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  • 1.
    Adibekyan, V.
    et al.
    Univ Porto, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, CAUP, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Oporto, Portugal..
    Delgado-Mena, E.
    Univ Porto, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, CAUP, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Oporto, Portugal..
    Feltzing, S.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund, Sweden..
    Gonzalez Hernandez, J. I.
    Inst Astrofis Canarias, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife, Spain..
    Hinkel, N. R.
    Arizona State Univ, Sch Earth & Space Explorat, Tempe, AZ USA.;Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Nashville, TN 37235 USA..
    Korn, Andreas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Asplund, M.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Weston, ACT, Australia..
    Beck, P. G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Ctr Saclay, Lab AIM, CEA,DRF,CNRS,IRFU,SAp, Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Deal, M.
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, LUPM, UMR 5299, Montpellier, France.;CNRS, IRAP, Toulouse, France..
    Gustafsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. NORDITA, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Honda, S.
    Univ Hyogo, Ctr Astron, Nishi Harima Astron Observ, Sayo, Hyogo, Japan..
    Lind, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Max Planck Inst Astron, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Nissen, P. E.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Spina, L.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Astron IAG, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Sun-like stars unlike the Sun: Clues for chemical anomalies of cool stars2017In: Astronomical Notes - Astronomische Nachrichten, ISSN 0004-6337, E-ISSN 1521-3994, Vol. 338, no 4, p. 442-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a summary of the splinter session Sun-like stars unlike the Sun that was held on June 9, 2016, as part of the Cool Stars 19 conference (Uppsala, Sweden), in which the main limitations (in the theory and observations) in the derivation of very precise stellar parameters and chemical abundances of Sun-like stars were discussed. The most important and most debated processes that can produce chemical peculiarities in solar-type stars were outlined and discussed. Finally, in an open discussion between all the participants, we tried to identify new pathways and prospects toward future solutions of the currently open questions.

  • 2.
    Andrae, Rene
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Fouesneau, Morgan
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Creevey, Orlagh
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Ordenovic, Christophe
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Mary, Nicolas
    Thales Serv, 290 Allee Lac, F-31670 Labege, France.
    Burlacu, Alexandru
    Telespazio France, 26 Ave Jean Francois Champollion, F-31100 Toulouse, France.
    Chaoul, Laurence
    Ctr Natl Etud Spatiales, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse, France.
    Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, Anne
    Ctr Natl Etud Spatiales, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse, France.
    Kordopatis, Georges
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Lebreton, Yveline
    Univ Rennes 1, Inst Phys Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6251, F-35042 Rennes, France;Univ Paris Diderot, LESIA, Observ Paris, PSL Res Univ,CNRS,UMR 8109,Univ Pierre & Marie Cu, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Panem, Chantal
    Ctr Natl Etud Spatiales, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse, France.
    Pichon, Bernard
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Thevenin, Frederic
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Walmsley, Gavin
    Ctr Natl Etud Spatiales, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse, France.
    Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    First stellar parameters from Apsis2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 616, article id A8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The second Gaia data release (Gaia DR2) contains, beyond the astrometry, three-band photometry for 1.38 billion sources. One band is the G band, the other two were obtained by integrating the Gaia prism spectra (BP and RP). We have used these three broad photometric bands to infer stellar effective temperatures, T-eff, for all sources brighter than G = 17 mag with T-eff in the range 3000-10 000K (some 161 million sources). Using in addition the parallaxes, we infer the line-of-sight extinction, A(G), and the reddening, E(BP-RP), for 88 million sources. Together with a bolometric correction we derive luminosity and radius for 77 million sources. These quantities as well as their estimated uncertainties are part of Gaia DR2. Here we describe the procedures by which these quantities were obtained, including the underlying assumptions, comparison with literature estimates, and the limitations of our results. Typical accuracies are of order 324K (T-eff), 0.46 mag (A(G)), 0.23 mag (E(BP-RP)), 15% (luminosity), and 10% (radius). Being based on only a small number of observable quantities and limited training data, our results are necessarily subject to some extreme assumptions that can lead to strong systematics in some cases (not included in the aforementioned accuracy estimates). One aspect is the non-negativity contraint of our estimates, in particular extinction, which we discuss. Yet in several regions of parameter space our results show very good performance, for example for red clump stars and solar analogues. Large uncertainties render the extinctions less useful at the individual star level, but they show good performance for ensemble estimates. We identify regimes in which our parameters should and should not be used and we define a "clean" sample. Despite the limitations, this is the largest catalogue of uniformly-inferred stellar parameters to date. More precise and detailed astrophysical parameters based on the full BP/RP spectrophotometry are planned as part of the third Gaia data release.

  • 3.
    Babusiaux, C.
    et al.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France;Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    van Leeuwen, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Barstow, M. A.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Jordi, C.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Vallenari, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Bossini, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy.
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy;Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    van Leeuwen, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Brown, A. G. A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Prusti, T.
    ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    de Bruijne, J. H. J.
    ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Biermann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Evans, D. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Eyer, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jansen, F.
    ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Operat Dept, Miss Operat Div, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Klioner, S. A.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Lammers, U.
    ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Lindegren, L.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Luri, X.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Mignard, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Panem, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Pourbaix, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium;FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.
    Randich, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Sartoretti, P.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Siddiqui, H. I.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Soubiran, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Walton, N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Arenou, F.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Bastian, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Cropper, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Drimmel, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Katz, D.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Lattanzi, M. G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Bakker, J.
    ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Cacciari, C.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Castaneda, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Chaoul, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Cheek, N.
    ESA ESAC, Serco Gest Negocios, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    De Angeli, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Fabricius, C.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Guerra, R.
    ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Holl, B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Masana, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Mowlavi, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Panuzzo, P.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Portell, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Riello, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Tanga, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Thevenin, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Gracia-Abril, G.
    ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Comoretto, G.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Garcia-Reinaldos, M.
    ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Teyssier, D.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Altmann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany;Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Andrae, R.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Audard, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Benson, K.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Berthier, J.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Blomme, R.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Burgess, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Busso, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Carry, B.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cellino, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Clementini, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Clotet, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Creevey, O.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Davidson, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    De Ridder, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Delchambre, L.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Dell'Oro, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Ducourant, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Fernandez-Hernandez, J.
    ESA ESAC, ATG Europe, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Fremat, Y.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Galluccio, L.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Garcia-Torres, M.
    Univ Pablo Olavide, Area Lenguajes Sistemas Informat, Ctr Utrera,Km 1, Seville 41013, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Nunez, J.
    ESA ESAC, Serco Gest Negocios, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;Univ Vigo, ETSE Telecomun, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo 36310, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Vidal, J. J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Gosset, E.
    FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Guy, L. P.
    Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Halbwachs, J. -L
    Hambly, N. C.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Harrison, D. L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Cambridge, Kavli Inst Cosmol, Madingley Rd, Cambride CB3 0HA, England.
    Hernandez, J.
    ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hestroffer, D.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Hodgkin, S. T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Hutton, A.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Jasniewicz, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France.
    Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Jordan, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Krone-Martins, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Sez Astrofis, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy;INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lebzelter, T.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Loeffler, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Manteiga, M.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Astron & Astrophys, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain;Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Marrese, P. M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Martin-Fleitas, J. M.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Mora, A.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Muinonen, K.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland;Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland.
    Osinde, J.
    ESA ESAC, Isdefe, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Pancino, E.
    ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Petit, J. -M
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Richards, P. J.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Harwell OX11 0QX, Didcot, England.
    Rimoldini, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Robin, A. C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, CNRS, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Sarro, L. M.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Siopis, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Smith, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Sozzetti, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Sueveges, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Torra, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    van Reeven, W.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Abbas, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Abreu Aramburu, A.
    ESA ESAC, Elecnor Deimos Space, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy;Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Accart, S.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Aerts, C.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Altavilla, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy;INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Alvarez, M. A.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Alvarez, R.
    ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Alves, J.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Anderson, R. I.
    European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Andrei, A. H.
    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France;ON MCTI BR, Rua Gal Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil;OV UFRJ BR, Ladeira Pedro Antonio 43, BR-20080090 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Anglada Varela, E.
    ESA ESAC, ATG Europe, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Antiche, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Antoja, T.
    ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands;Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Arcay, B.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Astraatmadja, T. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany;Carnegie Inst Sci, Dept Terr Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Rd,NW, Washington, DC 20015 USA.
    Bach, N.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Baker, S. G.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Balaguer-Nunez, L.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Balm, P.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Barache, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Barata, C.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Barbato, D.
    Univ Torino, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Barblan, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Barklem, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Barrado, D.
    ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Ctr Astrobiol, CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Barros, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Bartholome Munoz, S.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Bassilana, J. -L
    Becciani, U.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bellazzini, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Berihuete, A.
    Univ Cadiz, Dept Estadist, Calle Republica Arabe Saharawi S-N, Puerto Real 11510, Spain;Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany;Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Bertones, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy;Bern Univ, Astron Inst, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland.
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX Srl, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 2 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy.
    Bienayme, O.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA;Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Boch, T.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Boeche, C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Bombrun, A.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Borrachero, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Bouquillon, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Bourda, G.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Bramante, L.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Breddels, M. A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Brouillet, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Bruesemeister, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Brugaletta, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bucciarelli, B.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Burlacu, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Busonero, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Butkevich, A. G.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Buzzi, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Caffau, E.
    Cancelliere, R.
    Univ Turin, Dept Comp Sci, Corso Svizzera 185, I-10149 Turin, Italy.
    Cannizzaro, G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;SRON, Netherlands Inst Space Res, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584CA Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Carballo, R.
    Univ Cantabria, Dept Matemat Aplicada & Ciencias Comp, ETS Ingenieros Caminos Canales & Puertos, Avda Castros S-N, E-39005 Santander, Spain.
    Carlucci, T.
    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Carrasco, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Casamiquela, L.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Castellani, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy.
    Castro-Ginard, A.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Charlot, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Chemin, L.
    Univ Antofagasta, Unidad Astron, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile.
    Chiavassa, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cocozza, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Costigan, G.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Cowell, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Crifo, F.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Crosta, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Crowley, C.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Cuypers, J.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Dafonte, C.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Damerdji, Y.
    CRAAG, Route Observ Bp 63, Algiers 16340, Algeria;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Dapergolas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece.
    David, P.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    David, M.
    Univ Antwerp, Onderzoeksgroep Toegepaste Wiskunde, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium.
    de laverny, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    De Luise, F.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    De March, R.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    de Martino, D.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    de Souza, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    de Torres, A.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Debosscher, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    del Pozo, E.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Delbo, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Delgado, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Delgado, H. E.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Diakite, S.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, CNRS, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Diener, C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Distefano, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Dolding, C.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Drazinos, P.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Duran, J.
