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  • 1. Agerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    Berg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Bjorlenius, Berndt
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Fick, Jerker
    Gunnarsson, Lina
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Sumpter, John P.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Ruden, Christina
    Improving Environmental Risk Assessment of Human Pharmaceuticals2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 5336-5345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents 10 recommendations for improving the European Medicines Agency's guidance for environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceutical products. The recommendations are based on up-to-date, available science in combination with experiences from other chemical frameworks such as the REACH-legislation for industrial chemicals. The recommendations concern: expanding the scope of the current guideline; requirements to assess the risk for development of antibiotic resistance; jointly performed assessments; refinement of the test proposal; mixture toxicity assessments on active pharmaceutical ingredients with similar modes of action; use of all available ecotoxicity studies; mandatory reviews; increased transparency; inclusion of emission data from production; and a risk management option. We believe that implementation of our recommendations would strengthen the protection of the environment and be beneficial to society. Legislation and guidance documents need to be updated at regular intervals in order to incorporate new knowledge from the scientific community. This is particularly important for regulatory documents concerning pharmaceuticals in the environment since this is a research field that has been growing substantially in the last decades.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Carin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Abrahamson, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Jönsson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Otte, Jens
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Gill filament EROD activity in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) as a biomarker for exposure to Ah receptor agonists in the water2006In: Organohalogen Compounds, 2006, p. 1259-1261Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Annas, Anita
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brittebo, Eva B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Toxicology.
    Induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and endothelial activation of the heterocyclic amine Trp-P-1 in bird embryo hearts1998In: Archives of Toxicology, ISSN 0340-5761, E-ISSN 1432-0738, Vol. 72, no 7, p. 402-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The xenobiotic-metabolizing activity of avian heart was investigated in chicken and Eider duck embryos exposed to aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists in ovo. Both beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) induced 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities in chicken embryo hearts whereas Eider duck embryos only responded to BNF. The differential responses of chicken and Eider duck embryos were used to examine the involvement of Ah receptor-mediated enzyme induction in the activation of the environmental and food mutagen 3-amino- 1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1). As determined by light microscopic autoradiography, there was a highly selective binding of non-extractable 3H-Trp-P-1-derived radioactivity in endothelial cells of large vessels and capillaries in hearts of BNF- and PCB 126-treated chicken embryos. No binding occurred at these sites in vehicle-treated controls. There was also a strong endothelial binding of 3H-Trp-P-1 in hearts of BNF-treated Eider duck embryos whereas no binding occurred in hearts of PCB 126-treated Eider duck embryos. A positive correlation between induction of EROD activity and covalent binding of 3H-Trp-P-1 to protein in heart homogenates from BNF- and PCB 126-treated chicken and Eider duck embryos was also observed. The results suggest a cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A)-mediated activation of Trp-P-1 in avian heart endothelial cells although involvement of other Ah receptor-regulated enzymes is also possible. We propose that heart endothelial cells may be targets for bioactivation and toxicity of environmental contaminants in birds exposed to Ah receptor agonists.

  • 4.
    Annas, Anita
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Toxicology.
    Granberg, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Strandberg, William
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brittebo, Eva B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Basal and induced EROD activity in the chorioallantoic membrane during chicken embryo development1999In: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, ISSN 1382-6689, E-ISSN 1872-7077, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 49-52Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a highly vascularized tissue that takes part in the respiratory exchange of gases through the eggshell. Although the CAM may be exposed to environmental contaminants, its response to pollutants has not been studied. We examined the cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A)-catalyzed deethylation of 7-ethoxyresorufin (EROD) in the CAM during chicken embryo development. EROD was constitutively present and was inducible by the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonist 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126). Our results suggest the CAM as a first line of defence of the avian embryo against toxic compounds, but also as a target for CYP1A-activated chemicals.

