicable to common diisocyanates such as HDI, TDI, and MDI.

  • 2.
    Asplund, J. O. Basse
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Mathisen, Torbjörn
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Synthesis of highly elastic biodegradable poly(urethane urea)2007In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 905-911Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linear poly(urethane urea) containing a biodegradable soft segment and a hard segment built solely from methyl-2,6-diisocyanatehexanoate (LDI) is presented, using a procedure where no chain extender is required. By having LDI in excess, together with a soft segment, and adding water in the vapor phase continuously creates amines in situ resulting in hard segments containing multiple LDI units linked via urea linkages. As soft segments, polymers of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and copolymers of TMC, ε-caprolactone, and d,l-lactic acid (DLLA) were used. High inherent viscosity, 0.95−1.65 dL/g, was afforded even when DLLA-containing soft segments were used, which usually undergo aminolysis. With a hard segment content between 12% and 18%, all of the materials showed very high elongation at breakage, ranging from 1600% to 4700%, and an elastic modulus from 2.1 to 140 MPa. This one-pot synthesis is simple and has now been shown to be applicable to a large number of systems.

  • 3.
    Atthoff, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Novel metal free catalyst for bulk polymerization of lactides, using a cationic ring opening polymerization procedure2003In: PMSE Preprints (2003), 88, 2003, p. 369-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Atthoff, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Nederberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Sulfate end functionalized heparin mimetic biodegradable poly(trimethylenecarbonate)2005In: Polymer Preprints (American Chemical Society, Division of Polymer Chemistry) 46(1) 2005, 2005, p. 473-474Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Atthoff, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Nederberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Söderberg, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Surface Biotechnology.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Synthetic Biodegradable Ionomers that Engulf, Store, and Deliver Intact Proteins2006In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 7, no 8, p. 2401-2406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Telechelic anionic and cationic biodegradable ionomers capable of loading, storing, and releasing proteins are presented. Two different ionomers have been synthesized with either anionic or cationic end groups. The reaction was done quantitatively as shown by 1H NMR. The swelling properties of the hydrophobic poly(trimethylene carbonate) polymer are contributed to the ionic end groups that display hydrophilic properties. Depending on the molecular weight of the ionomer, and also on the ionic charge, the materials swell differently in water, from ~50% for Mw = 12 000 g/mol to ~500% when dealing with 2000 g/mol. The high swelling led us to believe that it would be possible to load and release proteins preferably in a still active form. As models, two different proteins were chosen: hemoglobin and cytochrome c. The swelling and release study shows that both ionomers possess the capability to adsorb and later release the proteins with retained structure. Release measurements from both the swollen and dried states have been evaluated with similar results, showing that the dried state seems to release a little bit less than the swollen one. These kinds of materials should be interesting for a wide variety of applications where drug and protein release is wanted, as well as in applications such as protein separation media.

  • 6.
    Bergfelt, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Lacey, Matthew J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Hedman, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Sångeland, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    ε-Caprolactone-based solid polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries: synthesis, electrochemical characterization and mechanical stabilization by block copolymerization2018In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 8, no 30, p. 16716-16725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, three types of polymers based on epsilon-caprolactone have been synthesized: poly(epsilon-caprolactone), polystyrene-poly(epsilon-caprolactone), and polystyrene-poly(epsilon-caprolactone-r-trimethylene carbonate) (SCT), where the polystyrene block was introduced to improve the electrochemical and mechanical performance of the material. Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) were produced by blending the polymers with 10-40 wt% lithium bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonimide (LiTFSI). Battery devices were thereafter constructed to evaluate the cycling performance. The best performing battery half-cell utilized an SPE consisting of SCT and 17 wt% LiTFSI as both binder and electrolyte; a Li vertical bar SPE vertical bar LiFePO4 cell that cycled at 40 degrees C gave a discharge capacity of about 140 mA h g(-1) at C/5 for 100 cycles, which was superior to the other investigated electrolytes. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that the storage modulus E' was about 5 MPa for this electrolyte.

  • 7.
    Bergfelt, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Mogensen, Ronnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lacey, Matthew
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Guiomar, Hernández
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Mechanically Robust and Highly Conductive Di-Block Copolymers as Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Room Temperature Li-ion Batteries2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) hosts to the archetype poly(ethylene oxide) are gaining attention thanks to their appealing properties, such as higher cation transport number, thermal stability and electrochemical stability [1]. In addition, high mechanical stability is required in order to integrate easy-to-use materials into flexible or ‘structural’ batteries [2, 3].

     In this work, a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) featuring high ionic conductivity and mechanical robustness at room temperature is presented. The SPE consists of a di-block copolymer, poly(benzyl methacrylate)-poly(ε-caprolactone-r-trimethylene carbonate) (BCT), mixed with different loadings of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). The highest ionic conductivity achieved for these SPEs was found with 16.7 wt% LiTFSI loading (BCT17), reaching 9.1 x 10-6 S cm-1 at 30 °C. The limited current fraction (F+) for the BCT17 electrolyte was calculated to be 0.64 with the Bruce-Vincent method. Furthermore, dynamic mechanical analysis showed a storage modulus (E’) of 0.2 GPa below 40 °C and 1 MPa above 50 °C. These results indicate that BCT with LiTFSI is a competitive electrolyte, combining high ionic conductivity and modulus at ambient temperatures.

     LiFePO4|BCT17|Li half-cells showed good cycling performance at 60 °C. At 30 °C, where the SPE possessed significantly higher modulus, decent cell performance could still be achieved after several optimization steps. These included incorporating a SPE as binder, and infiltration cast the SPE on the electrode to maximize the contact between both components, thereby improving the interfacial contact and decreasing the cell resistance and overpotential when cycling the battery device.

     References

    [1] J. Mindemark, M.J. Lacey, T. Bowden, D. Brandell. Prog Polym Sci, (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2017.12.004.

