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  • 1.
    Branth, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Hambraeus, Leif
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Piehl-Aulin, Karin
    Department of Caring Science, Division for Biomedicine, University of Örebro, Örebro, Sweden.
    Essén-Gustavsson, Birgitta
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Olsson, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Ronquist, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Metabolic stress-like condition can be induced by prolonged strenuous exercise in athletes2009In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 114, no 1, p. 12-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few studies have examined energy metabolism during prolonged, strenuous exercise. We wanted therefore to investigate energy metabolic consequences of a prolonged period of continuous strenuous work with very high energy expenditure. Twelve endurance-trained athletes (6 males and 6 females) were recruited. They performed a 7-h bike race on high work-load intensity. Physiological, biochemical, endocrinological, and anthropometric muscular compartment variables were monitored before, during, and after the race. The energy expenditure was high, being 5557 kcal. Work-load intensity (% of VO2 peak) was higher in females (77.7%) than in men (69.9%). Muscular glycogen utilization was pronounced, especially in type I fibres (>90%). Additionally, muscular triglyceride lipolysis was considerably accelerated. Plasma glucose levels were increased concomitantly with an unchanged serum insulin concentration which might reflect an insulin resistance state in addition to proteolytic glyconeogenesis. Increased reactive oxygen species (malondialdehyde (MDA)) were additional signs of metabolic stress. MDA levels correlated with glycogen utilization rate. A relative deficiency of energy substrate on a cellular level was indicated by increased intracellular water of the leg muscle concomitantly with increased extracellular levels of the osmoregulatory amino acid taurine. A kindred nature of a presumed insulin-resistant state with less intracellular availability of glucose for erythrocytes was also indicated by the findings of decreased MCV together with increased MCHC (haemoconcentration) after the race. This strenuous energy-demanding work created a metabolic stress-like condition including signs of insulin resistance and deteriorated intracellular glucose availability leading to compromised fuelling of ion pumps, culminating in a disturbed cellular osmoregulation indicated by taurine efflux and cellular swelling.

  • 2.
    Branth, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Hambraeus, Leif
    Westerterp, Klaas
    Andersson, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Edsgren, Ronnie
    Mustelin, Markys
    Nilsson, Roger
    Energy turnover in a sailing crew during offshore racing around the world1996In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1272-1276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy turnover during offshore sailing was studied in 11 male crew members of one team during the first three legs of the 1993-1994 Whitbread Round The World Race. The effect of racing on the energy balance of the crew members was studied by anthropometric measurements and dietary intake as calculated from food inventories before and after each leg. Energy turnover, calculated from dietary intake and release of endogenous energy as a result of changes in body composition, was higher than expected (about 18-20 MJ·d-1). These findings were confirmed using the doubly labeled water technique in six crew members during the third leg, in which mean energy turnover was found to be 19.3 MJ·d-1. Changes in body weight and composition indicated a negative energy balance during all legs.

  • 3.
    Branth, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ronquist, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Hambraeus, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Kindgren, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Olsson, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Carlander, David
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Arnetz, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Development of abdominal fat and incipient metabolic syndrome in young healthy men exposed to long-term stress2007In: NMCD. Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, ISSN 0939-4753, E-ISSN 1590-3729, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 427-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: The sympathetic nervous system may be involved in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and metabolic cardiovascular syndrome in young men. The aim was to study the effects of long-term stress on different features of the metabolic syndrome (MES) in formerly non-obese healthy young males during 5 months of defined conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen healthy male sailors (mean age 36.5 (SD)+/-7 years) participating in a sailing race around the world were recruited for the study. Investigations were done before the start and at stop overs after finishing laps 1, 2 and 4 (1, 2(1/2) and 5 months, respectively). Anthropometric and blood pressure data as well as biochemical data associated with MES were substantiated. Food intake and exercise were chartered and largely controlled. A mean weight loss of 4.5+/-2 kg (P<0.005), comprising both fat and lean body mass, was recorded during the first lap. Subsequently after 5 months, a weight gain, mainly consisting of 1.2+/-1.1 kg body fat (P<0.05), took place, concomitantly with a protein mass drop of 0.6+/-1.1 kg (P<0.05). The body fat gain accumulated on the abdominal region. Elevated blood levels of HbA1c, insulin and the triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein ratio were also observed during the race. Likewise heart rate and systolic blood pressure increased slightly but to a statistically significant extent. CONCLUSIONS: Non-obese healthy young men exposed to long-term stress developed abdominal obesity and signs of a metabolic syndrome in embryo, also emphasized by biochemical and blood pressure alterations. It is suggested that long-term and sustained stress activation might be an additional risk factor for the development of MES, even after control of dietary and exercise habits.