  • 5.
    Axelsson, Jeanette
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Halldin, Krister
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Co-administration of PCB and methoxychlor to male quail embryos alters their adult sexual behavior2004In: Uppsala Journal of Medical Sciences: Abstracts for The 22nd Conference of European Comparative Endocrinologists, 2004, p. 13-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Axelsson, Jeanette
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Halldin, Krister
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Expression of Estrogen Receptor -alpha and -beta mRNA in Embryonic Quail Brain2003In: Trabajos del Instituto Cajal, 2003, p. 278-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Beijer, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Albanova Univ Ctr, Sch Biotechnol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Shaik, Siraz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology. IUF Leibniz Res Inst Environm Med, Hennekamp 50, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany..
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umea Univ, Dept Chem, KBC 6A Linnaeus Vag 6, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Removal of pharmaceuticals and unspecified contaminants in sewage treatment effluents by activated carbon filtration and ozonation: Evaluation using biomarker responses and chemical analysis2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, p. 342-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traces of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and other chemicals are demonstrated in effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they may affect quality of surface water and eventually drinking water. Treatment of effluents with granular activated carbon (GAC) or ozone to improve removal of APIs and other contaminants was evaluated at two Swedish STPs, Kappala and Uppsala (88 and 103 APIs analyzed). Biomarker responses in rainbow trout exposed to regular and additionally treated effluents were determined. GAC and ozone treatment removed 87-95% of the total concentrations of APIs detected. In Kappala, GAC removed 20 and ozonation (7 g O-3/m(3)) 21 of 24 APIs detected in regular effluent. In Uppsala, GAC removed 25 and ozonation (5.4 g O-3/m(3)) 15 of 25 APIs detected in effluent. GAC and ozonation also reduced biomarker responses caused by unidentified pollutants in STP effluent water. Elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in gills was observed in fish exposed to effluent in both STPs. Gene expression analysis carried out in Kappala showed increased concentrations of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A5 and CYP1C3) transcripts in gills and of CYP1As in liver of fish exposed to effluent. In fish exposed to GAC- or ozone-treated effluent water, gill EROD activity and expression of CYP1As and CYP1C3 in gills and liver were generally equal to or below levels in fish held in tap water. The joint application of chemical analysis and sensitive biomarkers proved useful for evaluating contaminant removal in STPs with new technologies.

  • 8.
    Beijer, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Gao, Kai
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Jönsson, Maria E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Larsson, D. G. J.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Effluent from drug manufacturing affects cytochrome P450 1 regulation and function in fish2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 1149-1157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously reported very high concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the effluent from a treatment plant receiving wastewater from about 90 bulk drug manufacturers near Hyderabad, India. The main objective of the present study was to examine how high dilutions of this effluent affect mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 family genes and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity in exposed wildlife, using the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) as a model. In gill filaments exposed to diluted effluent ex vivo, EROD activity was strongly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. In a subsequent in vivo study, groups of fish were exposed (24. h) to three concentrations of effluent, 0.8%, 1.6% or 3.2%. In this experiment, EROD in gills was induced 27-, 52- or 60-fold, respectively. Accordingly, CYP1A mRNA was markedly up-regulated in gill, liver and brain of fish exposed to all three effluent concentrations. Expression of mRNA for CYP1B1 and CYP1C1 was induced in gills at all concentrations while effects on these genes in liver and brain were weak or absent. The results of a time course study suggested that most CYP1-inducing substances in the effluent were readily metabolised or excreted, because the induced EROD activity and mRNA expression decreased when the fish were transferred to clean water. Considering that CYP1 enzymes play important roles in biotransformation of endogenous and foreign compounds, the observed dual effect of the effluent on CYP1 catalytic activity and mRNA expression suggests that multiple physiological functions could be affected in exposed wildlife.

  • 9.
    Beijer, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Jönsson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Shaik, Siraz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Behrens, Daphné
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Azoles additively inhibit cytochrome P450 1 (EROD) and 19 (aromatase) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)2018In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 198, p. 73-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antifungal azoles are widely used in medicine, agriculture, and material protection and several antifungal azoles have been found in environmental samples. Although these compounds were designed to inhibit fungal enzymes such as lanosterol-14-demethylase (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 51), it is well established that the inhibitory actions of azoles are not specific for fungal CYP isozymes.

