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  • 1.
    Andersson, Helén
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Combination Effects of 17 beta-Estradiol and PCB 126 on Human Endothelial Cells2010In: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, ISSN 1079-5642, E-ISSN 1524-4636, Vol. 30, no 11, p. E303-E303Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Andersson, Helén
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Proangiogenic Effects of Environmentally Relevant Levels of Bisphenol A in Human Primary Endothelial Cells2012In: Archives of Toxicology, ISSN 0340-5761, E-ISSN 1432-0738, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 465-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the manufacturing of consumer products such as plastic food containers and food cans. Experimental studies suggest a relationship between exposure to BPA and changes in metabolic processes and reproductive organs. Also, epidemiological studies report an association between elevated exposure to BPA and cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Although alterations in the vascular endothelium are implicated in pathological conditions associated with BPA, little is known about the effects of BPA in the human endothelium. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 0.1 nM-1 μM of BPA on selected biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The mRNA expression of biomarkers was assayed using qRT-PCR, and the production of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species was measured using the H(2)DCFDA and the DAF-FM assays. The effect of BPA on phosphorylated eNOS was examined using Western blot and immunofluorescence, and the endothelial tube formation assay was used to investigate in vitro angiogenesis. BPA (≤1 μM) increased the mRNA expression of the proangiogenic genes VEGFR-2, VEGF-A, eNOS, and Cx43 and increased the production of nitric oxide in HUVEC. Furthermore, BPA increased the expression of phosphorylated eNOS and endothelial tube formation in HUVEC. These studies demonstrate that environmentally relevant levels of BPA have direct proangiogenic effects on human primary endothelial cells in vitro suggesting that the human endothelium may be an important target for BPA.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Helén
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Helmestam, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Zebrowska, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Olovsson, Matts
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Tamoxifen-Induced Adduct Formation and Cell Stress in Human Endometrial Glands2010In: Drug Metabolism And Disposition, ISSN 0090-9556, E-ISSN 1521-009X, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 200-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The beneficial effects of tamoxifen in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer are compromised by an increased risk of endometrial polyps, hyperplasia, and cancer. Tamoxifen is metabolized to an array of metabolites with estrogenic effects but also to reactive intermediates that may form protein and DNA adducts. The aim of this study was to investigate cellular [(3)H]tamoxifen adduct formation by light microscopic autoradiography and cell stress by immunohistochemical analysis of glucose-regulating protein 78 (GRP78), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), and caspase 3 in human endometrial explants after short-term incubation with tamoxifen. The cellular expression of tamoxifen-metabolizing enzymes in human endometrial biopsy samples was also determined by immunohistochemistry. The results showed selective [(3)H]tamoxifen adduct formation in glandular and surface epithelia after incubation with a nontoxic concentration of [(3)H]tamoxifen (6 nM). There was also a selective expression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress chaperone GRP78 and activated caspase 3 at these sites after incubation with cytotoxic concentrations of tamoxifen (10-100 microM). The cell stress was preferentially observed in samples from women in the proliferative menstrual phase. No treatment-related expression of NF-kappaB was observed. Constitutive expression of the tamoxifen-metabolizing enzymes CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8/9/19, CYP2D6, and SULT2A1 in glandular and surface epithelia was shown, but there was a large interindividual variation. The colocalization of [(3)H]tamoxifen adducts, expression of GRP78, caspase 3, and tamoxifen-metabolizing enzymes in human glandular and surface epithelia suggest a local bioactivation of tamoxifen at these sites and that epithelial cells are early target sites for tamoxifen-induced cell stress.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Helén
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Lind, P. Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Rönn, Monika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Eva, Brittebo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Experimental studies of bisphenol A in cardiovascular cells and tissues: effects on genes that regulate angiogenesis and vascular tone2012In:  , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Helén
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Piras, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Demma, Jemal
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hellman, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Low levels of the air pollutant 1-nitropyrene induce DNA damage, increased levels of reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress in human endothelial cells2009In: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 262, no 1, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that exposure to high levels of air pollution is a risk factor associated with cardiovascular disease. Traffic emission is a major source of exposure to persistent air pollutants such as nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs). 1-Nitropyrene (1-NP), one of the most abundant nitro-PAHs in diesel exhausts, was selected as a model nitro-PAH for the present study. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of 1-NP in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the metabolic pathways involved. The nitroreductase inhibitor dicoumarol and the coplanar aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand PCB 126 were used to modulate the metabolism of 1-NP. The results revealed that low levels (< or =10microM) of 1-NP induced DNA damage, increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased protein expression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress chaperone GRP78. A decrease in cell viability was only observed following exposure to a higher level of 1-NP (15microM). Inhibition of nitroreductive metabolism by dicoumarol attenuated the induction of DNA damage, intracellular ROS levels and GRP78 expression. This suggests that the effects of 1-NP on HUVEC were mediated by metabolites mainly formed at nitroreduction. Our findings suggest that the human blood vessel endothelium is a sensitive target tissue for the major nitro-PAH constituent in diesel exhaust.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Bergström, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Brittebo, Eva B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Correction: Maternal Transfer of the Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (BMAA) via Milk to Suckling Offspring2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 10, article id e78133Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Bergström, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Brittebo, Eva B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Maternal Transfer of the Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin beta-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (BMAA) via Milk to Suckling Offspring2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 10, p. e78133-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been implicated in the etiology of neurodegenerative disease and proposed to be biomagnified in terrestrial and aquatic food chains. We have previously shown that the neonatal period in rats, which in humans corresponds to the last trimester of pregnancy and the first few years of age, is a particularly sensitive period for exposure to BMAA. The present study aimed to examine the secretion of C-14-labeled L-and D-BMAA into milk in lactating mice and the subsequent transfer of BMAA into the developing brain. The results suggest that secretion into milk is an important elimination pathway of BMAA in lactating mothers and an efficient exposure route predominantly for L-BMAA but also for D-BMAA in suckling mice. Following secretion of [C-14] L-BMAA into milk, the levels of [C-14] L-BMAA in the brains of the suckling neonatal mice significantly exceeded the levels in the maternal brains. In vitro studies using the mouse mammary epithelial HC11 cell line confirmed a more efficient influx and efflux of L-BMAA than of D-BMAA in cells, suggesting enantiomer-selective transport. Competition experiments with other amino acids and a low sodium dependency of the influx suggests that the amino acid transporters LAT1 and LAT2 are involved in the transport of L-BMAA into milk. Given the persistent neurodevelopmental toxicity following injection of L-BMAA to neonatal rodent pups, the current results highlight the need to determine whether BMAA is enriched mother's and cow's milk.

