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  • 1.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Opportunities and Obstacles in Using IT Systems: Embedding Movex in Edsbyn´s Resource Network2005In: Managing Opportunity Development in Business Networks, Palgrave Macmillan, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire and New York , 2005, p. 269-287Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 2.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Strategy in industrial networks: Experiences from IKEA2008In: California Management Review, ISSN 0008-1256, E-ISSN 2162-8564, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 99-126Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    The Places of IKEA: Using Space in Handling Resource Networks2006In: Taking Place. The Spatial Contexts of Science, Technology and Business, Science History Publications, USA, Watson Publishing International , 2006, p. 297-320Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    User-related Complexity Dimensions of Complex Products and Systems (CoPS): A Case of Implementing an ERP-system2009In: International Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1363-9196, E-ISSN 1757-5877, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 19-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Using Information Technology in an Industrial Network. The Economic Effects of Movex within Edsbyn’s Network2009In: Use of Science and Technology in Business: Exploring the Impact of Using Activity for Systems, Organizations, and People / [ed] Håkansson, H., Prenkert, F., Waluszewski, A., & Baraldi, E, Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2009, p. 205-230Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    When Information Technology Faces Resource Interaction: Using IT Tools to Handle Products at IKEA and Edsbyn2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the interplay between IT and the other resources in business networks. IT tools are important facilities that firms utilize in several managerial tasks. Two main issues are addressed: (1) how does IT affect the surrounding resources? and (2) how does the value of IT emerge in relation to these resources?

    Two case studies present how the firms IKEA and Edsbyn use IT tools in handling their products (IKEA’s table Lack and Edsbyn’s table El-Bord). 130 personal interviews and many visits to several firms offered a detailed picture of the resources, information, and IT tools in twelve managerial tasks (six per product). The effects and the value of IT emerge when IT interplays with the other resources (products, facilities, business units and relationships) that embed the IT facilities.

    The effects of IT on resources vary greatly across the twelve managerial tasks, grouped into two categories, exploitative and explorative. In exploitative tasks (aiming at static efficiency), the effects of IT are stronger, thanks to highly relevant IT-embedded models and to highly formalized information. Conversely, IT has restricted effects in explorative tasks, because IT is unable (1) to model non-given resources, (2) to handle network-embedded information, and (3) to steer non-linear development processes. However, IT stabilizes exploration by formalizing ex ante and freezing ex post resources.

    As for IT’s value, there exist no perfect IT tool in relation to the conflicting resources. Even downscaled IT systems become highly proficient tools if favourably embedded by other resources. The value of IT is more evident in exploitative tasks, where IT more easily models resources and digitalizes the needed information: IT structures resources and automates activities, as required for maintaining efficiency. In explorative tasks, instead, IT is a conservative force, because it focuses on established resource combinations, while neglecting wholly new ones.

  • 7.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Axelsson, Björn
    Supply Networks2013In: The SAGE Handbook of Strategic Supply Management / [ed] Christine Harland et al., London: SAGE , 2013, p. 155-178Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Axelsson, Björn
    Supply Networks2013In: The SAGE Handbook of Strategic Supply Management / [ed] Christine Harland et al., London: SAGE , 2013, p. 155-178Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Bocconcelli, Roberta
    The quantitative journey in a qualitative landscape: Developing a data collection model and a quantitative methodology in business network studies2001In: Management Decision, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 564-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The point of departure for this article is a newly established international research project focusing on industrial networks in the European furniture industry. The article offers an account of a theoretical journey starting from a qualitative analytical frame and leading to the development of a quantitative "data collection

    model" and the initial definition of an "explanatory model". Even though the aforementioned project also includes qualitative elements, such as case studies, the focus of this article is nonetheless only on the common and standardised part which is explicitly quantitative and was developed in order to achieve homogeneity and comparability across different countries. More than merely presenting the results of this theoretical effort, the purpose is to offer a dynamic idea of how the model, the theoretical framework and the methodology issues evolved and had to be modified and adapted to each other. In this case, the usual research design development process presents even more interesting features, given the participation of various actors and hence the "networked" nature of the effort.

  • 10.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Bocconcelli, Roberta
    Söderlund, Anu
    Resource Interaction in Furniture Networks: Relating Design, Distribution and IT.2001In: Nordiske Organisasjonsstudier, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 110-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights a central feature of business networks, resource interaction and heterogeneity, by means of three case studies from the furniture industry. Each case study focuses on one of three central issues in furniture-related business networks, respectively design, distribution and information technology (IT). Data collection and analysis are based on a resource categorization model termed the “4Rs model” addressing resource interaction, utilization and development in business networks. After the empirical accounts, theoretical implications are drawn about design, distribution, IT and their interplay from the perspective of resource interaction and heterogeneity.

  • 11.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Brennan, Ross
    Harrison, Debbie
    Tunisini, Annalisa
    Zolkiewski, Judy
    Strategic thinking and the IMP approach: a comparative analysis2007In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 879-894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a characteristic of the IMP approach in studying business markets that the emphasis is placed upon rich description and efforts to understand the underlying processes behind interaction between organizations in networks, rather than on the formulation of managerial checklists and decision rules. For this reason, while IMP scholars have made some interesting and profound contributions to the explicit literature on management strategy, the overall contribution of the IMP approach to the strategy literature has been fairly slim. The purpose of this paper is to compare the IMP approach with five important schools of thought in strategy, with the aims of establishing what areas of agreement and disagreement exist and identifying whether the IMP approach can yield unique insights into strategy, strategizing, and the strategy process. We compare and contrast the IMP approach with, in turn, the rational planning approach to strategy associated with Ansoff, the positioning approach associated with Porter, the resource-based view associated with Barney, the deliberate/emergent approach associated with Mintzberg, and the strategy-as-practice approach associated with Whittington. As we move through these five schools of thought - which are addressed in a roughly chronological order - we discern an increasing degree of alignment with the assumptions and methods of IMP scholars. The outcome from our analysis is a suggested research agenda designed to bring the concepts and methods of industrial network research to bear upon strategy, strategizing, and the strategy process.