    We refined a gill filament assay to determine the inhibition of CYP1, measured as reduced 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill tissue ex vivo. The advantage of this method is that both induction and inhibition of EROD are performed ex vivo. Among thirteen azoles studied, the five that caused the strongest inhibition of gill EROD activity at a concentration of 5 μM were selected for concentration–response assessment. These compounds (bifonazole, clotrimazole, imazalil, miconazole, and prochloraz) showed IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 μM. CYP19 (aromatase) inhibition was measured using microsomes from rainbow trout brains. Concentration-response curves for CYP19 inhibition were determined for letrozole, bifonazole, clotrimazole, imazalil, miconazole and prochloraz, which gave IC50 values ranging from 0.02 to 3.3 μM. It was further found that mixtures of the five most potent azoles reduced both CYP1 and 19 catalytic activity in an additive fashion (IC50 = 0.7 μM and 0.6 μM, in the respective assay). Bifonazole (IC50 = 0.1 μM) is not previously known to inhibit CYP1 activity.

    The additive inhibition of CYP1 and CYP19 catalytic activity is an important finding of the present study. We conclude that this additive action of azoles could mediate adverse impacts on CYP regulated physiological functions in environmentally exposed fish.

  • 10.
    Berg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology. Avd för ekotoxikologi.
    Blomqvist, Alexandra
    Holm, Lena
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology. Avd för ekotoxikologi.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology. Avd för ekotoxikologi.
    Ridderstråle, Yvonne
    Embryonic exposure to oestrogen causes eggshell thinning and altered shell gland carbonic anhydrase expression in the domestic hen.2004In: Reproduction, ISSN 1470-1626, Vol. 128, no 4, p. 455-61Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Berg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Müllerian Duct Dysgenesis: a common cause for female reproductive disorders2012In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 211, no suppl., p. S184-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Berg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Halldin, Krister
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Effects of bisphenol A and tetrabromobisphenol A on sex organ development in quail and chicken embryos2001In: ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY, ISSN 0730-7268, Vol. 20, no 12, p. 2836-2840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The plastic monomere bisphenol A (BPA) and the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were examined for estrogen-like developmental effects on the reproductive organs in avian embryos. The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) was used as a p

  • 13.
    Berg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Holm, Lena
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Anatomical and histological changes in the oviducts of Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica, after embryonic exposure to ethynyloestradiol2001In: REPRODUCTION, ISSN 1470-1626, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oestrogen is needed for normal oviductal development in female birds, but excessive early exposure to oestrogen can cause oviductal abnormalities and impair egg-laying ability. In this study, the anatomical and histological effects of in ovo exposure to t

  • 14. Blomqvist, Alexandra
    et al.
    Berg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Holm, Lena
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Ridderstråle, Yvonne
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Defective reproductive organ morphology and function in domestic rooster embryonically exposed to o,p'-DDT or ethynylestradiol.2006In: Biol Reprod, ISSN 0006-3363, Vol. 74, no 3, p. 481-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Blomqvist, Alexandra
    et al.
    Holm, Lena
    Berg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Ridderstråle, Yvonne
    Progesterone receptor in the reproductive organs of domestic rooster2004In: Uppsala Journal of Medical Sciences: Abstracts for The 22nd Conference of European Comparative Endocrinologists, 2004, p. 16-Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 16.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Laboratory vs Field Studies to Assess Environmental Hazards and Risks Posed by Pharmaceuticals for Human Use2010In: Towards Sustainable Pharmaceuticals in a Healthy Society: MistraPharma Research / [ed] Christina Rudén, Karin Liljelund, Helene Hagerman, MistraPharma , 2010, p. 72-79Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology. Ekotoxikologi.
    Windows of vulnerability2007In: Reproductive Toxicology in Environmental Research: a report from the ReproSafe-programme, ISSN 0282-7298, Vol. Report 5729Article, review/survey (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 18.
    Brunström, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Axelsson, Jeanette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Halldin, Krister
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Effects of endocrine modulators on sex differentiation in birds.2003In: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, Vol. 12, no 1-4, p. 287-95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Brunström, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Lund, Bert-Ove
    Bergman, Anders
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    Jensen, Sören
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Reproductive toxicity in mink (Mustela vison) chronically exposed to environmentally relevant PCB concentrations.2001In: Environ. Toxicol. Chem., Vol. 20, p. 2318-2327Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Brunström, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Hormones in the Environment and Animal Production - A Public Health Concern?: Proceedings from a symposium at the Ultuna Campus Uppsala, March 13, 20012001Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Brunström, Björn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    ReproSafe; ett svenskt forskningsprogram2003In: Kungliga Skogs- och Lantbruksakademiens Tidskrift, ISSN 0023-5350, Vol. 142, no 12, p. 61-64Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 22.
    Granberg, Lizette
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Formation of benzo[a]pyrene and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene adducts in vascular endothelia of cytochrome P4501A-induced chicken embryos.2003In: Environ Toxicol Chem, ISSN 0730-7268, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 2393-9Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Halldin, K
    et al.
    Berg, C
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, I
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunstrom, B
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Sexual behavior in Japanese quail as a test end point for endocrine disruption: Effects of in Ovo exposure to ethinylestradiol and diethylstilbestrol1999In: ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES, ISSN 0091-6765, Vol. 107, no 11, p. 861-866Article in journal (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemicals having a capacity to disturb the endocrine system have attracted considerable interest during recent years. There is a shortage of well-characterized in vivo tests with which to study such disturbances in different classes of vertebrates. In the