  • 8.
    Annas, A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brittebo, E
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hellman, B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Evaluation of benzo(a)pyrene-inducedDNA damage in human endotehlial cells using alkaline single cellelectrophoresis.2000In: Mutation Research, Vol. 471, p. 145-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Annas, A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brittebo, EB
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Localization of cytochrome P4501A1 and covalent binding of a mutagenic heterocyclic amine in blood vessel endothelia of rodents1998In: TOXICOLOGY, Vol. 129, p. 145-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Annas, A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brunstrom, B
    Brittebo, E
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    CYP1A-dependent activation ofxenobiotics in endothelial linings of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM)in birds.2000In: Arch. Toxicol., Vol. 74, p. 335-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Annas, A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Granberg, L
    Strandberg, W
    Brandt, I
    Brittebo, EB
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brunstrom, B
    Basal and induced EROD activity in the chorioallantoic membrane during chicken embryo development1999In: ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY, Vol. 8, p. 49-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Annas, Anita
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brittebo, Eva B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Toxicology.
    Induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and endothelial activation of the heterocyclic amine Trp-P-1 in bird embryo hearts1998In: Archives of Toxicology, ISSN 0340-5761, E-ISSN 1432-0738, Vol. 72, no 7, p. 402-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The xenobiotic-metabolizing activity of avian heart was investigated in chicken and Eider duck embryos exposed to aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists in ovo. Both beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) induced 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities in chicken embryo hearts whereas Eider duck embryos only responded to BNF. The differential responses of chicken and Eider duck embryos were used to examine the involvement of Ah receptor-mediated enzyme induction in the activation of the environmental and food mutagen 3-amino- 1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1). As determined by light microscopic autoradiography, there was a highly selective binding of non-extractable 3H-Trp-P-1-derived radioactivity in endothelial cells of large vessels and capillaries in hearts of BNF- and PCB 126-treated chicken embryos. No binding occurred at these sites in vehicle-treated controls. There was also a strong endothelial binding of 3H-Trp-P-1 in hearts of BNF-treated Eider duck embryos whereas no binding occurred in hearts of PCB 126-treated Eider duck embryos. A positive correlation between induction of EROD activity and covalent binding of 3H-Trp-P-1 to protein in heart homogenates from BNF- and PCB 126-treated chicken and Eider duck embryos was also observed. The results suggest a cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A)-mediated activation of Trp-P-1 in avian heart endothelial cells although involvement of other Ah receptor-regulated enzymes is also possible. We propose that heart endothelial cells may be targets for bioactivation and toxicity of environmental contaminants in birds exposed to Ah receptor agonists.

  • 13.
    Annas, Anita
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Granberg, A Lizette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brittebo, Eva B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Differential response of cultured human umbilical vein and artery endothelial cells to Ah receptor agonist treatment: CYP-dependent activation of food and environmental mutagens2000In: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, ISSN 0041-008X, E-ISSN 1096-0333, Vol. 169, no 1, p. 94-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-hydroxylase, and covalent binding of H-3-labeled 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (H-3-Trp-P-1) and H-3-DMBA were examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human umbilical artery endothelial cells (HUAEC) exposed to the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonist beta -naphthoflavone (BNF) or vehicle only. The results revealed a marked induction of enzymatic activity in BNF-treated HUVEC compared with vehicle-treated cells, whereas no similar response was observed in BNF-treated HUAEC. EROD, DMBA hydroxylase, and covalent binding of H-3-Trp-P-1 and H-3-DMBA in BNF-treated HUVEC were reduced in the presence of the CYP1A inhibitor ellipticine. Addition of other CYP1A inhibitors ru-naphthoflavone, miconazole, 1-ethynylpyrene, 1-(1-propynyl)pyrene, or the CYP1A substrate ethoyresorufin to the incubation buffer of BNF-treated HUVEC reduced covalent binding of H-3-Trp-P-1 by 93-98%. Western blot analysis confirmed an induction of CYP1A1 in BNF-treated HUVEC, but not in BNF-treated HUAEC. CYP1A1 was, however, detected in both vehicle- and BNF-treated HUAEC. The results showed that BNF exposure induced CYP1A1 and metabolic activation of xenobiotics in HUVEC, whereas the catalytic activity remained low in BNF-treated HUAEC. Our results suggest that endothelial lining of human veins may be a target for adverse effects of xenobiotics activated into reactive metabolites by Ah receptor-regulated enzymes. Several studies have detected CYP1A1 in endothelial linings, whereas expression of CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 seems to be negligible at this site. This suggests that the metabolic activation and covalent binding of H-3-Trp-P-1 and H-3-DMBA in HUVEC are most likely mediated by CYP1A1.

  • 14.
    Annas, Anita
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Toxicology.
    Granberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Strandberg, William
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brittebo, Eva B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Basal and induced EROD activity in the chorioallantoic membrane during chicken embryo development1999In: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, ISSN 1382-6689, E-ISSN 1872-7077, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 49-52Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a highly vascularized tissue that takes part in the respiratory exchange of gases through the eggshell. Although the CAM may be exposed to environmental contaminants, its response to pollutants has not been studied. We examined the cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-catalyzed deethylation of 7-ethoxyresorufin (EROD) in the CAM during chicken embryo development. EROD was constitutively present and was inducible by the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonist 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126). Our results suggest the CAM as a first line of defence of the avian embryo against toxic compounds, but also as a target for CYP1A-activated chemicals.

  • 15.
    Annas, Anita
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Granberg, Lizette
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Differential response of cultured human umbilical vein and artery endothelial cells to Ah receptor agonist treatment:CYP-dependent activation of food and environmental mutagens.2000In: Toxicology Applied Pharmacology, Vol. 169, p. 94-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Bahrami, Fariba
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Bergman, Ulrika
    Brittebo, Eva B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Persistent Olfactory Mucosal Metaplasia and Increased Olfactory Bulb Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Levels Following a Single Dose of Methylsulfonyl-dichlorobenzene in Mice: Comparison of the 2,5- and 2,6-Dichlorinated Isomers 2000In: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, ISSN 0041-008X, E-ISSN 1096-0333, Vol. 162, no 1, p. 49-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Histopathology was used to characterize long-term toxic effects in the olfactory system following a single ip dose (4–65 mg/kg) of methylsulfonyl-2,6-dichlorobenzene, (2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B)), in female NMRI mice. The effects of 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) and its 2,5-chlorinated isomer, (2,5-(diCl-MeSO2-B)), on the levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; a biomarker for neurotoxicity) in different brain regions were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The histopathologic effects of 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) were dose-, time-, and tissue-dependent. At the highest doses (16–65 mg/kg), the initial effect of 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) was necrosis of the Bowman's glands, followed by a sequence of secondary events including degeneration of the olfactory neuroepithelium, repopulation of the basement membrane by a ciliated respiratorylike epithelium, fibrosis and ossification in the lamina propria, formation of bilateral polyps, angiogenesis, and disappearance of nerve bundles. Remodeling was most pronounced in the dorsal meatus of the olfactory mucosa and persisted for the duration of the experiment (46 weeks). A dose-dependent induction of GFAP in the olfactory bulb of mice treated with 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) was observed at all doses examined (16–65 mg/kg). GFAP levels were highest 2 weeks after treatment (eightfold induction at 65 mg/kg) and then gradually decreased to normal within 26 weeks. The 2,5-substituted isomer (65 mg/kg) did not induce GFAP in the olfactory bulb and or toxicity in the olfactory mucosa. In conclusion, a single dose of 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) results in persistent metaplasia and remodeling of the olfactory mucosa, and a long-lasting but transient induction of GFAP in the olfactory bulb. It is proposed that methylsulfonyl-2,6-dichlorobenzene may serve as an experimental tool with a unique ability to produce persistent primary and/or secondary lesions in the olfactory system of mice.