  • 12.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Ciabuschi, Francesco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    IT and innovations in multinationals: experiences from product development at SCA and IKEA2006In: Managing customer relationships on the Internet / [ed] Angelika Lindstrand, Jan Johanson, Dharma Deo Sharma, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006, p. 267-286Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13. Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Ciabuschi, Francesco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Shifting initiatives and interacted strategies within business relationships. Analyzing the DR Motor-Chery relationship2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Ciabuschi, Francesco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Callegari, Simone
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Lindahl, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Economic incentives for the development of new antibiotics: Report commissioned by the Public Health Agency of Sweden2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report responds to a request by the Public Health Agency of Sweden (Folkhälsomyndigheten) concerning which incentives for antibiotics research and development (R&D) Sweden should take into consideration for potential public investments. Based on discussions and interviews with experts, feedback from stakeholders (i.e. potential recipients of Swedish incentives), company case studies and computer-based Monte Carlo simulations, this report provides a set of recommendations about the economic incentives that can be relevant for Sweden.

    The incentives identified for Sweden’s portfolio meet the following criteria: improving Sweden’s visibility in the antibiotics field, reinforcing Sweden’s national R&D infrastructure in this area, leveraging Sweden’s strengths and traditions, limiting the public expenditure per incentive, permitting rapid implementation and effects, providing highly needed support to the antibiotic pipeline in unique ways, and granting Sweden a key contribution and thus influence on the design and direction of each incentive.

    Based on these criteria, a Market Entry Reward (MER) was not considered a viable alternative for Sweden if implemented by Sweden alone, especially because of its demanding financial engagement (close to 1 B USD), which is necessary for this incentive to produce relevant effects on the antibiotics R&D pipeline. However, if Sweden were to decide to pilot an MER, it should focus on a fully delinked MER, which entirely substitutes market sales with lump sums paid on a yearly basis. An MER should moreover be financed primarily from the healthcare budget to avoid crowding out other incentives. A fully delinked MER would allow testing several features of this incentive model, such as the evaluation procedures to set the overall amount of the MER, the definition of the unit prizes to be paid by local healthcare facilities to the central government, and periodic reviews to reassess the amount of yearly lump-sum payments according to the confirmed therapeutic efficacy of the antibiotic.

    If Sweden were to collaborate with other countries, such as the G20 group or the 28 EU members, a reasonable amount for its share is 6 or 23 M USD, respectively, for a partially delinked MER and 9 or 34 M USD, respectively, for a fully delinked MER. There are, however, ways to combine push and pull incentives, which are quicker and more efficient than an MER, namely combinations of grants with milestone prizes, which are rewards paid to developers upon the successful completion of key R&D steps (e.g. Phase 1 clinical studies). In addition to producing better effects for the money spent, a combination of milestone prizes and grants also prevents large MERs from crowding out push investments as well as recipients such as small- and medium-sized firms (SMEs), who usually cannot wait for a reward that is delayed until the final approval of an antibiotic.

    The recommended portfolio of incentives for Sweden includes three incentives: grants, milestone prizes and Pipeline Coordinators, to be used in combination with each other as a way to cover the antibiotics R&D pipeline and achieve important synergies. The following features should be considered when implementing and funding the three selected incentives:

    1) Grants should be dedicated to early R&D projects (no later than Phase 2) and to reinforcing the national R&D infrastructure, with a longer-term perspective than the current 3-year timeframe. In this regard, Sweden should maintain and possibly increase its current yearly investments in antibiotics R&D grants of approximately 7 M USD/year (60 M SEK) over several years. These investments will pay off in the long run, both in terms of molecules that will enter the future R&D pipeline; and as a stock of competencies spread over an infrastructure of specialised R&D centres that can be leveraged

    for future antibiotics research. These competences must be built up immediately and the seeds for future R&D projects need to be planted as soon as possible.

    2) Two types of milestone prizes should be in focus for Sweden: first, a prize awarding a sum between 10 and 20 M USD at the end of Clinical Phase 1 to highly innovative molecules addressing specific pathogens and, second, a prize for projects successfully completing preclinical steps. Establishing a prize at the end of Clinical Phase 1 is a much needed and unique initiative, with significant effects on the early R&D pipeline, granting also strong international visibility to Sweden. Sweden could also take major responsibility for such a milestone prize by covering a relatively large share. The other recommended milestone prize, awarded at the end of the preclinical steps, would help refill the clinical pipeline and would therefore have more of a long-term effect.

    3) Pipeline Coordinators, that is, organizations that take an active role in selecting and supporting a portfolio of antibiotics R&D projects in various ways, are the last recommended incentive. Selecting among currently existing Pipeline Coordinators rather than creating a new one, Sweden should fund two types of such organizations: R&D Collaborations, which create collaboration platforms to perform early development activities for the antibiotic projects they support, and Non-Profit Developers, who conduct their own antibiotic projects with the aim of bringing antibiotics to market but without pursuing profit goals. The first type of Pipeline Coordinator, R&D Collaborations, is relevant for a Swedish public investment because they are potentially the most efficient incentive in making R&D projects profitable. However, to fully exploit this potential, R&D Collaborations must be refined to become more flexible, reduce bureaucratic burden and avoid conflicts between participants.

    Non-Profit Developers provide the most extensive support to selected products by intervening across the entire antibiotic pipeline to ensure products reach the market. Moreover, this model strongly promotes both global availability and responsible use (stewardship). Therefore, Sweden may fund Non-Profit Developers through its international aid budget and in this way make important contributions to global health.

