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  • 1.
    Ainla, Alar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Nafion (R)-polybenzimidazole (PBI) composite membranes for DMFC applications2007In: Solid State Ionics, ISSN 0167-2738, E-ISSN 1872-7689, Vol. 178, no 7-10, p. 581-585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nafion®–PBI composites were prepared by diffusing synthesized PBI from solution phase into Nafion® membranes, using different concentrations and drying temperatures. In some cases, Nafion® was treated with diethyl amine to screen the –SO3H groups and thereby avoid the strong acid–base interactions between the polymers during diffusion. The presence of PBI in the membranes was characterized with FT–IR spectroscopy. The performance of the membranes was studied by in-plane conductivity and methanol permeability. The performance ratio (the ratio between conductivity and methanol permeability compared to Nafion®) increased by up to 50% for the composite membranes compared to Nafion®.

  • 2.
    Aktekin, Burak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brant, William
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Marzano, Fernanda
    Scania CV AB.
    Zipprich, Wolfgang
    Volkswagen AG.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Cation Ordering and Oxygen Release in LiNi0.5-xMn1.5+xO4-y (LNMO)—In Situ Neutron Diffraction and Performance in Li-Ion Full Cells2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is a promising spinel-type positive electrode for lithium ion batteries as it operates at high voltage and possesses high power capability. However, rapid performance degradation in full cells, especially at elevated temperatures, is a problem. There has been a considerable interest in its crystal structure as this is known to affect its electrochemical performance. LNMO can adopt a P4332 (cation ordered) or Fd-3m (cation disordered) arrangement depending on the synthesis conditions. Most of the studies in literature agree on better electrochemical performance for disordered LNMO [1], however, a clear understanding of the reason for this behaviour is still lacking. This partly arises from the fact that synthesis conditions leading to disordering also lead to oxygen deficiency, rock-salt impurities and therefore generate some Mn3+ [2]. Most commonly, X-ray diffraction is used to characterize these materials, however, accurate structural analysis is difficult due to the near identical scattering lengths of Mn and Ni. This is not the case for neutron diffraction. In this study, an in-situ neutron diffraction heating-cooling experiment was conducted on slightly Mn-rich LNMO under pure oxygen atmosphere in order to investigate relationship between disordering and oxygen deficiency. The study shows for the first time that there is no direct relationship between oxygen loss and cation disordering, as disordering starts prior to oxygen release. Our findings suggest that it is possible to obtain samples with varying degrees of ordering, yet with the same oxygen content and free from impurities. In the second part of the study, highly ordered, partially ordered and fully disordered samples have been tested in LNMO∥LTO (Li4Ti5O12) full cells at 55 °C. It is shown that differences in their performances arise only after repeated cycling, while all the samples behave similarly at the beginning of the test. The difference is believed to be related to instabilities of LNMO at higher voltages, that is, in its lower lithiation states.

    [1] A. Manthiram, K. Chemelewski, E.-S. Lee, Energy Environ. Sci. 7 (2014) 1339.

    [2] M. Kunduraci, G.G. Amatucci, J. Power Sources. 165 (2007) 359–367.

  • 3.
    Aktekin, Burak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lacey, Matthew J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Nordh, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Tengstedt, Carl
    Scania CV AB, SE-15187 Sodertalje, Sweden.
    Zipprich, Wolfgang
    Volkswagen AG, D-38436 Wolfsburg, Germany.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Understanding the Capacity Loss in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4-Li4Ti5O12 Lithium-Ion Cells at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures2018In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 122, no 21, p. 11234-11248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, (LNMO) is an attractive positive electrode because of its operating voltage around 4.7 V (vs Li/Li+) and high power capability. However, problems including electrolyte decomposition at high voltage and transition metal dissolution, especially at elevated temperatures, have limited its potential use in practical full cells. In this paper, a fundamental study for LNMO parallel to Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) full cells has been performed to understand the effect of different capacity fading mechanisms contributing to overall cell failure. Electrochemical characterization of cells in different configurations (regular full cells, back-to-back pseudo-full cells, and 3-electrode full cells) combined with an intermittent current interruption technique have been performed. Capacity fade in the full cell configuration was mainly due to progressively limited lithiation of electrodes caused by a more severe degree of parasitic reactions at the LTO electrode, while the contributions from active mass loss from LNMO or increases in internal cell resistance were minor. A comparison of cell formats constructed with and without the possibility of cross-talk indicates that the parasitic reactions on LTO occur because of the transfer of reaction products from the LNMO side. The efficiency of LTO is more sensitive to temperature, causing a dramatic increase in the fading rate at 55 degrees C. These observations show how important the electrode interactions (cross-talk) can be for the overall cell behavior. Additionally, internal resistance measurements showed that the positive electrode was mainly responsible for the increase of resistance over cycling, especially at 55 degrees C. Surface characterization showed that LNMO surface layers were relatively thin when compared with the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on LTO. The SEI on LTO does not contribute significantly to overall internal resistance even though these films are relatively thick. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy measurements showed that the Mn and Ni observed on the anode were not in the metallic state; the presence of elemental metals in the SEI is therefore not implicated in the observed fading mechanism through a simple reduction process of migrated metal cations.

  • 4.
    Aktekin, Burak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lacey, Matthew
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Nordh, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Tengstedt, Carl
    Scania CV AB.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Understanding the Rapid Capacity Fading of LNMO-LTO Lithium-ion Cells at Elevated Temperature2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) has an average operating potential around 4.7 V vs. Li/Li+ and a gravimetric charge capacity of 146 mAh/g making it a promising high energy density positive electrode for Li-ion batteries. Additionally, the 3-D lithium transport paths available in the spinel structure enables fast diffusion kinetics, making it suitable for power applications [1]. However, the material displays large instability during cycling, especially at elevated temperatures. Therefore, significant research efforts have been undertaken to better understand and improve this electrode material.

    Electrolyte (LiPF6 in organic solvents) oxidation and transition metal dissolution are often considered as the main problems [2] for the systems based on this cathode material. These can cause a variety of problems (in different parts of the cell) eventually increasing internal cell resistance, causing active mass loss and decreasing the amount of cyclable lithium.

    Among these issues, cyclable lithium loss cannot be observed in half cells since lithium metal will provide almost unlimited capacity. Being a promising full cell chemistry for high power applications, there has also been a considerable interest on LNMO full cells with Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) used as the negative electrode. For this chemistry, for an optimized cell, quite stable cycling for >1000 cycles has been reported at room temperature while fast fading is still present at 55 °C [3]. This difference in performance (RT vs. 55 °C) is beyond most expectations and likely does not follow any Arrhenius-type of trend.

