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  • 1.
    Andersson, Claes R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Fryknäs, Mårten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Rickardson, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Gustafsson, Mats G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signals and Systems Group.
    In vitro drug sensitivity-gene expression correlations involve a tissue of origin dependency2007In: Journal of chemical information and modeling, ISSN 1549-9596, Vol. 47, no 1, 239-248 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major concern of chemogenomics is to associate drug activity with biological variables. Several reports have clustered cell line drug activity profiles as well as drug activity-gene expression correlation profiles and noted that the resulting groupings differ but still reflect mechanism of action. The present paper shows that these discrepancies can be viewed as a weighting of drug-drug distances, the weights depending on which cell lines the two drugs differ in.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Claes R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics.
    Hvidsten, Torgeir R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Mats G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signals and Systems Group.
    Komorowski, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics.
    Revealing cell cycle control by combining model-based detection of periodic expression with novel cis-regulatory descriptors2007In: BMC Systems Biology, ISSN 1752-0509, Vol. 1, 45- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: We address the issue of explaining the presence or absence of phase-specific transcription in budding yeast cultures under different conditions. To this end we use a model-based detector of gene expression periodicity to divide genes into classes depending on their behavior in experiments using different synchronization methods. While computational inference of gene regulatory circuits typically relies on expression similarity (clustering) in order to find classes of potentially co-regulated genes, this method instead takes advantage of known time profile signatures related to the studied process. Results: We explain the regulatory mechanisms of the inferred periodic classes with cis-regulatory descriptors that combine upstream sequence motifs with experimentally determined binding of transcription factors. By systematic statistical analysis we show that periodic classes are best explained by combinations of descriptors rather than single descriptors, and that different combinations correspond to periodic expression in different classes. We also find evidence for additive regulation in that the combinations of cis-regulatory descriptors associated with genes periodically expressed in fewer conditions are frequently subsets of combinations associated with genes periodically expression in more conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that our approach retrieves combinations that are more specific towards known cell-cycle related regulators than the frequently used clustering approach. Conclusion: The results illustrate how a model-based approach to expression analysis may be particularly well suited to detect biologically relevant mechanisms. Our new approach makes it possible to provide more refined hypotheses about regulatory mechanisms of the cell cycle and it can easily be adjusted to reveal regulation of other, non-periodic, cellular processes.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Claes R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Gustafsson, Mats G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signal Processing.
    Bayesian detection of periodic mRNA time profiles withouth use of training examples2006In: BMC Bioinformatics, ISSN 1471-2105, E-ISSN 1471-2105, Vol. 7, 63- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Detection of periodically expressed genes from microarray data without use of known periodic and non-periodic training examples is an important problem, e.g. for identifying genes regulated by the cell-cycle in poorly characterised organisms. Commonly the investigator is only interested in genes expressed at a particular frequency that characterizes the process under study but this frequency is seldom exactly known. Previously proposed detector designs require access to labelled training examples and do not allow systematic incorporation of diffuse prior knowledge available about the period time. RESULTS: A learning-free Bayesian detector that does not rely on labelled training examples and allows incorporation of prior knowledge about the period time is introduced. It is shown to outperform two recently proposed alternative learning-free detectors on simulated data generated with models that are different from the one used for detector design. Results from applying the detector to mRNA expression time profiles from S. cerevisiae showsthat the genes detected as periodically expressed only contain a small fraction of the cell-cycle genes inferred from mutant phenotype. For example, when the probability of false alarm was equal to 7%, only 12% of the cell-cycle genes were detected. The genes detected as periodically expressed were found to have a statistically significant overrepresentation of known cell-cycle regulated sequence motifs. One known sequence motif and 18 putative motifs, previously not associated with periodic expression, were also over represented. CONCLUSION: In comparison with recently proposed alternative learning-free detectors for periodic gene expression, Bayesian inference allows systematic incorporation of diffuse a priori knowledge about, e.g. the period time. This results in relative performance improvements due to increased robustness against errors in the underlying assumptions. Results from applying the detector to mRNA expression time profiles from S. cerevisiae include several new findings that deserve further experimental studies.

  • 4.
    Birgisson, Helgi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Colorectal Surgery.
    Edlund, Karolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Wallin, Ulrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Colorectal Surgery.
    Påhlman, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Colorectal Surgery.
    Kultima, Hanna Göransson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Mayrhofer, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Micke, Patrick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Botling, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Glimelius, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Sundström, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Microsatellite instability and mutations in BRAF and KRAS are significant predictors of disseminated disease in colon cancer2015In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 15, 125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Molecular alterations are well studied in colon cancer, however there is still need for an improved understanding of their prognostic impact. This study aims to characterize colon cancer with regard to KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations, microsatellite instability (MSI), and average DNA copy number, in connection with tumour dissemination and recurrence in patients with colon cancer. Methods: Disease stage II-IV colon cancer patients (n = 121) were selected. KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutation status was assessed by pyrosequencing and MSI was determined by analysis of mononucleotide repeat markers. Genome-wide average DNA copy number and allelic imbalance was evaluated by SNP array analysis. Results: Patients with mutated KRAS were more likely to experience disease dissemination (OR 2.75; 95% CI 1.28-6.04), whereas the opposite was observed for patients with BRAF mutation (OR 0.34; 95% 0.14-0.81) or MSI (OR 0.24; 95% 0.09-0.64). Also in the subset of patients with stage II-III disease, both MSI (OR 0.29; 95% 0.10-0.86) and BRAF mutation (OR 0.32; 95% 0.16-0.91) were related to lower risk of distant recurrence. However, average DNA copy number and PIK3CA mutations were not associated with disease dissemination. Conclusions: The present study revealed that tumour dissemination is less likely to occur in colon cancer patients with MSI and BRAF mutation, whereas the presence of a KRAS mutation increases the likelihood of disseminated disease.

  • 5.
    Björklund, Peyman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Cupisti, Kenko
    Fryknäs, Mårten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Willenberg, H. S.
    Åkerström, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Westin, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Stathmin as a Marker for Malignancy in Pheochromocytomas2010In: Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes, ISSN 0947-7349, E-ISSN 1439-3646, Vol. 118, no 1, 27-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pheochromocytomas of the adrenal medulla may be life-threatening catecholamine-producing tumors which are malignant in about 10% of cases. Differential diagnosis between malignant and benign tumors is dependent on the development of metastasis or extensive local invasion. A number of genetic aberrations have been described in pheochromocytomas, but no marker associated to malignancy has been reported. We applied an expression microarray containing 7770 cDNA clones and analysed the expression profiles in eleven tumors compared to normal adrenal medulla. Stathmin (STMN1, Op18) was most conspiciously overexpressed among the differentially expressed genes. RT-PCR analysis further confirmed mRNA overexpression, 6 to 8-fold for benign and malignant tumors, and 16-fold for metastases. Stathmin protein overexpression was observed by immunohistochemistry, and distinct differential protein expression between benign and malignant/metastasis specimens was confirmed by Western blot analysis. The results introduce stathmin as a possible diagnostic marker for malignant pheochromocytomas, and further evaluations are warranted.

  • 6. Brunberg, E.
    et al.
    Jensen, P.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Keeling, L.
    Feather pecking behavior in laying hens: Hypothalamic gene expression in birds performing and receiving pecks2011In: Poultry Science, ISSN 0032-5791, E-ISSN 1525-3171, Vol. 90, no 6, 1145-1152 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feather pecking (FP) is a welfare and economic problem in the egg production sector. Beak trimming, the current method used to reduce FP, is also criticized. The present study used gene expression to explore the biological mechanisms underlying this behavior, which could lead to a greater understanding of the cause and a tool to mitigate the problem. White Leghorn hens performing and receiving FP, as well as neutral control birds, were identified on a commercial farm. Hypothalamic RNA from 11 peckers, 10 victims, and 10 controls was hybridized onto GeneChip Chicken Genome Arrays (Affymetrix Inc., Santa Clara, CA) to compare gene expression profiles in the different groups. Eleven transcripts corresponding to 10 genes differed significantly between the 3 groups (adjusted P < 0.05). Eight of these transcripts differed in the peckers compared with the controls, 1 was upregulated in the victims compared with the controls, and 6 differed significantly in the peckers compared with the victims. Additionally, 5 transcripts showed a trend (adjusted P < 0.1) to differ in the pecker-victim comparison. Some of the products of the differently expressed genes are involved in disorders, such as intestinal inflammation and insulin resistance, which fit well with the previously proposed hypothesis that FP is an abnormal foraging behavior. Other findings may also support the proposal that FP is linked to immune mechanisms and may serve as an animal model for obsessive compulsive disorder in humans. In conclusion, this study provides a gene list that may be useful in further research on the mechanisms behind FP.

  • 7. Brunberg, E.
    et al.
    Jensen, P.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Keeling, L. J.
    Brain gene expression differences are associated with abnormal tail biting behavior in pigs2013In: Genes, Brain and Behavior, ISSN 1601-1848, E-ISSN 1601-183X, Vol. 12, no 2, 275-281 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about gene expression in animals involved in abnormal behaviors can contribute to the understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. This study aimed to explore the motivational background to tail biting, an abnormal injurious behavior and severe welfare problem in pig production. Affymetrix microarrays were used to investigate gene expression differences in the hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex of pigs performing tail biting, pigs receiving bites to the tail and neutral pigs who were not involved in the behavior. In the hypothalamus, 32 transcripts were differentially expressed (P<0.05) when tail biters were compared with neutral pigs, 130 when comparing receiver pigs with neutrals, and two when tail biters were compared with receivers. In the prefrontal cortex, seven transcripts were differently expressed in tail biters when compared with neutrals, seven in receivers vs. neutrals and none in the tail biters vs. receivers. In total, 19 genes showed a different expression pattern in neutral pigs when compared with both performers and receivers. This implies that the functions of these may provide knowledge about why the neutral pigs are not involved in tail biting behavior as performers or receivers. Among these 19 transcripts were genes associated with production traits in pigs (PDK4), sociality in humans and mice (GTF2I) and novelty seeking in humans (EGF). These are in line with hypotheses linking tail biting with reduced back fat thickness and explorative behavior.