  • 17.
    Bahrami, Fariba
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brittebo, EB
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Bergman, A
    Larsson, C
    Brandt, I
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Localization and comparative toxicity of methylsulfonyl-2,5-and 2,6-dichlorobenzene in the olfactory mucosa of mice1999In: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 116-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several methylsulfonyl (MeSO2) metabolites formed from chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons have been identified in human milk, lung, and body fat, as well as in the tissues of Baltic grey seals and arctic polar bears. The tissue localization and nasal toxicity of two methylsulfonyl-substituted dichlorobenzenes (diCl-MeSO2-B), with the chlorine atoms in the 2,5-, and 2,6- positions, were investigated in female NMRI and C57B1 mice. Using tape-section autoradiography, animals dosed i.v. with 14C-labeled 2,5-, or 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B) showed a preferential uptake of radioactivity in the olfactory mucosa and the tracheobronchial epithelium. Histopathology showed that 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2- B) is a potent toxicant that induces necrosis in the olfactory mucosa following a single dose as low as 4 mg/kg (i.p. injection), whereas 2,5- (diCl-MeSO2-B) induced no signs of toxicity in the olfactory mucosa at doses as high as 130 mg/kg (i.p. injection). Necrosis of the Bowman's glands was the first sign of 2,6-(diCl-MeSO2-B)-induced toxicity followed by degeneration of the neuroepithelium, which implies that the Bowman's gland may be the primary site of toxicity and degeneration of the neuroepithelium may be a secondary effect. Administration of the parent compounds, 1,3-dichlorobenzene and 1,4-dichlorobenzene, or the chlorinated analog 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (85, 85, and 105 mg/kg, respectively; i.p. injection), induced no signs of toxicity in the olfactory mucosa. These and previous results suggest that 2,6- positioned chlorine atoms and an electron withdrawing substituent in the primary position is an arrangement that predisposes for toxicity in the olfactory mucosa.

  • 18. Bergman, U
    et al.
    Brittebo, EB
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Methimazole toxicity in rodents: Covalent binding in the olfactory mucosa and detection of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the olfactory bulb1999In: TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY, Vol. 155, p. 190-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Bergman, Ulrika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Östergren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Gustafson, Anne-Lee
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brittebo, Eva B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Differential effects of olfactory toxicants on olfactory regeneration.2002In: Arch Toxicol, Vol. 76, p. 104-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Bergström, Ulrika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Ekotoxikologi. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Franzén, Anna
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Eriksson, Catarina
    Lindh, Christian
    Brittebo, Eva B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Drug targeting to the brain: Transfer of picolinic acid along the olfactory pathways2002In: J Drug Target, Vol. 10, p. 469-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Bergström, Ulrika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Fredriksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brittebo, Eva B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Long-term effects in the olfactory mucosa and bulb following systemic exposure to chemicals2002In: Toxicology Letters 135, Suppl 1, 2002, p. 139-Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 22.
    Bergström, Ulrika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Giovanetti, Anna
    Piras, Elena
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Methimazole-induced damage in the olfactory mucosa: effects on ultrastructure and glutathione levels.2003In: Toxicol Pathol, ISSN 0192-6233, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 379-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Bremer, Susanne
    et al.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Dencker, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Knudsen, Lisbeth Ehlert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Mathisien, Line
    Olovsson, Matts
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Pazos, Patricia
    Pellizzer, Cristian
    Paulesu, Luana Ricci
    Schaefer, Wolfgang
    Schwarz, Michael
    Staud, Frantisek
    Stavreus-Evers, Anneli
    Dept Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vähänkangas, Kirsi
    In vitro tests for detecting chemicals affecting the embryo implantation process: The report and recommendations of ECVAM workshop 62 - a strategic workshop of the EU ReProTect project2007In: ATLA (Alternatives to Laboratory Animals), ISSN 0261-1929, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 421-439Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Brittebo, EB
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brandt, I
    Cell- and tissue-specific metabolic activation of chemicals as determined by autoradiography: In vitro in vivo correlations1997In: TOXICOLOGY IN VITRO, Vol. 11, p. 417-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Toxicity in the respiratory system2006In: Pharmaceutical Toxicology, 2006Chapter in book (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 26.
    Brittebo, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Andersson, Helén
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Rönn, Monika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lind, Monica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Bioactivation and effects of environmental pollutants in human and rodent blood vessel endothelial cells2012In: Organohalogen compound database (http://www.dioxin20xx.org/ohc_database_search.htm), 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Recent epidemiological studies reveal associations between exposure to environmental pollutants and cardiovascular disorders in humans. Elevated serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have for instance been associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension (1-3). Exposure to the carbonate plastic monomer bisphenol A (BPA) has been associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and atherogenic changes in the vascular wall (4-6). The contention that the human cardiovascular system is a sensitive target for toxic chemicals gain support from our earlier and recent experimental studies in rodents, birds and fish, as well as in cultured human primary endothelial cells. It is also compatible with earlier observations that certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmental carcinogens that may also contribute to atherosclerosis in mice and birds (7,8).

    In this presentation we will briefly discuss effects of Ah receptor (AhR) agonists (e.g. the coplanar PCB126 or BNF, ß-naphthoflavone) on the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP)1 enzymes in various endothelia in rodents in vivo or ex vivo, as well as in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The CYP1-dependent bioactivation and irreversible binding of prototype polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heterocyclic amines such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), 7,12-dimethyl- benz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido- [4,3-b]indole (Trp-P1) in these endothelia will be reviewed. We will also report how PCB126 affects vasoactive factors in HUVEC, and how these effects are modulated by physiological 17ß-oestradiol concentrations. Some effects of PCB126, 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) on biomarkers for endothelial dysfunction, cell stress and DNA damage in HUVEC will finally be presented.

    Material and methods

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were purchased from Science Cell Research laboratories, Carlsbad, CA. C57Bl mice and Wistar or Sprague Dawley rats were purchased from various suppliers. All animal experiments were approved by the Local Ethical Committee for Research on Animals in Uppsala and the studies followed the guidelines laid down by the Swedish and European Union legislation on animal experimentation. Rodents, tissue-slices and cultured cells were treated with model chemicals as previously described. Tape section and light microscopy autoradiographic imaging using 3H-labelled BaP, DMBA and Trp-P-1 and immunohistochemistry was performed as previously described (9-19). Precision-cut tissue slices for in vitro autoradiography were prepared as described in (14) and the slices were incubated with various 3H-labelled chemicals. HUVEC were exposed to various compounds and the detection of biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction, DNA damage were performed as described (20-22). Finally, female Fischer rats were exposed to BPA (0.025, 0.25 and 2.5 mg/l) and fructose (50 g/l) in the drinking water from 5 to 15 weeks of age to mimic human exposure (unpublished data).