  • 24. Halldin, Krister
    et al.
    Axelsson, Jeanette
    Avd för ekotoxikologi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Avd för ekotoxikologi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Avd för ekotoxikologi. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Developmental toxicity in Japanese quail exposed to hydroxylated metabolites pf PCBs in ovo.2005In: Avian and Poultry Biology Reviews, no 16, p. 11-17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. Halldin, Krister
    et al.
    Axelsson, Jeanette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Effects of endocrine modulators on sexual differentiation and reproductive function in male Japanese quail.2005In: Brain Res Bull, ISSN 0361-9230, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 211-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26. Halldin, Krister
    et al.
    Axelsson, Jeanette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Embryonic co-exposure to methoxychlor and Clophen A50 alters sexual behavior in adult male quail.2005In: Arch Toxicol, ISSN 0340-5761, Vol. 79, no 4, p. 237-42Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. Halldin, Krister
    et al.
    Axelsson, Jeanette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Localization of Estrogen Receptor -alpha and -beta mRNA in the Brain of Embryonic and Adult Japanese Quail2003In: Trabajos del Instituto Cajal, 2003, p. 279-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28. Halldin, Krister
    et al.
    Axelsson, Jeanette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Holmgren, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Localization of estrogen receptor-alpha and -betamRNA in brain areas controlling sexual behavior in Japanese quail.2006In: J Neurobiol, ISSN 0022-3034, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 148-54Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Halldin, Krister
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Berg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Bergman, Åke
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Distribution of bisphenol A and tetrabromobisphenol A in quail eggs, embryos and laying birds and studies on reproduction variables in adults following in ovo exposure2001In: ARCHIVES OF TOXICOLOGY, ISSN 0340-5761, Vol. 75, no 10, p. 597-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous study, we showed that bisphenol A (BPA) had oestrogen-like effects in bird embryos, causing malformations of the oviducts in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and feminisation of the left testis in chicken (Gallus domesticus). In this study

  • 30.
    Halldin, Krister
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Holm, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Ridderstråle, Yvonne
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Reproductive impairment in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) after in ovo exposure to o,p'-DDT.2003In: Arch Toxicol, ISSN 0340-5761, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 116-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Hjalmarsson, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Tooke, Nigel
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Effects of ethinylestradiol on DNA methylation in a 5-prime flanking region of the vitellogenin I gene in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio)2010In: Toxicology letters, 2010, Vol. 196, p. S117-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32. Holm, Lena
    et al.
    Berg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Ridderstråle, Yvonne
    Altered localization of carbonic anhydrase in the quail shell gland following in ovo exposure to ethynylestradiol2001In: Hormones in the Environment and Animal Production - A Public Health Concern?: Proceedings from a symposium at the Ultuna Campus, Uppsala, March 13, 2001, 2001Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 33. Holm, Lena
    et al.
    Berg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Ridderstrale, Yvonne
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Disrupted carbonic anhydrase distribution in the avian shell gland following in ovo exposure to estrogen2001In: ARCHIVES OF TOXICOLOGY, ISSN 0340-5761, Vol. 75, no 6, p. 362-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eggshell thinning among wild birds has been an environmental concern for almost half a century and the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Previously we showed that exposure of quail embryos to ethynylestradiol (EE2) caused disorganizati