  • 8. Brunberg, Emma
    et al.
    Jensen, Per
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Keeling, Linda J.
    Behavioural and Brain Gene Expression Profiling in Pigs during Tail Biting Outbreaks - Evidence of a Tail Biting Resistant Phenotype2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 6, e66513- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abnormal tail biting behaviour is a major welfare problem for pigs receiving the behaviour, as well as an indication of decreased welfare in the pigs performing it. However, not all pigs in a pen perform or receive tail biting behaviour and it has recently been shown that these 'neutral' pigs not only differ in their behaviour, but also in their gene expression compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen. To investigate whether this difference was linked to the cause or a consequence of them not being involved in the outbreak of tail biting, behaviour and brain gene expression was compared with 'control' pigs housed in pens with no tail biting. It was shown that the pigs housed in control pens performed a wider variety of pig-directed abnormal behaviour (belly nosing 0.95 +/- 1.59, tail in mouth 0.31 +/- 0.60 and 'other' abnormal 1.53 +/- 4.26; mean +/- S.D) compared to the neutral pigs (belly nosing 0.30 +/- 0.62, tail in mouth 0.13 +/- 0.50 and "other" abnormal 0.42 +/- 1.06). With Affymetrix gene expression arrays, 107 transcripts were identified as differently expressed (p < 0.05) between these two categories of pigs. Several of these transcripts had already been shown to be differently expressed in the neutral pigs when they were compared to performers and receivers of tail biting in the same pen in an earlier study. Hence, the different expression of these genes cannot be a consequence of the neutral pigs not being involved in tail biting behaviour, but rather linked to the cause contributing to why they were not involved in tail biting interactions. These neutral pigs seem to have a genetic and behavioural profile that somehow contributes to them being resistant to performing or receiving pig-directed abnormal behaviour, such as tail biting, even when housed in an environment that elicits that behaviour in other pigs.

  • 9.
    Cahill, Nicola
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Bergh, A-C
    Kanduri, M
    Göransson-Kultima, H
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Mansouri, Larry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ryan, F
    Smedby, K E
    Juliusson, G
    Sundström, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Rosén, A
    Rosenquist, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    450K-array analysis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells reveals global DNA methylation to be relatively stable over time and similar in resting and proliferative compartments.2013In: Leukemia, ISSN 0887-6924, E-ISSN 1476-5551, Vol. 27, no 1, 150-158 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), the microenvironment influences gene expression patterns; however, knowledge is limited regarding the extent to which methylation changes with time and exposure to specific microenvironments. Using high-resolution 450K arrays, we provide the most comprehensive DNA methylation study of CLL to date, analyzing paired diagnostic/follow-up samples from IGHV-mutated/untreated and IGHV-unmutated/treated patients (n=36) and patient-matched peripheral blood and lymph node samples (n=20). On an unprecedented scale, we revealed 2239 differentially methylated CpG sites between IGHV-mutated and unmutated patients, with the majority of sites positioned outside annotated CpG islands. Intriguingly, CLL prognostic genes (for example, CLLU1, LPL, ZAP70 and NOTCH1), epigenetic regulator (for example, HDAC9, HDAC4 and DNMT3B), B-cell signaling (for example, IBTK) and numerous TGF-β and NF-κB/TNF pathway genes were alternatively methylated between subgroups. Contrary, DNA methylation over time was deemed rather stable with few recurrent changes noted within subgroups. Although a larger number of non-recurrent changes were identified among IGHV-unmutated relative to mutated cases over time, these equated to a low global change. Similarly, few changes were identified between compartment cases. Altogether, we reveal CLL subgroups to display unique methylation profiles and unveil methylation as relatively stable over time and similar within different CLL compartments, implying aberrant methylation as an early leukemogenic event.

  • 10.
    Crona, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Backman, Samuel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Maharjan, Rajani
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Experimental Surgery.
    Mayrhofer, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Stålberg, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Hellman, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Björklund, Peyman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity Characterizes the Genetic Landscape of Pheochromocytoma and Defines Early Events in Tumorigenesis.2015In: Clinical Cancer Research, ISSN 1078-0432, E-ISSN 1557-3265, Vol. 21, no 19, 4451-4460 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) patients display heterogeneity in the clinical presentation and underlying genetic cause. The degree of inter- and intratumor genetic heterogeneity has not yet been defined.

    EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In PPGLs from 94 patients, we analyzed LOH, copy-number variations, and mutation status of SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, VHL, EPAS1, NF1, RET, TMEM127, MAX, and HRAS using high-density SNP array and targeted deep sequencing, respectively. Genetic heterogeneity was determined through (i) bioinformatics analysis of individual samples that estimated absolute purity and ploidy from SNP array data and (ii) comparison of paired tumor samples that allowed reconstruction of phylogenetic trees.

    RESULTS: Mutations were found in 61% of the tumors and correlated with specific patterns of somatic copy-number aberrations (SCNA) and degree of nontumoral cell admixture. Intratumor genetic heterogeneity was observed in 74 of 136 samples using absolute bioinformatics estimations and in 22 of 24 patients by comparison of paired samples. In addition, a low genetic concordance was observed between paired primary tumors and distant metastases. This allowed for reconstructing the life history of individual tumors, identifying somatic mutations as well as copy-number loss of 3p and 11p (VHL subgroup), 1p (Cluster 2), and 17q (NF1 subgroup) as early events in PPGL tumorigenesis.

    CONCLUSIONS: Genomic landscapes of PPGL are specific to mutation subtype and characterized by genetic heterogeneity both within and between tumor lesions of the same patient.

  • 11.
    Fryknäs, Mårten
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Dhar, Sumeer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Öberg, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Rickardson, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Rydåker, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Göransson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Pettersson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Nygren, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology.
    Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    STAT1 signaling is associated with acquired crossresistance to doxorubicin and radiation in myeloma cell lines2007In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 120, no 1, 189-195 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The myeloma cell line RPMI 8226/S and its doxorubicin resistant subline 8226/Dox40 were used as models to explore the potential importance of the STAT1 signaling pathway in drug and radiation resistance. The 40-fold doxorubicin resistant subline 8226/Dox40 was found to be crossresistant to single doses of 4 and 8 Gy of radiation. A genome-wide mRNA expression study comparing the 8226/Dox40 cell line to its parental line was performed to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms. Seventeen of the top 50 overexpressed genes have previously been implicated in the STAT1 signaling pathway. STAT1 was over expressed both at the mRNA and protein level. Moreover, analyses of nuclear extracts showed higher abundance of phosphorylated STAT1 (Tyr 701) in the resistant subline. Preexposure of the crossresistant cells to the STAT1 inhibiting drug fludarabine reduced expression of overexpressed genes and enhanced the effects of both doxorubicin and radiation. These results show that resistance to doxorubicin and radiation is associated with increased STAT1 signaling and can be modulated by fludarabine. The data support further development of therapies combining fludarabine and radiation.

  • 12.
    Fryknäs, Mårten
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Rickardson, Linda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Wickström, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Dhar, Sumeer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Lövborg, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Gullbo, Joachim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Nygren, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Oncology.
    Gustafsson, Mats G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signal Processing. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Phenotype-based screening of mechanistically annotated compounds in combination with gene expression and pathway analysis identifies candidate drug targets in a human squamous carcinoma cell model2006In: Journal of Biomolecular Screening, ISSN 1087-0571, E-ISSN 1552-454X, Vol. 11, no 5, 457-468 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The squamous cell carcinoma HeLa cell line and an epithelial cell line hTERT-RPE with a nonmalignant phenotype were interrogated for HeLa cell selectivity in response to 1267 annotated compounds representing 56 pharmacological classes. Selective cytotoxic activity was observed for 14 of these compounds dominated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, which tended to span a representation of the chemical descriptor space of the library. The PDE inhibitors induced delayed cell death with features compatible with classical apoptosis. The PDE inhibitors were largely inactive when tested against a cell line panel consisting of hematological and nonsquamous epithelial phenotypes. In a genome-wide DNA microarray analysis, PDE3A and PDE2A were found to be significantly increased in HeLa cells compared to the other cell lines. The pathway analysis software PathwayAssist was subsequently used to extract a list of proteins and small molecules retrieved from Medline abstracts associated with the hit compounds. The resulting list consisted of major parts of the cAMP-protein kinase A pathway linking to ERK, P38, and AKT. This molecular network may provide a basis for further exploitation of novel candidate targets for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma.