    ESA ESAC, Isdefe, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Edvardsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Enke, H.
    AIP, Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Esquej, P.
    ESA ESAC, RHEA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Bontemps, G. Eynard
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fabre, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, ATOS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fabrizio, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Faigler, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Falcao, A. J.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Casas, M. Farras
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Federici, L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Fedorets, G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Fernique, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astron Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Figueras, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Filippi, F.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Findeisen, K.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Fonti, A.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Fraile, E.
    ESA ESAC, RHEA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fraser, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, OBrien Ctr Sci North, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Frezouls, B.
    Univ Antwerp, Onderzoeksgroep Toegepaste Wiskunde, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium.
    Gai, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Galleti, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Garabato, D.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Garcia-Sedano, F.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Garofalo, A.
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Piero Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy;INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Garralda, N.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Gavel, Alvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Gavras, P.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece;Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece;Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Gerssen, J.
    AIP, Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Geyer, R.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Giacobbe, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Girona, S.
    Ctr Nacl Super Comp, Barcelona Supercomputing Ctr, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Giuffrida, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Glass, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Gomes, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Granvik, M.
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Comp Sci Elect & Space Engn, Box 848, S-98128 Kiruna, Sweden;Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Gueguen, A.
    Max Planck Inst Extraterrestrial Phys, High Energy Grp, Giessenbachstr, D-85741 Garching, Germany;Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Guerrier, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Guiraud, J.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Haigron, R.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Hatzidimitriou, D.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece;Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Hauser, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany;Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Haywood, M.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Helmi, A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Heu, J.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Hilger, T.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Hobbs, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Hofmann, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Holland, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Huckle, H. E.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Hypki, A.
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland;Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Icardi, V.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Janssen, K.
    AIP, Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Jevardat de Fombelle, G.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jonker, P. G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;SRON, Netherlands Inst Space Res, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584CA Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Juhasz, A. L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary;Eotvos Lorand Univ, Egyet Ter 1-3, H-1053 Budapest, Hungary.
    Julbe, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Karampelas, A.
    Amer Community Sch Athens, 129 Aghias Paraskevis Ave & Kazantzaki St, Athens 15234, Greece;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Kewley, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Klar, J.
    AIP, Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Kochoska, A.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia;Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA.
    Kohley, R.
    ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Kolenberg, K.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium;Univ Antwerp, Phys Dept, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Kontizas, M.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Kontizas, E.
    Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Koposov, S. E.
    Carnegie Mellon Univ, McWilliams Ctr Cosmol, Dept Phys, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA;Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Kordopatis, G.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;SRON, Netherlands Inst Space Res, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584CA Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Koubsky, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic.
    Lambert, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Lanza, A. F.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lasne, Y.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Lavigne, J. -B
    Le Fustec, Y.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Telespazio, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Lebreton, Y.
    Univ Rennes 1, Inst Phys Rennes, F-35042 Rennes, France;Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Leccia, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Leclerc, N.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Lecoeur-Taibi, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Lenhardt, H.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Leroux, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Liao, S.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Sch Astron & Space Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
    Licata, E.
    EURIX Srl, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 2 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy.
    Lindstrom, H. E. P.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark;DXC Technol, Retortvej 8, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark.
    Lister, T. A.
    Las Cumbres Observ, 6740 Cortona Dr Suite, Goleta, CA 93117 USA.
    Livanou, E.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Lobel, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Lopez, M.
    ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Ctr Astrobiol, CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Managau, S.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Mann, R. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Mantelet, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Marchal, O.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Marchant, J. M.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Marconi, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Marinoni, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Marschalko, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary;Univ Szeged, Baja Observ, Szegedi Ut II 70, H-6500 Baja, Hungary.
    Marshall, D. J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Lab AIM, IRFU Serv Astrophys, CEA DSM CNRS, Bat 709,CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Martino, M.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Marton, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Mary, N.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Massari, D.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Matijevic, G.
    AIP, Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Mazeh, T.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    McMillan, P. J.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Messina, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Michalik, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Millar, N. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Molina, D.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Molinaro, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Molnar, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Montegriffo, P.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Mor, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Morbidelli, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Morris, D.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Mulone, A. F.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Muraveva, T.
    Musella, I.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Nelemans, G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Nicastro, L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Noval, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    O'Mullane, W.
    Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA;ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Ordenovic, C.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Ordonez-Blanco, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Osborne, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Pagani, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Pagano, I.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Pailler, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Palacin, H.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Palaversa, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Panahi, A.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Pawlak, M.
    Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland;Charles Univ Prague, Inst Theoret Phys, Fac Math & Phys, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Piersimoni, A. M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    Pineau, F. -X
    Plachy, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Plum, G.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Poggio, E.
    Univ Torino, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Poujoulet, E.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, AKKA, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France;ESA ESTEC, HE Space Operat BV, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Prsa, A.
    Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA.
    Pulone, L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Monte Porzio Catone, Italy.
    Racero, E.
    ESA ESAC, Serco Gest Negocios, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Ragaini, S.
    Rambaux, N.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Ramos-Lerate, M.
    ESA ESAC, Vitrociset Belgium, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA.
    Regibo, S.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Reyle, C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, CNRS, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Riclet, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Ripepi, V.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Riva, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Rivard, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Rixon, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Roegiers, T.
    ESA ESAC, QUASAR Sci Resources, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Roelens, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Romero-Gomez, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Rowell, N.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Royer, F.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Ruiz-Dern, L.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Sadowski, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Sagrista Selles, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sahlmann, J.