    Results and discussion

    Co-localization of CYP1A1 expression and BaP, DMBA and Trp-P-1 adduct formation in endothelial linings As demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, a high CYP1A immunoreactivity occurred in capillaries of the heart, skeletal muscle, uterus and in blood-brain interfaces such as the leptomeninges and plexus choroideus, whereas no expression was observed for instance in cerebral capillary endothelial cells of mice treated with AhR agonists (9-11). No, or very low constitutive immunoreactivities were observed in these endothelia in vehicle-treated animals. No basal or induced CYP1B1 expression was observed in endothelial cells, while a weak CYP1B1 immunostaining was detected in the muscle layer of small arteries. It should be noted that in subcellular preparations of whole organs, e.g. heart and brain, the CYP1A1 in endothelial cells is diluted due to cells that do not express high levels of CYP1A1, for examples myocytes or neurons, in excess. A cell-specific metabolism in endothelial cells may therefore remain undetected due to the presence of metabolically inactive cells. In order to detect minor sites of bioactivation such as endothelial linings we employed light microscopic autoradiographic imaging to examine the bioactivation and subsequent irreversible binding of the radiolabelled prototype toxicants in tissues of animals pretreated with AhR-agonists. As determined by light microscopic autoradiography of AhR-agonist-treated mice exposed to 3H-labelled BaP, DMBA or Trp-P-1 and birds exposed to 3H-Trp-P-1 a significant accumulation of non-extractable radioactivity occurred in endothelial linings (9-18). The bound radioactivity occurred in the nuclei and the perinuclear cytoplasm, suggesting that the autoradiograms depict both DNA- and protein-bound adducts. Since the binding sites of 3H-labelled BaP, DMBA or Trp-P-1 corresponded with the sites of CYP1A1 induction, we concluded that rodents express a constitutively low but highly inducible and functional CYP1A1 in endothelial cells. The binding of reactive metabolites in endothelial cells exceeded the binding in all other cell types in AhR-agonist treated mice and was abolished by pretreatment with the CYP1A1 inhibitor ellipticine, supporting a CYP1A1-catalysed metabolic activation in situ to a reactive species (9, 10,12). These findings imply that there is a preferential CYP1A1-catalysed formation of reactive metabolites from all three carcinogens in endothelial cells expressing high CYP1A1 levels. Interestingly, however, carcinogenesis in endothelial cells is a relative rare finding, suggesting that degenerative lesions and cell death may be more prevalent responses to metabolism-activated carcinogens/mutagens in these cells. Experiments with 3H-DMBA and 3H-Trp-P-1 in HUVEC confirmed that AhR-agonists induced an increased bioactivation, suggesting that also human endothelial cells should be targets for toxicity of reactive intermediates formed from CYP1A1- activated carcinogens/mutagens (17-18). This conclusion is supported by immunohistochemical studies on the heavily vascularized human endometrium demonstrating an expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 protein in and around human endometrial blood vessels, although a large interindividual

    variation was observed (19). None of the endometrial biopsy samples displayed vascular expression of CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8/2C9/2C19, CYP2D6, or CYP3A4/5 protein.

    Effects of PCB 126, 1-NP, and BPA on biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and cell stress in endothelial cells In vitro studies demonstrated that PCB126 increased the levels of vasoconstriction factors and decreased the levels of vasodilating factors in cultured HUVEC in a fashion that is characteristic for endothelial dysfunction related to human hypertension. The study showed that the co-planar PCB126 induced expression of the endothelium-derived vasoconstriction factor COX-2 and stimulated formation of the vasoconstrictor prostaglandin PGF2 via the AhR in HUVEC (20). COX-2 is known to play a role in hypertension by catalysing the formation of vasoconstriction prostaglandins and by stimulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Further studies demonstrated that PCB126 increased the production of the vasoconstriction prostaglandin PGF2 and ROS in HUVEC. The relationship between increased ROS production and human hypertension is well established, ROS promotes vasoconstriction by stimulating the production of vasoconstriction prostaglandins and by reducing bioavailability of the vasorelaxing factor NO. Indeed, exposure to PCB126 slightly reduced the production of NO in HUVEC. Furthermore, the PCB126-induced mRNA expressions of CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and COX-2 in HUVEC were enhanced in the presence of physiological levels of 17- estradiol. This suggests that increased levels of oestrogen stimulate AhR-dependent transcription of genes previously associated with endothelial dysfunction and hypertension.

    In another study we have examined the effects of a nitrated PAH, 1-nitropyrene, that is abundant in diesel exhausts (21). The results revealed that 1-NP induced DNA damage, increased levels of ROS and increased protein expression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress chaperone GRP78 in cultured HUVEC. Induction of CYP1A1 by PCB126 as well as inhibition of nitroreductive metabolism by dicoumarol attenuated the induction of DNA damage, intracellular ROS levels and GRP78 expression. This suggests that the effects of 1-NP on HUVEC were mediated by metabolites mainly formed at nitroreduction and not by CYP1-dependent bioactivation to reactive intermediates.

    Recent in vitro studies demonstrated that bisphenol A increased the mRNA expression of genes that regulate vasoconstriction and angiogenesis in HUVEC (eNOS, VEGF, VEGFR2, connexin 43 and ACE1) and in human cardiomyocytes (eNOS and ACE1) (22). The results also showed that BPA increased the expression of P-eNOS(ser1177) and the production of NO in HUVEC. NO is the main effector molecule in angiogenesis downstream of VEGF. Based on the findings that BPA increase the expression of proangiogenic factors we investigated whether BPA could stimulate in vitro angiogenesis in HUVEC using the endothelial tube formation assay. The results demonstrated that BPA increased HUVEC tube formation suggesting that BPA can act directly on the endothelium and stimulate angiogenesis. Long-term exposure in rats revealed that environmentally relevant levels of BPA, increased the cardiac mRNA expression of genes that regulate vasoconstriction and angiogenesis. Ten weeks exposure of rats from preadolescence to adulthood to BPA in the drinking water increased the

    expression of eNOS, VEGF, VEGFR2 and ACE1 in the heart. Taken together, the genes that were upregulated in rat cardiac tissues in vivo were also upregulated in human endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes in vitro. The heart is a heavily vascularized tissue that consists mainly of cardiac endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes and although cardiomyocytes dominate the volume of the myocardium the number of endothelial cells exceeds the number of cardiomyocytes by approximately three to one. Thus, the effects of BPA on eNOS VEGF, VEGFR2 and ACE1 mRNA expression in rat cardiac tissues are most likely to be related to an effect of BPA on endothelial cells but may also involve cardiomyocytes.

    We conclude that endothelial cells may be targets for bioactivation and toxicity of environmental pollutants. The immunohistochemical and autoradiographic data demonstrated a differential expression of CYP1 enzymes and metabolic activation of pollutants in various endothelial linings suggesting that some but not all endothelial linings may be targets for xenobiotics metabolised by AhR-regulated enzymes. Studies on the effects of PCB126, 1-nitropyrene and BPA in cultured human primary endothelial cells demonstrated up-regulation of various biomarkers for endothelial dysfunction and cell stress suggesting that the human endothelium may be a sensitive target for these pollutants. The bioactivation and effects of environmental pollutants in endothelial cells should be further studied in order to unravel the role of these chemicals in human cardiovascular disease.