  • 13.
    Fryknäs, Mårten
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Wickenberg Bolin, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Göransson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Gustafsson, Mats G
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signal Processing.
    Foukakis, Theodoros
    Lee, Jia-Jing
    Landegren, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Höög, Anders
    Larsson, Catharina
    Grimelius, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Wallin, Göran
    Pettersson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Molecular markers for discrimination of benign and malignant follicular thyroid tumors2006In: Tumor Biology, ISSN 1010-4283, Vol. 27, no 4, 211-220 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Gunnarsson, R.
    et al.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Mansouri, Mahmoud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Göransson, H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Jansson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Cahill, Nicola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Rasmussen, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Staaf, J.
    Lundin, J.
    Norin, S.
    Buhl, A. M.
    Smedby, K. E.
    Hjalgrim, H.
    Karlsson, K.
    Jurlander, J.
    Juliusson, G.
    Rosenquist, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Large but not small copy-number alterations correlate to high-risk genomic aberrations and survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a high-resolution genomic screening of newly diagnosed patients2010In: Leukemia, ISSN 0887-6924, E-ISSN 1476-5551, Vol. 24, no 1, 211-215 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Gunnarsson, Rebeqa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Mansouri, Larry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Göransson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Cahill, Nicola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Jansson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Rasmussen, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lundin, Jeanette
    Norin, Stefan
    Buhl, Anne Mette
    Smedby, Karin Ekstrom
    Hjalgrim, Henrik
    Karlsson, Karin
    Jurlander, Jesper
    Geisler, Christian
    Juliusson, Gunnar
    Rosenquist Brandell, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Array-based genomic screening at diagnosis and during follow-up in chronic lymphocytic leukemia2011In: Haematologica, ISSN 0390-6078, E-ISSN 1592-8721, Vol. 96, no 8, 1161-1169 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    High-resolution genomic microarrays enable simultaneous detection of copy-number aberrations such as the known recurrent aberrations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia [del(11q), del(13q), del(17p) and trisomy 12], and copy-number neutral loss of heterozygosity. Moreover, comparison of genomic profiles from sequential patients' samples allows detection of clonal evolution.

    Design and Methods

    We screened samples from 369 patients with newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia from a population-based cohort using 250K single nucleotide polymorphism-arrays. Clonal evolution was evaluated in 59 follow-up samples obtained after 5-9 years.

    Results

    At diagnosis, copy-number aberrations were identified in 90% of patients; 70% carried known recurrent alterations, including del(13q) (55%), trisomy 12 (10.5%), del(11q) (10%), and del(17p) (4%). Additional recurrent aberrations were detected on chromosomes 2 (1.9%), 4 (1.4%), 8 (1.6%) and 14 (1.6%). Thirteen patients (3.5%) displayed recurrent copy-number neutral loss of heterozygosity on 13q, of whom 11 had concurrent homozygous del(13q). Genomic complexity and large 13q deletions correlated with inferior outcome, while the former was linked to poor-prognostic aberrations. In the follow-up study, clonal evolution developed in 8/24 (33%) patients with unmutated IGHV, and in 4/25 (16%) IGHV-mutated and treated patients. In contrast, untreated patients with mutated IGHV (n=10) did not acquire additional aberrations. The most common secondary event, del(13q), was detected in 6/12 (50%) of all patients with acquired alterations. Interestingly, aberrations on, for example, chromosome 6q, 8p, 9p and 10q developed exclusively in patients with unmutated IGHV.

    Conclusions

    Whole-genome screening revealed a high frequency of genomic aberrations in newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Clonal evolution was associated with other markers of aggressive disease and commonly included the known recurrent aberrations.

  • 16. Gunnarsson, Rebeqa
    et al.
    Staaf, Johan
    Jansson, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Ottesen, Anne Marie
    Göransson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Liljedahl, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ralfkiær, Ulrik
    Mansouri, Mahmoud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Buhl, Anne Mette
    Smedby, Karin Ekström
    Hjalgrim, Henrik
    Syvänen, Ann-Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Borg, Ake
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Jurlander, Jesper
    Juliusson, Gunnar
    Rosenquist, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Screening for copy-number alterations and loss of heterozygosity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia-A comparative study of four differently designed, high resolution microarray platforms2008In: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer, ISSN 1045-2257, E-ISSN 1098-2264, Vol. 47, no 8, 697-711 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Screening for gene copy-number alterations (CNAs) has improved by applying genome-wide microarrays, where SNP arrays also allow analysis of loss of heterozygozity (LOH). We here analyzed 10 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) samples using four different high-resolution platforms: BAC arrays (32K), oligonucleotide arrays (185K, Agilent), and two SNP arrays (250K, Affymetrix and 317K, Illumina). Cross-platform comparison revealed 29 concordantly detected CNAs, including known recurrent alterations, which confirmed that all platforms are powerful tools when screening for large aberrations. However, detection of 32 additional regions present in 2-3 platforms illustrated a discrepancy in detection of small CNAs, which often involved reported copy-number variations. LOH analysis using dChip revealed concordance of mainly large regions, but showed numerous, small nonoverlapping regions and LOH escaping detection. Evaluation of baseline variation and copy-number ratio response showed the best performance for the Agilent platform and confirmed the robustness of BAC arrays. Accordingly, these platforms demonstrated a higher degree of platform-specific CNAs. The SNP arrays displayed higher technical variation, although this was compensated by high density of elements. Affymetrix detected a higher degree of CNAs compared to Illumina, while the latter showed a lower noise level and higher detection rate in the LOH analysis. Large-scale studies of genomic aberrations are now feasible, but new tools for LOH analysis are requested.

  • 17.
    Gustafsson, Mats G.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Wallman, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Wickenberg-Bolin, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Göransson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Fryknäs, Mårten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Andersson, Claes R.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, The Linnaeus Centre for Bioinformatics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Improving Bayesian credibility intervals for classifier error rates using maximum entropy empirical priors2010In: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, ISSN 0933-3657, E-ISSN 1873-2860, Vol. 49, no 2, 93-104 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:

    Successful use of classifiers that learn to make decisions from a set of patient examples require robust methods for performance estimation. Recently many promising approaches for determination of an upper bound for the error rate of a single classifier have been reported but the Bayesian credibility interval (Cl) obtained from a conventional holdout test still delivers one of the tightest bounds. The conventional Bayesian CI becomes unacceptably large in real world applications where the test set sizes are less than a few hundred. The source of this problem is that fact that the Cl is determined exclusively by the result on the test examples. In other words, there is no information at all provided by the uniform prior density distribution employed which reflects complete lack of prior knowledge about the unknown error rate. Therefore, the aim of the study reported here was to study a maximum entropy (ME) based approach to improved prior knowledge and Bayesian CIs, demonstrating its relevance for biomedical research and clinical practice.

    Method and material:

    It is demonstrated how a refined non-uniform prior density distribution can be obtained by means of the ME principle using empirical results from a few designs and tests using non-overlapping sets of examples.

    Results:

    Experimental results show that ME based priors improve the CIs when employed to four quite different simulated and two real world data sets.

    Conclusions:

    An empirically derived ME prior seems promising for improving the Bayesian Cl for the unknown error rate of a designed classifier.

  • 18.
    Göransson, Hanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Edlund, Karolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Rydåker, Maria
    Rasmussen, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Winquist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ekman, Simon
    Bergqvist, Michael
    Thomas, Andrew
    Lambe, Mats
    Rosenquist, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Micke, Patrick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Botling, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Quantification of normal cell fraction and copy number neutral LOH in clinical lung cancer samples using SNP array data2009In: PloS one, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 4, no 6, e6057- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Technologies based on DNA microarrays have the potential to provide detailed information on genomic aberrations in tumor cells. In practice a major obstacle for quantitative detection of aberrations is the heterogeneity of clinical tumor tissue. Since tumor tissue invariably contains genetically normal stromal cells, this may lead to a failure to detect aberrations in the tumor cells. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using SNP array data from 44 non-small cell lung cancer samples we have developed a bioinformatic algorithm that accurately models the fractions of normal and tumor cells in clinical tumor samples. The proportion of normal cells in combination with SNP array data can be used to detect and quantify copy number neutral loss-of-heterozygosity (CNNLOH) in the tumor cells both in crude tumor tissue and in samples enriched for tumor cells by laser capture microdissection. CONCLUSION: Genome-wide quantitative analysis of CNNLOH using the CNNLOH Quantifier method can help to identify recurrent aberrations contributing to tumor development in clinical tumor samples. In addition, SNP-array based analysis of CNNLOH may become important for detection of aberrations that can be used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes.

  • 19.
    Hagberg, Anette
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Olsson-Strömberg, Ulla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Wickenberg-Bolin, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Göransson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Bengtsson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology.
    Höglund, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Simonsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Barbany, Gisela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Gene expression analysis identifies a genetic signature potentially associated with response to alpha-IFN in chronic phase CML patients2007In: Leukemia research: a Forum for Studies on Leukemia and Normal Hemopoiesis, ISSN 0145-2126, E-ISSN 1873-5835, Vol. 31, no 7, 931-938 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microarray-based gene expression analysis was performed on diagnostic chronic phase CML patient samples prior to interferon treatment. Fifteen patient samples corresponding to six cytogenetic responders and nine non-responders were included. Genes differentially expressed between responder and non-responder patients were listed and a subsequent leave-one-out cross validation (LOOV) procedure showed that the top 20 genes allowed the highest prediction accuracy. The relevant genes were quantified by real-time PCR that supported the microarray results. We conclude that it might be possible to use gene expression analysis to predict future response to interferon in CML diagnostic samples.