    [2] J.F. Snyder, R.H. Carter, E.D. Wetzel. Chem Mater, 19 (2007) 3793-801.

    [3] W.S. Young, W.F. Kuan, Thomas H. Epps. J Polym Sci, Part B: Polym Phys, 52 (2014) 1-16.

  • 8.
    Bergfelt, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Rubatat, Laurent
    CNRS/UNIV Pau & Pays Adour, Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-Chimie pour l´ Environnement et les Materiaux, Pau, France.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Poly(benzyl methacrylate)-Poly[(oligo ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] Triblock-Copolymers as Solid Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries2018In: Solid State Ionics, ISSN 0167-2738, E-ISSN 1872-7689, Vol. 321, p. 55-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A triblock copolymer of benzyl methacrylate and oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate was polymerized to form the general structure PBnMA-POEGMA-PBnMA, using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The block copolymer (BCP) was blended with lithium bis(trifluoro methylsulfonate) (LiTFSI) to form solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs). AC impedance spectroscopy was used to study the ionic conductivity of the SPE series in the temperature interval 30 °C to 90 °C. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to study the morphology of the electrolytes in the temperature interval 30 °C to 150 °C. By using benzyl methacrylate as a mechanical block it was possible to tune the microphase separation by the addition of LiTFSI, as proven by SAXS. By doing so the ionic conductivity increased to values higher than ones measured on a methyl methacrylate triblock copolymer-based electrolyte in the mixed state, which was investigated in an earlier paper by our group. A Li|SPE|LiFePO4 half-cell was constructed and cycled at 60 °C. The cell produced a discharge capacity of about 100 mAh g−1 of LiFePO4 at C/10, and the half-cell cycled for more than 140 cycles.

  • 9.
    Bergfelt, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Rubatat, Laurent
    Univ Pau & Pays Adour, CNRS, Inst Sci Analyt & Physicochim Environm & Mat, UMR5254, F-64000 Pau, France.
    Mogensen, Ronnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    d8-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly[(oligo ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] tri-block-copolymer electrolytes: Morphology, conductivity and battery performance2017In: Polymer, ISSN 0032-3861, E-ISSN 1873-2291, Vol. 131, p. 234-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of deuterated tri-block copolymers with the general structure d(8)-PMMA-POEGMA-d(8)-PMMA, with variation in d(8)-PMMA chain length, were synthesized using sequential controlled radical polymerization (ATRP). Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) were produced by blending tri-block copolymers and lithium bis(trifluoro methylsulfonate) (LiTFSI). Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to study the bulk morphology of the deuterated tri-block copolymer electrolyte series at 25 degrees C, 60 degrees C and 95 degrees C. The lack of a second T-g in DSC analysis together with modelling with the random phase approximation model (RPA) confirmed that the electrolytes are in the mixed state, with negative Flory-Huggins interaction parameters. AC impedance spectroscopy was used to study the ionic conductivity of the SPE series in the temperature interval 30 degrees C-90 degrees C, and a battery device was constructed to evaluate a 25 wt% d(8)-PMMA electrolyte. The Li | SPE | LiFePO4 cell cycled at 60 degrees C, giving a discharge capacity of 120 mAh g(-1), while cyclic voltammetry showed that the SPE was stable at 60 degrees C.

  • 10.
    Bergman, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Hyaluronic acid cross-linking chemistry2005In: 8th International Symposium of Polymers for Advanced Technologies, 13th-16th Sept. 2005, Budapest, Hungary, 2005Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 11.
    Bergman, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Elvingson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Svensk, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Hyaluronic acid derivatives prepared in aqueous media by triazine-activated amidation2007In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 8, no 7, p. 2190-2195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is presented for the preparation of hyaluronic acid derivatives obtained through triazine-activated amidation. A number of amines were successfully reacted with hyaluronic acid carboxyl groups using 2-chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazine as an activating species in a mixture of water and acetonitrile under neutral conditions. By varying the amount of triazine reagent, it was possible to control the degree of modification. Depending on the amine chosen, degrees of modification ranging from 3 to 20% were obtained when using 0.5 equiv of the triazine to hyaluronic acid carboxyl groups. The possibility to perform the reaction in a mixture of water and acetonitrile facilitates the introduction of a wide range of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic amines. Triazine-activated amidation appears to be a highly versatile, controllable, and relatively mild technique for modification of hyaluronic acid, and we predict that it will be useful in the design of novel hyaluronic acid based biomaterials.

  • 12.
    Bergman, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Modification of Hyaluronan by Triazine-Promoted Amidation in Aqueous Media2006In: 232nd ACS National Meeting, 10th-14th Sept. 2006, San Francisco, California, USA, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Bergman, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Preparation and evaluation of an injectable hyaluronan hydrogel for therapeutic applications2007In: 7th International conference on Hyaluronan, 22nd-27th April 2007, Charleston, South Carolina, USA, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Bergman, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers, Dept Appl Phys, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bergfelt, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Sun, Bing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Uppsala Univ, Dept Chem, Angstrom Lab, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Patrik
    Chalmers, Dept Appl Phys, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Graft copolymer electrolytes for high temperature Li-battery applications, using poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonimide)2015In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 175, p. 96-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For successful hybridization of heavy vehicles, high temperature batteries might be the solution. Here, high temperature solid polymer electrolytes (SPE's) based on different ratios of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA), with LiTFSI salt (at a fixed ether oxygen (EO):Li ratio of 20:1) have been prepared and investigated. The copolymers comprise PMMA backbones with grafted PEGMA side-chains containing 9 EO units. The SPE systems were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, broadband dielectric spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis, and electrochemical cycling in prototype cells, with a particular focus on the 83 wt% PEGMA system. The electrolytes have good thermal stabilities and dissociate the LiTFSI salt easily, while at the same time maintaining low glass transition temperatures (T-g's). Depending on the polymeric structure, ionic conductivities >1 mS cm(-1) at 110 degrees C are detected, thus providing ion transport properties for a broad range of electrochemical applications. Prototype Li vertical bar polymer electrolyte vertical bar LiFePO4 cells utilizing the SPE at 60 degrees C showed surprisingly low capacities (<20 mA h g(-1) LiFePO4), which could be due to poor electrode/electrolyte contacts.