    Fork Res, Rua Cruzado Osberno,Lt 1,9 Esq, Lisbon, Portugal;ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Salgado, J.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Salguero, E.
    ESA ESAC, ATG Europe, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Sanna, N.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Santana-Ros, T.
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland.
    Sarasso, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Savietto, H.
    Nord Optic Telescope, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Brena Baja 38711, Spain.
    Schultheis, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Sciacca, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Segol, M.
    Spanish Virtual Observ, Santander, Spain.
    Segovia, J. C.
    ESA ESAC, Serco Gest Negocios, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Segransan, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Shih, I-C
    Siltala, L.
    INAF, Fdn Galileo Galilei, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Brena Baja 38712, Santa Cruz Tene, Spain;Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Silva, A. F.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Smart, R. L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Smith, K. W.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Solano, E.
    ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Ctr Astrobiol, CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;ESA ESAC, INSA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Solitro, F.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Sordo, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Soria Nieto, S.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Souchay, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Spagna, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Spoto, F.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Stampa, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, Astron Rechen Inst, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Steele, I. A.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Steidelmueller, H.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Stephenson, C. A.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Stoev, H.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Arquitectura Computadores & Automat, Fac Informat, C Prof Jose Garcia Santesmases S-N, E-28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Suess, F. F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Surdej, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Szabados, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Szegedi-Elek, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Tapiador, D.
    Univ Bristol, HH Wills Phys Lab, Tyndall Ave, Bristol BS8, Avon, England;IEEC, Gran Capita 2-4,08034, Bristol BS8 1TL, Avon, England.
    Taris, F.
    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Tauran, G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Taylor, M. B.
    Univ Vigo, Appl Phys Dept, Vigo 36310, Spain.
    Teixeira, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Terrett, D.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Harwell OX11 0QX, Didcot, England.
    Teyssandier, P.
    Sorbonne Univ, LNE, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,SYRTE,CNRS, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Thuillot, W.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, Observ Paris,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Titarenko, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Clotet, F. Torra
    Aarhus Univ, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Dept Phys & Astron, 120 Ny Munkegade,Bldg 1520, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark.
    Turon, C.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Ulla, A.
    Univ Bonn, Argelander Inst Astron, Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.
    Utrilla, E.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Uzzi, S.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Vaillant, M.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Valentini, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    Valette, V.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    van Elteren, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Van Hemelryck, E.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Vaschetto, M.
    ALTEC SpA, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Vecchiato, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Veljanoski, J.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Viala, Y.
    Univ PSL, GEPI, Observ Paris, CNRS, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Vicente, D.
    Ctr Nacl Super Comp, Barcelona Supercomputing Ctr, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Vogt, S.
    ESA ESAC, QUASAR Sci Resources, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    von Essen, C.
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia.
    Voss, H.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Votruba, V.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic.
    Voutsinas, S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Walmsley, G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Weiler, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti I Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Wertz, O.
    Sorbonne Univ, UPMC Univ, Paris 6 & CNRS, UMR 7095,Inst Astrophys Paris, 98 Bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Wevers, T.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
    Yoldas, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Zerjal, M.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Geosci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel;Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.
    Ziaeepour, H.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, CNRS, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Zorec, J.
    Zschocke, S.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Zucker, S.
    Zurbach, C.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France.
    Zwitter, T.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.
    Observational Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 616, article id A10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Gaia Data Release 2 provides high-precision astrometry and three-band photometry for about 1.3 billion sources over the full sky. The precision, accuracy, and homogeneity of both astrometry and photometry are unprecedented. Aims. We highlight the power of the Gaia DR2 in studying many fine structures of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HRD). Gaia allows us to present many different HRDs, depending in particular on stellar population selections. We do not aim here for completeness in terms of types of stars or stellar evolutionary aspects. Instead, we have chosen several illustrative examples. Methods. We describe some of the selections that can be made in Gaia DR2 to highlight the main structures of the Gaia HRDs. We select both field and cluster (open and globular) stars, compare the observations with previous classifications and with stellar evolutionary tracks, and we present variations of the Gaia HRD with age, metallicity, and kinematics. Late stages of stellar evolution such as hot subdwarfs, post-AGB stars, planetary nebulae, and white dwarfs are also analysed, as well as low-mass brown dwarf objects. Results. The Gaia HRDs are unprecedented in both precision and coverage of the various Milky Way stellar populations and stellar evolutionary phases. Many fine structures of the HRDs are presented. The clear split of the white dwarf sequence into hydrogen and helium white dwarfs is presented for the first time in an HRD. The relation between kinematics and the HRD is nicely illustrated. Two different populations in a classical kinematic selection of the halo are unambiguously identified in the HRD. Membership and mean parameters for a selected list of open clusters are provided. They allow drawing very detailed cluster sequences, highlighting fine structures, and providing extremely precise empirical isochrones that will lead to more insight in stellar physics. Conclusions. Gaia DR2 demonstrates the potential of combining precise astrometry and photometry for large samples for studies in stellar evolution and stellar population and opens an entire new area for HRD-based studies.

  • 4. Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.
    et al.
    Andrae, R.
    Arcay, B.
    Astraatmadja, T.
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    Berihuete, A.
    Bijaoui, A.
    Carrion, C.
    Dafonte, C.
    Damerdji, Y.
    Dapergolas, A.
    de Laverny, P.
    Delchambre, L.
    Drazinos, P.
    Drimmel, R.