  • 20.
    Halldorsdottir, Anna Margret
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Kanduri, Meena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Marincevic, Millaray
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Mansouri, Larry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Göransson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Agarwal, Prasoon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Jernberg-Wiklund, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Stamatopoulos, Kostas
    Sander, Birgitta
    Ehrencrona, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Genetics.
    Rosenquist, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Mantle cell lymphoma displays a homogenous methylation profile: A comparative analysis with chronic lymphocytic leukemia2012In: American Journal of Hematology, ISSN 0361-8609, E-ISSN 1096-8652, Vol. 87, no 4, 361-367 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are mature CD5(+) B-cell malignancies with different biological/clinical characteristics. We recently reported an association between different prognostic subgroups of CLL (i.e., IGHV mutated and unmutated) and genomic methylation pattern. However, the relationship between DNA methylation and prognostic markers, such as the proliferation gene expression signature, has not been investigated in MCL. We applied high-resolution methylation microarrays (27,578 CpG sites) to assess the global DNA methylation profiles in 20 MCL (10 each with high/low proliferation signature) and 30 CLL (15 poor-prognostic IGHV unmutated subset #1 and 15 good-prognostic IGHV mutated subset #4) samples. Notably, MCL and each CLL subset displayed distinct genomic methylation profiles. After unsupervised hierarchical clustering, 17/20 MCL cases formed a cluster separate from CLL, while CLL subsets #1 and #4 formed subclusters. Surprisingly, few differentially methylated genes (n = 6) were identified between high vs. low proliferation MCL. In contrast, distinct methylation profiles were demonstrated for MCL and CLL. Importantly, certain functional classes of genes were preferentially methylated in either disease. For instance, developmental genes, in particular homeobox transcription factor genes (e.g., HLXB9, HOXA13), were more highly methylated in MCL, whereas apoptosis-related genes were enriched among targets methylated in CLL (e.g., CYFIP2, NR4A1). Results were validated using pyrosequencing, RQ-PCR and reexpression of specific genes. In summary, the methylation profile of MCL was homogeneous and no correlation with the proliferation signature was observed. Compared to CLL, however, marked differences were discovered such as the preferential methylation of homeobox genes in MCL.

  • 21.
    Halldórsdóttir, Anna M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Sander, Birgitta
    Göransson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Kimby, Eva
    Mansouri, Mahmoud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Rosenquist, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Ehrencrona, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    High-resolution genomic screening in mantle cell lymphoma: specific changes correlate with genomic complexity, the proliferation signature and survival2011In: Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer, ISSN 1045-2257, E-ISSN 1098-2264, Vol. 50, no 2, 113-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by the t(11;14)(q13;q32) and numerous copy number aberrations (CNAs). Recently, gene expression profiling defined a proliferation gene expression signature in MCL where high scores predict shorter survival. We investigated 31 MCL cases using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays and correlated CNA patterns with the proliferation signature and with clinical data. Many recurrent CNAs typical of MCL were detected, including losses at 1p (55%), 8p (29%), 9q (29%), 11q (55%), 13q (42%) and 17p (32%), and gains at 3q (39%), 8q (26%), 15q (23%) and 18q (23%). A novel deleted region at 20q (16%) contained only one candidate gene, ZFP64, a putative tumor suppressor. Unsupervised clustering identified subgroups with different patterns of CNAs, including a subset (19%) characterized by the presence of 11q loss in all cases and by the absence of 13q loss, and 3q and 7p gains. Losses at 1p, 8p, 13q and 17p were associated with increased genomic complexity. High proliferation signature scores correlated with increased number of large (>15 Mbp) CNAs (P = 0.03) as well as copy number gains at 7p (P = 0.02) and losses at 9q (P = 0.04). Furthermore, large/complex 13q losses were associated with improved survival (P < 0.05) as were losses/copy number neutral LOH at 19p13 (P = 0.01). In summary, this high-resolution genomic analysis identified novel aberrations and revealed that several CNAs correlated with genomic complexity, the proliferation status and survival.

  • 22.
    Halldórsdóttir, Anna Margrét
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Kanduri, Meena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Marincevic, Millaray
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Mansouri, Larry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Göransson, H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Agarwal, Prasoon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Jernberg-Wiklund, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Stamatopoulos, K.
    4Hematology Department and HCT Unit, G. Papanicolaou Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Sander, B.
    Ehrencrona, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Genetics.
    Rosenquist, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Mantle Cell Lymphoma is Characterized by a Strikingly Homogenous Methylation Profile: a comparative analysis with chronic lymphocytic leukemia2011In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Hassan, Saadia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Lindhagen, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Göransson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Fryknäs, Mårten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Gali-Muhtasib, Hala
    Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Gene expression signature-based chemcial genomics and activity pattern in a panel of tumour cell lines propose linalyl acetate as a protein kinase/NF-κB inhibitor2008In: Gene Therapy and Molecular Biology, ISSN 1529-9120, Vol. 12, no B, 359-370 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The essential oil of Lebanese sage, Salvia libanotica, was reported to have anti-tumour activity; however, the mechanism of action has not been identified yet. In this study, 14- cancer cell lines including drug-sensitive and resistant lung, leukaemia, and colon, as well as primary human tumours of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and primary normal mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used to characterize the anti-tumour activity and mechanism of action of linalyl acetate, a component of the Lebanese sage essential oil. Drug activity and gene expression data sets were utilized to identify drugs with similar activity patterns and genes involved in drug sensitivity/resistance. In addition, the Connectivity Map, a gene expression signature-based screening approach, assisted in predicting further the molecular action of linalyl acetate. Small cell lung carcinoma and colorectal cancer cell lines were the most sensitive to the drug and greater tumour selectivity was observed against chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells compared to normal mononuclear cells. Only limited effect of some of the classical mechanisms of multi-drug resistance on the activity of Linalyl acetate was noted which makes it potentially interesting for drug-resistant patients. There was high similarity between the activity-pattern/gene expression profile of linalyl acetate and that of protein kinase/NF-kappa B inhibitors. Validating this, linalyl acetate was found to strongly inhibit Janus kinase, JAK3, and p38 alpha kinases in a cell-free assay as well as the NF-kappa B translocation in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our results show that the NF-kappa B inhibitor, linalyl acetate, may represent a new therapeutic compound in the management of inflammation and cancer.

  • 24.
    Hägerstrand, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Oncology/Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Cancer Center Karolinska, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hesselager, Göran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Achterberg, Sefanja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Wickenberg Bolin, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Kowanetz, Marcin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Kastemar, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Nistér, Monica
    Department of Oncology/Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Cancer Center Karolinska, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Östman, Arne
    Department of Oncology/Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Cancer Center Karolinska, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Characterization of an imatinib-sensitive subset of high-grade human glioma cultures2006In: Oncogene, ISSN 0950-9232, E-ISSN 1476-5594, Vol. 25, no 35, 4913-4922 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-grade gliomas, including glioblastomas, are malignant brain tumors for which improved treatment is urgently needed. Genetic studies have demonstrated the existence of biologically distinct subsets. Preliminary studies have indicated that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor signaling contributes to the growth of some of these tumors. In this study, human high-grade glioma primary cultures were analysed for sensitivity to treatment with the PDGF receptor inhibitor imatinib/Glivec/Gleevec/STI571. Six out of 15 cultures displayed more than 40% growth inhibition after imatinib treatment, whereas seven cultures showed less than 20% growth inhibition. In the sensitive cultures, apoptosis contributed to growth inhibition. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor status correlated with imatinib sensitivity. Supervised analyses of gene expression profiles and real-time PCR analyses identified expression of the chemokine CXCL12/SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor 1) as a predictor of imatinib sensitivity. Exogenous addition of CXCL12 to imatinib-insensitive cultures conferred some imatinib sensitivity. Finally, coregulation of CXCL12 and PDGF alpha-receptor was observed in glioblastoma biopsies. We have thus defined the characteristics of a novel imatinib-sensitive subset of glioma cultures, and provided evidence for a functional relationship between imatinib sensitivity and chemokine signaling. These findings will assist in the design and evaluation of clinical trials exploring therapeutic effects of imatinib on malignant brain tumors.

  • 25.
    Isaksson, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Wallman, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Göransson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Mats.G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signals and Systems Group.
    Cross-validation and bootstrapping are unreliable in small sample classification2008In: Pattern Recognition Letters, ISSN 0167-8655, E-ISSN 1872-7344, Vol. 29, no 14, 1960-1965 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in statistical classification for critical applications such as diagnoses of patient samples based on supervised learning is rapidly growing. To gain acceptance in applications where the subsequent decisions have serious consequences, e.g. choice of cancer therapy, any such decision support system must come with a reliable performance estimate. Tailored for small sample problems, cross-validation (CV) and bootstrapping (BTS) have been the most commonly used methods to determine such estimates in virtually all branches of science for the last 20 years. Here, we address the often overlooked fact that the uncertainty in a point estimate obtained with CV and BTS is unknown and quite large for small sample classification problems encountered in biomedical applications and elsewhere. To avoid this fundamental problem of employing CV and BTS, until improved alternatives have been established, we suggest that the final classification performance always should be reported in the form of a Bayesian confidence interval obtained from a simple holdout test or using some other method that yields conservative measures of the uncertainty.