  • 15.
    Billström, Gry Hulsart
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Piskounova, Sonya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Gedda, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Larsson, Sune
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Improved bone formation by altering surface area of hyaluronan-based hydrogel carrier for bone morphogenetic protein-22012In: Bone, ISSN 8756-3282, E-ISSN 1873-2763, Vol. 50, p. S114-S114Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Bowden, Tim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Eriksson, Niklas
    A metal-free catalyst for the catalytic cationic ring opening polymerization of lactones2003In: PMSE Preprints (2003), 88, 2003, p. 535-536Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Brännvall, Karin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Bergman, Kristoffer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Wallenquist, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Svahn, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Enhanced neuronal differentiation in a three-dimensional collagen-hyaluronan matrix2007In: Journal of Neuroscience Research, ISSN 0360-4012, E-ISSN 1097-4547, Vol. 85, no 10, p. 2138-2146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient 3D cell systems for neuronal induction are needed for future use in tissue regeneration. In this study, we have characterized the ability of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PC) to survive, proliferate, and differentiate in a collagen type I-hyaluronan scaffold. Embryonic, postnatal, and adult NS/PC were seeded in the present 3D scaffold and cultured in medium containing epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor-2, a condition that stimulates NS/PC proliferation. Progenitor cells from the embryonic brain had the highest proliferation rate, and adult cells the lowest, indicating a difference in mitogenic responsiveness. NS/PC from postnatal stages down-regulated nestin expression more rapidly than both embryonic and adult NS/PC, indicating a faster differentiation process. After 6 days of differentiation in the 3D scaffold, NS/PC from the postnatal brain had generated up to 70% neurons, compared with 14% in 2D. NS/PC from other ages gave rise to approximately the same proportion of neurons in 3D as in 2D (9-26% depending on the source for NS/PC). In the postnatal NS/PC cultures, the majority of III-tubulin-positive cells expressed glutamate, -aminobutyric acid, and synapsin I after 11 days of differentiation, indicating differentiation to mature neurons. Here we report that postnatal NS/PC survive, proliferate, and efficiently form synapsin I-positive neurons in a biocompatible hydrogel.

  • 18. Docherty-Skogh, Ann-Charlott
    et al.
    Bergman, Kristoffer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Waern, Marianne Jensen
    Ekman, Stina
    Hultenby, Kjell
    Ossipov, Dimitri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Engstrand, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bone morphogenetic protein-2 delivered by hyaluronan-based hydrogel induces massive bone formation and healing of cranial defects in minipigs2010In: Plastic and reconstructive surgery (1963), ISSN 0032-1052, E-ISSN 1529-4242, Vol. 125, no 5, p. 1383-1392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reconstruction of large craniofacial bone defects is a challenge using bone transplants or alloplastic materials. The use of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 together with a suitable carrier is an attractive option that may facilitate new bone formation. The authors have developed a hydrogel that is formed in situ by the cross-linking of multifunctional hyaluronic acid and polyvinyl alcohol derivatives mixed with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, in the presence of BMP-2. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the hydrogel as a carrier for BMP-2 in repairing critical size cranial defects in a minipig model. Methods: Cranial defects (2 × 4 cm) were created in 14 minipigs. The experimental groups were as follows: group 1, craniotomy and application of 5 ml of hydrogel with 1.25 mg of BMP-2 (n = 6); group 2, craniotomy and application of 5 ml of hydrogel without BMP-2 (n = 6); and group 3, craniotomy with no further treatment (n = 2). Results: After 3 months, computed tomographic and histologic examinations were performed. There was spontaneous ossification in the untreated group, but the healing was incomplete. The hydrogel alone demonstrated no further effects. The addition of 1.25 mg of BMP-2 to the hydrogel induced a greater than 100 percent increase in bone volume (p = 0.003) and complete healing of the defects. Histologic examination revealed compact lamellar bone in the BMP group without intertrabecular fibrous tissue, as was seen in the other groups. The hydrogel was resorbed completely within 3 months and, importantly, caused no inflammatory reaction. Conclusion: The injectable hydrogel may be favorable as a BMP-2 carrier for bone reconstruction.

  • 19.
    Fredriksson, Fanny
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Pediatric Surgery.
    Sellberg, Felix
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Engstrand, T.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Reconstruct Plast Surg, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Berglund, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Engstrand Lilja, Helene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Pediatric Surgery.
    Sutures impregnated with carbazate-activated polyvinyl alcohol reduce intraperitoneal adhesions2017In: Journal of Pediatric Surgery, ISSN 0022-3468, E-ISSN 1531-5037, Vol. 52, no 11, p. 1853-1858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intraperitoneal adhesions cause significant morbidity. They occur after peritoneal trauma, which induces oxidative stress with production of inflammatory cytokines, peroxidized proteins (carbonyls) and lipids (aldehydes). This study aimed to investigate if carbazate-activated polyvinyl alcohol (PVAC), an aldehyde-carbonyl inhibitor, can reduce intraperitoneal adhesions in an experimental model.

    Material and methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 110) underwent laparotomy, cecal abrasion and construction of a small bowel anastomosis. They either were treated with intraperitoneal instillation of PVAC or were sutured with PVAC-impregnated sutures. Thromboelastography analysis was performed using human blood and PVAC. The lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and IL-6 were quantified in peritoneal fluid. At day 7, bursting pressure of the anastomosis was measured and adhesions were blindly scored.