    In this study, a comprehensive analysis of LNMO-LTO cells has been performed at different temperatures (RT, 40 °C and 55 °C) to understand the underlying reasons behind stable cycling at room temperature and rapid fading at 55 °C. For this purpose, testing was made on regular cells (Figure 1a), 3-electrode cells (Figure 1b) and back-to-back cells [4] (Figure 1c). Electrode interactions (cross-talk) have been shown to exist in the LTO-LNMO system [5] and back-to-back cells have therefore been used to observe fading under conditions where cross-talk is impossible [4]. Galvanostatic cycling combined with short-duration intermittent current interruptions [6] was performed in order to separately observe changes in internal resistance for LNMO and LTO electrodes in a full cell. Ex-situ characterization of electrodes have also been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES).

    Our findings show how important the electrode interactions can be in full cells, as a decrease in lithium inventory was shown to be the major factor for the observed capacity fading at elevated temperature. In this presentation, the effect of other factors – active mass loss and internal cell resistance – will be discussed together with the consequences of cross-talk.

    References

    [1] A. Kraytsberg et al. Adv. Energy Mater., vol. 2, pp. 922–939,2012.

    [2] J. H. Kim et al., ChemPhysChem, vol. 15, pp. 1940–1954, 2014.

    [3] H. M. Wu et al. J. E. Soc., vol. 156, pp. A1047–A1050, 2009.

    [4] S. R. Li et al., J. E. Soc., vol. 160, no. 9, pp. A1524–A1528, 2013.

    [5] Dedryvère et al. J. Phys. C., vol. 114 (24), pp. 10999–11008, 2010.

    [6] M. J. Lacey, ChemElectroChem, pp. 1–9, 2017.

  • 5.
    Aktekin, Burak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lacey, Matthew
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Nordh, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Tengstedt, Carl
    Scania CV AB.
    Zipprich, Wolfgang
    Volkswagen AG.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Understanding the Capacity Loss in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 - Li4Ti5O12 Lithium-Ion Cells at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O(LNMO) is an attractive positive electrode due to its operating voltage around 4.7 V (vs. Li/Li+) arising from the Ni2+/Ni4+ redox couple. In addition to high voltage operation, a second advantage of this material is its capability for fast lithium diffusion kinetics through 3-D transport paths in the spinel structure. However, the electrode material is prone to side reactions with conventional electrolytes, including electrolyte decomposition and transition metal dissolution, especially at elevated temperatures1. It is important to understand how undesired reactions originating from the high voltage spinel affect the aging of different cell components and overall cycle life. Half-cells are usually considered as an ideal cell configuration in order to get information only from the electrode of interest. However, this cell configuration may not be ideal to understand capacity fading for long-term cycling and the assumption of ‘stable’ lithium negative electrode may not be valid, especially at high current rates2. Also, among the variety of capacity fading mechanisms, the loss of “cyclable” lithium from the positive electrode (or gain of lithium from electrolyte into the negative electrode) due to side reactions in a full-cell can cause significant capacity loss. This capacity loss is not observable in a typical half-cell as a result of an excessive reserve of lithium in the negative electrode.

    In a full-cell, it is desired that the negative electrode does not contribute to side reactions in a significant way if the interest is more on the positive side. Among candidates on the negative side, Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) is known for its stability since its voltage plateau (around 1.5 V vs. Li/Li+) is in the electrochemical stability window of standard electrolytes and it shows a very small volume change during lithiation. These characteristics make the LNMO-LTO system attractive for a variety of applications (e.g. electric vehicles) but also make it a good model system for studying aging in high voltage spinel-based full cells.

    In this study, we aim to understand the fundamental mechanisms resulting in capacity fading for LNMO-LTO full cells both at room temperature and elevated temperature (55°C). It is known that electrode interactions occur in this system due to migration of reaction products from LNMO to the LTO side3, 4. For this purpose, three electrode cells have been cycled galvanostatically with short-duration intermittent current interruptionsin order to observe internal resistance for both LNMO and LTO electrodes in a full cell, separately. Change of voltage curves over cycling has also been observed to get an insight into capacity loss. For comparison purposes, back-to-back cells (a combination of LNMO and LTO cells connected electrically by lithium sides) were also tested similarly. Post-cycling of harvested electrodes in half cells was conducted to determine the degree of capacity loss due to charge slippage compared to other aging factors. Surface characterization of LNMO as well as LTO electrodes after cycling at room temperature and elevated temperature has been done via SEM, XPS, HAXPES and XANES.