  • 26.
    Kalikstad, Betty
    et al.
    Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, Women & Childrens Clin, Rikshosp, Sognsvannsveien 20, N-0372 Oslo, Norway.;Oslo Univ Hosp, Neonatal Intens Care Unit, Women & Childrens Clin, Rikshosp, N-0372 Oslo, Norway..
    Göransson Kultima, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Andersstuen, Terese Kristoffersen
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Rikshosp, Inst Med Microbiol, Dept Mol Biol, N-0372 Oslo, Norway.;Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Anim & Aquacultural Sci, Ctr Integrat Genet CIGENE, N-1433 As, Norway..
    Klungland, Arne
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Rikshosp, Inst Med Microbiol, Dept Mol Biol, N-0372 Oslo, Norway.;Univ Oslo, Inst Basic Med Sci, Dept Mol Med, N-0372 Oslo, Norway..
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Gene expression profiles in preterm infants on continuous long-term oxygen therapy suggest reduced oxidative stress-dependent signaling during hypoxia2017In: Molecular Medicine Reports, ISSN 1791-2997, E-ISSN 1791-3004, Vol. 15, no 4, 1513-1526 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preterm infants are susceptible to neonatal inflammatory/ infective diseases requiring drug therapy. The present study hypothesized that mRNA expression in the blood may be modulated by signaling pathways during treatment. The current study aimed to explore changes in global gene expression in the blood from preterm infants with the objective of identifying patterns or pathways of potential relevance to drug therapy. The infants involved were selected based on maternal criteria indicating increased risk for therapeutic intervention. Global mRNA expression was measured in 107 longitudinal whole blood samples using Affymetrix Human-Genome-U133 Plus 2.0-arrays; samples were obtained from 20 preterm infants. Unsupervised clustering revealed a distinct homogeneous gene expression pattern in 13 samples derived from seven infants undergoing continuous oxygen therapy. At these sampling times, all but one of the seven infants exhibited severe drops in peripheral capillary saturation levels below 60%. The infants were reoxygenated with 100% inspired oxygen concentration. The other samples ( n= 94) represented the infants from the cohort at time points when they did not undergo continuous oxygen therapy. Comparing these two sets of samples identified a distinct gene expression pattern of 5,986 significantly differentially expressed genes, of which 5,167 genes exhibited reduced expression levels during transient hypoxia. This expression pattern was reversed when the infants became stable, i. e., when they were not continuously oxygenated and had no events of hypoxia. To identify signaling pathways involved in gene regulation, the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery online tool was used. Mitogen-activated protein kinases, which are normally induced by oxidative stress, exhibited reduced gene expression during hypoxia. In addition, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-antioxidant response element target genes involved in oxidative stress protection were also expressed at lower levels, suggesting reduced transcription of this pathway. The findings of the present study suggest that oxidative stress-dependent signaling is reduced during hypoxia. Understanding the molecular response in preterm infants during continuous oxygenation may aid in refining therapeutic strategies for oxygen therapy.

  • 27.
    Kanduri, Meena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Cahill, Nicola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Göransson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Enström, Camilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ryan, Fergus
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Rosenquist, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Differential genome-wide array-based methylation profiles in prognostic subsets of chronic lymphocytic leukemia2010In: Blood, ISSN 0006-4971, E-ISSN 1528-0020, Vol. 115, no 2, 296-305 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global hypomethylation and regional hypermethylation are well-known epigenetic features of cancer; however, in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), studies on genome-wide epigenetic modifications are limited. Here, we analyzed the global methylation profiles in CLL, by applying high-resolution methylation microarrays (27,578 CpG sites) to 23 CLL samples, belonging to the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable (IGHV) mutated (favorable) and IGHV unmutated/IGHV3-21 (poor-prognostic) subsets. Overall, results demonstrated significant differences in methylation patterns between these subgroups. Specifically, in IGHV unmutated CLL, we identified methylation of 7 known or candidate tumor suppressor genes (eg, VHL, ABI3, and IGSF4) as well as 8 unmethylated genes involved in cell proliferation and tumor progression (eg, ADORA3 and PRF1 enhancing the nuclear factor-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, respectively). In contrast, these latter genes were silenced by methylation in IGHV mutated patients. The array data were validated for selected genes using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and bisulfite sequencing. Finally, the significance of DNA methylation in regulating gene promoters was shown by reinducing 4 methylated tumor suppressor genes (eg, VHL and ABI3) in IGHV unmutated samples using the methyl-inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Taken together, our data for the first time reveal differences in global methylation profiles between prognostic subsets of CLL, which may unfold epigenetic silencing mechanisms involved in CLL pathogenesis.

  • 28. Kanduri, Meena
    et al.
    Marincevic, Millaray
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Halldórsdóttir, Anna M
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Mansouri, Larry
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Juvenik, Katarina
    Ntoufa, Stavroula
    Kultima, Hanna Göransson
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Juliusson, Gunnar
    Andersson, Per-Ola
    Ehrencrona, Hans
    Stamatopoulos, Kostas
    Rosenquist Brandell, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Distinct transcriptional control in major immunogenetic subsets of chronic lymphocytic leukemia exhibiting subset-biased global DNA methylation profiles2012In: Epigenetics : official journal of the DNA Methylation Society, ISSN 1559-2308, Vol. 7, no 12, 1435-1442 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) can be divided into prognostic subgroups based on the IGHV gene mutational status, and is further characterized by multiple subsets of cases with quasi-identical or stereotyped B cell receptors that also share clinical and biological features. We recently reported differential DNA methylation profiles in IGHV-mutated and IGHV-unmutated CLL subgroups. For the first time, we here explore the global methylation profiles of stereotyped subsets with different prognosis, by applying high-resolution methylation arrays on CLL samples from three major stereotyped subsets: the poor-prognostic subsets #1 (n = 15) and #2 (n = 9) and the favorable-prognostic subset #4 (n = 15). Overall, the three subsets exhibited significantly different methylation profiles, which only partially overlapped with those observed in our previous study according to IGHV gene mutational status. Specifically, gene ontology analysis of the differentially methylated genes revealed a clear enrichment of genes involved in immune response, such as B cell activation (e.g., CD80, CD86 and IL10), with higher methylation levels in subset #1 than subsets #2 and #4. Accordingly, higher expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 was demonstrated in subset #4 vs. subset #1, pointing to a key role for these molecules in the crosstalk of CLL subset #4 cells with the microenvironment. In summary, investigation of three prototypic, stereotyped CLL subsets revealed distinct DNA methylation profiles for each subset, which suggests subset-biased patterns of transcriptional control and highlights a key role for epigenetics during leukemogenesis.

  • 29.
    Laryea, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Gullbo, Joachim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Nygren, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Oncology.
    Characterization of the cytotoxic properties of the benzimidazole fungicides, benomyl and carbendazim, in human tumour cell lines and primary cultures of patient tumour cells2010In: Anti-Cancer Drugs, ISSN 0959-4973, E-ISSN 1473-5741, Vol. 21, no 1, 33-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The benzimidazoles, benomyl and carbendazim, are fungicides suggested to target microtubules. Benomyl is metabolized to carbendazim, which has already been explored as an anticancer drug in phase 1 clinical trials. We further characterized the cytotoxic properties of benomyl and carbendazim in 12 human cell lines and in primary cultures of patient tumour cells with the overall aims of elucidating mechanisms of action and anticancer activity spectrum. Cytotoxicity was assessed in the short-term fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay and was correlated with the activity of other anticancer drugs and gene expression assessed by cDNA microarray analysis. Benomyl was generally more potent than its metabolite, carbendazim. Both showed high drug activity correlations with several established and experimental anticancer drugs, but modest association with established mechanisms of drug resistance. Furthermore, these benzimidazoles showed high correlations with genes considered relevant for the activity of several mechanistically different standard and experimental anticancer drugs, indicating multiple and broad mechanisms of action. In patient tumour samples, benomyl tended to be more active in haematological compared with solid tumour malignancies, whereas the opposite was observed for carbendazim. In conclusion, benomyl and carbendazim show interesting and diverse cytotoxic mechanisms of action and seem suitable as lead compounds for the development of new anticancer drugs.

  • 30.
    Mandahl, Nils
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden..
    Magnusson, Linda
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden..
    Nilsson, Jenny
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden..
    Viklund, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Arbajian, Elsa
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden..
    von Steyern, Fredrik Vult
    Lund Univ, Dept Orthoped Clin Sci, Lund, Sweden.;Skane Univ Hosp, Lund, Sweden..
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Mertens, Fredrik
    Lund Univ, Dept Lab Med, Div Clin Genet, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden..
    Scattered genomic amplification in dedifferentiated liposarcoma2017In: Molecular Cytogenetics, ISSN 1755-8166, E-ISSN 1755-8166, Vol. 10, 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Atypical lipomatous tumor (ALT), well differentiated liposarcoma (WDLS) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLS) are cytogenetically characterized by near-diploid karyotypes with no or few other aberrations than supernumerary ring or giant marker chromosomes, although DDLS tend to have somewhat more complex rearrangements. In contrast, pleomorphic liposarcomas (PLS) have highly aberrant and heterogeneous karyotypes. The ring and giant marker chromosomes contain discontinuous amplicons, in particular including multiple copies of the target genes CDK4, HMGA2 and MDM2 from 12q, but often also sequences from other chromosomes.

    Results: The present study presents a DDLS with an atypical hypertriploid karyotype without any ring or giant marker chromosomes. SNP array analyses revealed amplification of almost the entire 5p and discontinuous amplicons of 12q including the classical target genes, in particular CDK4. In addition, amplicons from 1q, 3q, 7p, 9p, 11q and 20q, covering from 2 to 14 Mb, were present. FISH analyses showed that sequences from 5p and 12q were scattered, separately or together, over more than 10 chromosomes of varying size. At RNA sequencing, significantly elevated expression, compared to myxoid liposarcomas, was seen for TRIO and AMACR in 5p and of CDK4, HMGA2 and MDM2 in 12q.