  • 27.
    Brittebo, Eva B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Metabolism-dependent activation and toxicity of chemicals in nasal glands1997In: Mutation research, ISSN 0027-5107, E-ISSN 1873-135X, Vol. 380, no 1-2, p. 61-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mucosae of the nasal passages contain a large amount of glands which express secretory proteins as well as phase I and phase II biotransformation enzymes. In this review the metabolic activation, covalent binding and toxicity of chemicals in the Bowman's glands in the olfactory mucosa, in the sere-mucous glands in the nasal septum and in the lateral nasal glands and maxillary glands around the maxillary sinuses are discussed. Light microscopic autoradiographic studies have demonstrated a selective covalent binding of nasal toxicants and carcinogens such as halogenated hydrocarbons and N-nitrosamines, especially in the Bowman's glands following a single systemic exposure, suggesting a high rate of metabolic activation of chemicals in these glands. Special attention is put on the herbicide dichlobenil which induces necrosis in the olfactory mucosa following a cytochrome-P450-mediated metabolic activation and covalent binding in the Bowman's glands.

  • 28.
    Brittebo, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Andersson, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Berg, Anna-Lena
    Roman, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Lindquist, Nils Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hanrieder, Jörg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Neurotoxin-induced fibril formation and protein changes in rodents2012In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 211, no Suppl., p. S193-193Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Dahlin, M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Bergman, U
    Jansson, B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Bjork, E
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Transfer of dopamine in the olfactory pathway following nasal administration in mice2000In: Pharm Res, Vol. 17, p. 737-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Dahlin, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Bergman, Ulrika
    Jansson, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Björk, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Toxicology.
    Transfer of dopamine in the olfactory pathway following nasal administration in mice2000In: Pharmaceutical research, ISSN 0724-8741, E-ISSN 1573-904X, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 737-742Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether dopamine is transferred along the olfactory pathway to the brain following nasal administration to mice. METHODS: [3H]-Dopamine was administered nasally or intravenously to female mice. Brain tissue samples were excised and the radioactive content was measured. The precise localisation of dopamine radioactivity in the brain was studied using autoradiography. The presence of dopamine or its metabolites in the olfactory bulb and mucosa was ascertained using thin layer chromatography (TLC). RESULTS: After administration of [3H]-dopamine into the right nostril, the amount of dopamine in the right bulb increased with time until. after 4 h, it was 27 times higher than in the left bulb. Among the other brain tissue samples, significantly higher amount of radioactivity was detected in the lateral olfactory tract. Radioactivity in the right olfactory bulb was shown by autoradiography to be selectively located in the peripheral layers 1 to 4 h after administration. Selective uptake of radioactivity was not seen in other regions of the brain. TLC data indicated that approximately 75% and 10% of the radioactivity in the olfactory bulb and mucosa, respectively, coeluted with dopamine. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that unchanged dopamine is transferred into the olfactory bulb following nasal administration of [3H]-dopamine.

  • 31.
    Engskog, Mikael K. R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Ersson, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Haglöf, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry. Medical Product Agency, Box 26, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 42, 751 03 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    β-N-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) perturbs alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism pathways in human neuroblastoma cells as determined by metabolic profiling2017In: Amino Acids, ISSN 0939-4451, E-ISSN 1438-2199, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 905-919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    β-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that induces long-term cognitive deficits, as well as an increased neurodegeneration and intracellular fibril formation in the hippocampus of adult rodents following short-time neonatal exposure and in vervet monkey brain following long-term exposure. It has also been proposed to be involved in the etiology of neurodegenerative disease in humans. The aim of this study was to identify metabolic effects not related to excitotoxicity or oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. The effects of BMAA (50, 250, 1000 µM) for 24 h on cells differentiated with retinoic acid were studied. Samples were analyzed using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy to detect altered intracellular polar metabolites. The analysis performed, followed by multivariate pattern recognition techniques, revealed significant perturbations in protein biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism pathways and citrate cycle. Of specific interest were the BMAA-induced alterations in alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism and as well as alterations in various neurotransmitters/neuromodulators such as GABA and taurine. The results indicate that BMAA can interfere with metabolic pathways involved in neurotransmission in human neuroblastoma cells.

  • 32.
    Engskog, Mikael K R
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Haglöf, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Elmsjö, Albert
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Arvidsson, Torbjörn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Pettersson, Curt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    The cyanobacterial amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine perturbs the intermediary metabolism in neonatal rats2013In: Amino Acids, ISSN 0939-4451, E-ISSN 1438-2199, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 905-919, article id 10.1007/s00726-017-2391-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neurotoxic amino acid β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is produced by most cyanobacteria. BMAA is considered as a potential health threat because of its putative role in neurodegenerative diseases. We have previously observed cognitive disturbances and morphological brain changes in adult rodents exposed to BMAA during the development. The aim of this study was to characterize changes of major intermediary metabolites in serum following neonatal exposure to BMAA using a non-targeted metabolomic approach. NMR spectroscopy was used to obtain serum metabolic profiles from neonatal rats exposed to BMAA (40, 150, 460mg/kg) or vehicle on postnatal days 9-10. Multivariate data analysis of binned NMR data indicated metabolic pattern differences between the different treatment groups. In particular five metabolites, d-glucose, lactate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, creatine and acetate, were changed in serum of BMAA-treated neonatal rats. These metabolites are associated with changes in energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism. Further statistical analysis disclosed that all the identified serum metabolites in the lowest dose group were significantly (p<0.05) decreased. The neonatal rat model used in this study is so far the only animal model that displays significant biochemical and behavioral effects after a low short-term dose of BMAA. The demonstrated perturbation of intermediary metabolism may contribute to BMAA-induced developmental changes that result in long-term effects on adult brain function.

  • 33. Eriksson, C
    et al.
    Bergman, U
    Franzen, A
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Sjoblom, M
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brittebo, EB
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Transfer of some carboxylic acids in the olfactory system following intranasal administration1999In: J DRUG TARGETING, Vol. 7, p. 131-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Fransson, Moa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Clinical Immunology.
    Piras, E
    Wang, H
    Burman, Joachim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Duprez, I
    Harris, R
    LeBlanc, K
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Loskog, Angelica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Human Mesenchymal stromal cells expressing a CNS-targeting receptor can be administrated intra nasally and cure expersimental autoimmune enchphlomyelitisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous population of stromal cells residing in most connective tissues and have the capacity to suppress effector cells of the immune system. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, systemic treatments with both murine and human MSCs have proven beneficial because of their capacity to suppress overt immune reactions. However, systemic administration of such cells may cause problems with infectious disease and low numbers of cells that reach the inflamed tissue. We hypothesized that MSCs can be accumulated and retained in the CNS using gene transfer of a CNS-targeting device and intranasal cell delivery. In the current investigation, MSCs were engineered to express a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific receptor using lentiviral vectors. Genetically engineered MSCs retained their suppressive capacity in vitro and successfully targeted the brain upon both intraperitoneal and intranasal delivery. Engineered MSCs cured mice from disease symptoms and these mice were resistant to further EAE challenge. Encephalitic T cells isolated from cured mice displayed an anergic profile while peripheral T cells were still responsive to stimuli. Further, MSC treatment reduced the level of inflammatory cytokines in the brain and implyed reduced damage to axons. In conclusion, MSCs can be genetically engineered to target CNS and efficiently suppress encephalomyelitis in an active EAE model upon intranasal delivery.