    References

    1. A. Kraytsberg, Y. Ein-Eli, Adv. Energy Mater., vol. 2, pp. 922–939, 2012.

    2. Aurbach, D., Zinigrad, E., Cohen, Y., & Teller, H. Solid State Ionics, 148(3), 405-416, 2002.

    3. Li et al., Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 160 (9) A1524-A1528, 2013.

    4. Aktekin et al., Journal of The Electrochemical Society 164.4: A942-A948. 2017.

    5. Lacey, M. J., ChemElectroChem. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1002/celc.201700129, 2017. 

  • 6.
    Aktekin, Burak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Valvo, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Smith, Ronald I.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, ISIS Pulsed Neutron & Muon Source, Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England.
    Sörby, Magnus H.
    Inst Energy Technol, Dept Neutron Mat Characterizat, POB 40, NO-2027 Kjeller, Norway.
    Marzano, Fernanda Lodi
    Scania CV AB, SE-15187 Sodertalje, Sweden.
    Zipprich, Wolfgang
    Volkswagen AG, D-38436 Wolfsburg, Germany.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brant, William
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Cation Ordering and Oxygen Release in LiNi0.5-xMn1.5+xO4-y (LNMO): In Situ Neutron Diffraction and Performance in Li Ion Full Cells2019In: ACS APPLIED ENERGY MATERIALS, ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 3323-3335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) as the positive electrode are prone to fast capacity fading, especially when operated in full cells and at elevated temperatures. The crystal structure of LNMO can adopt a P4(3)32 (cation-ordered) or Fd (3) over barm (disordered) arrangement, and the fading rate of cells is usually mitigated when samples possess the latter structure. However, synthesis conditions leading to disordering also lead to oxygen deficiencies and rock-salt impurities and as a result generate Mn3+. In this study, in situ neutron diffraction was performed on disordered and slightly Mn-rich LNMO samples to follow cation ordering-disordering transformations during heating and cooling. The study shows for the first time that there is not a direct connection between oxygen release and cation disordering, as cation disordering is observed to start prior to oxygen release when the samples are heated in a pure oxygen atmosphere. This result demonstrates that it is possible to tune disordering in LNMO without inducing oxygen deficiencies or forming the rock-salt impurity phase. In the second part of the study, electrochemical testing of samples with different degrees of ordering and oxygen content has been performed in LNMO vertical bar vertical bar LTO (Li4Ti5O12) full cells. The disordered sample exhibits better performance, as has been reported in other studies; however, we observe that all cells behave similarly during the initial period of cycling even when discharged at a 10 C rate, while differences arise only after a period of cycling. Additionally, the differences in fading rate were observed to be time-dependent rather than dependent on the number of cycles. This performance degradation is believed to be related to instabilities in LNMO at higher voltages, that is, in its lower lithiation states. Therefore, it is suggested that future studies should target the individual effects of ordering and oxygen content. It is also suggested that more emphasis during electrochemical testing should be placed on the stability of samples in their delithiated state.

  • 7.
    Aktekin, Burak
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Zipprich, Wolfgang
    Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg, Germany..
    Tengstedt, Carl
    Scania CV AB, Södertalje..
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    The Effect of the Fluoroethylene Carbonate Additive in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 - Li4Ti5O12 Lithium-Ion Cells2017In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 4, p. A942-A948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the electrolyte additive fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) for Li-ion batteries has been widely discussed in literature in recent years. Here, the additive is studied for the high-voltage cathode LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) coupled to Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) to specifically study its effect on the cathode side. Electrochemical performance of full cells prepared by using a standard electrolyte (LP40) with different concentrations of FEC (0, 1 and 5 wt%) were compared and the surface of cycled positive electrodes were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that addition of FEC is generally of limited use for this battery system. Addition of 5 wt% FEC results in relatively poor cycling performance, while the cells with 1 wt% FEC showed similar behavior compared to reference cells prepared without FEC. SEM and XPS analysis did not indicate the formation of thick surface layers on the LNMO cathode, however, an increase in layer thickness with increased FEC content in the electrolyte could be observed. XPS analysis on LTO electrodes showed that the electrode interactions between positive and negative electrodes occurred as Mn and Ni were detected on the surface of LTO already after 1 cycle. (C) The Author(s) 2017. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Bergfelt, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Lacey, Matthew J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Hedman, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Sångeland, Christofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    ε-Caprolactone-based solid polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries: synthesis, electrochemical characterization and mechanical stabilization by block copolymerization2018In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 8, no 30, p. 16716-16725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, three types of polymers based on epsilon-caprolactone have been synthesized: poly(epsilon-caprolactone), polystyrene-poly(epsilon-caprolactone), and polystyrene-poly(epsilon-caprolactone-r-trimethylene carbonate) (SCT), where the polystyrene block was introduced to improve the electrochemical and mechanical performance of the material. Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) were produced by blending the polymers with 10-40 wt% lithium bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonimide (LiTFSI). Battery devices were thereafter constructed to evaluate the cycling performance. The best performing battery half-cell utilized an SPE consisting of SCT and 17 wt% LiTFSI as both binder and electrolyte; a Li vertical bar SPE vertical bar LiFePO4 cell that cycled at 40 degrees C gave a discharge capacity of about 140 mA h g(-1) at C/5 for 100 cycles, which was superior to the other investigated electrolytes. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that the storage modulus E' was about 5 MPa for this electrolyte.

  • 9.
    Bergfelt, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Mogensen, Ronnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lacey, Matthew
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Guiomar, Hernández
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Mechanically Robust and Highly Conductive Di-Block Copolymers as Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Room Temperature Li-ion Batteries2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) hosts to the archetype poly(ethylene oxide) are gaining attention thanks to their appealing properties, such as higher cation transport number, thermal stability and electrochemical stability [1]. In addition, high mechanical stability is required in order to integrate easy-to-use materials into flexible or ‘structural’ batteries [2, 3].

     In this work, a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) featuring high ionic conductivity and mechanical robustness at room temperature is presented. The SPE consists of a di-block copolymer, poly(benzyl methacrylate)-poly(ε-caprolactone-r-trimethylene carbonate) (BCT), mixed with different loadings of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). The highest ionic conductivity achieved for these SPEs was found with 16.7 wt% LiTFSI loading (BCT17), reaching 9.1 x 10-6 S cm-1 at 30 °C. The limited current fraction (F+) for the BCT17 electrolyte was calculated to be 0.64 with the Bruce-Vincent method. Furthermore, dynamic mechanical analysis showed a storage modulus (E’) of 0.2 GPa below 40 °C and 1 MPa above 50 °C. These results indicate that BCT with LiTFSI is a competitive electrolyte, combining high ionic conductivity and modulus at ambient temperatures.

     LiFePO4|BCT17|Li half-cells showed good cycling performance at 60 °C. At 30 °C, where the SPE possessed significantly higher modulus, decent cell performance could still be achieved after several optimization steps. These included incorporating a SPE as binder, and infiltration cast the SPE on the electrode to maximize the contact between both components, thereby improving the interfacial contact and decreasing the cell resistance and overpotential when cycling the battery device.

     References

    [1] J. Mindemark, M.J. Lacey, T. Bowden, D. Brandell. Prog Polym Sci, (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2017.12.004.

    [2] J.F. Snyder, R.H. Carter, E.D. Wetzel. Chem Mater, 19 (2007) 3793-801.

    [3] W.S. Young, W.F. Kuan, Thomas H. Epps. J Polym Sci, Part B: Polym Phys, 52 (2014) 1-16.