    Conclusions: The observed pattern of scattered amplification does not show the characteristics of chromothripsis, but is novel and differs from the well known cytogenetic manifestations of amplification, i. e., double minutes, homogeneously staining regions and ring chromosomes. Possible explanations for this unusual distribution of amplified sequences might be the mechanism of alternative lengthening of telomeres that is frequently active in DDLS and events associated with telomere crisis.

  • 31.
    Mansouri, Larry
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Gunnarsson, Rebeqa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Sutton, Lesley-Ann
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Ameur, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Hooper, Sean D.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Mayrhofer, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Juliusson, Gunnar
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Rosenquist, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Next generation RNA-sequencing in prognostic subsets of chronic lymphocytic leukemia2012In: American Journal of Hematology, ISSN 0361-8609, E-ISSN 1096-8652, Vol. 87, no 7, 737-740 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in next-generation RNA-sequencing have revealed the complexity of transcriptomes by allowing both coding and noncoding (nc) RNAs to be analyzed. However, limited data exist regarding the whole transcriptional landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In this pilot-study, we evaluated RNA-sequencing in CLL by comparing two subsets which carry almost identical or `` stereotyped'' B-cell receptors with distinct clinical outcome, that is the poor-prognostic subset # 1 (n = 4) and the more favorable-prognostic subset # 4 (n = 4). Our analysis revealed that 156 genes (e.g. LPL, WNT9A) and 76 ncRNAs, (e. g. SNORD48, SNORD115) were differentially expressed between the subsets. This technology also enabled us to identify numerous subset-specific splice variants (n = 406), which were predominantly expressed in subset # 1, including a splice-isoform of MSI2 with a novel start exon. A further important application of RNA-sequencing was for mutation detection and revealed 16-30 missense mutations per sample; notably many of these changes were found in genes with a strong potential for involvement in CLL pathogenesis, e. g., ATM and NOTCH2. This study not only demonstrates the effectiveness of RNA-sequencing for identifying mutations, quantifying gene expression and detecting splicing events, but also highlights the potential such global approaches have to significantly advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind CLL development. 

  • 32.
    Marincevic, Millaray
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Mansouri, Mahmoud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Kanduri, Meena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Göransson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Smedby, Karin Ekström
    Jurlander, Jesper
    Juliusson, Gunnar
    Davi, Fred
    Stamatopoulos, Kostas
    Rosenquist, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Distinct gene expression profiles in subsets of chronic lymphocytic leukemia expressing stereotyped IGHV4-34 B cell receptors2010In: Haematologica (online), ISSN 0390-6078, E-ISSN 1592-8721, Vol. 95, no 12, 2072-2079 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Numerous subsets of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia display similar immunoglobulin gene usage with almost identical complementarity determining region 3 sequences. Among IGHV4-34 cases, two such subsets with "stereotyped" B-cell receptors were recently identified, i.e. subset #4 (IGHV4-34/IGKV2-30) and subset #16 (IGHV4-34/IGKV3-20). Subset #4 patients appear to share biological and clinical features, e.g. young age at diagnosis and indolent disease, whereas little is known about subset #16 at a clinical level. DESIGN AND METHODS: We investigated the global gene expression pattern in sorted chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from 25 subset/non-subset IGHV4-34 patients using Affymetrix gene expression arrays. RESULTS: Although generally few differences were found when comparing subset to non-subset 4/16 IGHV4-34 cases, distinct gene expression profiles were revealed for subset #4 versus subset #16. The differentially expressed genes, predominantly with lower expression in subset #4 patients, are involved in important cell regulatory pathways including cell-cycle control, proliferation and immune response, which may partly explain the low-proliferative disease observed in subset #4 patients. Conclusions Our novel data demonstrate distinct gene expression profiles among patients with stereotyped IGHV4-34 B-cell receptors, providing further evidence for biological differences in the pathogenesis of these subsets and underscoring the functional relevance of subset assignment based on B-cell receptor sequence features.

  • 33.
    Mayrhofer, Markus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    DiLorenzo, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Patchwork: allele-specific copy number analysis of whole-genome sequenced tumor tissue2013In: Genome Biology, ISSN 1465-6906, E-ISSN 1474-760X, Vol. 14, no 3, R24- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whole-genome sequencing of tumor tissue has the potential to provide comprehensive characterization of genomic alterations in tumor samples. We present Patchwork, a new bioinformatic tool for allele-specific copy number analysis using whole-genome sequencing data. Patchwork can be used to determine the copy number of homologous sequences throughout the genome, even in aneuploid samples with moderate sequence coverage and tumor cell content. No prior knowledge of average ploidy or tumor cell content is required. Patchwork is freely available as an R package, installable via R-Forge (http://patchwork.r-forge.r-project.org/).

  • 34.
    Mayrhofer, Markus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Kultima, Hanna Göransson
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Birgisson, Helgi
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Colorectal Surgery.
    Sundström, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Mathot, Lucy
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Edlund, Karolina
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science.
    Viklund, Björn
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Sjöblom, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Genomics.
    Botling, Johan
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Micke, Patrick
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Påhlman, Lars
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Colorectal Surgery.
    Glimelius, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Oncology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    1p36 deletion is a marker for tumour dissemination in microsatellite stable stage II-III colon cancer2014In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 14, 872- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The clinical behaviour of colon cancer is heterogeneous. Five-year overall survival is 50-65% with all stages included. Recurring somatic chromosomal alterations have been identified and some have shown potential as markers for dissemination of the tumour, which is responsible for most colon cancer deaths. We investigated 115 selected stage II-IV primary colon cancers for associations between chromosomal alterations and tumour dissemination. Methods: Follow-up was at least 5 years for stage II-III patients without distant recurrence. Affymetrix SNP 6.0 microarrays and allele-specific copy number analysis were used to identify chromosomal alterations. Fisher's exact test was used to associate alterations with tumour dissemination, detected at diagnosis (stage IV) or later as recurrent disease (stage II-III). Results: Loss of 1p36.11-21 was associated with tumour dissemination in microsatellite stable tumours of stage II-IV (odds ratio = 5.5). It was enriched to a similar extent in tumours with distant recurrence within stage II and stage III subgroups, and may therefore be used as a prognostic marker at diagnosis. Loss of 1p36.11-21 relative to average copy number of the genome showed similar prognostic value compared to absolute loss of copies. Therefore, the use of relative loss as a prognostic marker would benefit more patients by applying also to hyperploid cancer genomes. The association with tumour dissemination was supported by independent data from the The Cancer Genome Atlas. Conclusion: Deletions on 1p36 may be used to guide adjuvant treatment decisions in microsatellite stable colon cancer of stages II and III.

  • 35.
    Mayrhofer, Markus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Nobels Vag 12A, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Viklund, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Rawcopy: Improved copy number analysis with Affymetrix arrays2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, 36158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microarray data is subject to noise and systematic variation that negatively affects the resolution of copy number analysis. We describe Rawcopy, an R package for processing of Affymetrix CytoScan HD, CytoScan 750k and SNP 6.0 microarray raw intensities (CEL files). Noise characteristics of a large number of reference samples are used to estimate log ratio and B-allele frequency for total and allele-specific copy number analysis. Rawcopy achieves better signal-to-noise ratio and higher proportion of validated alterations than commonly used free and proprietary alternatives. In addition, Rawcopy visualizes each microarray sample for assessment of technical quality, patient identity and genome-wide absolute copy number states. Software and instructions are available at http://rawcopy.org.

  • 36.
    Melin, Malin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Carlsson, B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Anckarsäter, H.
    Råstam, M.
    Betancur, C.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Gillberg, C.
    Dahl, Niklas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Constitutional downregulation of SEMA5A expression in autism2006In: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 54, no 1, 64-69 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is strong evidence for the importance of genetic factors in idiopathic autism. The results from independent twin and family studies suggest that the disorder is caused by the action of several genes, possibly acting epistatically. We have used cDNA microarray technology for the identification of constitutional changes in the gene expression profile associated with idiopathic autism. Samples were obtained and analyzed from 6 affected subjects belonging to multiplex autism families and from 6 healthy controls. We assessed the expression levels for approximately 7,700 genes by cDNA microarrays using mRNA derived from Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B lymphocytes. The microarray data were analyzed in order to identify up- or downregulation of specific genes. A common pattern with nine downregulated genes was identified among samples derived from individuals with autism when compared to controls. Four of these nine genes encode proteins involved in biological processes associated with brain function or the immune system, and are consequently considered as candidates for genes associated with autism. Quantitative real-time PCR confirms the downregulation of the gene encoding SEMA5A, a protein involved in axonal guidance. Epstein-Barr virus should be considered as a possible source for altered expression, but our consistent results make us suggest SEMA5A as a candidate gene in the etiology of idiopathic autism.

  • 37. Mengelbier, Linda Holmquist
    et al.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Lindgren, David
    Valind, Anders
    Lilljebjorn, Henrik
    Jansson, Caroline
    Bexell, Daniel
    Braekeveldt, Noemie
    Ameur, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Jonson, Tord
    Kultima, Hanna Göransson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Asmundsson, Jurate
    Versteeg, Rogier
    Rissler, Marianne
    Fioretos, Thoas
    Sandstedt, Bengt
    Borjesson, Anna
    Backman, Torbjorn
    Pal, Niklas
    Ora, Ingrid
    Mayrhofer, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Gisselsson, David
    Intratumoral genome diversity parallels progression and predicts outcome in pediatric cancer2015In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 6, 6125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic differences among neoplastic cells within the same tumour have been proposed to drive cancer progression and treatment failure. Whether data on intratumoral diversity can be used to predict clinical outcome remains unclear. We here address this issue by quantifying genetic intratumoral diversity in a set of chemotherapy-treated childhood tumours. By analysis of multiple tumour samples from seven patients we demonstrate intratumoral diversity in all patients analysed after chemotherapy, typically presenting as multiple clones within a single millimetre-sized tumour sample (microdiversity). We show that microdiversity often acts as the foundation for further genome evolution in metastases. In addition, we find that microdiversity predicts poor cancer-specific survival (60%; P = 0.009), independent of other risk factors, in a cohort of 44 patients with chemotherapy-treated childhood kidney cancer. Survival was 100% for patients lacking microdiversity. Thus, intratumoral genetic diversity is common in childhood cancers after chemotherapy and may be an important factor behind treatment failure.