    Both types of Pipeline Coordinators also offer the advantage that they can help connect Swedish antibiotics R&D centres to international platforms, which reinforce the effects of infrastructure-related grants. Moreover, all forms of Pipeline Coordinators are incentive models that can be used as tools to manage the other two incentives (grants and milestone prizes). In this capacity, they can, for instance, evaluate grant applications and the antibiotic projects eligible for milestone prizes, which require a deep insight into the details of a drug development project.

    A fourth model, regulatory simplifications, which radically cut costs and times for Clinical Phase 3, can also be relevant for Sweden due to its contained costs, rapid implementation and effects and connection with Sweden’s expertise. However, this incentive requires further analysis to fully grasp its implications for regulators and patient safety before being recommended for implementation.

    The three incentives recommended by this report – grants, milestone prizes and Pipeline Coordinators – should be used in combination to exploit the synergies between them and their ability to push and pull molecules in different phases of the R&D pipeline. For instance, when grants and milestones are used together, the public investment per approved new antibiotic is lower than the combined spending if the two incentives were used in isolation. If it is not possible to introduce and use the three incentives simultaneously, the following priorities should be applied: first of all, grants need to be kept at current levels and possibly increased to fund both single antibiotic projects and competence development in the R&D infrastructure, while starting to invest in a Non-Profit Developer and a milestone prize at the end of Phase 1, followed by the development and funding of R&D Collaborations and, finally, a preclinical milestone prize.