    Results: PVAC in human blood decreased the production of the fibrin-thrombocyte mesh without affecting the coagulation cascade. MDA, IL-1 beta and IL-6 were increased after 6 h without significant difference between the groups. PVAC-impregnated sutures reduced intraperitoneal adhesions compared to controls (p = 0.0406) while intraperitoneal instillation of PVAC had no effect. Anastomotic bursting pressure was unchanged.

    Conclusions: Intervention with an aldehyde-carbonyl inhibitor locally in the wound by PVAC-impregnated sutures might be a new strategy to reduce intraperitoneal adhesions.

  • 20.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bergman, Kristoffer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Ossipov, Dmitri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Engstrand, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Preparation and evaluation of an injectable hyaluronan hydrogel for therapeutic applications2007In: TERMIS-EU Meeting Abstracts, London, UK, September 4–7, 2007: [published in Tissue Engineering, vol. 13, nr. 7], Mary Ann Liebert Inc. , 2007, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 1747-1747Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Nederberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Hong, Jaan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Clinical Immunology.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Clinical Immunology.
    Elvingson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Biodegradable phosphatidylcholine functional poly(e-caprolactone)2003In: PMSE Preprints (2003), 88, 2003, p. 109-110Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Ossipov, Dmitri
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bergman, Kristoffer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Engstrand, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Piskonova, Sonya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Preparing Bone Using an Injectable Hydrogel Scaffold2008In: TERMIS EU 2008 Porto Meeting June 22–26, 2008 Porto Congress Center–Alfândega Portugal: [Published in Tissue Engineering. Part A, vol. 14, nr. 5], Mary Ann Liebert Inc. , 2008, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 769-770Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Houben, Annemie
    et al.
    Univ Ghent, Polymer Chem & Biomat Res Grp, Krijgslaan 281,S4-Bis, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Pien, Nele
    Univ Ghent, Polymer Chem & Biomat Res Grp, Krijgslaan 281,S4-Bis, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Lu, Xi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Bisi, Francesca
    Univ Modena & Reggio Emilia, Dept Engn Enzo Ferrari, Via Pietro Vivarelli 10, I-41125 Modena, Italy..
    Van Hoorick, Jasper
    Univ Ghent, Polymer Chem & Biomat Res Grp, Krijgslaan 281,S4-Bis, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.;Vrije Univ Brussel, Brussels Photon Team, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Elsene, Belgium..
    Boone, Matthieu N.
    Univ Ghent, UGCT, Dept Phys & Astron, Proeftuinstr 86-N12, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Roose, Patrice
    Allnex R&D Allnex, Anderlechtstr 33, B-1620 Drogenbos, Belgium..
    Van den Bergen, Hugues
    Allnex R&D Allnex, Anderlechtstr 33, B-1620 Drogenbos, Belgium..
    Bontinck, Dirk
    Allnex R&D Allnex, Anderlechtstr 33, B-1620 Drogenbos, Belgium..
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Dubruel, Peter
    Univ Ghent, Polymer Chem & Biomat Res Grp, Krijgslaan 281,S4-Bis, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Van Vlierberghe, Sandra
    Univ Ghent, Polymer Chem & Biomat Res Grp, Krijgslaan 281,S4-Bis, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.;Vrije Univ Brussel, Brussels Photon Team, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Elsene, Belgium..
    Indirect Solid Freeform Fabrication of an Initiator-Free Photocrosslinkable Hydrogel Precursor for the Creation of Porous Scaffolds2016In: Macromolecular Bioscience, ISSN 1616-5187, E-ISSN 1616-5195, Vol. 16, no 12, p. 1883-1894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work, a photopolymerized urethane-based poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel is applied as a porous scaffold material using indirect solid freeform fabrication (SFF). This approach combines the benefits of SFF with a large freedom in material selection and applicable concentration ranges. A sacrificial 3D poly(epsilon-caprolactone) structure is generated using fused deposition modeling and used as template to produce hydrogel scaffolds. By changing the template plotting parameters, the scaffold channel sizes vary from 280 to 360 m, and the strut diameters from 340 to 400 m. This enables the production of scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties, characterized by an average hardness ranging from 9 to 43 N and from 1 to 6 N for dry and hydrated scaffolds, respectively. Experiments using mouse calvaria preosteoblasts indicate that a gelatin methacrylamide coating of the scaffolds results in an increased cell adhesion and proliferation with improved cell morphology.

  • 24.
    Hulsart-Billström, Gry
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Bergman, Kristoffer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Engstrand, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Larsson, Sune
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    The Effect of Incubation Time of Preformed Injectable Hydrogels on Bone Formation when used as Carrier for rhBMP-22011In: TERMIS-EU 2011 Abstracts, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Hulsart-Billström, Gry
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Piskounova, Sonya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Gedda, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Andersson, Britt-Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Bergman, Kristoffer
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Larsson, Sune
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Morphological differences in BMP-2-induced ectopic bone between solid and crushed hyaluronan hydrogel templates2013In: Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine, ISSN 0957-4530, E-ISSN 1573-4838, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 1201-1209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility to affect bone formation by using crushed versus solid hydrogels as carriers for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) was studied. Hydrogels, based on chemical crosslinking between hyaluronic acid and poly(vinyl alcohol) derivatives, were loaded with BMP-2 and hydroxyapatite. Crushed and solid forms of the gels were analyzed both in vitro via a release study using I-125 radioactive labeling of BMP-2, and in vivo in a subcutaneous ectopic bone model in rats. Dramatically different morphologies were observed for the ectopic bone formed in vivo in the two types of gels, even though virtually identical release profiles were observed in vitro. Solid hydrogels induced formation of a dense bone shell around non-degraded hydrogel, while crushed hydrogels demonstrated a uniform bone formation throughout the entire sample. These results suggest that by crushing the hydrogel, the construct's three-dimensional network becomes disrupted. This could expose unreacted functional groups, making the fragment's surfaces reactive and enable limited chemical fusion between the crushed hydrogel fragments, leading to similar in vitro release profiles. However, in vivo these interactions could be broken by enzymatic activity, creating a macroporous structure that allows easier cell infiltration, thus, facilitating bone formation.