  • 10.
    Bergfelt, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Rubatat, Laurent
    CNRS/UNIV Pau & Pays Adour, Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physico-Chimie pour l´ Environnement et les Materiaux, Pau, France.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Poly(benzyl methacrylate)-Poly[(oligo ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] Triblock-Copolymers as Solid Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries2018In: Solid State Ionics, ISSN 0167-2738, E-ISSN 1872-7689, Vol. 321, p. 55-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A triblock copolymer of benzyl methacrylate and oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate was polymerized to form the general structure PBnMA-POEGMA-PBnMA, using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The block copolymer (BCP) was blended with lithium bis(trifluoro methylsulfonate) (LiTFSI) to form solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs). AC impedance spectroscopy was used to study the ionic conductivity of the SPE series in the temperature interval 30 °C to 90 °C. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to study the morphology of the electrolytes in the temperature interval 30 °C to 150 °C. By using benzyl methacrylate as a mechanical block it was possible to tune the microphase separation by the addition of LiTFSI, as proven by SAXS. By doing so the ionic conductivity increased to values higher than ones measured on a methyl methacrylate triblock copolymer-based electrolyte in the mixed state, which was investigated in an earlier paper by our group. A Li|SPE|LiFePO4 half-cell was constructed and cycled at 60 °C. The cell produced a discharge capacity of about 100 mAh g−1 of LiFePO4 at C/10, and the half-cell cycled for more than 140 cycles.

  • 11.
    Bergfelt, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Rubatat, Laurent
    Univ Pau & Pays Adour, CNRS, Inst Sci Analyt & Physicochim Environm & Mat, UMR5254, F-64000 Pau, France.
    Mogensen, Ronnie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    d8-poly(methyl methacrylate)-poly[(oligo ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] tri-block-copolymer electrolytes: Morphology, conductivity and battery performance2017In: Polymer, ISSN 0032-3861, E-ISSN 1873-2291, Vol. 131, p. 234-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of deuterated tri-block copolymers with the general structure d(8)-PMMA-POEGMA-d(8)-PMMA, with variation in d(8)-PMMA chain length, were synthesized using sequential controlled radical polymerization (ATRP). Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) were produced by blending tri-block copolymers and lithium bis(trifluoro methylsulfonate) (LiTFSI). Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to study the bulk morphology of the deuterated tri-block copolymer electrolyte series at 25 degrees C, 60 degrees C and 95 degrees C. The lack of a second T-g in DSC analysis together with modelling with the random phase approximation model (RPA) confirmed that the electrolytes are in the mixed state, with negative Flory-Huggins interaction parameters. AC impedance spectroscopy was used to study the ionic conductivity of the SPE series in the temperature interval 30 degrees C-90 degrees C, and a battery device was constructed to evaluate a 25 wt% d(8)-PMMA electrolyte. The Li | SPE | LiFePO4 cell cycled at 60 degrees C, giving a discharge capacity of 120 mAh g(-1), while cyclic voltammetry showed that the SPE was stable at 60 degrees C.

  • 12.
    Bergman, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers, Dept Appl Phys, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bergfelt, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Sun, Bing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Bowden, Tim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry. Uppsala Univ, Dept Chem, Angstrom Lab, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Patrik
    Chalmers, Dept Appl Phys, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Graft copolymer electrolytes for high temperature Li-battery applications, using poly(methyl methacrylate) grafted poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonimide)2015In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 175, p. 96-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For successful hybridization of heavy vehicles, high temperature batteries might be the solution. Here, high temperature solid polymer electrolytes (SPE's) based on different ratios of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA), with LiTFSI salt (at a fixed ether oxygen (EO):Li ratio of 20:1) have been prepared and investigated. The copolymers comprise PMMA backbones with grafted PEGMA side-chains containing 9 EO units. The SPE systems were characterized using Raman spectroscopy, broadband dielectric spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermal gravimetric analysis, and electrochemical cycling in prototype cells, with a particular focus on the 83 wt% PEGMA system. The electrolytes have good thermal stabilities and dissociate the LiTFSI salt easily, while at the same time maintaining low glass transition temperatures (T-g's). Depending on the polymeric structure, ionic conductivities >1 mS cm(-1) at 110 degrees C are detected, thus providing ion transport properties for a broad range of electrochemical applications. Prototype Li vertical bar polymer electrolyte vertical bar LiFePO4 cells utilizing the SPE at 60 degrees C showed surprisingly low capacities (<20 mA h g(-1) LiFePO4), which could be due to poor electrode/electrolyte contacts.

  • 13.
    Björklund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Hahlin, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    How the Negative Electrode Influences Interfacial and Electrochemical Properties of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 Cathodes in Li-Ion Batteries2017In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, no 13, p. A3054-A3059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cycle life of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) based cells are significantly influenced by the choice of the negative electrode. Electrochemical testing and post mortem surface analysis are here used to investigate NMC electrodes cycled vs. either Li-metal, graphite or Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) as negative electrodes. While NMC-LTO and NMC-graphite cells show small capacity fading over 200 cycles, NMC-Li-metal cell suffers from rapid capacity fading accompanied with an increased voltage hysteresis despite the almost unlimited access of lithium. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) results show that no structural degradation occurs on the positive electrode even after >200 cycles, however, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results shows that the composition of the surface layer formed on the NMC cathode in the NMC-Li-metal cell is largely different from that of the other NMC cathodes (cycled in the NMC-graphite or NMC-LTO cells). Furthermore, it is shown that the surface layer thickness on NMC increases with the number of cycles, caused by continuous electrolyte degradation products formed at the Li-metal negative electrode and then transferred to NMC positive electrode.

  • 14.
    Björklund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Hahlin, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    The influence of counter electrode on the capacity fading in LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2-based Li-ion battery cells2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Björklund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Göttlinger, Mara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Investigation of dimethyl carbonate and propylene carbonate mixtures for LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2-Li4Ti5O12 cells2019In: Chemelectrochem, E-ISSN 2196-0216, Vol. 6, no 13, p. 3429-3436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has recently been shown that ethylene carbonate (EC) experience poor stability at high potentials in lithium-ion batteries, and development of electrolytes without EC, not least using ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), has therefore been suggested in order to improve the capacity retention. In this context, we here explore another alternative electrolyte system consisting of propylene carbonate (PC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) mixtures in NMC-LTO (LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.2O2, Li4Ti5O12) cells cycled up to 2.95 V. While PC experience wettability problems and DMC has difficulties dissolving LiPF6 salt, blends between these could possess complementary properties. The electrolyte blend showed superior cycling performance at sub-zero temperatures compared to EC-containing counterparts. At 30 degrees C, however, the PC-DMC electrolyte did not show any major improvement in electrochemical properties for the NMC-LTO cell chemistry. Photoelectron spectroscopy measurements showed that thin surface layers were detected on both NMC (622) and LTO electrodes in all investigated electrolytes. The results suggest that both PC and EC will react on the electrodes, but with EC forming thinner layers comprising more carbonates. Moreover, the electrochemical stability at high electrochemical potentials is similar for the studied electrolytes, which is surprising considering that most are free from the reactive EC component.