    Fremat, Y.
    Fustes, D.
    Garcia-Torres, M.
    Guede, C.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Janotto, A. -M
    Karampelas, A.
    Kim, D. -W
    Knude, J.
    Kolka, I.
    Kontizas, E.
    Kontizas, M.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    Lebreton, Y.
    Lindstrom, H.
    Liu, C.
    Livanou, E.
    Lobel, A.
    Manteiga, M.
    Martayan, C.
    Ordenovic, Ch.
    Pichon, B.
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Rocca-Volmerange, B.
    Sarro, L. M.
    Smith, K.
    Sordo, R.
    Soubiran, C.
    Surdej, J.
    Thevenin, F.
    Tsalmantza, P.
    Vallenari, A.
    Zorec, J.
    The Gaia astrophysical parameters inference system (Apsis) Pre-launch description2013In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 559, p. A74-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gaia satellite will survey the entire celestial sphere down to 20th magnitude, obtaining astrometry, photometry, and low resolution spectrophotometry on one billion astronomical sources, plus radial velocities for over one hundred million stars. Its main objective is to take a census of the stellar content of our Galaxy, with the goal of revealing its formation and evolution. Gaia's unique feature is the measurement of parallaxes and proper motions with hitherto unparalleled accuracy for many objects. As a survey, the physical properties of most of these objects are unknown. Here we describe the data analysis system put together by the Gaia consortium to classify these objects and to infer their astrophysical properties using the satellite's data. This system covers single stars, (unresolved) binary stars, quasars, and galaxies, all covering a wide parameter space. Multiple methods are used for many types of stars, producing multiple results for the end user according to different models and assumptions. Prior to its application to real Gaia data the accuracy of these methods cannot be assessed definitively. But as an example of the current performance, we can attain internal accuracies (rms residuals) on F, G, K, M dwarfs and giants at G = 15 (V = 15-17) for a wide range of metallicites and interstellar extinctions of around 100 K in effective temperature (T-eff), 0.1 mag in extinction (A(0)), 0.2 dex in metallicity ([Fe/H]), and 0.25 dex in surface gravity (log g). The accuracy is a strong function of the parameters themselves, varying by a factor of more than two up or down over this parameter range. After its launch in December 2013, Gaia will nominally observe for five years, during which the system we describe will continue to evolve in light of experience with the real data.

  • 5. Bergemann, M.
    et al.
    Ruchti, G. R.
    Serenelli, A.
    Feltzing, S.
    Alves-Brito, A.
    Asplund, M.
    Bensby, T.
    Gruyters, Pieter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Hourihane, A.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Lind, K.
    Marino, A.
    Jofre, P.
    Nordlander, T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Ryde, N.
    Worley, C. C.
    Gilmore, G.
    Randich, S.
    Ferguson, A. M. N.
    Jeffries, R. D.
    Micela, G.
    Negueruela, I.
    Prusti, T.
    Rix, H. -W
    Vallenari, A.
    Alfaro, E. J.
    Allende Prieto, C.
    Bragaglia, A.
    Koposov, S. E.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    Pancino, E.
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Smiljanic, R.
    Walton, N.
    Costado, M. T.
    Franciosini, E.
    Hill, V.
    Lardo, C.
    de Laverny, P.
    Magrini, L.
    Maiorca, E.
    Masseron, T.
    Morbidelli, L.
    Sacco, G.
    Kordopatis, G.
    Tautvaisiene, G.
    The Gaia-ESO Survey: radial metallicity gradients and age-metallicity relation of stars in the Milky Way disk2014In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 565, p. A89-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the relationship between age, metallicity, and alpha-enhancement of FGK stars in the Galactic disk. The results are based upon the analysis of high-resolution UVES spectra from the Gaia-ESO large stellar survey. We explore the limitations of the observed dataset, i.e. the accuracy of stellar parameters and the selection effects that are caused by the photometric target preselection. We find that the colour and magnitude cuts in the survey suppress old metal-rich stars and young metal-poor stars. This suppression may be as high as 97% in some regions of the age-metallicity relationship. The dataset consists of 144 stars with a wide range of ages from 0.5 Gyr to 13.5 Gyr, Galactocentric distances from 6 kpc to 9.5 kpc, and vertical distances from the plane 0 < vertical bar Z vertical bar < 1.5 kpc. On this basis, we find that i) the observed age-metallicity relation is nearly flat in the range of ages between 0 Gyr and 8 Gyr; ii) at ages older than 9 Gyr, we see a decrease in [Fe/H] and a clear absence of metal-rich stars; this cannot be explained by the survey selection functions; iii) there is a significant scatter of [Fe/H] at any age; and iv) [Mg/Fe] increases with age, but the dispersion of [Mg/Fe] at ages > 9 Gyr is not as small as advocated by some other studies. In agreement with earlier work, we find that radial abundance gradients change as a function of vertical distance from the plane. The [Mg/Fe] gradient steepens and becomes negative. In addition, we show that the inner disk is not only more alpha-rich compared to the outer disk, but also older, as traced independently by the ages and Mg abundances of stars.

  • 6.
    Bergemann, Maria
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Serenelli, Aldo
    Campus UAB, ICE CSIC IEEC, Inst Ciencias Espacio, Carrer Can Magrans S-N, Bellaterra 08193, Spain..
    Schonrich, Ralph
    Univ Oxford, Rudolf Peierls Ctr Theoret Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, England..