  • 26.
    Kristensen, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics. Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I.
    Nederberg, Fredrik
    Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I. polymerkemi.
    Rensmo, Håkan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics. Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I.
    Bowden, Tim
    Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I. polymerkemi.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I. polymerkemi.
    Siegbahn, Hans
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Physics. Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. Department of Physics and Materials Science, Physics I.
    Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies of the Functionalization of a Silicon Surface with a Phosphorylcholine-Terminated Polymer Grafted onto (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane2006In: Langmuir, Vol. 22, no 23, p. 9651-9657Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of a biomimetic phosphorylcholine (PC)-functionalized poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PC-PTMC-PC), linked to a silicon substrate through an aminolysis reaction at 120 C with (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS), was studied using photoelectron spectroscopy. Two chemical states were found for the unreacted APTMS amine, a neutral state and a protonated state, where the protonated amine on average was situated closer to the silicon substrate than the neutral amine. The experiments also indicated the presence of a third chemical state, where amines interact with unreacted silanol groups. The PTMC chains of the grafted films were found to consist of only 2-3 repeat units, with the grafted chains enriched in the zwitterionic end group, suggesting that these groups are attracted to the surface. This was further supported by the experiments showing that the PC groups were situated deeper within the film.

  • 27.
    Lacey, Matthew
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Österlund, Viking
    Bergfelt, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Jeschull, Fabian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    A robust, water-based, functional binder framework for high energy Li-S batteries2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Lacey, Matthew
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Österlund, Viking
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    Bergfelt, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Jeschull, Fabian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    A Robust, Water-Based, Functional Binder Framework for High-Energy Lithium-Sulfur Batteries2017In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 10, no 13, p. 2758-2766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report here a water-based functional binder framework for the lithium-sulfur battery systems, based on the general combination of a polyether and an amide-containing polymer. These binders are applied to positive electrodes optimised towards high-energy electrochemical performance based only on commercially available materials. Electrodes with up to 4 mAhcm(-2) capacity and 97-98% coulombic efficiency are achievable in electrodes with a 65% total sulfur content and a poly(ethylene oxide): poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PEO: PVP) binder system. Exchange of either binder component for a different polymer with similar functionality preserves the high capacity and coulombic efficiency. The improvement in coulombic efficiency from the inclusion of the coordinating amide group was also observed in electrodes where pyrrolidone moieties were covalently grafted to the carbon black, indicating the role of this functionality in facilitating polysulfide adsorption to the electrode surface. The mechanical properties of the electrodes appear not to significantly influence sulfur utilisation or coulombic efficiency in the short term but rather determine retention of these properties over extended cycling. These results demonstrate the robustness of this very straightforward approach, as well as the considerable scope for designing binder materials with targeted properties.

  • 29.
    Li, Zhenguang
    et al.
    Tokyo Univ Agr & Technol, Grad Sch Bioapplicat & Syst Engn, 2-24-16 Naka Cho, Koganei, Tokyo 1848588, Japan.
    Mogensen, Ronnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Mindemark, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Uppsala Univ, Dept Chem, Angstrom Lab, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tominaga, Yoichi
    Tokyo Univ Agr & Technol, Grad Sch Bioapplicat & Syst Engn, 2-24-16 Naka Cho, Koganei, Tokyo 1848588, Japan.
    Ion-Conductive and Thermal Properties of a Synergistic Poly(ethylene carbonate)/Poly(trimethylene carbonate) Blend Electrolyte2018In: Macromolecular rapid communications, ISSN 1022-1336, E-ISSN 1521-3927, Vol. 39, no 14, article id 1800146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrolytes comprising poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC)/poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTM C) with lithium bis(trifluoromethane sulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) are prepared by a simple solvent casting method. Although PEC and PTMC have similar chemical structures, they are immiscible and two glass transitions are present in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. Interestingly, these two polymers change to miscible blends with the addition of LiTFSI, and the ionic conductivity increases with increasing lithium salt concentration. The optimum composition of the blend electrolyte is achieved at PEC6PTMC4, with a conductivity as high as 10(-6) S cm(-1) at 50 degrees C. This value is greater than that for single PEC- and PTMC-based electrolytes. Moreover, the thermal stability of the blend-based electrolytes is improved as compared to PEC-based electrolytes. It is clear that the interaction between C=O groups and Li+ gives rise to a compatible amorphous phase of PEC and PTMC.

  • 30.
    Mindemark, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Diversity in cyclic carbonates: Synthesis of triazole-functional monomers using click chemistry2012In: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 1759-9962, Vol. 3, no 6, p. 1399-1401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Triazole-functional cyclic carbonates are presented as a new class of functional monomers for ring-opening polymerisation. Starting from bromo-functional six-membered cyclic carbonates, a series of triazole-functional monomers was synthesised using click chemistry. This synthetic strategy allows for facile synthesis of a great number of structurally diverse monomers from just a few azide-functional precursors.

  • 31.
    Mindemark, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Efficient DNA Binding and Condensation Using Low Molecular Weight, Low Charge Density Cationic Polymer Amphiphiles2010In: Macromolecular rapid communications, ISSN 1022-1336, E-ISSN 1521-3927, Vol. 31, no 15, p. 1378-1382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new class of biodegradable cationic macromolecules for DNA binding and condensation was developed by end-group-functionalization of poly(trimethylene carbonate). A series of one- and two-armed structures was synthesized and their interaction with DNA was evaluated. To aid data interpretation, a non-linear modeling method was applied to show efficient DNA binding that was intimately related to cationic charge density and macromolecular architecture. One-armed, low charge density structures were consistently found to bind to DNA at lower charge ratios than their two-armed, high charge density counterparts. This suggests that polymer backbone structure and characteristics are important considerations in the development of efficient cationic polymer systems for DNA condensation and delivery.