  • 15.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Ciabuschi, Francesco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Callegari, Simone
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics and Media.
    Lindahl, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Ekonomiska incitamentsmodeller för utveckling av nya antibiotika: Rapport på uppdrag av Folkhälsomyndigheten2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av Folkhälsomyndigheten utreder vi i denna rapport en rad incitamentsmodeller för forskning och utveckling (FoU) av antibiotika som kan vara aktuella för en svensk offentlig investering. Baserat på diskussioner och intervjuer med experter, återkoppling från intressenter (d.v.s. potentiella mottagare av svenska incitament), företagsfallstudier och datorbaserade Monte Carlo-simuleringar lämnar rapporten rekommendationer kring de ekonomiska modeller som Sverige bör investera i. De incitamentsmodeller som valdes ut för den svenska portföljen uppfyller följande kriterier: de kan öka Sveriges visibilitet och förbättra den nationella FoU-infrastrukturen i antibiotikafältet, de bygger på Sveriges styrkor och tradition i detta fält, de innefattar begränsade investeringar, de kan införas och ge resultat relativt snabbt, de tillfredsställer på ett unikt sätt viktiga behov i antibiotikapipelinen, och de ger Sverige en möjlighet att spela en avgörande roll i själva skapandet och inriktningen av incitamentet. I enlighet med dessa kriterier, bedömdes att en ”Market Entry Reward” (MER) inte är genomförbar för Sverige ensamt. Det beror främst på att det krävs ett stort finansiellt åtagande (närmare 1 miljard USD) för att ett incitament som en MER ska kunna ge relevanta resultat på pipelinen. Om Sverige trots detta skulle välja att pilottesta en MER på egen hand, borde ett sådant försök fokusera på en s.k. ”totalt losskopplad” MER (Fully Delinked), vilket betyder att MER helt och hållet ersätter marknadsförsäljningen och istället ger fasta årliga utbetalningar till utvecklaren. En MER borde primärt finansieras via sjukvårdsbudgeten för att undvika undanträngningseffekter mot incitament i andra utgiftsområden. En totalt losskopplad MER skulle tillåta testning av flera olika aspekter såsom utvärderingsprocessen för att bestämma det totala värdet på en MER, internprissättning till sjukhus för att återfinansiera de statliga betalningarna, samt regelbundna mellanlägesrevideringar av årliga betalningar beroende på resistensläget. Om Sverige skulle samarbeta med andra länder, som exempelvis G20 eller EU:s medlemsländer, skulle en rimlig storlek på den svenska andelen vara 6 respektive 23 miljoner USD för en partiellt losskopplad MER, och 9 respektive 34 miljoner USD för en totalt losskopplad MER. Det finns dock andra sätt att kombinera push- och pull-incitament som är mer effektiva och snabbare än en MER, nämligen en rad kombinationer av ”grants” (forskningsanslag) och ”milestone prizes”, där det senare är belöningar som betalas ut till utvecklare när de framgångsrikt avslutar viktiga steg i sin FoU (t.ex. Fas 1 i kliniska studier). Förutom bättre effekter per investerat belopp, undviker en kombination av ”grants” och ”milestone prizes” dessutom att stora MER tränger undan push investeringar och mottagare såsom små- och medelstora företag (SMEs) som vanligtvis inte kan vänta på ett incitament ända tills det slutgiltiga godkännandet av ett antibiotikum. Den föreslagna incitamentportföljen för Sverige omfattar tre incitament: ”grants”, ”milestone prizes” och ”Pipeline Coordinators”. Dessa tre incitament skall användas tillsammans för att säkerställa att hela FoU-pipelinen för antibiotika stödjs och att viktiga synergier skapas. Följande aspekter borde tas i beaktning vid implementering och finansiering av de tre valda incitamenten: 1) ”Grants” borde riktas mot tidiga FoU-projekt (fram till Fas 2) och att förstärka den nationella FoUinfrastrukturen, med ett tidsperspektiv som ska vara längre än den nuvarande 3-åriga tidsramen. Det är viktigt att Sverige bibehåller och om möjligt höjer sina nuvarande årliga investeringar i ”grants” för FoU om antibiotika på cirka 60 miljoner SEK/år (7 M USD) och att dessa investeringar får fortsätta över många år i framtiden. Investeringarna kommer att ge långsiktiga effekter både i form av nya molekyler som kan fylla på den framtida FoU-pipelinen och genom fördjupade kompetenser, exempelvis i form av en nationell forskningsinfrastruktur bestående av specialiserade FoU-centra som kan utnyttjas i framtida antibiotikaforskning. Det bör understrykas att man inte kan fördröja dessa investeringar eftersom den här typen av kompetenser behöver byggas omedelbart och frön för framtida FoU-projekt behöver sås i detta nu. 2) Två typer av ”milestone prizes” borde implementeras av Sverige. Först och främst ett ”prize” som delar ut mellan 10 och 20 miljoner USD (bedömningar gjorda av de små företagen i fallstudien) vid slutet av klinisk Fas 1 som bör riktas mot höginnovativa molekyler mot specifika patogener. Därutöver bör ett ”prize” tilldelas projekt som framgångsrikt avslutar de prekliniska stegen. Att inrätta ett ”prize” vid slutet av klinisk Fas 1 skulle vara ett nödvändigt och unikt initiativ, som förutom starka effekter på den tidiga FoU-pipelinen dessutom skulle ge Sverige en stark internationell visibilitet. Genom att finansiera en större del av detta ”milestone prize” skulle Sverige ta ett stort ansvar för att aktivt skapa dessa mycket viktiga incitament. Det andra rekommenderade ”milestone prize”, som delas ut vid slutet av de prekliniska stegen, skulle bidra till att fylla på den kliniska pipelinen och skulle därmed ha mera långsiktiga effekter. 3) ”Pipeline Coordinators”, d.v.s. organisationer som på flera sätt tar en aktiv roll i att välja och stödja en portfölj av FoU-projekt om antibiotika, är det sista rekommenderade incitamentet. Snarare än att skapa en ny ”Pipeline Coordinator”, borde Sverige välja bland de som redan finns och finansiera följande två typer av sådana organisationer: ”R&D Collaborations”, som skapar samarbetsplattformar för att genomföra tidiga FoU aktiviteter för de projekten de stödjer, och ”Nonprofit Developers”, som genomför egna antibiotikaprojekt i syftet att föra nya antibiotika hela vägen till marknaden, dock utan vinstintressen. Den första typen av ”Pipeline Coordinator”, ”R&D Collaborations” är relevant för Sverige att investera i eftersom det handlar om den incitamentsmodell som potentiellt är mest effektiv i att skapa lönsamma FoU projekt. Men för att kunna utnyttja denna potential fullt ut behöver ”R&D Collaborations” vidareutvecklas för att bli mer flexibla samt minska byråkrati och konflikter mellan deltagarna. ”Non-profit Developers” är å andra sidan den modell som erbjuder det mest omfattande stödet till utvalda produkter genom att agera över hela antibiotikapipelinen för att se till att dessa produkter når marknadslansering. Dessutom, ger denna modell starkt stöd gällande global tillgång och ansvarsfull användning (”stewardship”). Därför, skulle Sverige kunna finansiera ”Non-profit Developers” via sin internationella biståndsbudget och därmed även ge ett viktigt bidrag till global hälsa. Båda typer av ”Pipeline Coordinators” har fördelen att de kan hjälpa att koppla svenska FoU-centra för antibiotika till internationella plattformar, vilket skulle förstärka effekterna av infrastrukturrelaterade ”grants”. Dessutom, är alla sorters ”Pipeline Coordinators” incitamentsmodeller som kan användas som verktyg för att styra övriga två incitament (”grants” och ”milestone prizes”). Tack vare denna förmåga, kan de utvärdera ansökningar till ”grants” och de antibiotikaprojekt som är berättigade till ”milestone prizes”, vilket kräver både djupa och detaljerade kunskaper i specifika antibiotikaprojekt. Utöver dessa tre incitamentsmodeller kan även en fjärde modell vara relevant: ”regulatory simplifications”. Denna modell innefattar regulatoriska förenklingar som radikalt sänker kostnader och tider för kliniska Fas 3-studier. Modellen kan vara relevant för Sverige tack vare att kostnaderna är begränsade, implementeringen och effekterna snabba samt att det finns en koppling till svensk expertis. Trots dessa fördelar, kräver detta incitament fortfarande vidare analyser för att fullt ut förstå dess implikationer för regelverket och patientsäkerhet innan den kan rekommenderas för implementering. De tre incitamenten som rekommenderas i denna rapport – ”grants”, ”milestone prizes” och ”Pipeline Coordinators” – bör användas tillsammans i särskilda kombinationer för att utnyttja synergierna mellan dem och deras förmåga att både trycka (”push”) och dra (”pull) molekylerna i olika faser i FoU-pipelinen. Dessa synergier innebär att när exempelvis ”grants” och ”milestone prizes” används samtidigt, blir den offentliga investeringen för varje nytt antibiotikum lägre än den sammanlagda investeringen om de två incitamenten används separat. Om det skulle vara omöjligt att införa och använda de tre incitamenten samtidigt, borde följande prioriteringsordning tillämpas: först och främst behöver nuvarande nivåer på ”grants” bibehållas och om möjligt höjas för att finansiera både enskilda projekt om FoU om antibiotika och för utveckling av kompetenser samt för FoU-infrastruktur, medan investeringar påbörjas i en ”Non-profit Developer” och i en ”milestone prize” vid slutet av Fas 1, följd av vidareutveckling och finansiering av ”R&D Collaborations” och slutligen av ett prekliniskt ”milestone prize”.