  • 34. Holm, Lena
    et al.
    Blomqvist, Alexandra
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Ridderstråle, Yvonne
    Berg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Embryonic exposure to o,p'-DDT causes eggshell thinning and altered shell gland carbonic anhydrase expression in the domestic hen2006In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 2787-2793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism for contaminant-induced eggshell thinning in wild birds remains to be clarified. It is generally assumed, however, that it results from exposure of the adult laying female. We have reported that embryonic exposure to the synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2) results in eggshell thinning in the domestic hen. The objective of this study was to investigate whether eggshell thinning can be induced following in ovo exposure to a bioaccumulating estrogenic environmental contaminant, o,p '-DDT. Ethynylestradiol was used as a positive control. Domestic hens exposed in ovo to o,p '-DDT (37 or 75 mu g/g egg) or EE2 (60 ng/g egg) laid eggs with thinner shells than the control birds. The hens from these exposure groups also had a significantly reduced frequency of shell gland capillaries with carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity, a key enzyme in eggshell formation. The decreased number of capillaries with CA activity suggests that a developmentally induced disruption of CA expression in the shell gland was involved in the eggshell thinning found in this study. Egg laying was not affected in hens exposed embryonically to 37 or 75 mu g o,p '-DDT/g egg, whereas it was inhibited in hens exposed to higher doses. Decreased lengths of the left oviduct and its infundibulum were seen after embryonic treatment with o,p '-DDT or EE2. In addition, o,p '-DDT exposure resulted in right oviduct retention. The results support our hypothesis that eggshell thinning in avian wildlife can result from a functional malformation in the shell gland, induced by embryonic exposure to estrogenic substances.

  • 35.
    Jönsson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Abrahamson, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Cytochrome P4501A induction in rainbow trout gills and liver following exposure to waterborne indigo, benzo(a)pyrene and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl2006In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 226-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a gill-filament based ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay to be used as a tool to monitor cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) induction in caged fish. The present study aimed to compare temporal patterns of EROD induction in gills and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed in the laboratory to readily metabolized and persistent CYP1A inducers, i.e. indigo, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB#126). Branchial and hepatic EROD activities were examined in fish exposed for 6, 12, or 24h and in fish exposed for 24h and then held in clean water for 2 or 14 days. Furthermore, branchial CYP1A protein expression was localized by immunohistochemistry. All compounds strongly induced branchial EROD activity within 6 h. The highest EROD inductions observed for indigo, BaP, and PCB#126 were roughly similar in gills (52-, 76-, and 74-fold), but differed considerably in liver (11-, 78-, and 200-fold). In indigo- and BaP-exposed fish, both hepatic and branchial EROD activities decreased rapidly in clean water. In PCB#126-exposed fish, decreased branchial and increased hepatic EROD activities were observed following transfer to clean water. The substances gave rise to immunostaining for CYP1A at different cellular sites. All inducers increased the CYP1A-immunostaining in the gill filament secondary lamellae, but PCB#126 also induced a pronounced CYP1A immunoreactivity in cells near the basal membrane of the epithelium of the primary lamellae. The observation that the low BaP and indigo concentrations induced EROD activity markedly in the gills but only slightly or not at all in the liver, supports the contention that readily metabolized AhR agonists may escape detection when hepatic EROD activity is used for environmental monitoring. The results show that gill filament EROD activity is a sensitive biomarker both for persistent and readily metabolized AhR agonists in polluted water.