  • 32.
    Mindemark, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Novel Alkyl Halide-functional Polycarbonates and the Synthesis of Functional Cyclic Carbonate Monomers using Click Chemistry2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Mindemark, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Synthesis and polymerization of alkyl halide-functional cyclic carbonates2011In: Polymer, ISSN 0032-3861, E-ISSN 1873-2291, Vol. 52, no 25, p. 5716-5722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To increase the diversity in functional aliphatic polycarbonates, a series of novel chloro- and bromo-functional six-membered cyclic carbonate monomers were synthesized. Despite asymmetry in the monomer functionalities, homopolymerization of the monomers afforded semicrystalline polycarbonates with a high tendency to crystallize from the melt and/or on precipitation from a THF solution. Melting points were found in the 90-105 degrees C or 120-155 degrees C range for polymers comprising methyl or ethyl moieties, respectively, in the backbone. The monomers were further copolymerized with trimethylene carbonate to form random copolymers. Even among some of these random copolymers elements of semicrystallinity were found as confirmed by melting endotherms in DSC. The results clearly show that the incorporation of alkyl halide functionalities in aliphatic polycarbonates may lead to materials with a high ability to form crystallites, even in random copolymers, likely driven by polar interactions due to the presence of the halide functionalities.

  • 34.
    Mindemark, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    End-Group-Catalyzed Ring-Opening Polymerization of Trimethylene Carbonate2007In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 3515-3517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A controlled self-catalyzed polymerization reaction yielding well-defined heterotelechelic polymer chains and eliminating low molecular weight catalyst residues in the final polymer product were analyzed by utilizing a ternary amine. The molecular weights were kept relatively low for end-group analysis by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and linear correlation between the degree of polarization and monomer were found. NMR results show that the polydispersities remained low at high monomer conversions and longer reaction times after full conversion led to a larger molecular weight distribution. The results also show that the ternary amine catalyst are attached to the growing polymer chains that is shown by a downfield shift from 2.44 to 2.56 ppm. The benzoic acid ester of the ternary amine is found to be potent catalyst of Ring-Opening Polymerization (ROP).

  • 35.
    Mindemark, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lacey, Matthew J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Beyond PEO-Alternative host materials for Li+-conducting solid polymer electrolytes2018In: Progress in polymer science, ISSN 0079-6700, E-ISSN 1873-1619, Vol. 81, p. 114-143Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bulk of the scientific literature on Li-conducting solid (solvent-free) polymer electrolytes (SPEs) for applications such as Li-based batteries is focused on polyether-based materials, not least the archetypal poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). A significant number of alternative polymer hosts have, however, been explored over the years, encompassing materials such as polycarbonates, polyesters, polynitriles, polyalcohols and polyamines. These display fundamentally different properties to those of polyethers, and might therefore be able to resolve the key issues restricting SPEs from realizing their full potential, for example in terms of ionic conductivity, chemical or electrochemical stability and temperature sensitivity. It is further interesting that many of these polymer materials complex Li-ions less strongly than PEO and facilitate ion transport through different mechanisms than polyethers, which is likely critical for true advancement in the area. In this review, >30 years of research on these 'alternative' Li-ion-conducting SPE host materials are summarized and discussed in the perspective of their potential application in electrochemical devices, with a clear focus on Li batteries. Key challenges and strategies forward and beyond the current PEO-based paradigm are highlighted.

  • 36.
    Mindemark, Jonas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Tabata, Yasuhiko
    Department of Biomaterials, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Low Charge Density Cationic Polymers for Gene Delivery: Exploring the Influence of Structural Elements on In Vitro Transfection2012In: Macromolecular Bioscience, ISSN 1616-5187, E-ISSN 1616-5195, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 840-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of end-functionalized poly(trimethylene carbonate) DNA carriers, characterized by low cationic charge density and pronounced hydrophobicity, was used to study structural effects on in vitro gene delivery. As the DNA-binding moieties were identical in all polymer structures, the differences observed between the different polymers were directly related to the functionality and length of the polymer backbone. The transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity of the polymer/DNA complexes were thus found to be dependent on a combination of polymer charge density and functionality, highlighting the importance of such structural considerations in the development of materials for efficient gene delivery.

  • 37.
    Nederberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Atthoff, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Welch, Ken
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Biodegradable Ionomers for the Loading and Release of Proteins : Formation, Characterization, Mechanism, and Consequence of Water Uptake2008In: / [ed] Mahapatro A, Kulshrestha AS, 2008, Vol. 977, p. 250-266Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased understanding of proteins and the human genome point towards a future in which selective proteins may replace synthetic drugs in the general cure of disease. In this scenario the ability of controlled and gentle release of proteins provide the key for successful treatment. To address the ability of full protein delivery we have developed a series of telechelic biodegradable ionomers based on poly (trimethylene carbonate) carrying zwitterionic, anionic or cationic functional groups. The introduction of polar end-groups provides a material with unique properties that directs the introduced functionality within the material bulk but also to the material surface if water is introduced. Bulk aggregation provide a low elastic modulus material and the ability to surface enrich provide the on-set of water swelling. The latter finally results in a co-continuous water-ionomer structure that engulfs and stores proteins simply by soaking the material in an aqueous protein solution. Following protein loading the material can be dried and re-immersed in water so that release occurs. Our results, including both the careful synthesis and the ability to load and release proteins, provides new possibilities for full protein delivery.

    In this chapter the increased understanding of the water swelling properties and the subsequent formation of bulk water domains in biodegradable poly (trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) ionomers is presented. The recent discovery that A functional PTMC may be functionalized with polar co-phosphoryl choline (PC) end groups and that the resulting telechelic zwitter ionomer forms an interesting low elastic modulus material has encouraged and directed the use of biodegradable ionomers in new areas of biomaterial research (I). Present findings now suggest that the scope of the synthesis may be broadened to provide telechelic ionomers with additional functionalities (2) and also that the water absorbing properties of such ionomers indicate their potential to serve as novel carriers for the loading and release of proteins (3).