  • 16.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Ciabuschi, Francesco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Leach, Ross
    Univ Hosp Geneva, Infect Control Program, Geneva, Switzerland; Fac Med, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Morel, Chantal M.
    Univ Hosp Geneva, Infect Control Program, Geneva, Switzerland; Fac Med, Geneva, Switzerland; London Sch Econ & Polit Sci, London, England.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Exploring the obstacles to implementing economic mechanisms to stimulate antibiotic research and development: a mulit-actor and system-level analysis2016In: American Journal of Law & Medicine, ISSN 0098-8588, Vol. 42, p. 451-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This Article examines the potential stakeholder-related obstacles hindering the implementation of mechanisms to re-ignite the development of novel antibiotics. Proposed economic models and incentives to drive such development include: Public Funding of Research and Development (R&D), Tax Incentives, Milestone Prizes, End Payments, Intellectual Property (IP) and Exclusivity Extensions, Pricing and Reimbursement Incentives, Product Development Partnerships (PDPs), and the Options Market for Antibiotics model. Drawing on personal experience and understanding of the antibiotic field, as well as stakeholder consultation and numerous expert meetings within the DRIVE-AB project and Uppsala Health Summit 2015, the Authors identify obstacles attributable to the following actors: Universities and Research Institutes, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), Large Pharmaceutical Companies, Marketing Approval Regulators, Payors, Healthcare Providers, National Healthcare Authorities, Patients, and Supranational Institutions. The analysis also proposes a characterization and ranking of the difficulty associated with implementing the reviewed mechanisms. Public Funding of R&D, Pricing and Reimbursement Incentives, and PDPs are mechanisms expected to meet highly systemic barriers (i.e., obstacles across the entire antibiotic value chain), imposing greater implementation challenges in that they require convincing and involving several motivationally diverse actors in order to have much effect.

  • 17.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Ciabuschi, Francesco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Lindahl, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Fratocchi, Luciano
    Univ L'Aquila, Dept Ind & Informat Engn & Econ, L'Aquila, Italy.
    A network perspective on the reshoring process: The relevance of the home- and the host-country contexts2017In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 70, p. 156-166, article id http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2017.08.016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While research on reshoring generally focuses on the host-country to explain why a company brings its previously offshored activities back home, this paper stresses the relevance also of the home-country context. Specifically, relying on the IMP (Industrial Marketing & Purchasing) perspective we show how offshoring and reshoring processes and decisions are both enabled and constrained by the micro-interactions and interdependencies in the industrial networks stretching over the home-country and the host-country. This work relies on a longitudinal case study about an Italian manufacturing firm to develop a model indicating how offshoring/reshoring is a long-term process which unfolds depending both on the focal firm's strategy and on its interplay with the embedding network. Next to this interactive process perspective, we contribute to the literature on reshoring and the global factory also the concept of “selective reshoring”, whereby companies bring back a very specific sub-set of activities, which were previously fine-sliced and offshored, and re-embed these activities in their local home context. The more flexible and selective nature of this relocation of activities between different supply markets depends both on the firm's strategy and on the structure, overlap and evolution of the network elements located in the home- and host-country contexts.

  • 18.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Ciabuschi, Francesco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Lindahl, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Fratocchi, Luciano
    Univ Aquila, Dept Ind & Informat Engn & Econ, Via G Gronchi 18, I-67100 Laquila, Italy.
    A network perspective on the reshoring process: The relevance of the home- and the host-country contexts2018In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 70, p. 156-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While research on reshoring generally focuses on the host-country to explain why a company brings its previously offshored activities back home, this paper stresses the relevance also of the home-country context. Specifically, relying on the IMP (Industrial Marketing & Purchasing) perspective we show how offshoring and reshoring processes and decisions are both enabled and constrained by the micro-interactions and inter-dependencies in the industrial networks stretching over the home-country and the host-country. This work relies on a longitudinal case study about an Italian manufacturing firm to develop a model indicating how offshoring/reshoring is a long-term process which unfolds depending both on the focal firm's strategy and on its interplay with the embedding network. Next to this interactive process perspective, we contribute to the literature on reshoring and the global factory also the concept of "selective reshoring", whereby companies bring back a very specific sub-set of activities, which were previously fine-sliced and offshored, and re-embed these activities in their local home context. The more flexible and selective nature of this relocation of activities between different supply markets depends both on the firm's strategy and on the structure, overlap and evolution of the network elements located in the home- and host-country contexts.

  • 19.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Ciabuschi, Francesco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Lindahl, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Perna, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Polytech Univ Marche, Dept Management, Ancona, Italy.
    Gregori, Gian Luca
    Polytech Univ Marche, Ancona, Italy.
    The impact of business networks on foreign subsidiaries development: Internationalizing by surfing on several global factories2018In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 427-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore two specific areas pertaining to industrial networks and international business (IB). First, the authors look at how business relationships influence the internationalization in time, from the establishment of the first subsidiary in a foreign market to the following ones, and in space, that is, across different markets. Second, the authors investigate how an increasing external network dependence of subsidiaries in their internationalization may cause a detachment of a subsidiary from the mother company as its knowledge becomes insufficient to guide a subsidiary's internationalization.

    Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes an exploratory, longitudinal, single-case study of Loccioni - a manufacturer of measuring and automatic control systems for industrial customers - to illustrate the specific dynamics of the influences of industrial networks on the internationalization of subsidiaries.

    Findings: The case study helps to elucidate the roles, entailing also free will and own initiative, of small suppliers' subsidiaries which operate inside several global factories, and how surfing on many different global factories, by means of several local subsidiaries, actually supports these suppliers' own international developments. This notion adds to our understanding of the global factory phenomenon a supplier focus that stresses how the role of suppliers is not merely that of being passive recipients of activities and directions from a focal orchestrating firm, but can also be that of initiative-takers themselves.

    Originality/value: The paper contributes to the IMP tradition by providing a multi-layered and geographically more fine-grained view of the network embedding companies that operate on internationalized markets. This paper thereby sheds light on a less investigated area of research within the IMP tradition: the link between internationalization in different countries and the interconnectedness between the industrial networks spanning these countries. At the same time, this paper contributes to IB theories by showing how a late-internationalizing SME can enter highly international markets by plugging into several established Global Factories as a way to exploit further opportunities for international expansion.