  • 36.
    Jönsson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Abrahamson, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Ingebrigtsen, Kristian
    Jørgensen, Even H
    EROD activity in gill filaments of anadromous and marine fish as a biomarker of dioxin-like pollutants.2003In: Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol, ISSN 1532-0456, Vol. 136, no 3, p. 235-43Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Jönsson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    A gill filament-based EROD assay for monitoring waterborne dioxin-like pollutants in fish.2002In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 36, p. 3340-3344Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Jönsson, Maria E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Mattsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Shaik, Siraz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Toxicity and cytochrome P450 1A mRNA induction by 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) in chicken and Japanese quail embryos2016In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, ISSN 1532-0456, E-ISSN 1878-1659, Vol. 179, p. 125-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tryptophan derivative formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) binds with high ligand affinity to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and is readily degraded by AHR-regulated cytochrome P450 family 1 (CYP1) enzymes. Whether in vivo exposure to FICZ can result in toxic effects has not been examined and the main objective of this study was to determine if FICZ is embryotoxic in birds. We examined toxicity and CYP1 mRNA induction of FICZ in embryos from chicken (Gallus domesticus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) exposed to FICZ (2200 jag kg(-1)) by yolk and air sac injections. FICZ caused liver toxicity, embryo mortality, and CYP1A4 and CYP1A5 induction in both species with similar potency. This is in stark contrast to the very large difference in sensitivity of these species to halogenated AHR agonists. We also exposed chicken embryos to a low dose of FICZ (4 mu g kg(-1)) in combination with a CYP inhibitor, ketoconazole (KCZ). The mixture of FICZ and KCZ was lethal while FICZ alone had no effect at 4 mu g kg(-1). Furthermore, mixed exposure to FICZ and KCZ caused stronger and more long-lasting hepatic CYP1A4 induction than exposure to each compound alone. These findings indicate reduced biotransformation of FICZ by co-treatment with KCZ as a cause for the enhanced effects although additive AHR activation is also possible. To conclude, FICZ is toxic to bird embryos and it seems reasonable that the toxicity by FICZ involves AHR activation. However, the molecular targets and biological events leading to hepatic damage and mortality are unknown.

  • 39.
    Jönsson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Shaik, Siraz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Rannug, Agneta
    Karolinska University, IMM.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Developmental effects of 6-formyl-indolo[3,2-b]carbazole in birds2013In: Toxicology Letters, UK: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 68-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Jönsson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Woodin, Bruce
    Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Stegeman, John
    Biology Department, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Cytochrome P450 1 genes in birds: evolutionary relationships and transcription profiles in chicken and japanese quail embryos2012In: The Toxicologist, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) genes are biomarkers for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists and may be involved in their toxic effects. Susceptibility to AHR-mediated toxicity varies among species; e.g., Japanese quail is less sensitive than chicken to halogenated AHR agonists. CYP1s other than the CYP1As are poorly studied in birds. Here we characterize CYP1B and CYP1C genes in birds and examine mRNA expression of the complete CYP1 complement and AHR1, comparing basal and induced levels in chicken and quail embryos. We cloned cDNAs of chicken CYP1C1 and quail CYP1B1 and AHR1. CYP1Cs occur in several bird genomes, but we found no CYP1C gene in quail. The CYP1C genomic region was found to be highly conserved among many vertebrates. It also shared some synteny with the CYP1Bregion, suggesting CYP1B and CYP1C genes derive from duplication of a common ancestor gene. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed similar tissue distribution patterns for CYP1A4, CYP1A5, CYP1B1, and AHR1 mRNA in chicken and quail embryos, with the highest expression of CYP1As in liver, and of CYP1B1 in eye, brain, and heart. Our results suggest the basal transcript levels are considerably higher for CYP1A in quail than in chicken, but roughly similar for CYP1B1 and AHR1 in the two species. Chicken CYP1C1 was most highly expressed in eye and heart. Tissue distribution of CYP1B and CYP1C transcripts in birds resembles that previously found in zebrafish, which may imply that these genes serve similar functions in diverse vertebrates. 3,3’,4,5,5’-Pentachlorobiphenyl induced all four CYP1s in chicken; in quail a 1000-foldhigher dose induced the CYP1As, but not CYP1B1. The apparent absence of CYP1C1 in quail, and weak expression and induction of CYP1C1 in chicken suggest that CYP1Cs have diminishing roles in tetrapods, which may be met by CYP1B1. Determining catalytic functions of CYP1s in different species should indicate the evolving roles of these duplicated genes in physiological and toxicological processes.

  • 41.
    Jönsson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Woodin, Bruce
    Biology, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Stegeman, John
    Biology, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Cytochrome P450 1 Genes in Birds: Evolutionary Relationships and Transcription Profiles in Chicken and Japanese Quail Embryos2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 12, article id e28257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) genes are biomarkers for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists and may beinvolved in some of their toxic effects. CYP1s other than the CYP1As are poorly studied in birds. Here we characterize avianCYP1B and CYP1C genes and the expression of the identified CYP1 genes and AHR1, comparing basal and induced levels inchicken and quail embryos.