  • 16.
    Björklund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Hahlin, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Molecular and Condensed Matter Physics.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    The influence of counter electrode on the capacity fading in LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2-based Li-ion battery cells2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Björklund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Naylor, Andrew J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brant, William
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Temperature dependence of electrochemical degradation in LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2/Li4Ti5O12 cells2019In: Energy Technology, ISSN 2194-4288, Vol. 7, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aging mechanisms in lithium-ion batteries are dependent on the operational temperature, but the detailed mechanisms on what processes take place at what temperatures are still lacking. The electrochemical performance and capacity fading of the common cell chemistry LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC)/Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) pouch cells are studied at temperatures 10, 30, and 55 degrees C. The full cells are cycled with a moderate upper cutoff potential of 4.3 V versus Li+/Li. The electrode interfaces are characterized postmortem using photoelectron spectroscopy techniques (soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy [SOXPES], hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy [HAXPES], and X-ray absorption near edge structure [XANES]). Stable cycling at 30 degrees C is explained by electrolyte reduction forming a stabilizing interphase, thereby preventing further degradation. This initial reaction, between LTO and the electrolyte, seems to be beneficial for the NMC-LTO full cell. At 55 degrees C, continuous electrolyte reduction and capacity fading are observed. It leads to the formation of a thicker surface layer of organic species on the LTO surface than at 30 degrees C, contributing to an increased voltage hysteresis. At 10 degrees C, large cell-resistances are observed, caused by poor electrolyte conductivity in combination with a relatively thicker and LixPFy-rich surface layer on LTO, which limit the capacity.

  • 18.
    Björklund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Wikner, Evelina
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Influence of state-of-charge in commercial LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2/LiMn2O4-graphite cells analyzed by synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy2018In: Journal of Energy Storage, ISSN 2352-152X, Vol. 15, p. 172-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradation mechanisms in 26 Ah commercial Li-ion battery cells comprising graphite as the negative electrode and mixed metal oxide of LiMn2O4 (LMO) and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) as the positive electrode are here investigated utilising extensive cycling at two different state-of-charge (SOC) ranges, 10–20% and 60–70%, as well as post-mortem analysis. To better analyze these mechanisms electrochemically, the cells were after long-term cycling reassembled into laboratory scale “half-cells” using lithium metal as the negative electrode, and thereafter cycled at different rates corresponding to 0.025 mA/cm2 and 0.754 mA/cm2. The electrodes were also analyzed by synchrotron-based hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) using two different excitation energies to determine the chemical composition of the interfacial layers formed at different depth on the respective electrodes. It was found from the extensive cycling that the cycle life was shorter for the cell cycled in the higher SOC range, 60–70%, which is correlated to findings of an increased cell resistance and thickness of the SEI layer in the graphite electrode as well as manganese dissolution from the positive electrode.

  • 19.
    Björklund, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Wikner, Evelina
    Division of Electric Power Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Wachtler, Mario
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    The influence of temperature and SOC ranges of ageing in commercial  LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2/LiMn2O4-graphite commercial cells2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    A renaissance for Li-battery solid polymer electrolytes2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    EV batteries –challenges for power, capacity, lifetime, cost and sustainability2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Functionalized Polymer Electrolytes for Large and Small Li-Battery Applications: Experiments and Modelling2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Li ion and H-conduction in polymer electrolytes2010In: Polymer electrolytes: Fundamentals and applications / [ed] César Sequeira and Diogo Santos, Woodhead Publishing , 2010, p. 314-339Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Organic Batteries2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Ultrathin Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Microbatteries2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Brandell, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Ainla, A
    Liivat, Anti
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Aabloo, A
    Molecular dynamics simulations of Li- and Na-Nafion membranes2006In: SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering Vol 61680G: Smart Structures and Materials 2006: Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD), 2006, p. 61680G-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular Dynamics (MD) techniques have been used to study the structure and dynamics of hydrated Li- and Na-Nafion membranes. The membranes were generated using a Monte Carlo-approach for Nafion 117 oligomers of Mw = 1100 and with water contents of 7.5 and 20 % by weight, equivalent to 5 and 15 water molecules per sulfonate group, respectively. After equilibration, local structural properties and dynamical features such as coordination, cluster stability, solvation and ion conductivity were studied. In a comparison between the two cationic systems, it is shown that the Na-Nafion system is more sensitive than Li-Nafion to the level of hydration, and also show higher ion conductivity. The ionic conductivity is shown to increase with higher level of hydration.

  • 27.
    Brandell, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Ainla, Alar
    Liivat, Anti
    Aabloo, Alvo
    Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Li- and Na-Nafion Membranes2006In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 6168, p. 61680G-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 28.
    Brandell, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Inorganic and organometallic materials for novel Li-ion batteries2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Brandell, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Jeschull, Fabian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    How water-soluble bindercontrol the surface chemistry in Li-ion battery anodes2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Brandell, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Jeschull, Fabian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Tailoring the surface chemistry of Li-ion battery anodes through the use of water-soluble functional functional binders2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Brandell, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Joemetsa, Silver
    Kasemaegi, Heiki
    Aabloo, Alvo
    Molecular Dynamics modelling a small-molecule crystalline electrolyte: LiBF4(CH3O(CH2CH2O)(4)CH3)(0.5)2013In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 104, p. 33-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular Dynamics techniques have been used to investigate structure and ion conductivity in the glyme-based crystalline electrolyte LiBF4(CH3O(CH2CH2O)(4)CH3)(0.5). The structure allows ionic transport in two distinct directions in the structure, y or z, resulting in anisotropic effects. MD simulations have also been carried out under external electric fields of 1-5 x 10(6) V/m, imposed in y- or z-directions, to induce ion transport on a short time-space scale at room temperature conditions. The MD simulations reproduce the experimentally determined structure satisfactorily, and also the unusually high cationic transport numbers (t(+) > 0.6). The simulations suggest that the ion transport is dominated by the Li-ions inside the glyme complexes, while the Li-ions outside comprise stable complexes with the generally immobilized anions. 