  • 20.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Fors, Hjalmar
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Houltz, Anders
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Conclusions2006In: Taking Place. The Spatial Contexts of Science, Technology and Business, Science History Publications, USA, Watson Publishing International , 2006, p. 373-389Chapter in book (Other scientific)
  • 21.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Forsberg, Petter Bertilsson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Severinsson, Kristofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Crafting University-Industry Interactions: A typology and empirical illustrations from Uppsala University, Sweden2013In: University-Industry Interaction: Challenges and Solutions forFostering Entrepreneurial Universities and CollaborativeInnovation / [ed] Challenges and Solutions forFostering Entrepreneurial Universities and CollaborativeInnovation, 2013, p. 157-193Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relying on an embedded case study over two interaction-stimulating tools of Uppsala University (AIMday and SMURF), this paper addresses four research questions concerning (1) the types of university-industry interactions, (2) the way this university crafts such interactions, (3) the perceptions and assessments made of these interactions by the various involved actors, as well as (4) the differences in such perceptions and assessments. As for the first question, we formulate a typology of university-industry interactions including “participation”, “cooperation”, “collaboration” and “relationship”. As for the second question, the paper develops a process model connecting these four types of interactions and revealing the importance of a fifth type of “potential” interactions between researchers and companies, namely “contacts”. As for the third and forth question, we identify both convergence and divergence in the perceptions and assessment of university-industry interactions made by the three involved parties – researchers, companies and university management: there is convergence in researchers’ and companies’ appreciation of contacts, cooperation and collaborations, on the one hand, and the key performance indicators applied by university management to measure such interactions, on the other hand; but a divergence appears in the relative lack of indicators measuring relationships in exhaustive ways, despite the great value that both researchers and companies attribute to them. 

  • 22.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Fraticelli, Fabio
    Polytechnic University of Marche.
    Perna, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    The connections between B2B marketing processes and IT solutions: two case studies on the application of CRM in industrial companies2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Fraticelli, Fabio
    Perna, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    The connections between B2B marketing processes and IT solutions: two case studies on the application of CRM in industrial companies2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Fraticelli, Fabio
    Polytechic University of Marche.
    Perna, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Gregori, Gian Luca
    Polytechnic University of Marche.
    The impact of key business relationships on the development of university spin-offs: the case of Nautes2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Gregori, Gian Luca
    Perna, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Applied Mathematics.
    Network evolution and the embedding of complex technical solutions: The case of the Leaf House network2011In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 838-852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the connection between network evolution and technology embedding. To this end, we performed an exploratory case study of the network surrounding an eco-sustainable technology, Leaf House, Italy's first zero-carbon emission house. We apply theories on technological development within industrial networks, with a specific focus on their resource layer and on the three settings involved in embedding an innovation: “developing”, “producing”, and “using”. Our results contribute to these theories by developing four propositions on the connections between network evolution and embedding: first, technology embedding entails both downstream network expansion and upstream restrictions. Secondly, conflicts among actors increase as technology embedding approaches the producing and using settings. Third and fourth, the more the shapes a technology can assume, and the more each of these shapes involves actors acting in different settings, the easier it is to embed it. The paper concludes with managerial implications and suggestions for further research.

  • 26.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Gressetvold, Espen
    Trondheim Business School, HiST, Trondheim, Norge.
    Harrison, Debbie
    Dept of Strategy and Logistics, BI Norwegian Business school, Oslo, Norge.
    Resource interaction in inter-organizational networks: Foundations, comparison, and a research agenda2012In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 266-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this article is on discussing the foundations, conceptual development, and implications of resource interaction in inter-organizational networks. The article conceptualizes and classifies resources before discussing how resource interfaces enable to utilize, manage, and change resources. In doing so it provides a set of basic principles as to how resources interact at a network level, or how firms combine, develop, mobilize, and manage resources over time. This is in strong contrast to a focus on the acquisition, accumulation, and exchange of resources by the firm. The article further provides a comparison with two other research streams, the Resource-Based view (RBV) and the Service-Dominant logic (S-D logic), in order to better position this perspective on inter-organizational resource interaction. It concludes by discussing an agenda for further research.

  • 27.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Gressetvold, Espen
    Trondheim Business School, HiST, Trondheim, Norge.
    Harrison, Debbie
    Dept of Strategy and Logistics, BI Norwegian Business School, Oslo, Norge.
    Resource interaction in inter-organizational networks: Introduction to the special issue2012In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 123-127Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Gressetvold, EspenHarrison, Debbie
    Resource Interactions in Interorganizational Networks, Special Issue2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Hadjikhani, AmjadUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    IMP 2008 – An Interactive Perspective on Business in Practice2009Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Ingemansson Havenvid, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Identifying new dimensions of business incubation: a multi-level analysis of Karolinska Institute’s incubation system2016In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 50-51, p. 53-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relying on an in-depth case study of the incubator related to the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institute's (KI), this paper identifies new analytical and strategic dimensions of incubation. Departing from the current literature's prevalent focus on incubators as organizations performing a predefined set of activities for incubatees (facility renting, coaching, training and connecting), we perform a multilevel analysis embracing, next to the organizational and the project-specific levels, also the broader institutional and inter-organizational level. Our analysis relies on seven key components of incubation, namely its time, place, sources, resources, control/governance, activities/services and outcomes. Further, we view incubators as strategic actors engaged in value creation on a broader arena than the strict incubation context, even an international arena, where incubators' choices and interactions can be analyzed with the help of concepts from various streams in the business strategy literature. The specific strategic drivers of business incubation that we identify in the KI incubator's case are six: positioning in the value chain, risk taking/time perspective, revenue model, governance/control, internationalization, and cooperation/competition. The paper concludes with managerial implications urging incubators to take more of a strategic perspective rather than focussing only on the established components of their operations.