    Ruchti, Greg
    Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy. Uppsala Univ, Div Astron & Space Phys, Dept Phys & Astron, Angstrom Lab, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hekker, Saskia
    Max Planck Inst Solar Syst Res, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gttingen, Germany..
    Kovalev, Mikhail
    Max Planck Inst Astron, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Mashonkina, Lyudmila
    Gilmore, Gerry
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Randich, Sofia
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Asplund, Martin
    Australian Natl Univ, Mt Stromlo Observ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Weston, ACT 2611, Australia..
    Rix, Hans-Walter
    Max Planck Inst Astron, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Casey, Andrew R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Jofre, Paula
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Pancino, Elena
    INAF Osservatorio Astron, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy.;ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Recio-Blanco, Alejandra
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observ Cote Azur, Lab Lagrange, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    de Laverny, Patrick
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observ Cote Azur, Lab Lagrange, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Smiljanic, Rodolfo
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Dept Astrophys, Ul Rabianska 8, PL-87100 Torun, Poland. Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Ny Munckegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
    Tautvaisiene, Grazina
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, Gostauto 12, LT-01108 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Bayo, Amelia
    Inst Fis & Astron, Fac Ciencias, Gran Bretana 1111, Playa Ancha, Chile..
    Lewis, Jim
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Koposov, Sergey
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Hourihane, Anna
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Worley, Clare
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Morbidelli, Lorenzo
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Franciosini, Elena
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Sacco, Germano
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Magrini, Laura
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Damiani, Francesco
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Palermo, Piazza Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo, Italy. Russian Acad Sci, Inst Astron, Pyatnitskaya St 48, Moscow 119017, Russia..
    Bestenlehner, Joachim M.
    The Gaia-ESO Survey: Hydrogen lines in red giants directly trace stellar mass2016In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 594, article id A120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Red giant stars are perhaps the most important type of stars for Galactic and extra-galactic archaeology: they are luminous, occur in all stellar populations, and their surface temperatures allow precise abundance determinations for many different chemical elements. Yet, the full star formation and enrichment history of a galaxy can be traced directly only if two key observables can be determined for large stellar samples: age and chemical composition. While spectroscopy is a powerful method to analyse the detailed abundances of stars, stellar ages are the missing link in the chain, since they are not a direct observable. However, spectroscopy should be able to estimate stellar masses, which for red giants directly infer ages provided their chemical composition is known. Here we establish a new empirical relation between the shape of the hydrogen line in the observed spectra of red giants and stellar mass determined from asteroseismology. The relation allows determining stellar masses and ages with an accuracy of 10-15%. The method can be used with confidence for stars in the following range of stellar parameters: 4000 < T-eff < 5000 K, 0.5 < log g < 3.5, -2.0 < [ Fe/H] < 0.3, and luminosities log L/L-Sun < 2.5. Our analysis provides observational evidence that the H-alpha spectral characteristics of red giant stars are tightly correlated with their mass and therefore their age. We also show that the method samples well all stellar populations with ages above 1 Gyr. Targeting bright giants, the method allows obtaining simultaneous age and chemical abundance information far deeper than would be possible with asteroseismology, extending the possible survey volume to remote regions of the Milky Way and even to neighbouring galaxies such as Andromeda or the Magellanic Clouds even with current instrumentation, such as the VLT and Keck facilities.

  • 7. Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    et al.
    Soubiran, C.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Asplund, M.
    Carraro, G.
    Costado, M. T.
    Feltzing, S.
    Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. I.
    Jimenez-Esteban, F.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Marino, A. F.
    Montes, D.
    San Roman, I.
    Tabernero, H. M.
    Tautvaisiene, G.
    Testing the chemical tagging technique with open clusters2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 577, article id A47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Stars are born together from giant molecular clouds and, if we assume that the priors were chemically homogeneous and well-mixed, we expect them to share the same chemical composition. Most of the stellar aggregates are disrupted while orbiting the Galaxy and most of the dynamic information is lost, thus the only possibility of reconstructing the stellar formation history is to analyze the chemical abundances that we observe today. Aims. The chemical tagging technique aims to recover disrupted stellar clusters based merely on their chemical composition. We evaluate the viability of this technique to recover co-natal stars that are no longer gravitationally bound. Methods. Open clusters are co-natal aggregates that have managed to survive together. We compiled stellar spectra from 31 old and intermediate-age open clusters, homogeneously derived atmospheric parameters, and 17 abundance species, and applied machine learning algorithms to group the stars based on their chemical composition. This approach allows us to evaluate the viability and efficiency of the chemical tagging technique. Results. We found that stars at different evolutionary stages have distinct chemical patterns that may be due to NLTE effects, atomic diffusion, mixing, and biases. When separating stars into dwarfs and giants, we observed that a few open clusters show distinct chemical signatures while the majority show a high degree of overlap. This limits the recovery of co-natal aggregates by applying the chemical tagging technique. Nevertheless, there is room for improvement if more elements are included and models are improved.

  • 8.
    Brown, A. G. A.
    et al.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Vallenari, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Prusti, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    de Bruijne, J. H. J.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Babusiaux, C.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France;Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Biermann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Evans, D. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Eyer, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jansen, F.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Miss Operat Div, Operat Dept, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Jordi, C.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Klioner, S. A.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Lammers, U.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Lindegren, L.
    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Luri, X.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Mignard, F.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Panem, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Pourbaix, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium;FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.