  • 38.
    Micke, Patrick
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Edlund, Karolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Holmberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Göransson Kultima, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Mansouri, Larry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Hematology and Immunology.
    Ekman, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Oncology.
    Bergqvist, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Oncology.
    Scheibenflug, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Lamberg, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Myrdal, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery.
    Berglund, Anders
    Andersson, Annsofie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lambe, Mats
    Nyberg, Fredrik
    Thomas, Andrew
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Botling, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Gene Copy Number Aberrations Are Associated with Survival in Histologic Subgroups of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer2011In: Journal of Thoracic Oncology, ISSN 1556-0864, E-ISSN 1556-1380, Vol. 6, no 11, 1833-1840 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is characterized by a multitude of genetic aberrations with unknown clinical impact. In this study, we aimed to identify gene copy number changes that correlate with clinical outcome in NSCLC. To maximize the chance to identify clinically relevant events, we applied a strategy involving two prognostically extreme patient groups.

    Methods:

    Short-term (<20 month; n = 53) and long-term survivors (>58 month; n = 47) were selected from a clinically well-characterized NSCLC patient cohort with available fresh frozen tumor specimens. The samples were analyzed using high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism array technology to assess gene copy number variations and array-based gene expression profiling. The molecular data were combined with information on clinical parameters.

    Results:

    Genetic aberrations were strongly associated with tumor histology. In adenocarcinoma (n = 50), gene copy number gains on chromosome 8q21-q24.3 (177 genes) were more frequent in long-term than in short-term survivors. In squamous cell carcinoma (n = 28), gains on chromosome 14q23.1-24.3 (133 genes) were associated with shorter survival, whereas losses in a neighboring region, 14q31.1-32.33 (110 genes), correlated with favorable outcome. In accordance with copy number gains and losses, messenger RNA expression levels of corresponding genes were increased or decreased, respectively.

    Conclusion:

    Comprehensive tumor profiling permits the integration of genomic, histologic, and clinical data. We identified gene copy number gains and losses, with corresponding changes in messenger RNA levels that were associated with prognosis in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.

  • 39.
    Milani, Lili
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Gupta, Manu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Andersen, M.
    Dhar, Sumeer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Fryknäs, Mårten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Syvänen, Ann Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine.
    Allelic imbalance in gene expression as a guide to cis-acting regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms in cancer cells2007In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 35, no 5, e34- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the relative expression levels of two SNP alleles of a gene in the same sample is an effective approach for identifying cis-acting regulatory SNPs (rSNPs). In the current study, we established a process for systematic screening for cis-acting rSNPs using experimental detection of AI as an initial approach. We selected 160 expressed candidate genes that are involved in cancer and anticancer drug resistance for analysis of AI in a panel of cell lines that represent different types of cancers and have been well characterized for their response patterns against anticancer drugs. Of these genes, 60 contained heterozygous SNPs in their coding regions, and 41 of the genes displayed imbalanced expression of the two cSNP alleles. Genes that displayed AI were subjected to bioinformatics-assisted identification of rSNPs that alter the strength of transcription factor binding. rSNPs in 15 genes were subjected to electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and in eight of these genes (APC, BCL2, CCND2, MLH1, PARP1, SLIT2, YES1, XRCC1) we identified differential protein binding from a nuclear extract between the SNP alleles. The screening process allowed us to zoom in from 160 candidate genes to eight genes that may contain functional rSNPs in their promoter regions.

  • 40.
    Mondal, Tanmoy
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Rasmussen, Markus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Pandey, Gaurav Kumar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Kanduri, Chandrasekhar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Characterization of the RNA content of chromatin2010In: Genome Research, ISSN 1088-9051, E-ISSN 1549-5469, Vol. 20, no 7, 899-907 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noncoding RNA (ncRNA) constitutes a significant portion of the mammalian transcriptome. Emerging evidence suggests that it regulates gene expression in cis or trans by modulating the chromatin structure. To uncover the functional role of ncRNA in chromatin organization, we deep sequenced chromatin-associated RNAs (CARs) from human fibroblast (HF) cells. This resulted in the identification of 141 intronic regions and 74 intergenic regions harboring CARs. The intronic and intergenic CARs show significant conservation across 44 species of placental mammals. Functional characterization of one of the intergenic CARs, Intergenic10, revealed that it regulates gene expression of neighboring genes through modulating the chromatin structure in cis. Our data suggest that ncRNA is an integral component of chromatin and that it may regulate various biological functions through fine-tuning of the chromatin architecture.

  • 41.
    Rasmussen, Markus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sundström, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Kultima, Hanna Göransson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Botling, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Micke, Patrick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Birgisson, Helgi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Colorectal Surgery.
    Glimelius, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Oncology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Allele-specific copy number analysis of tumor samples with aneuploidy and tumor heterogeneity2011In: Genome Biology, ISSN 1465-6906, E-ISSN 1474-760X, Vol. 12, no 10, R108- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a bioinformatic tool, Tumor Aberration Prediction Suite (TAPS), for the identification of allele-specific copy numbers in tumor samples using data from Affymetrix SNP arrays. It includes detailed visualization of genomic segment characteristics and iterative pattern recognition for copy number identification, and does not require patient-matched normal samples. TAPS can be used to identify chromosomal aberrations with high sensitivity even when the proportion of tumor cells is as low as 30%. Analysis of cancer samples indicates that TAPS is well suited to investigate samples with aneuploidy and tumor heterogeneity, which is commonly found in many types of solid tumors.

  • 42.
    Rickardson, Linda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signal Processing.
    Fryknäs, Mårten
    Department of Genetics and Pathology. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signal Processing.
    Dhar, Sumeer
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signal Processing.
    Lövborg, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signal Processing.
    Gullbo, Joachim
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signal Processing.
    Rydåker, Maria
    Department of Genetics and Pathology. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signal Processing.
    Nygren, Peter
    Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signal Processing.
    Gustafsson, Mats G
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Department of Genetics and Pathology. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signal Processing. Signals and systems.
    Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signal Processing.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Department of Genetics and Pathology. Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signal Processing.
    Identification of molecular mechanisms for cellular drug resistance by combining drug activity and gene expression profiles2005In: British Journal of Cancer, Vol. 93, no 4, 483-492 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Rickardson, Linda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Fryknäs, Mårten
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Haglund, Caroline
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Lövborg, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Nygren, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Signal Processing.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Larsson, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Screening of an annotated compound library for drug activity in a resistant myeloma cell line2006In: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, ISSN 0344-5704, E-ISSN 1432-0843, Vol. 58, no 6, 749-758 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Resistance to anticancer drugs is a major problem in chemotherapy. In order to identify drugs with selective cytotoxic activity in drug-resistant cancer cells, the annotated compound library LOPAC(1280), containing compounds from 56 pharmacological classes, was screened in the myeloma cell line RPMI 8226 and its doxorubicin-resistant subline 8226/Dox40. Methods: Cell survival was measured by the Fluorometric Microculture Cytotoxicity Assay. Results: Selective cytotoxic activity in 8226/Dox40 was obtained for 33 compounds, with the most pronounced difference observed for the glucocorticoids. A microarray analysis of the cells showed a difference in mRNA-expression for the glucocorticoid receptor suggesting potential mechanisms for the difference in glucocorticoid sensitivity. In the presence of the glucocorticoid-receptor antagonist RU486, the sensitivity to the glucocorticoids was reduced and a similar effect level in RPMI 8226 and 8226/Dox40 was achieved. Conclusion: In conclusion, screening of mechanistically annotated compounds on drug-resistant cancer cells can identify compounds with selective activity and provide a basis for the development of novel treatments of drug-resistant malignancies.

  • 44.
    Ronquist, Göran K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Ronquist, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hreinsson, Julius
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Carlsson, Lena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Stavreus-Evers, Anneli
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Prostasomal DNA Characterization and Transfer Into Human Sperm2011In: Molecular Reproduction and Development, ISSN 1040-452X, E-ISSN 1098-2795, Vol. 78, no 7, 467-476 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human prostasomes, exosome-like microvesicles secreted by acinar cells of the prostate gland, contain chromosomal DNA. Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA from seminal prostasomes displayed fragments of over 12 kb and smaller, with a distinct band around 1 kb that was excised, cloned, and sequenced. The sequences showed 8 out of 25 clones (32%) originating from genes. We elaborated the concept further by carrying out a genome-wide DNA copy number analysis of prostasomal DNA, hypothesizing that human prostasomes contain fragments of DNA randomly selected from the entire genome. Acridine orange-stained prostasomes were incubated with freshly prepared sperm for different times, and a transfer of acridine orange-stained prostasomal DNA to sperm (preferentially the head region) was observed. Fluorescence microscopy of slices in the center of 14 optical slides of the sperm head displayed an even fluorescence rather than a halo-like one, indicating DNA-uptake rather than just binding along the sperm head membrane.