  • 4.
    Branth, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Department of Medical Sciences. Klinisk kemi.
    Sjödin, Anders
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Forslund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Department of Women's and Children's Health. Klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Hambraeus, Leif
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Klinisk nutrition och metabolism.
    Holmbäck, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Klinisk Nutrition och Metabolism.
    Minor changes in blood lipids after 6 weeks of high-volume low- intensity physical activity with strict energy balance control.2006In: Eur J Appl Physiol, ISSN 1439-6319, Vol. 96, no 3, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity has been shown to favorably affect metabolic risk markers, including blood lipids. The impact of high-energy turnover, without influencing the traditionally used markers of exercise training effects, on blood lipids is still unclear. The aim was to study the effect of high-volume low-intensity physical activity on the blood lipid pattern, with a tight control of diet and energy balance. Eight untrained men [42.5 (12.1) years, body mass index 24.2 (2.8) kg m(-2)] were tested in two different 6-week protocols. In the sedentary protocol, the subjects were instructed to limit their everyday physical activity. In the activity protocol, a 2-h physical activity bout was performed 5 days week(-1) (~40% of VO(2max); equivalent of an additional 21 MJ week(-1) in energy expenditure). The diet for both protocols comprised ~40 energy percent (E%) fat, ~50 E% carbohydrates (CHO). The polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids ratio of the diet was ~0.12. There were no changes during each 6-week period or differences between the two protocols in body weight, body composition or aerobic capacity. Low-intensity physical activity did not affect lipid parameters substantially, except for a slightly lower Apo-B/Apo-A1 ratio with the activity protocol (P<0.05). Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as Apo-B and Apo-A1, were increased during the beginning of each 6-week period (P<0.05), but returned to basal levels by the sixth week. In conclusion, 6 weeks of high-volume low-intensity physical activity did not affect blood lipids substantially.

  • 5. El-Khoury, Antoine E
    et al.
    Forslund, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Olsson, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Branth, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Sjödin, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Atkinson, Alan
    Selvaraj, Amalini
    Hambraeus, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Young, Vernon R
    Moderate exercise at energy balance does not affect 24-h leucine oxidation or nitrogen retention in healthy men1997In: American Journal of Physiology, ISSN 0002-9513, E-ISSN 2163-5773, Vol. 273, no 2, p. E394-E407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-term metabolic experiments have revealed that physical exercise increases the oxidation of leucine, which has been interpreted to indicate an increased requirement for dietary protein in physically active subjects. Because it may be inaccurate to extrapolate measurements of amino acid oxidation made over a few hours to the entire day, we have carried out a continuous 24-h intravenous [1-13C]leucine/[15N]urea tracer study in eight healthy adult men. Their diet supplied 1 g protein.kg-1.day-1, and exercise (mean maximal O2 consumption 46%) was for 90 min during the 12-h fast and 12-h fed periods of the day. Subjects were adapted to the diet and exercise regimen for 6 days. Then, on day 7, they were dressed in the University of Uppsala energy metabolic unit's direct calorimeter suit, were connected to an open-hood indirect calorimeter, and received the tracers. Exercise increased leucine oxidation by approximately 50 and 30% over preexercise rates for fast and fed periods, respectively. This increase amounted to approximately 4-7% of daily leucine oxidation. Subjects remained in body leucine equilibrium (balance -4.6 +/- 10.5 mg.kg-1.day-1; -3.6 +/- 8.3% of intake; P = not significant from zero balance). Therefore, moderate exercise did not cause a significant deterioration in leucine homeostasis at a protein intake of 1 g.kg-1.day-1. These findings underscore the importance of carrying out precise, continuous, 24-h measurements of whole body leucine kinetics; this model should be of value in studies concerning the quantitative interactions among physical exercise, energy/protein metabolism, and diet in humans.

  • 6.
    Hallin, Runa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Arnardottir, Harpa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Olsson, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Emtner, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Branth, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemical endocrinology.
    Boman, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Slinde, Frode
    Relation between physical capacity, nutritional status and systemic inflammation in COPD2011In: Clinical Respiratory Journal, ISSN 1752-6981, E-ISSN 1752-699X, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 136-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Decreased physical capacity, weight loss, fat-free mass depletion and systemic inflammation are frequently observed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Objective: Our aim was to examine relations between physical capacity, nutritional status, systemic inflammation and disease severity in COPD.

    Method: Forty nine patients with moderate to severe COPD were included in the study. Spirometry was preformed. Physical capacity was determined by a progressive symptom limited cycle ergo meter test, incremental shuttle walking test, 12-minute walk distance and hand grip strength test. Nutritional status was investigated by anthropometric measurements, (weight, height, arm and leg circumferences and skinfold thickness) and bioelectrical impedance assessment was performed. Blood samples were analyzed for C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen.

    Result: Working capacity was positively related to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) (p < 0.001), body mass index and fat free mass index (p = 0.01) and negatively related to CRP (p = 0.02) and fibrinogen (p = 0.03). Incremental shuttle walk test was positively related to FEV(1) (p < 0.001) and negatively to CRP (p = 0.048). Hand grip strength was positively related to fat free mass index, and arm and leg circumferences. Fifty to 76% of the variation in physical capacity was accounted for when age, gender, FEV(1), fat free mass index and CRP were combined in a multiple regression model.

    Conclusion: Physical capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is related to lung function, body composition and systemic inflammation. A depiction of all three aspects of the disease might be important when targeting interventions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

1 - 6 of 6
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