  • 32.
    Brandell, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Karo, Jaanus
    Thomas, John O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
     Modelling the Nafion® diffraction profile by molecular dynamics simulation2010In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 195, no 18, p. 5962-5965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diffraction profile is here derived from classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation for the hydrated perfluorosulphonic acid fuel-cell membrane material Nafion at 363 K using a 76 angstrom x 76 angstrom x 76 angstrom box. The MD simulation reproduces the phase-separated nanoscale structure of Nafion and water channels. No specific structural features, such as a characteristic channel diameter, could be distinguished. Nevertheless, the envelope of the simulated diffraction profile based on 6000 MD "snapshots" reproduced well the key features of the experimental SAXS profile. This draws into questions previous interpretations of diffraction data for the Nafion (R) system which involve simplistic notions of channel- and cluster-diameter.

  • 33.
    Brandell, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Kasemaegi, Heiki
    Tamm, Tarmo
    Aabloo, Alvo
    Molecular dynamics modeling the Li-PolystyreneTFSI/PEO blend2014In: Solid State Ionics, ISSN 0167-2738, E-ISSN 1872-7689, Vol. 262, p. 769-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation studies of the single-ion conductor lithium poly(4-styrenesulfonyl(trifluorosulfonyl)imide) (PSTFSI) are for the first time presented here. The polymer electrolyte system comprises anions which are covalently bonded to a polymer backbone, thus rendering very high positive transport numbers. The studies here include a quantum chemistry based force field generation for this system and MD simulations of PSTFSI and a blend between PSTFSI and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). The simulations show that PEO acts as a very good solvent for the Li-ions, and that the transport properties are similar to Li-salt/PEO electrolytes at room temperature conditions, while pure PSTFSI has very little Li mobility at all. Realistic Li diffusion coefficients of similar to 1 x 10(-13) m(2) s(-1) were generated for the PSTFSI/PEO blend.

  • 34.
    Brandell, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Kasemägi, Heiki
    Aabloo, Alvo
    Poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butadiene) interpenetrated networks as electroactive polymers for actuators: a molecular dynamics study2010In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 1333-1337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular dynamics (MD)techniques have been used to study ionic transport and coordination stability in an interpenetrating polymer (IPN) network used as electrolyte for actuator devices. The system consisted of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(butadiene) (PB) in a 80/20% weight ratio at a total polymer of 32%, immersed into propylene carbonate (PC) solutions of LiClO4. The system has been studied for five different concentrations of LiClO4 in PC: 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 M, and with applied external electric fields of 0. 1 and 5 MV/m. It is shown that the polymer matrix has little involvement in the movement of ions and solvent, but that the polymer arrangement is important for the solvent phase nano-structure, and thereby influences the mobility. The mobility of PC is higher than of the other species in the system, but the charged species display higher mobility under external field. The field threshold level for conductivity processes is between 1 and 5 MV/m. It is argued that ion pairing, phase separation and coordination stability are important for the overall dynamic properties.

  • 35.
    Brandell, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Kasemägi, Heiki
    Citérin, Johann
    Vidal, Frédéric
    Chevrot, Claude
    Aabloo, Alvo
    Molecular Dynamics studies of interpenetrated polymer networks for actuator devices2008In: Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, ISSN 0277-786X, E-ISSN 1996-756X, Vol. 6927Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Brandell, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Klintenberg, M
    Aabloo, A
    Thomas, John Oswald
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Calculation of the optical absorption spectrum of ErCl3 in poly(ethelylene oxide)(PEO).2000In: Int. J. Quant. Chem., Vol. 80, p. 799-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Brandell, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Klintenberg, M
    Aabloo, A
    Thomas, John Oswald
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Optical absorption spectra from rare-earth ions in polymers: the effect of the polymer host2002In: Macromolecular Symposia, Vol. 186, p. 51-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Brandell, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Klintenberg, M
    Aabloo, A
    Thomas, John Oswald
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    The effect of the polymer host on optical absorption spectra for Er(CF3SO3)3 in poly(ethylene oxide)2002In: Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol. 12, p. 565-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Brandell, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Liivat, Anti
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Aabloo, A
    Thomas, John Oswald
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Conduction Mechanisms in Crystalline LiPF6·PEO6 Doped with SiF62- and SF62005In: Chem. Mater, Vol. 17, no 14, p. 3673-3680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been made under imposed electric fields for crystalline LiPF6·PEO6, (LiPF6)1-x(Li2SiF6)x·PEO6, and (LiPF6)1-x(SF6)x·PEO6 for x = 0.01 under standard pressure and temperature conditions with the aim of identifying the conduction mechanisms in the systems. Contrary to the results of earlier experimental investigations where only cation mobility was observed, ionic transport is here found to occur in regions between the polymer hemi-helices, with a high transference number (0.9-1.0) for the PF6- anions.

  • 40.
    Brandell, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Priimaegi, Priit
    Kasemaegi, Heiki
    Aabloo, Alvo
    Branched polyethylene/poly(ethylene oxide) as a host matrix for Li-ion battery electrolytes: A molecular dynamics study2011In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 57, p. 228-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the structural and dynamic properties of a model polymer electrolyte system suitable for Li-ion batteries, investigated by Molecular Dynamics simulations at 293 K. It consists of a non-polar polyethylene backbone, onto which polar oligomeric polyethylene oxide side-chains of length 4-15 EO units are attached. LiPF(6) salt is dissolved into the matrix to a concentration corresponding to a Li:EO ratio of 1:12. It is found that the system display significantly higher mobility values that linear PEO using the same concentration, which is attributed to the high side-chain dynamics and the polar/non-polar topology of the system. An optimum side-chain length of 10 EO units is found for many properties, such as the dissolution of salt, although the Li(+) ion diffusion was found to be the highest for side-chain lengths of 15 EO units: 1.54 x 10(-13) m(2) s(-1).

  • 41.
    Brandell, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Srivastav, Shruti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lacey, Matthew
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Combined Finite Element Modelling and EIS Studies for SoC Indication in Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Chien, Yu-Chuan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Menon, Ashok S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brant, William
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lacey, Matthew
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Development of operando XRD coin cells for lithium-sulfur batteries2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries has been regarded as one of the promising technology for the next generation of rechargeable batteries due to its high theoretical energy density (2600 Wh/kg [1]). Several works [2–7] on operando X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the Li-S system have been published; however, their experimental setups showed one or more of the following drawbacks. First, the amount of electrolyte was often not reported or would be considered too high for a common Li-S cell, which has been demonstrated to have a significant impact on the behavior of the system [8]. Another issue is the non-uniform stack pressure and electron conductivity of the operando cell setup, whose effects were found by both experiments and simulations [9].