  • 45. Schmidt, Marcus
    et al.
    Hellwig, Birte
    Hammad, Seddik
    Othman, Amnah
    Lohr, Miriam
    Chen, Zonglin
    Böhm, Daniel
    Gebhard, Susanne
    Petry, Ilka Brigitte
    Lebrecht, Antje
    Cadenas, Cristina
    Marchan, Rosemarie
    Stewart, Joanna
    Solbach, Christine
    Holmberg, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery.
    Edlund, Karolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Göransson Kultima, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Rody, Achim
    Berglund, Anders
    Lambe, Mats
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Botling, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Karn, Thomas
    Müller, Volkmar
    Gerhold-Ay, Aslihan
    Cotarelo, Christina
    Sebastian, Martin
    Kronenwett, Ralf
    Bojar, Hans
    Lehr, Hans-Anton
    Sahin, Ugur
    Koelbl, Heinz
    Gehrmann, Mathias
    Micke, Patrick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Rahnenführer, Jörg
    Hengstler, Jan G
    A comprehensive analysis of human gene expression profiles identifies stromal immunoglobulin kappa C as a compatible prognostic marker in human solid tumors2012In: Clinical Cancer Research, ISSN 1078-0432, E-ISSN 1557-3265, Vol. 18, no 9, 2695-2703 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    Although the central role of the immune system for tumor prognosis is generally accepted a single robust marker is not yet available.

    EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:

    Based on ROC (receiver operating characteristic) analyses robust markers were identified from a 60 gene B-cell derived metagene and analyzed in gene expression profiles of 1810 breast cancer, 1056 non-small cell lung cancer, 513 colorectal and 426 ovarian cancer patients. Protein and RNA levels were examined in paraffin embedded tissue of 330 breast cancer patients. The cell types were identified using immunohistochemical co-staining and confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    RESULTS:

    We identified immunoglobulin kappa C (IGKC) which as a single marker is similarly predictive and prognostic as the entire B-cell metagene. IGKC was consistently associated with metastasis free survival across different molecular subtypes in node-negative breast cancer (n=965) and predicted response to anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n=845) [P less than 0.001]. In addition, IGKC gene expression was prognostic in non-small cell lung cancer and colorectal cancer. No association was observed in ovarian cancer. IGKC protein expression was significantly associated with survival in paraffin embedded tissues of 330 breast cancer patients. Tumor infiltrating plasma cells were identified as the source of IGKC expression

    CONCLUSION:

    Our findings provide IGKC as a novel diagnostic marker for risk stratification in human cancer and support concepts to exploit the humoral immune response for anti-cancer therapy. It could be validated in several independent cohorts and performed similarly well in RNA from fresh frozen as well as from paraffin tissue and on protein level by immunostaining.

  • 46.
    Skírnisdóttir, Ingiridur
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Mayrhofer, Markus
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Rydåker, Maria
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Åkerud, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Loss-of-heterozygosity on chromosome 19q in early-stage serous ovarian cancer is associated with recurrent disease2012In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 12, 407- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease and prognosis for apparently similar cases of ovarian cancer varies. Recurrence of the disease in early stage (FIGO-stages I-II) serous ovarian cancer results in survival that is comparable to those with recurrent advanced-stage disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are specific genomic aberrations that may explain recurrence and clinical outcome.

    METHODS:

    Fifty-one women with early stage serous ovarian cancer were included in the study. DNA was extracted from formalin fixed samples containing tumor cells from ovarian tumors. Tumor samples from thirty-seven patients were analysed for allele-specific copy numbers using OncoScan single nucleotide polymorphism arrays from Affymetrix and the bioinformatic tool Tumor Aberration Prediction Suite. Genomic gains, losses, and loss-of-heterozygosity that associated with recurrent disease were identified.

    RESULTS:

    The most significant differences (p < 0.01) in Loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) were identified in two relatively small regions of chromosome 19; 8.0-8,8 Mbp (19 genes) and 51.5-53.0 Mbp (37 genes). Thus, 56 genes on chromosome 19 were potential candidate genes associated with clinical outcome. LOH at 19q (51-56 Mbp) was associated with shorter disease-free survival and was an independent prognostic factor for survival in a multivariate Cox regression analysis. In particular LOH on chromosome 19q (51-56 Mbp) was significantly (p < 0.01) associated with loss of TP53 function.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The results of our study indicate that presence of two aberrations in TP53 on 17p and LOH on 19q in early stage serous ovarian cancer is associated with recurrent disease. Further studies related to the findings of chromosomes 17 and 19 are needed to elucidate the molecular mechanism behind the recurring genomic aberrations and the poor clinical outcome.

  • 47.
    Soeria-Atmadja, Daniel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Wallman, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Björklund, Åsa K.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Hammerling, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    Gustafsson, Mats G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacology.
    External cross-validation for unbiased evaluation of protein family detectors: application to allergens2005In: Proteins, ISSN 0887-3585, Vol. 61, no 4, 918-925 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key issues in protein science and computational biology are design and evaluation of algorithms aimed at detection of proteins that belong to a specific family, as defined by structural, evolutionary, or functional criteria. In this context, several validation techniques are often used to compare different parameter settings of the detector, and to subsequently select the setting that yields the smallest error rate estimate. A frequently overlooked problem associated with this approach is that this smallest error rate estimate may have a large optimistic bias. Based on computer simulations, we show that a detector's error rate estimate can be overly optimistic and propose a method to obtain unbiased performance estimates of a detector design procedure. The method is founded on an external 10-fold cross-validation (CV) loop that embeds an internal validation procedure used for parameter selection in detector design. The designed detector generated in each of the 10 iterations are evaluated on held-out examples exclusively available in the external CV iterations. Notably, the average of these 10 performance estimates is not associated with a final detector, but rather with the average performance of the design procedure used. We apply the external CV loop to the particular problem of detecting potentially allergenic proteins, using a previously reported design procedure. Unbiased performance estimates of the allergen detector design procedure are presented together with information about which algorithms and parameter settings that are most frequently selected.

  • 48.
    Sooman, Linda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Oncology.
    Ekman, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Oncology.
    Andersson, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Oncology.
    Göransson-Kultima, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Bergqvist, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Oncology.
    Blomquist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Oncology.
    Lennartsson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Gullbo, Joachim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Synergistic Effects of PI3K or P38 MAPK Inhibition in Combination With Vandetanib Treatment in Glioblastoma Cells2012In: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 48, no S5, S244-S244 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Sooman, Linda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Oncology.
    Ekman, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Oncology.
    Andersson, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine.
    Kultima, Hanna Göransson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Oncology.
    Bergqvist, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Oncology.
    Blomquist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Oncology.
    Lennartsson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
    Gullbo, Joachim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cancer Pharmacology and Computational Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Oncology.
    Synergistic interactions between camptothecin and EGFR or RAC1 inhibitors and between imatinib and Notch signaling or RAC1 inhibitors in glioblastoma cell lines2013In: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, ISSN 0344-5704, E-ISSN 1432-0843, Vol. 72, no 2, 329-340 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current treatment strategies for glioblastoma have limited health and survival benefits for the patients. A common obstacle in the treatment is chemoresistance. A possible strategy to evade this problem may be to combine chemotherapeutic drugs with agents inhibiting resistance mechanisms. The aim with this study was to identify molecular pathways influencing drug resistance in glioblastoma-derived cells and to evaluate the potential of pharmacological interference with these pathways to identify synergistic drug combinations. Global gene expressions and drug sensitivities to three chemotherapeutic drugs (imatinib, camptothecin and temozolomide) were measured in six human glioblastoma-derived cell lines. Gene expressions that correlated to drug sensitivity or resistance were identified and mapped to specific pathways. Selective inhibitors of these pathways were identified. The effects of six combinations of inhibitors and chemotherapeutic drugs were evaluated in glioblastoma-derived cell lines. Drug combinations with synergistic effects were also evaluated in non-cancerous epithelial cells. Four drug combinations had synergistic effects in at least one of the tested glioblastoma-derived cell lines; camptothecin combined with gefitinib (epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor) or NSC 23766 (ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 inhibitor) and imatinib combined with DAPT (Notch signaling inhibitor) or NSC 23766. Of these, imatinib combined with DAPT or NSC 23766 did not have synergistic effects in non-cancerous epithelial cells. Two drug combinations had at least additive effects in one of the tested glioblastoma-derived cell lines; temozolomide combined with gefitinib or PF-573228 (focal adhesion kinase inhibitor). Four synergistic and two at least additive drug combinations were identified in glioblastoma-derived cells. Pathways targeted by these drug combinations may serve as targets for future drug development with the potential to increase efficacy of currently used/evaluated chemotherapy.

  • 50. Staaf, Johan
    et al.
    Lindgren, David
    Vallon-Christersson, Johan
    Isaksson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Göransson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Juliusson, Gunnar
    Rosenquist, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Höglund, Mattias
    Borg, Ake
    Ringnér, Markus
    Segmentation-based detection of allelic imbalance and loss-of-heterozygosity in cancer cells using whole genome SNP arrays.2008In: Genome biology, ISSN 1465-6914, Vol. 9, no 9, R136- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a strategy for detection of loss-of-heterozygosity and allelic imbalance in cancer cells from whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping data. Using a dilution series of a tumor cell line mixed with its paired normal cell line and data generated on Affymetrix and Illumina platforms, including paired tumor-normal samples and tumors characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization, we demonstrate a high sensitivity and specificity of the strategy for detecting both minute and gross allelic imbalances in heterogeneous tumor samples.

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