  • 35.
    Fransson, Moa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Piras, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Burman, Joachim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Nilsson, Berith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Essand, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lu, Binfeng
    Harris, Robert A
    Magnusson, Peetra U
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Loskog, Angelica Si
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    CAR/FoxP3-engineered T regulatory cells target the CNS and suppress EAE upon intranasal delivery2012In: Journal of Neuroinflammation, ISSN 1742-2094, E-ISSN 1742-2094, Vol. 9, p. 112-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). In the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS, T regulatory (Treg) cell therapy has proved to be beneficial, but generation of stable CNS-targeting Tregs needs further development. Here, we propose gene engineering to achieve CNS-targeting Tregs from naive CD4 cells and demonstrate their efficacy in the EAE model.

    METHODS

    CD4+T cells were modified utilizing a lentiviral vector system to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in trans with the murine FoxP3 gene that drives Treg differentiation. The cells were evaluated in vitro for suppressive capacity and in C57BL/6 mice to treat EAE. Cells were administered by intranasal (i.n.) cell delivery.

    RESULTS

    The engineered Tregs demonstrated suppressive capacity in vitro and could efficiently access various regions in the brain via i.n cell delivery. Clinical score 3 EAE mice were treated and the engineered Tregs suppressed ongoing encephalomyelitis as demonstrated by reduced disease symptoms as well as decreased IL-12 and IFNgamma mRNAs in brain tissue. Immunohistochemical markers for myelination (MBP) and reactive astrogliosis (GFAP) confirmed recovery in mice treated with engineered Tregs compared to controls. Symptomfree mice were echallenged with a second EAE-inducing inoculum but remained healthy, demonstrating the sustained effect of engineered Tregs.

    CONCLUSION

    CNS-targeting Tregs delivered i.n. localized to the CNS and efficiently suppressed ongoing inflammation leading to diminished disease symptoms.

  • 36.
    Fransson, Moa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Clinical Immunology.
    Piras, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Wang, H
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Clinical Immunology.
    Rasmussen Duprez, I
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Clinical Immunology.
    LeBlanc, K.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Loskog, Angelica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Clinical Immunology.
    Genetically Engineered Cells Target CNS and Cure Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis2010In: Human Gene Therapy, ISSN 1043-0342, E-ISSN 1557-7422, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1381-1381Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Fransson, Moa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Piras, Elena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Wang, Hao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Burman, Joachim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology.
    Duprez, Ida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Harris, Robert A
    Leblanc, Katarina
    Magnusson, Peetra U
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Loskog, Angelica S I
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Intranasal Delivery of CNS-Retargeted Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Prolongs Treatment Efficacy of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis2014In: Immunology, ISSN 0019-2805, E-ISSN 1365-2567, Vol. 142, no 3, p. 431-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treatment with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) is currently of interest for a number of diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). MSCs is well known to target inflamed tissues however, in a therapeutic scenery, systemic administration will lead to few cells reaching the brain. We hypothesized that MSCs may target the brain upon intranasal (i.n) administration and persist in CNS tissue if expressing a CNS-targeting receptor. To demonstrate proof of concept, MSCs were genetically engineered to express a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-specific receptor. Engineered MSCs retained their immunosuppressive capacity, infiltrated into the brain upon i.n. cell administration, and were able to significantly reduce disease symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The mice treated with CNS-targeting MSCs were resistant to further EAE induction whereas non-targeted MSC did not give such persistent effects. Histological analysis revealed increased brain restoration in engineered MSC-treated mice. In conclusion, MSCs can be genetically engineered to target the brain and prolong therapeutic efficacy in an EAE model.

  • 38.
    Franzen, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Carlsson, Carina
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Hermansson, Veronica
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Lang, Matti
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brittebo, Eva B
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    CYP2A5-mediated activation and early ultrastructural changes in the olfactory mucosa: studies on 2,6-dichlorophenyl methylsulfone.2006In: Drug Metab Dispos, ISSN 0090-9556, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 61-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Franzén, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brittebo, Eva B
    Toxicant-induced ER-stress and Caspase Activation in the Olfactory Mucosa2005In: Archives of Toxicology, ISSN 0340-5761, E-ISSN 1432-0738, Vol. 79, no 10, p. 561-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potent olfactory toxicant 2,6-dichlorophenyl methylsulphone (2,6-diClPh-MeSO(2)) induces rapid cell death and long-term metaplastic changes in the olfactory regions of rodents. The damage is related to a tissue-specific and extensive cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolic activation of the compound to reactive intermediates. The aim of the present study was to examine the early, cell-specific changes leading to cell death in the olfactory mucosa of mice exposed to 2,6-diClPh-MeSO(2). We have examined the expression of the ER-specific stress protein GRP78, the presence of secretory glycoproteins, and the cellular activation of the initiator caspase 12 and the downstream effector caspase 3. 2,6-DiClPh-MeSO(2) induced rapid and cell-specific expression of GRP78, and activation of caspases 12 and 3 in the Bowman's glands. No similar early onset changes in the neuroepithelium were observed. Based on these results, we propose that extensive lesions are initiated in the Bowman's glands and that the metabolic activation of 2,6-diClPh-MeSO(2) elicits ER-stress response and subsequent apoptotic signaling at this site. Since most of the Bowman's glands had oncotic morphology, the results suggest that the terminal phase of apoptosis was blocked and that these glands finally succumb to other routes of cell death.

  • 40.
    Franzén, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Carlsson, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Isomer-specific Bioactivation and Toxicity of Dichlorophenyl Methylsulphone in Rat Olfactory Mucosa2003In: Toxicologic pathology (Print), ISSN 0192-6233, E-ISSN 1533-1601, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 364-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to explain the isomer- and site-specific toxic effects of dichlorophenyl methylsulphone in the olfactory mucosa of rats. A single ip dose of the 2,6-chlorinated isomer (16 or 65 mg/kg) induced necrosis preferentially in the Bowman's glands and neuroepithelium in the dorsomedial part of the olfactory region. Only minor damage occurred at this site in rats dosed with the 2,5-chlorinated isomer (65 mg/kg). A strong concentration- and time-dependent covalent binding of the C-14-labeled 2,6-isomer to rat olfactory microsomes was demonstrated. In contrast, no significant covalent binding of the C-14-labeled 2,5-isomer was observed. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitors metyrapone, tranylcypromine and acetonitrile inhibited covalent binding of the 2,6-isomer to olfactory microsomes. Glutathione (GSH) appeared to play a protective role as a scavenger of a reactive intermediate whereas methyl-GSH did not alter covalent binding to olfactory microsomes. As determined by microautoradiography, binding of the 2,6-chlorinated isomer in the olfactory mucosa was confined to the Bowman's glands. Both isomers showed a low binding to liver microsomes and caused no liver injury. We suggest that a CYP2A-catalyzed activation of the 2,6-chlorinated dichlorophenyl methylsulphone to a reactive intermediate and adduct formation in the Bowman's glands will initiate a site-specific toxicity of this isomer in the olfactory mucosa.