    This work aims to tackle with the above-mentioned issues by modifying commercial coin cells and using X-ray transparent metal, beryllium, as the spacers. By doing so, the electron conductivity and stack pressure can be expected to be uniform throughout the electrodes. The amount of electrolyte can also be precisely controlled since no vacuum-sealing is required for coin cells. A preliminary diffraction pattern obtained with the cell setup can be seen in Fig. 1. With electrochemical properties similar to common Li-S cells, ‘online’ electrochemical characterization techniques, e.g. Intermittent Current Interruption (ICI) method for following cell resistance [10], will be applicable with operando XRD, revealing more information about this complex system.

    Figure 1 XRD patterns of alpha-S and electrode material in the modified coin cell.

    References

    [1] J. Tan, et al., Nanoscale (2017) 19001–19016.

    [2] J. Nelson, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134 (2012) 6337–6343.

    [3] N.A. Cañas, et al., J. Power Sources 226 (2013) 313–319.

    [4] S. Waluś, et al., Chem. Commun. 49 (2013) 7899.

    [5] M. a. Lowe, et al., RSC Adv. 4 (2014) 18347.

    [6] J. Kulisch, et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16 (2014) 18765–18771.

    [7] J. Conder, et al., Nat. Energy 2 (2017) 1–7.

    [8] M.J. Lacey, ChemElectroChem (2017) 1–9.

    [9] O.J. Borkiewicz, et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6 (2015) 2081–2085.

    [10] M.J. Lacey, et al., Chem. Commun. 51 (2015) 16502–16505.

  • 43.
    Chien, Yu-Chuan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Pan, Ruijun
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lacey, Matthew
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Electrochemical Analysis of Modified Separators for Li-S Batteries2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The lithium-sulfur system is one of the potential energy storage technologies of the next generation due to the high theoretical specific capacity (1672 mAh/g), abundance and nontoxicity of sulfur [1]. However, there are still challenges yet to be overcome, one of which is the ‘polysulfide shuttle’ [1]. In order to address this issue, several modifications of the separators have been proposed. For example, longer cycle life, higher Coulombic efficiency and higher specific capacities have been reported with metal oxide coatings [2] and conductive interlayers [3,4] on the separators. Performance improvements in one or more of these properties have been ascribed to a suppression of polysulfide transport across the separator, even though this has not always been correlated with the difference in electrochemistry.

     

    In this work, the Intermittent Current Interruption (ICI) method [5] is applied to monitor the evolution of internal resistance of Li-S cells with different separators during repeated charge and discharge. Cells with different separators exhibit significant differences in resistance as a function of state-of-charge in the initial cycles, as shown in the figure.  Complemented by self-discharge tests and impedance spectroscopy at selected states of charge, the roles of the interlayers in the system can be further interpreted electrochemically. This work aims to associate the electrochemical properties of the interlayers to their corresponding microstructural counterparts, which can in turn facilitate further development of the interlayer materials.

     

    Figure: Internal resistance of cells vs specific charge for Li-S cells with different separators (Zero charge indicates the fully charged state.) for the 2nd, 5th and 10th cycles at C/10 rate.

     

    References:

    [1]         S. Urbonaite, T. Poux, P. Novák, Adv. Energy Mater. 5 (2015) 1–20.

    [2]         Z. Zhang, Y. Lai, Z. Zhang, K. Zhang, J. Li, Electrochim. Acta 129 (2014) 55–61.

    [3]         H. Yao, K. Yan, W. Li, G. Zheng, D. Kong, Z.W. Seh, V.K. Narasimhan, Z. Liang, Y. Cui, Energy Environ. Sci. 7 (2014) 3381–3390.

    [4]         J. Balach, T. Jaumann, M. Klose, S. Oswald, J. Eckert, L. Giebeler, Adv. Funct. Mater. 25 (2015) 5285–5291.

    [5]         M.J. Lacey, K. Edström, D. Brandell, Chem. Commun. 51 (2015) 16502–16505.

  • 44. Costa, Luciano T.
    et al.
    Sun, Bing
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Jeschull, Fabian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Polymer-ionic liquid ternary systems for Li-battery electrolytes: Molecular dynamics studies of LiTFSI in a EMIm-TFSI and PEO blend2015In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 143, no 2, article id 024904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents atomistic molecular dynamics simulation studies of lithium bis(trifluoromethane) sulfonylimide (LiTFSI) in a blend of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMIm)-TFSI and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), which is a promising electrolyte material for Li- and Li-ion batteries. Simulations of 100 ns were performed for temperatures between 303 K and 423 K, for a Li:ether oxygen ratio of 1:16, and for PEO chains with 26 EO repeating units. Li+ coordination and transportation were studied in the ternary electrolyte system, i.e., PEO16LiTFSI center dot 1.0 EMImTFSI, by applying three different force field models and are here compared to relevant simulation and experimental data. The force fields generated significantly different results, where a scaled charge model displayed the most reasonable comparisons with previous work and overall consistency. It is generally seen that the Li cations are primarily coordinated to polymer chains and less coupled to TFSI anion. The addition of EMImTFSI in the electrolyte system enhances Li diffusion, associated to the enhanced TFSI dynamics observed when increasing the overall TFSI anion concentration in the polymer matrix. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • 45.
    Ebadi, Mahsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Araujo, Carlos Moyses
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Electrolyte decomposition on Li-metal surfaces from first-principles theory2016In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 145, no 20, article id 204701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animportant feature in Li batteries is the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the surface of the anode. This film can have a profound effect on the stability and the performance of the device. In this work, we have employed density functional theory combined with implicit solvation models to study the inner layer of SEI formation from the reduction of common organic carbonate electrolyte solvents (ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, dimethyl carbonate, and diethyl carbonate) on a Li metal anode surface. Their stability and electronic structure on the Li surface have been investigated. It is found that the CO producing route is energetically more favorable for ethylene and propylene carbonate decomposition. For the two linear solvents, dimethyl and diethyl carbonates, no significant differences are observed between the two considered reduction pathways. Bader charge analyses indicate that 2 e(-) reductions take place in the decomposition of all studied solvents. The density of states calculations demonstrate correlations between the degrees of hybridization between the oxygen of adsorbed solvents and the upper Li atoms on the surface with the trend of the solvent adsorption energies.