  • 38.
    Nederberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Atthoff, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Welch, Ken
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bulk domains in biodegradable phosphoryl choline ionomers provides temporary reservoirs for the loading and release of proteins2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Nederberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Biodegradable, and biomimetic phosphoryl choline ionomers2005In: Polymer Preprints (American Chemical Society, Division of Polymer Chemistry) (2005), 46(1), 2005, p. 120-121Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Nederberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Induced surface migration of biodegradable phosphoryl choline functional poly(trimethylene carbonate)2005In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, Vol. 16, no 2-3, p. 108-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the synthesis, characterization, and surface orientation property of a biodegradable and biomimetic polymer are introduced. This phospholipid mimetic biodegradable polymer is synthesized by combining poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) with zwitterionic phosphoryl choline (PC) in a three-step synthesis. Since the glass transition of the polymer is around -20°C this material holds elastic properties at ambient temperature. This characteristic was used to induce surface enrichment as the polar PC end-group was enriched at the surface while treating films in an aqueous media. Film properties of the PTMC-PC amphiphile product revealed surface enrichment behavior, as the polar PC head group is oriented towards the surface. In addition, surface depletion of polar PC groups was the result when treating films under vacuum. This was observed by both contact angle measurements and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis

  • 41.
    Nederberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of Phosphoryl Choline Functionalized Poly e-caprolactone and Charged Phospholipid Analogues2004In: Macromolecules, no 37, p. 954-965Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Nederberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Vesicular transportation in cell-cell communication as a means for a novel drug carrier2003In: PMSE Preprints (2003), 88, 2003, p. 202-203Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Nederberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Nilsson, Bo
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Hong, Jaan
    Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Phosphoryl Choline Introduces Dual Activity in Biomimetic Ionomers2004In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, no 126, p. 15350-15351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dual activity of phosphoryl choline (PC) functional poly(trimethylene

    carbonate) (PTMC) was found which induces the zwitterionic biomimetic PC group to form physical cross-links with ionomers in the bulk, and at the same time enrich at the surface of cast films. The formation of zwitterionic domains from a bifunctional PC-PTMC-PC (ionomer) provided firm films with a low elastic modulus in contrast to the tacky PTMC starting material (Mn 3900 g/mol) with poor mechanical performance. In addition, the ionomer possessed improved hemocompatible properties that was explained by the enrichment of PC at the surface, suggesting a way to tailor the mechanical performance of biodegradable PTMC-based ionomers while providing its bioactivity. Tailored elasticity while maintaining hemocompatibility of a biodegradable ionomer should be of particular interest for a variety of in vivo applications.

  • 44.
    Nederberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Watanabe, Junji
    Ishihara, Kazuhiko
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Biocompatible and biodegradable phosphorylcholine ionomers with reduced protein adsorption and cell adhesion2006In: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition, ISSN 0920-5063, E-ISSN 1568-5624, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 605-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a recently developed biodegradable phosphorylcholine ionomer (PC ionomer) was evaluated in different biological environments with a focus on the adsorption of proteins (fibrinogen) and the adhesion of cells. Our results have shown that the polar phosphoryl choline (PC) group may be enriched at the surface of cast films with an added hydrophilic environment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the surface depletion of PC groups in dry conditions, as nitrogen and phosphorous atoms were found in the bulk of the material but not at the outermost surface layer. The surface enrichment leads to a strongly hydrophilic surface that prevents the adsorption of proteins and reduces the adhesion of cells. The non-functional and hydrophobic reference poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) adsorbs both proteins and cells, thus the wetting and low adhesion behavior of the PC ionomer can be attributed to the introduced PC functionality. Since the in vivo acceptance of biomaterials is determined by their ability to withstand protein adsorption the PC ionomer described in this paper is highly interesting for a number of in vivo applications in which the adsorption of proteins may be critical, for example, blood contact events.

  • 45.
    Nederberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Watanabe, Junji
    Ishihara, Kazuhiko
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry. polymerkemi.
    Organo Hydrogel Hybrids. Formation of Reservoirs for Protein Delivery2005In: Biomacromolecules, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 3088-3094Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A biodegradable organo hydrogel hybrid material is presented, which is formed through the water uptake of a phosphoryl choline zwitterionomer (PC ionomer). The water uptake and subsequent swelling is induced by the phosphoryl choline (PC) end group functionality. The nonfunctional poly(trimethylene carbonate) is hydrophobic and as such does not absorb any water. Disks of the PC ionomer showed significant water uptake, typically above 90 wt % when fully swollen. This high water uptake triggered us to utilize the material for drug and protein loading and subsequent release. Fluorescein and fluorescein-labeled proteins were used as simple models for the loading and release characteristics of the material which was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. The rate of release of the loaded molecules was compared, and it was shown that the release rate was similar for FITC and insulin but slightly slower for albumin. These results suggest that the PC ionomer may be used as a biodegradable and low elastic modulus material with an additional drug and/or protein release capacity. Such materials are of particular interest for use in a variety of applications in vivo, for example as drug eluting stents.

  • 46.
    Nilsson, Kristian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Mellin, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Nederberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Addition of Thiol-Containing Ligands to a Surface-Active Michael Acceptor2007In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 901-908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the synthesis, characterization, surface properties, and reactions of maleic acid monoester end group functionalized polymers. Acylation using maleic acid anhydride of hydroxyl end groups present in either poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) afforded the corresponding maleic acid monoester salts (PEGDM) or (PTMCM). Michael additions of ethanethiol or cysteine to the conjugated double bonds were performed in solution or at a polymer film−water interface. To further evaluate the reactivity and regioselectivity of the thiol addition to maleic acid monoester, a model compound, benzyl 6-hydroxyhexanoate, was used to aid a spectroscopic characterization. Film properties, evaluated with contact angle measurements, of PTMCM revealed surface-active properties of ionic maleic acid monoester salt. Further contact angle measurements showed that maleic acid monoesters present at the polymer−water interface could be reacted with the mercapto group in cysteine to give an amino acid decorated surface.