  • 41.
    Franzén, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Carlsson, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Hermansson, Veronica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Lang, Matti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    CYP2A5-mediated activation and early ultrastructural changes in the olfactory mucosa: studies on 2,6-dichlorophenyl methylsulfone2006In: Drug Metabolism And Disposition, ISSN 0090-9556, E-ISSN 1521-009X, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 61-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    2,6-Dichlorophenyl methylsulfone (2,6-diClPh-MeSO2) is a potent olfactory toxicant reported to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, caspase activation, and extensive cell death in mice. The aim of the present study was to examine cytochrome P450 (P450)-dependent bioactivation, nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) levels, and early ultrastructural changes in mouse olfactory mucosa following an i.p. injection of 2,6-diClPh-MeSO2 (32 mg/kg). A high covalent binding of 2,6-diClPh-14C-MeSO2 in olfactory mucosa S9 fraction was observed, and the CYP2A5/CYP2G1 substrates coumarin and dichlobenil significantly decreased the binding, whereas the CYP2E1 substrate chlorzoxazone had no effects. An increased bioactivation was detected in liver microsomes of mice pretreated with pyrazole, known to induce CYP2A4, 2A5, 2E1, and 2J, and addition of chlorzoxazone reduced this binding. 2,6-DiClPh-14C-MeSO2 showed a marked covalent binding to microsomes of recombinant yeast cells expressing mouse CYP2A5 or human CYP2A6 compared with wild type. One and 4 h after a single injection of 2,6-diClPh-MeSO2, the NP-SH levels in the olfactory mucosa were significantly reduced compared with control, whereas there was no change in the liver. Ultrastructural studies revealed that ER, mitochondria, and secretory granules in nonneuronal cells were early targets 1 h after injection. We propose that lesions induced by 2,6-diClPh-MeSO2 in the mouse olfactory mucosa were initiated by a P450-mediated bioactivation in the Bowman's glands and depletion of NP-SH levels, leading to disruption of ion homeostasis, organelle swelling, and cell death. The high expression of CYP2A5 in the olfactory mucosa is suggested to play a key role for the tissue-specific toxicity induced by 2,6-diClPh-MeSO2.

  • 42.
    Franzén, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Piras, Elena
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Bergström, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Fernandez, E L
    Raffalli-Mathieu, F
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Lang, Matti
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Effects of olfactory toxicants on the expression of CYP2A22003In: Toxicology Letters 144, Suppl 1,, 2003, p. 153-Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 43. Granberg, Lizette
    et al.
    Östergren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in blood-brain interfaces: CYP1A1-dependent bioactivation of 7,12 dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in endothelial cells2003In: Drug Met. Disp., Vol. 31, p. 259-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Granberg, Lizette
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Östergren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brittebo, Eva B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in blood-brain interfaces: CYP1A1-dependent bioactivation of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in endothelial cells.2003In: Drug Metabolism And Disposition, ISSN 0090-9556, E-ISSN 1521-009X, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 259-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immunohistochemistry and autoradiography were used to identify sites of the cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) 1A1 and 1B1 expression and activation of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), in the brain of rodents pretreated with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl or vehicle. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CYP1A1 was preferentially induced in endothelial cells (EC) in the choroid plexus, in veins in the leptomeninges, and in cerebral veins of AhR agonist-pretreated mice. No induction occurred in cerebral capillary EC. In vehicle-treated mice no localization of CYP1A1 in EC was observed. CYP1B1 was expressed in smooth muscle cells of arteries in the leptomeninges, in cerebral arteries/arterioles and to a low extent in ependymal cells of AhR agonist- and vehicle-treated mice. No CYP1B1 was detected in capillary loops of the choroid plexus or in cerebral capillaries. Following administration of [(3)H]DMBA to BNF-pretreated mice, a marked irreversible binding in EC of the choroid plexus and of veins in the leptomeninges was observed but not in cerebral capillaries. In vehicle-treated mice, there was no [(3)H]DMBA-binding at these sites. Furthermore, a high level of irreversibly bound [(3)H]DMBA occurred in EC at these sites in precision-cut mouse/rat brain slices and in excised blood-brain interfaces incubated with [(3)H]DMBA. Since [(3)H]DMBA binding sites corresponded with the sites of CYP1A1 induction, we conclude that rodents express a constitutively low but highly inducible and functional CYP1A1 in EC of some of the blood-brain interfaces. The role of CYP1A1/1B1 and environmental pollutants in the etiology of cerebrovascular disease needs further consideration.

  • 45.
    Granberg, Lizette
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Östergren, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brittebo, Eva B
    CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in blood-brain interfaces:: CYP1A1-dependent bioactivation of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene in endothelial cells2003In: Drug Metabolism And Disposition, ISSN 0090-9556, E-ISSN 1521-009X, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 259-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immunohistochemistry and autoradiography were used to identify sites of the cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) 1A1 and 1B1 expression and activation of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), in the brain of rodents pretreated with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl or vehicle. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CYP1A1 was preferentially induced in endothelial cells (EC) in the choroid plexus, in veins in the leptomeninges, and in cerebral veins of AhR agonist-pretreated mice. No induction occurred in cerebral capillary EC. In vehicle-treated mice no localization of CYP1A1 in EC was observed. CYP1B1 was expressed in smooth muscle cells of arteries in the leptomeninges, in cerebral arteries/arterioles and to a low extent in ependymal cells of AhR agonist- and vehicle-treated mice. No CYP1B1 was detected in capillary loops of the choroid plexus or in cerebral capillaries. Following administration of [(3)H]DMBA to BNF-pretreated mice, a marked irreversible binding in EC of the choroid plexus and of veins in the leptomeninges was observed but not in cerebral capillaries. In vehicle-treated mice, there was no [(3)H]DMBA-binding at these sites. Furthermore, a high level of irreversibly bound [(3)H]DMBA occurred in EC at these sites in precision-cut mouse/rat brain slices and in excised blood-brain interfaces incubated with [(3)H]DMBA. Since [(3)H]DMBA binding sites corresponded with the sites of CYP1A1 induction, we conclude that rodents express a constitutively low but highly inducible and functional CYP1A1 in EC of some of the blood-brain interfaces. The role of CYP1A1/1B1 and environmental pollutants in the etiology of cerebrovascular disease needs further consideration.