  • 46.
    Ebadi, Mahsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Costa, Luciano T.
    Univ Fed Fluminense, Dept Fis Quim, Inst Quim, Outeiro Sao Joao Batista S-N, BR-24020150 Niteroi, RJ, Brazil..
    Araujo, C. Moyses
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Modelling the Polymer Electrolyte/Li-Metal Interface by Molecular Dynamics simulations2017In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 234, p. 43-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid polymer electrolytes are considered promising candidates for application in Li-metal batteries due to their comparatively high mechanical strength, which can prevent dendrite formation. In this study, we have performed Molecular Dynamics simulations to investigate structural and dynamical properties of a common polymer electrolyte, poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) doped with LiTFSI salt in the presence of a Li metal surface. Both a physical (solid wall) and a chemical (slab) model of the Li (100) surface have been applied, and the results are also compared with a model of the bulk electrolyte. The average coordination numbers for oxygen atoms around the Li ions are ca. 6 for all investigated systems. However, the calculated Radial Distribution Functions (RDFs) for Li+-(OPEO) and Li+-(OTFSI) show sharper peaks for the Li slab model, indicating a more well-defined coordination sphere for Li+ in this system. This is clearly a surface effect, since the RDF for Li+ in the interface region exhibits sharper peaks than in the bulk region of the same system. The simulations also display a high accumulation of TFSI anions and Li+ cations close to interface regions. This also leads to slower dynamics of the ionic transport in the systems, which have a Li-metal surface present, as seen from the calculated mean-square-displacement functions. The accumulation of ions close to the surface is thus likely to induce a polarization close to the electrode.

  • 47.
    Ebadi, Mahsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Lacey, Matthew
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Araujo, Carlos Moyses
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Density Functional Theory Modeling the Interfacial Chemistry of the LiNO3 Additive for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries by Means of Simulated Photoelectron Spectroscopy2017In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 121, no 42, p. 23324-23332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are considered candidates for next-generation energy storage systems due to their high theoretical specific energy. There exist, however, some shortcomings of these batteries, not least the solubility of intermediate polysulfides into the electrolyte generating a so-called "redox shuttle", which gives rise to self-discharge. LiNO3 is therefore frequently used as an electrolyte additive to help suppress this mechanism, but the exact nature of the LiNO3 functionality is still unclear. Here, density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the electronic structure of LiNO3 and a number of likely species (N-2, N2O, LiNO2, Li3N, and Li2N2O2) resulting from the reduction of this additive on the surface of Li metal anode. The N is X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy core level binding energies of these molecules on the surface are calculated in order to compare the results with experimentally reported values. The core level shifts (CLS) of the binding energies are studied to identify possible factors responsible for the position of the peaks. Moreover, solid phases of (cubic) c-Li3N and (hexagonal) alpha-Li3N on the surface of Li metal are considered. The N is binding energies for the bulk phases of Li3N and at the Li3N/Li interfaces display higher values as compared to the Li3N molecule, indicating a clear correlation between the coordination number and the CLS of the solid phases of Li3N.

  • 48.
    Ebadi, Mahsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Marchiori, Cleber
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Mindemark, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Araujo, Carlos Moyses
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Assessing structure and stability of polymer/lithium-metal interfaces from first-principles calculations2019In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 7, no 14, p. 8394-8404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) are promising candidates for Li metal battery applications, but the interface between these two categories of materials has so far been studied only to a limited degree. A better understanding of interfacial phenomena, primarily polymer degradation, is essential for improving battery performance. The aim of this study is to get insights into atomistic surface interaction and the early stages of solid electrolyte interphase formation between ionically conductive SPE host polymers and the Li metal electrode. A range of SPE candidates are studied, representative of major host material classes: polyethers, polyalcohols, polyesters, polycarbonates, polyamines and polynitriles. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are carried out to study the stability and the electronic structure of such polymer/Li interfaces. The adsorption energies indicated a stronger adhesion to Li metal of polymers with ester/carbonate and nitrile functional groups. Together with a higher charge redistribution, a higher reactivity of these polymers is predicted as compared to the other electrolyte hosts. Products such as alkoxides and CO are obtained from the degradation of ester- and carbonate-based polymers by AIMD simulations, in agreement with experimental studies. Analogous to low-molecular-weight organic carbonates, decomposition pathways through C-carbonyl-O-ethereal and C-ethereal-O-ethereal bond cleavage can be assumed, with carbonate-containing fragments being thermodynamically favorable.

  • 49.
    Ebadi, Mahsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Nasser, Antoine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory. ENSTA ParisTech, 828 Blvd Marechaux, F-91120 Palaiseau, France.
    Carboni, Marco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Younesi, Reza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Marchiori, Cleber
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Araujo, Carlos Moyses
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Insights into the Li-Metal/Organic Carbonate Interfacial Chemistry by Combined First-Principles Theory and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy2019In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 347-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a widely used technique to study surfaces and interfaces. In complex chemical systems, however, interpretation of the XPS results and peak assignments is not straightforward. This is not least true for Li-batteries, where XPS yet remains a standard technique for interface characterization. In this work, a combined density functional theory (DFT) and experimental XPS study is carried out to obtain the C 1s and O 1s core-level binding energies of organic carbonate molecules on the surface of Li metal. Decomposition of organic carbonates is frequently encountered in electrochemical cells employing this electrode, contributing to the build up of a complex solid electrolyte interphase (SEI). The goal in this current study is to identify the XPS fingerprints of the formed compounds, degradation pathways, and thereby the early formation stages of the SEI. The contribution of partial atomic charges on the core-ionized atoms and the electrostatic potential due to the surrounding atoms on the core-level binding energies, which is decisive for interpretation of the XPS spectra, are addressed based on the DFT calculations. The results display strong correlations between these two terms and the binding energies, whereas electrostatic potential is found to be the dominating factor. The organic carbonate molecules, decomposed at the surface of the Li metal, are considered based on two different decomposition pathways. The trends of calculated binding energies for products from ethereal carbon-ethereal oxygen bond cleavage in the organic carbonates are better supported when compared to the experimental XPS results.

  • 50.
    Edström, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Brandell, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Gustafsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Nyholm, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Electrodeposition as a Tool for 3D Microbattery Fabrication2011In: The Electrochemical Society interface, ISSN 1064-8208, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 41-46Article in journal (Refereed)
1234 1 - 50 of 160
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