    Randich, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Sartoretti, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Siddiqui, H. I.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Soubiran, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    van Leeuwen, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Walton, N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Arenou, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Bastian, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Cropper, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Drimmel, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Katz, D.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Lattanzi, M. G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Bakker, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Cacciari, C.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Castaneda, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Chaoul, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Cheek, N.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    De Angeli, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Fabricius, C.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Guerra, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Holl, B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Masana, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Mowlavi, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Panuzzo, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Portell, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Riello, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Tanga, P.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Thevenin, F.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Gracia-Abril, G.
    ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Comoretto, G.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Garcia-Reinaldos, M.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Teyssier, D.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Altmann, M.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France;Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Andrae, R.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Audard, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Benson, K.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Berthier, J.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Blomme, R.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Burgess, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Busso, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Carry, B.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cellino, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Clementini, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Clotet, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Creevey, O.
    Univ Paris XI, CNRS, UMR 8617, Inst Astrophys Spatiale, Batiment 121, F-91405 Orsay, France;Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Davidson, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    De Ridder, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Delchambre, L.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Dell'Oro, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Ducourant, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Fernandez-Hernandez, J.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Fremat, Y.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Galluccio, L.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Garcia-Torres, M.
    Univ Pablo Olavide, Area Lenguajes Sistemas Informat, Ctra Utrera,Km 1, Seville 41013, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Nunez, J.
    Univ Vigo, ETSE Telecomun, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo 36310, Galicia, Spain;Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Vidal, J. J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Gosset, E.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium;FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.
    Guy, L. P.
    Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Halbwachs, J. -L
    Hambly, N. C.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Harrison, D. L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Cambridge, Kavli Inst Cosmol, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Hernandez, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hestroffer, D.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Hodgkin, S. T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Hutton, A.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Jasniewicz, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France.
    Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Jordan, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Krone-Martins, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy;Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Sez Astrofis, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lebzelter, T.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanz Str 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Loeffler, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Manteiga, M.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Astron & Astrophys, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain;Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Marrese, P. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Martin-Fleitas, J. M.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Mora, A.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Muinonen, K.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland;Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland.
    Osinde, J.
    Isdefe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Pancino, E.
    ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Petit, J. -M
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Richards, P. J.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Harwell OX11 0QX, Didcot, England.
    Rimoldini, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Robin, A. C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Sarro, L. M.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Siopis, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Smith, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Sozzetti, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Sueveges, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Torra, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    van Reeven, W.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Abbas, U.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Aramburu, A. Abreu
    Elecnor Deimos Space ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N,Urbanizac Villafranca Ca, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Accart, S.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Aerts, C.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Altavilla, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Alvarez, M. A.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Alvarez, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Alves, J.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanz Str 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Anderson, R. I.
    European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Andrei, A. H.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France;OV UFRJ, Ladeira Pedro Antonio 43, BR-20080090 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil;ON MCT, Rua Gal Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Anglada Varela, E.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Antiche, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Antoja, T.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain;European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Arcay, B.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Astraatmadja, T. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany;Carnegie Inst Sci, Dept Terr Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Rd,NW, Washington, DC 20015 USA.
    Bach, N.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Baker, S. G.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Balaguer-Nunez, L.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Balm, P.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Barache, C.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Barata, C.
    Barbato, D.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy;Univ Torino, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Barblan, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Barklem, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Barrado, D.
    ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Ctr Astrobiol, CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N,Villanueva Canada, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Barros, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Barstow, M. A.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England;Univ Leicester, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Bartholome Munoz, S.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Bassilana, J. -L
    Becciani, U.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bellazzini, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Berihuete, A.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Cadiz, Dept Estadist, Calle Republ Arabe Saharawi S-N, Cadiz 11510, Spain;INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Bertone, S.
    Bern Univ, Astron Inst, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland;Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France;INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX Srl, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 2 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy.
    Bienayme, O.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA;Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Boch, T.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Boeche, C.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Bombrun, A.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Borrachero, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Bossini, D.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Bouquillon, S.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Bourda, G.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Bramante, L.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Breddels, M. A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Bressan, A.
    Scuola Int Super Studi Avanzati, SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy.
    Brouillet, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Bruesemeister, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Brugaletta, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bucciarelli, B.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Burlacu, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Busonero, D.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Butkevich, A. G.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Buzzi, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Caffau, E.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Cancelliere, R.
    Univ Turin, Dept Comp Sci, Corso Svizzera 185, I-10149 Turin, Italy.
    Cannizzaro, G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584CA Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy;Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Carballo, R.
    Univ Cantabria, Dept Matemat Aplicada & Ciencias Computac, ETS Ingenieros Caminos Canales & Puertos, Avda Castros S-N, E-39005 Santander, Spain.
    Carlucci, T.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Carrasco, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Casamiquela, L.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Castellani, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Castro-Ginard, A.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Charlot, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Chemin, L.
    Univ Antofagasta, Unidad Astron, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile.
    Chiavassa, A.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cocozza, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Costigan, G.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Cowell, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Crifo, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Crosta, M.
    Crowley, C.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Cuypers, J.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Dafonte, C.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Damerdji, Y.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium;CRAAG, Route Observ,Bp 63, Bouzareah 16340, Algeria.
    Dapergolas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece.
    David, P.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    David, M.
    Univ Antwerp, Onderzoeksgroep Toegepaste Wiskunde, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium.
    de Laverny, P.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    De Luise, F.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    De March, R.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    de Martino, D.
    de Souza, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    de Torres, A.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Debosscher, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    del Pozo, E.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Delbo, M.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Delgado, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Delgado, H. E.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Di Matteo, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Diakite, S.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Diener, C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Distefano, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Dolding, C.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Drazinos, P.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Duran, J.