  • 46. Hanrieder, Jorg
    et al.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brittebo, Eva B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Malmberg, Per
    Ewing, Andrew G.
    Probing the lipid chemistry of neurotoxin-induced hippocampal lesions using multimodal imaging mass spectrometry2014In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 375-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental toxin -N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) has been causatively linked to neurodegenerative disease pathology. In a rat model, neonatal BMAA resulted in selective uptake in the hippocampal formation and caused learning and memory impairments in adult animals. Moreover, high dose neonatal BMAA exposure resulted in formation of histopathological lesions in the CA1 region of the adult hippocampus; however, the mechanism underlying BMAA induced neuropathology remains elusive. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful method for spatial interrogation of biochemical distribution in biological tissue with high chemical specificity. The aim of this study was to therefore characterize the lipid microenvironment of BMAA-induced hippocampal lesions in adult rats using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and time-of-flight SIMS (ToF-SIMS imaging). Multimodal imaging was carried out by ToF-SIMS scans of the hippocampal formation followed by whole tissue scans using MALDI imaging. Multivariate analysis was performed on the SIMS data in order to delineate the spatial biochemistry surrounding the lesions. The data show lesion-specific localization of phosphatidylcholine fragments, suggesting neuroinflammatory glial cell activation. Complementary MALDI imaging data showed increased levels of phosphoethanolamines colocalizing with the proteopathic lesions pointing to macroautophagic mechanisms associated with neurotoxin-induced protein accumulation. Multimodal IMS by means of ToF-SIMS and MALDI mass spectrometry proved to be a powerful technique for neurotoxicological research. 

  • 47. Hanrieder, Jörg
    et al.
    Gerber, Lorenz
    Persson Sandelius, Asa
    Brittebo, Eva B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Ewing, Andrew G
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    High resolution metabolite imaging in the hippocampus following neonatal exposure to the environmental toxin BMAA using ToF-SIMS2014In: ACS Chemical Neuroscience, ISSN 1948-7193, E-ISSN 1948-7193, Vol. 5, no 7, p. 568-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) is suggested to be linked with neurodegenerative disease. In a rat model, neonatal exposure to BMAA induced selective uptake in the hippocampus and caused cell loss, mineralization and astrogliosis as well as learning and memory impairments in adulthood. Moreover, neonatal exposure resulted in increased protein ubiquitination in the cornus ammonis 1 (CA1) region of the adult hippocampus indicating that BMAA may induce protein aggregation. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) based imaging is a powerful technology for spatial profiling of small molecular weight compounds in biological tissues with high chemical specificity and high spatial resolution. The aim of this study was to characterize neurochemical changes in the hippocampus of six month-old rats treated neonatally (postnatal days 9-10) with BMAA. Multivariate data analysis of whole section ToF-SIMS scans was performed to delineate anatomical regions of interest based on their chemical distribution pattern. Further analysis of spectral data obtained from the outlined anatomical regions, including CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) revealed BMAA-induced long-term changes. Increased levels of phospholipids and protein fragments in the histopathologically altered CA1 region as well as phosphate depletion in the DG were observed. Moreover, high resolution SIMS imaging revealed a specific localization of phosphatidylcholine lipids, protein signals and potassium in the histopathologically altered CA1. These findings demonstrate that ToF-SIMS based imaging is a powerful approach for probing biochemical changes in situ and might serve as promising technique for investigating neurotoxin-induced brain pathology.

  • 48.
    Helmestam, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Andersson, Helén
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Stavreus-Evers, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Olovsson, Matts
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Tamoxifen Modulates Cell Migration and Expression of Angiogenesis-Related Genes in Human Endometrial Endothelial Cells2012In: American Journal of Pathology, ISSN 0002-9440, E-ISSN 1525-2191, Vol. 180, no 6, p. 2527-2535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen is used for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. The adverse effects of tamoxifen include vaginal endometrial bleeding, endometrial hyperplasia, and cancer, conditions associated with angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of tamoxifen on cell migration and angiogenesis-related gene expression in human endometrial endothelial cells (HEECs). The regulatory effects of tamoxifen on endometrial stromal cells and HEECs were also examined. HEECs and stromal cells were isolated and grown In monocultures or co-cultures, and incubated with 0.1 to 100 mu mol/L tamoxifen for 48 hours. Quantitative PCR demonstrated that tamoxifen decreased the mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and increased the mRNA expression of VEGF receptor-1 and placental growth factor (PLGF) in HEECs. Tamoxifen's effects on VEGF-A were inhibited when HEECs were co-cultured with stromal cells. In addition, tamoxifen reduced VEGF-induced HEEC migration. The tamoxifen-metabolizing enzymes CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 were detected by immunohistochemistry in and around endometrial blood vessels and by quantitative PCR in HEECs. Our data suggest that tamoxifen changes the regulation of angiogenesis in the endometrium, likely by reducing angiogenic activity. The results also indicate that endometrial stromal cells regulate some of tamoxifen's effects in HEECs, and the presence of tamoxifen-metabolizing enzymes suggests tamoxifen bioactivation in the endometrial vasculature in vivo. These findings may help to elucidate the mechanism of the bleeding disturbances associated with tamoxifen treatment.

  • 49.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Berg, Anna-Lena
    AstraZeneca.
    Arnerup, Gunnel
    AstraZeneca.
    Roman, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Lindström, Anna-Karin
    AstraZeneca.
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Lindquist, Nils Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Andersson, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brittebo, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    LONG-TERM MORPHOLOGICAL AND PROTEIN CHANGES IN THE BRAIN OF ADULT RATS NEONATALLY TREATED WITH THE ENVIRONMENTAL TOXIN β-N-METHYLAMINO-L-ALANINE (BMAA)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Berg, Anna-Lena
    Hanrieder, Jörg
    Arnerup, Gunnel
    Lindström, Anna-Karin
    Brittebo, Eva B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Intracellular fibril formation, calcification, and enrichment of chaperones, cytoskeletal, and intermediate filament proteins in the adult hippocampus CA1 following neonatal exposure to the nonprotein amino acid BMAA2015In: Archives of Toxicology, ISSN 0340-5761, E-ISSN 1432-0738, Vol. 89, no 3, p. 423-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been implicated in the etiology of neurodegenerative disease, and recent studies indicate that BMAA can be misincorporated into proteins. BMAA is a developmental neurotoxicant that can induce long-term learning and memory deficits, as well as regionally restricted neuronal degeneration and mineralization in the hippocampal CA1. The aim of the study was to characterize long-term changes (2 weeks to 6 months) further in the brain of adult rats treated neonatally (postnatal days 9-10) with BMAA (460 mg/kg) using immunohistochemistry (IHC), transmission electron microscopy, and laser capture microdissection followed by LC-MS/MS for proteomic analysis. The histological examination demonstrated progressive neurodegenerative changes, astrogliosis, microglial activation, and calcification in the hippocampal CA1 3-6 months after exposure. The IHC showed an increased staining for α-synuclein and ubiquitin in the area. The ultrastructural examination revealed intracellular deposition of abundant bundles of closely packed parallel fibrils in neurons, axons, and astrocytes of the CA1. Proteomic analysis of the affected site demonstrated an enrichment of chaperones (e.g., clusterin, GRP-78), cytoskeletal and intermediate filament proteins, and proteins involved in the antioxidant defense system. Several of the most enriched proteins (plectin, glial fibrillar acidic protein, vimentin, Hsp 27, and ubiquitin) are known to form complex astrocytic inclusions, so-called Rosenthal fibers, in the neurodegenerative disorder Alexander disease. In addition, TDP-43 and the negative regulator of autophagy, GLIPR-2, were exclusively detected. The present study demonstrates that neonatal exposure to BMAA may offer a novel model for the study of hippocampal fibril formation in vivo.

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