  • 47.
    Piskounova, Sonya
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Gedda, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Biomedical Radiation Sciences.
    Hulsart Billström, Gry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    The importance of proper protein handling and detection for the design of a BMP-2 release system2012In: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, ISSN 1932-6254, Vol. 6, no s1, p. 322-322Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although various promising strategies have been proposed for the delivery of BMP-2 for bone regeneration, there is currently no ideal system out on the market. Proper handling and detection of BMP-2 are two factors that are commonly overlooked, resulting in inaccurate characterization of BMP-2 delivery systems. In this work we employed radiolabeling with 125I in an attempt study the growth factor release from a hydrogel system both in vitro and in vivo. BMP-2 (InductOs, Pfizer) was radiolabeled using a modified chloramine-T method and adsorption to sample tubes was studied at different times and temperatures. In vitro release of BMP-2 was compared to the ALP expression. In vivo release was correlated to bone formation in an intramuscular ectopic model in male Sprague–Dawley rats. The results showed that Protein LoBind tubes exhibited the lowest BMP-2 adsorption. Both release studies resulted in a biphasic profile of biologically active BMP-2. Mineralization was observed in vivo after 8 days, with increasing mineral volume and mineral content until day 14. The study confirmed the superiority of radiolabeling over conventional methods such as ELISA, as well as the importance of cautions handling and reliable quantification techniques for successful design of BMP-2 delivery systems

  • 48.
    Piskounova, Sonya
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Gedda, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science.
    Hulsart-Billström, Gry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Characterization of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 delivery from injectable hyaluronan-based hydrogels by means of I-125-radiolabelling2014In: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, ISSN 1932-6254, E-ISSN 1932-7005, Vol. 8, no 10, p. 821-830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a thorough in vitro and in vivo characterization of the delivery of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) from a hyaluronan-based hydrogel system. The in vitro release of BMP-2 from similar hydrogels has previously been studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), by which only a fraction of the loaded protein is detected. In the current study, I-125 radiolabelling was used instead to monitor BMP-2 in vitro and in vivo. To minimize protein loss during handling, I-125-BMP-2 adsorption to different tubes was studied at different times and temperatures. The data showed that Protein LoBind tubes exhibited the lowest protein affinity. Furthermore, a biphasic release profile of biologically active BMP-2 was observed both in vitro and in vivo, with the initial fast phase during the first week, followed by a slower release during the remaining 3 weeks. The initial fast-release phase corresponded to the early bone formation observed after 8 days in an ectopic model in rats. Bone volume and mineral content increased until day 14, after which a decrease in bone volume was observed, possibly due to resorption in response to decreased amounts of released BMP-2. Overall, the results suggested that cautious protein handling and a reliable quantification technique are essential factors for successful design of a BMP-2 delivery system.

  • 49. Rundlöf, Torgny
    et al.
    Mathiasson, Marie
    Bekiroglu, Somer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Hakkarainen, Birgit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Survey and qualification of internal standards for quantification by 1H NMR spectroscopy2010In: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 645-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In quantitative NMR (qNMR) selection of an appropriate internal standard proves to be crucial. In this study, 25 candidate compounds considered to be potent internal standards were investigated with respect to the ability of providing unique signal chemical shifts, purity, solubility, and ease of use. The 1H chemical shift (δ) values, assignments, multiplicities and number of protons (for each signal), appropriateness (as to be used as internal standards) in four different deuterated solvents (D2O, DMSO-d6, CD3OD, CDCl3) were studied. Taking into account the properties of these 25 internal standards, the most versatile eight compounds (2,4,6-triiodophenol, 1,3,5-trichloro-2-nitrobenzene, 3,4,5-trichloropyridine, dimethyl terephthalate, 1,4-dinitrobenzene, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, maleic acid and fumaric acid) were qualified using both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and NMR spectroscopy employing highly pure acetanilide as the reference standard. The data from these two methods were compared as well as utilized in the quality assessment of the compounds as internal standards. Finally, the selected internal standards were tested and evaluated in a real case of quantitative NMR analysis of a paracetamol pharmaceutical product.

  • 50.
    Stenfelt, Sonya
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Hulsart-Billström, Gry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Gedda, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science.
    Bergman, Kristoffer
    Larsson, Sune
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry.
    Pre-incubation of chemically crosslinked hyaluronan-based hydrogels, loaded with BMP-2 and hydroxyapatite, and its effect on ectopic bone formation2014In: Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine, ISSN 0957-4530, E-ISSN 1573-4838, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 1013-1023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of pre-incubation of hyaluronan hydrogels, for different lengths of time after the initiation of chemical crosslinking and prior to injection, were explored both by investigating the in vitro BMP-2 release kinetics from the hydrogel and by studying the ectopic bone formation in rats. From the curing profile, obtained from rheological analysis, appropriate pre-incubation times (1 min, 5 h and 3 days) were selected, to prepare slightly, moderately and fully cured hydrogels. Comparable release profiles were observed for all three test groups in vitro. Furthermore, radiography, pQCT and histology of the explanted grafts showed cancellous bone formation in all groups after 5 weeks in vivo. However, longer pre-incubation times gave rise to an increase in bone volume, but a decrease in bone density. Moreover, the 5 h and the 3 days grafts appeared to be more ordered and resistant to deformation from the surrounding tissue than the 1 min grafts. The observed variations in mechanical and biological properties could potentially be used to adapt the treatment for a specific indication.

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