  • 31.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Ingemansson Havenvid, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Linné, Åse
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Öberg, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Start-ups and networks: Interactive perspectives and a research agenda2018In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Ingemansson, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Projetcs as an attempt to make science into business: Embedding commercialization projects into business networks2013In: IMP Conference Atlanta 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how science is transformed into business by means of commercialization projects, and especially the interfaces these projects create with the surrounding network. We also aim specifically at identifying which different types of interfaces can be pivotal from project to project. Our methodology relies on four comparative case studies, centered each on a specific project selected from the commercialization efforts of Karolinska Institute (Sweden). Our findings stress that, except in one case, interfaces with users/potential buyers do not play a major role in setting the commercial direction (target markets) of these projects. Instead, in the absence of a strong interface to users, the most decisive interface for setting the commercial direction is the one with financiers, which further binds all projects to Karolinska’s innovation-supporting system. Moreover, we find that the interface with the project team is never pivotal for the four analyzed project, as the human resources directly employed in the project are kept to a minimum in all of Karolinska Institute’s commercialization projects. This makes commercialization projects extremely dependent on external resources and largely unable to control their long-term development.

  • 33.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Ingemansson, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Launberg, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Controlling the commercialisation of science across inter-organisational borders: Four cases from two major Swedish universities2014In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 382-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse howdifferent types of control are applied in different mechanisms for commercialisingscience, according to the inter-organisational interactions involved. To achievethis purpose, we followed a multiple-case study design and selected four casesfrom Uppsala University and the Karolinska Institutet that provided variationin the commercialisation mechanisms (PET Centre, Ångström Materials Academy,Actar, and Karolinska Development). We find that action and resultcontrols dominate in linear ‘spin-out’ funnel mechanisms, while interactive mechanismsentail a combination of action, result and personalcontrols. However, the inter-organisational interactions also impact whichcontrols are applied in a commercialisation mechanism: conflicting goals between a few closely related organisations or limited external interactions are associated with result controls, whileaction controls dominate in the absence of external interactions if timeand efficiency are key goals. Result controls also assume very different roles, depending on the inter-organisational context of a specific commercialisation mechanism.

  • 34.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Ingemansson, Malena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Launberg, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Governance and control of the commercialization of science. Examples from two major Swedish universities2011In: Uppsala Public Management Seminar, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses four episodes of commercialization of science taken from the innovation practices of two major Swedish universities, Karolinska Institutet and Uppsala University. The four mini-cases (PET center, Ångström Materials Academy, Actar AB, and Karolinska Development) were selected to provide variation in the commercialization mechanisms and goals. Our purpose is to relate the patterns of control and governance in each episode with its goal and commercialization mechanism. In doing this we also discuss the impact that the number and typology of actors involved, as well as their relationships, have on how control is exerted in each commercialization episode.

  • 35.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    La Rocca, Antonella
    Lugano University, Institute of Marketing and Communication Management.
    Perna, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Good for science, but which implications for business?: An analysis of the managerial implications in high-impact B2B marketing articles published between 2003 and 20122014In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 7-8, p. 574-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of the article is to identify and analyze the challenges of B2B research relevance from the point of view of top executives.

    Design/methodology/approach - Ten in-depth interviews with top executives from different B2B industries were conducted and analyzed by using Arndt’s (1985) elements of a healthy discipline, i.e. Knowledge, Problems, and Instruments.

    Findings - The findings reveal 12 challenges that characterize contemporary B2B research relevance from a top executive perspective.

    Research limitations/implications - The research offers genuine top executive insight. More research from different perspectives is needed to broaden the understanding of B2B research relevance.

    Originality/value - Reflecting B2B research with the identified challenges can contribute to better research designs, narrowing the gap between B2B scholars and practitioners. Altogether, it contributes to the health of the B2B discipline. The study also introduces a new approach to analysing research relevance by using the elements of scientific balance.

  • 36.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    La Rocca, Antonella
    Lugano University, Institute of Marketing and Communication Management.
    Perna, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Intra- and inter-organizational effects of a CRM system implementation2013In: MERCATI E COMPETITIVITÀ, ISSN 1826-7386, Vol. 1, p. 13-34Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Lindahl, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Perna, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Start-ups as vessels carrying and developing science-based technologies: starting and restarting JonDeTech2016In: Starting up in Business Networks: Why Relationships Matter in Entrepreneurship / [ed] Aaboen, Lise; La Rocca, Antonella; Lind, Frida; Perna, Andrea; Shih, Tommy, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Lindahl, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Severinsson, Kristofer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    A proactive approach to the utilization of academic research: The case of Uppsala University's AIMday2016In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 613-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While most research on university-industry interactions focuses on established collaborations, this paper focuses on those interactions that occur before the emergence of a concrete relationship. Uppsala University, Sweden, applies this 'proactive' approach, based on creating universityindustry cooperation platforms before, or irrespectively of, the creation of commercializable knowledge. This study aims to analyze the structure, processes and effects of proactive approaches to utilize academic research commercially. It focuses on a conference, Academy Industry Meeting day (AIMday) and addresses three main questions: first, how does this mechanism work? Second, why do different actors, such as researchers, small and large companies, participate? Third, what values and concrete effects do they obtain from it? Our case study reflects the perspectives of industry, academia and the administrative units organizing the event. We find that some reasons to participate and values are important to all participants, but that there are also considerable differences.

  • 39.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Lindahl, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Severinsson, Kristoffer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Entrepreneurial Universities Seeking New Ways to Commercialize Science: The case of Uppsala University’s AIMday2011In: Nordic Academy of Management, Stockholm 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Lindahl, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Savic, Miloje
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Publ Hlth & Antimicrobial Resistance, Oslo, Norway.
    Findlay, David
    GSK, Antiinfect, Oslo, Norway.
    Ardal, Christine
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.
    Antibiotic Pipeline Coordinators2018In: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, ISSN 1073-1105, E-ISSN 1748-720X, Vol. 46, p. 25-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has published a global priority list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria to guide research and development (R&D) of new antibiotics. Every pathogen on this list requires R&D activity, but some are more attractive for private sector investments, as evidenced by the current antibacterial pipeline. A pipeline coordinator is a governmental/non-profit organization that closely tracks the antibacterial pipeline and actively supports R&D across all priority pathogens employing new financing tools.