    Methodology/Principal Findings: We cloned cDNAs of chicken CYP1C1 and quail CYP1B1 and AHR1. CYP1Cs occur in severalbird genomes, but we found no CYP1C gene in quail. The CYP1C genomic region is highly conserved among vertebrates.This region also shares some synteny with the CYP1B region, consistent with CYP1B and CYP1C genes deriving fromduplication of a common ancestor gene. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed similar tissue distribution patterns for CYP1A4,CYP1A5, CYP1B1, and AHR1 mRNA in chicken and quail embryos, with the highest basal expression of the CYP1As in liver,and of CYP1B1 in eye, brain, and heart. Chicken CYP1C1 mRNA levels were appreciable in eye and heart but relatively low inother organs. Basal transcript levels of the CYP1As were higher in quail than in chicken, while CYP1B1 levels were similar inthe two species. 3,39,4,5,59-Pentachlorobiphenyl induced all CYP1s in chicken; in quail a 1000-fold higher dose induced theCYP1As, but not CYP1B1.

    Conclusions/Significance: The apparent absence of CYP1C1 in quail, and weak expression and induction of CYP1C1 inchicken suggest that CYP1Cs have diminishing roles in tetrapods; similar tissue expression suggests that such roles may bemet by CYP1B1. Tissue distribution of CYP1B and CYP1C transcripts in birds resembles that previously found in zebrafish,suggesting that these genes serve similar functions in diverse vertebrates. Determining CYP1 catalytic functions in differentspecies should indicate the evolving roles of these duplicated genes in physiological and toxicological processes.

  • 42. Magnusson, Ulf
    et al.
    Brunström, BjörnUppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Reproductive behaviour and environmental pollutants: Proceedings from a symposium in Stockholm, September 15-16, 20052006Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 43. Magnusson, Ulf
    et al.
    Brunström, BjörnUppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology. Ekotoxikologi.
    Reproductive Toxicology in Environmental Research: a report from the ReproSafe-programme2007Collection (editor) (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 44. Magnusson, Ulf
    et al.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Norrgren, Leif
    Fortplantningsstörningar och kemikalier: En kunskapsbakgrund om observerade störningar i naturen2005Other (Other scientific)
  • 45.
    Mattsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology. Ctr Reprod Biol Uppsala CRU, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology. Ctr Reprod Biol Uppsala CRU, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Effects of selective and combined activation of estrogen receptor α and β on reproductive organ development and sexual behaviour in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 7, article id e0180548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excess estrogen exposure of avian embryos perturbs reproductive organ development in both sexes and demasculinizes the reproductive behaviors of adult males. We have previously shown that these characteristic effects on the reproductive organs also can be induced by exposure of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) embryos to selective agonists of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha). In contrast, the male copulatory behavior is only weakly affected by developmental exposure to an ERa agonist. To further elucidate the respective roles of ER alpha and ER beta in estrogen-induced disruption of sexual differentiation, we exposed Japanese quail embryos in ovo to the selective ER alpha agonist 16 alpha-lactone-estradiol (16 alpha LE2), the selective ER beta agonist WAY-200070, or both substances in combination. The ERa agonist feminized the testes in male embryos and reduced cloacal gland size in adult males. Furthermore, anomalous retention and malformations of the Mullerian ducts/oviducts were seen in embryos and juveniles of both sexes. The ER beta agonist did not induce any of these effects and did not influence the action of the ERa agonist. Male copulatory behavior was not affected by embryonic exposure to either the ER alpha-or the ER beta-selective agonist but was slightly suppressed by treatment with the two compounds combined. Our results suggest that the reproductive organs become sexually differentiated consequent to activation of ER alpha by endogenous estrogens; excessive activation of ER alpha, but not ER beta, during embryonic development may disrupt this process. Our results also suggest that the demasculinizing effect of estrogens on male copulatory behavior is only partly mediated by ER alpha and ER beta, and may rather involve other estrogen-responsive pathways.