  • 41.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Linné, Åse
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Shih, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    How Can a Biotech Tool Reveal what's Going on under the Surface of Three Hyped Biotech Regions?: The Embedding of ÄKTApilot in the US, China and Taiwan2005In: 21st Annual IMP Conference: Dealing with Dualities, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History, Science and Technology Studies Center.
    Nadin, Giancarlo
    “Network Process Re-engineering” in a home textile network: the importance of business relationships and actor bonds2011In: Fashion supply chain management: industry and business analysis / [ed] Tsan-Ming Choi, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2011, p. 212-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter relies on a case study featuring the business network around Stella, an Italian home textile manufacturer, to illustrate the challenging issue of engaging other firms into complex “Network Process Re-engineering” (NPR) projects. While the strict technological dimension of selecting, developing, and implementing ICT solutions is certainly very important and poses several challenges to this type of projects, this chapter focuses on other types of challenges, namely those pertaining to the nature and quality of relationships between the actors taking part in a NPR project. We stress the importance of the connection between the specific inter-organizational activities that need to be redesigned and coordinated in better ways, on the one hand, and the bonds existing among the actors, on the other hand. We suggest that very advanced and complex coordination tasks, entailing sensitive communication patterns, can be tackled only if supported by strong, integrative relationships characterized by high trust and commitment between the involved parties. We conclude by discussing how the pivotal firms or the “strategic centers” of a network can support and facilitate complex change projects like NPR by carefully combining different strategies, whereby they both exert coercive power and make concessions to their counterparts in the network.

  • 43.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Nadin, Giancarlo
    The challenges in digitalizing business relationshisp: The construction of an IT infrastructure for a textile-related business network2006In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 1111-1126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the phenomenon of the digitalisation of buyer–seller relationships. We discuss and systematise the challenges of constructing an IT infrastructure capable of sustaining the inter-firm interactions necessary in a business network. In particular, we deal with two relevant main questions (1) how are IT tools constructed and introduced into business networks to sustain relationships and (2) what type of challenges emerge during such attempts to construct and introduce IT. Relying on the case of an IT project for the “Stella” network (an Italian home-textile network), we highlight the challenges related to resource heterogeneity and process complexity. Furthermore, we analyse the relevance of such issues as inter-firm trust, power and dependence in similar IT projects. Particular emphasis is then given to the possibility of the IT system representing not only the formal, but also the informal interactions among firms, and consequently, to the intrinsic limits to codifying relationships into rigid models. Even if the purpose of this paper is not to suggest generalised solutions to the above challenges, we describe how each of them was faced by the project team in the “Stella” network and we propose an indicative list of managerial implications relevant for all IT projects that stretch to whole business networks.

  • 44.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Perna, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Developing and marketing new technologies within industrial networks. A comparative case study over two embedding processes2012In: IBeN Seminar, Kolding, Danmark, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Perna, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    When do Start-Ups stop being Start-Ups? A business network perspective on four cases of university spin-offs2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Perna, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Universita' Politecnica delle Marche.
    Fraticelli, Fabio
    Universita' Politecnica delle Marche.
    Gregori, Gian Luca
    Universita' Politecnica delle Marche.
    The impact of a start-up’s key business relationships on the commercialisation of science: the case of Nautes.2016In: Starting up in business network: Why Relationships Matter in Entrepreneurship / [ed] Aaboen, Lise; La Rocca, Antonella; Lind, Frida; Perna, Andrea;Shih, Tommy, Palgrave Macmillan, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Perna, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Mathematics, Analysis and Applied Mathematics.
    Gregori, Gian Luca
    Developing and embedding eco-sustainable solutions: the evolution of the Leaf House network2010In: Proceedings of the 26th IMP Conference, Budapest, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Perna, Andrea
    Gregori, Gian Luca
    Exploring the conditions for marketing an innovative and unique customized solution: Mexus case study2012In: IMP Journal, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Proenca, Joao F.
    Proenca, Teresa
    de Castro, Luis Mota
    The supplier's side of outsourcing: Taking over activities and blurring organizational boundaries2014In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 553-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since most of the literature on outsourcing focuses only to the buying (outsourcing) company, this paper aims to highlight the supplier's side from a relational perspective. The paper stresses the importance of business relationships between suppliers of outsourced activities and their customers. The paper's purpose is specified in two research questions: (1) how is value created within outsourcing and (2) how does the supplier interact with the outsourcing company? Our method relies on an in-depth qualitative case study of Logoplaste, a Portuguese packaging company which supplies large consumer goods manufacturers through complex outsourcing activities. Our analysis identifies three key dimensions of outsourcing relationships: (1) value co-creation via inter-firm coordination (as opposed to unilateral externalization of activities); (2) mutual dependence between supplier and customer due to the supplier's taking over activities; and (3) the blurring of organizational boundaries because of mutual dependence. These dimensions manifest themselves, even though in different degrees, after the initiation of any outsourcing relationship: these variables are new to the literature on outsourcing, which focuses on the ex ante dimensions that influence the customer's pre-relational choices such as "make or buy" and relationship type. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 50.
    Baraldi, Enrico
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Strömsten, Torkel
    Combining Scientific Knowledge and Venture Capital across Places and Networks of Resources2006In: Taking Place. The Spatial Contexts of Science, Technology and Business, Science History Publications, USA, Watson Publishing International , 2006, p. 247-273Chapter in book (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 83
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