  • 46.
    Mattsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Halldin, Krister
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Embryonic exposure to an ERalpha-agonist affects reproductive organ development but not copulatory behaviour in Japanese quail2006In: Toxicology Letters 164, Supplement 1, 2006, p. S166-S167Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Mattsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Kärrman, Anna
    Univ Orebro, Sch Sci & Technol, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden..
    Pinto, Rui
    Umea Univ, Chem Dept KBC, Computat Life Sci Cluster CLiC, Umea, Sweden..
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid ( PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 12, article id e0143780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor a (PPAR alpha) and PPAR gamma, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPAR alpha. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting from chemical exposure during embryonic development.

  • 48.
    Mattsson, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Olsson, Jan A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Selective estrogen receptor alpha activation disrupts sex organ differentiation and induces expression of vitellogenin II and very low-density apolipoprotein II in Japanese quail embryos2008In: Reproduction, ISSN 1470-1626, E-ISSN 1476-3990, Vol. 136, no 2, p. 175-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) is a widely used model species for studying the roles of steroid hormones in avian sex differentiation. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the significance of estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ER alpha and ER beta) in normal sex differentiation of the reproductive organs in the Japanese quail and in xenoestrogen-induced disruption of reproductive organ differentiation. Real-time PCR indicated that ER alpha (ESR1) mRNA is expressed in both right and left gonads and Mullerian ducts (MDs) in both sexes during early morphological differentiation. ER beta (ESR2) transcripts were also detected in gonads and MDs, but at very low levels. Both receptor subtypes were expressed in the liver and may therefore mediate the expression of estrogen-regulated egg-yolk proteins. Aromatase mRNA was expressed at much higher levels in female than male gonads as early as embryonic day 5, indicating early sex differences in estrogen synthesis. Treatment with the ER alpha-selective agonist propyl pyrazole triol showed that frequently reported xenoestrogen effects, such as ovotestis formation, abnormal MD development, and hepatic expression of egg-yolk proteins, were induced by selective activation of ER alpha. Taken together, our results suggest that activation of ER alpha is crucial for estrogen-dependent sex differentiation of the reproductive organs and that ER alpha mediates xenoestrogen-induced toxicity during reproductive development in birds.

  • 49. Olsman, Helena
    et al.
    Ghebreab, Kifle
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Berg, Håkan
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Engwall, Magnus
    Olsson, Per-Erik
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Bjerselius, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Exposure to sewage water alters goldfish reproductive behaviour2001In: Hormones in the Environment and Animal Production - A Public Health Concern?: Proceedings from a symposium at the Ultuna Campus, Uppsala, March 13, 2001, 2001Conference paper (Other scientific)
  • 50. Persson, S.
    et al.
    Rotander, A.
    van Bavel, B.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Bäcklin, B. -M
    Magnusson, U.
    Influence of age, season, body condition and geographical area on concentrations of chlorinated and brominated contaminants in wild mink (Neovison vison) in Sweden2013In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 1664-1674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wild mink has gained acceptance as a sentinel species in environmental monitoring. However, only limited data are available in the literature on factors driving variability in concentrations of organic pollutants in this species. This study characterizes the differences in contaminant concentrations in subcutaneous fat of male mink from four different areas in Sweden and demonstrates how age, season and body condition influence concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners (including methoxylated forms, MeO-PBDEs), as well as the pesticides dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), chlordane and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The data were statistically treated using multiple regression and principal component analysis. The ∑PCB concentration and concentrations of PCB congeners 138, 156, 157, 180, 170/190, 189, 194, 206, 209 as well as PBDE 153/154 varied with age. Season had an influence on ∑PCB, PBDE 47 and PBDE 153/154 concentrations, as well as concentrations of most PCB congeners, with the exception of PCB 101, 110, 141 and 182/187. Lean mink had higher concentrations of most PCBs and PBDEs than mink with larger fat depots. The analyzed pesticides (DDE, oxychlordane, HCB) showed no systematic variation with season, age or body condition. The concentrations of MeO-PBDEs were generally low and 6MeO-PBDE 47 was the most commonly detected MeO-PBDE in mink from marine, brackish and freshwater areas. The results indicate that age, season and body condition are factors that may influence the concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs, and it is thus recommended to take these factors into account when analyzing mink exposure data.

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