    Isdefe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Edvardsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Enke, H.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Stern Warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Esquej, P.
    ESA ESAC, RHEA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Eynard Bontemps, G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fabre, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, ATOS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fabrizio, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Faigler, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Falcao, A. J.
    CTS, UNINOVA, Campus FCT UNL,Monte Caparica, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Farras Casas, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Federici, L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Fedorets, G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Fernique, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Figueras, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Filippi, F.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Findeisen, K.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Fonti, A.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Fraile, E.
    ESA ESAC, RHEA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fraser, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, OBrien Ctr Sci North, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Frezouls, B.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Gai, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Galleti, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Garabato, D.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Garcia-Sedano, F.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Garofalo, A.
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Piero Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy;INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Garralda, N.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Gavel, Alvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Gavras, P.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece;Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France;Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Gerssen, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Stern Warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Geyer, R.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Giacobbe, P.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Girona, S.
    Ctr Nacl Super Comput, Barcelona Supercomputing Ctr, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus II, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Giuffrida, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Glass, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Gomes, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Campo Grande,Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Granvik, M.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland;Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Comp Sci Elect & Space Engn, Box 848, S-98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Gueguen, A.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France;Max Planck Inst Extraterrestrial Phys, High Energy Grp, Giessenbachstr, D-85741 Garching, Germany.
    Guerrier, A.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Guiraud, J.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Haigron, R.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Hatzidimitriou, D.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece;Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Hauser, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany;Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Haywood, M.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Helmi, A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Heu, J.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Hilger, T.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Hobbs, D.
    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Hofmann, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Holland, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Huckle, H. E.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Hypki, A.
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland;Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Icardi, V.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Janssen, K.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Stern Warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Jevardat de Fombelle, G.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jonker, P. G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584CA Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Juhasz, A. L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary;Eotvos Lorand Univ, Egyet Ter 1-3, H-1053 Budapest, Hungary.
    Julbe, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Karampelas, A.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece;Amer Community Schools Athens, 129 Aghias Paraskevis Ave & Kazantzaki St, Athens 15234, Greece.
    Kewley, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Klar, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Stern Warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Kochoska, A.
    Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA;Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.
    Kohley, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Kolenberg, K.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium;Univ Antwerp, Phys Dept, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Kontizas, M.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Kontizas, E.
    Natl Observ Athens I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou Palaia P, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Koposov, S. E.
    Carnegie Mellon Univ, McWilliams Ctr Cosmol, Dept Phys, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA;Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Kordopatis, G.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584CA Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Koubsky, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic.
    Lambert, S.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Lanza, A. F.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lasne, Y.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Lavigne, J. -B
    Le Fustec, Y.
    CNES, Telespazio, Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Lebreton, Y.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France;Univ Rennes 1, Inst Phys Rennes, F-35042 Rennes, France.
    Leccia, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Leclerc, N.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Lecoeur-Taibi, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Lenhardt, H.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Leroux, F.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Liao, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy;Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Sch Astron & Space Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
    Licata, E.
    EURIX Srl, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 2 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy.
    Lindstrom, H. E. P.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark;DXC Technol, Retortvej 8, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark.
    Lister, T. A.
    Las Cumbres Observ, 6740 Cortona Dr Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 USA.
    Livanou, E.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Panepistimiopolis, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Lobel, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Lopez, M.
    ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Ctr Astrobiol, CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N,Villanueva Canada, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Managau, S.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Mann, R. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Mantelet, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Marchal, O.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Marchant, J. M.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Marconi, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Marinoni, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;ASI, Space Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Marschalko, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary;Univ Szeged, Baja Observ, Szegedi Ut 3-70, H-6500 Baja, Hungary.
    Marshall, D. J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Lab AIM, IRFU Serv Astrophys CEA DSM, Bat 709,CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Martino, M.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Marton, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Mary, N.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Massari, D.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Matijevic, G.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Stern Warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Mazeh, T.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    McMillan, P. J.
    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Messina, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Michalik, D.
    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Millar, N. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Molina, D.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Molinaro, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Molnar, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Montegriffo, P.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Mor, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Morbidelli, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Morris, D.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Mulone, A. F.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Muraveva, T.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Musella, I.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Nelemans, G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Nicastro, L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Noval, L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    O'Mullane, W.
    Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA;European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Ordenovic, C.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Ordonez-Blanco, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Osborne, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Pagani, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England;Univ Leicester, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Pagano, I.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Pailler, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Palacin, H.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Palaversa, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Panahi, A.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Pawlak, M.
    Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland;Charles Univ Prague, Inst Theoret Phys, Fac Math & Phys, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Piersimoni, A. M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    Pineau, F. -X
    Plachy, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Plum, G.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Poggio, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy;Univ Torino, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Poujoulet, E.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, AKKA, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-314019 Toulouse, France.
    Prsa, A.
    Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA.
    Pulone, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Racero, E.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Ragaini, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Rambaux, N.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Ramos-Lerate, M.
    ESA ESAC, Vitrociset Belgium, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Regibo, S.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Reyle, C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Riclet, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Ripepi, V.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Riva, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Rivard, A.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Rixon, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Roegiers, T.
    ESA ESTEC, HE Space Operat BV, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Roelens, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Romero-Gomez, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Rowell, N.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Royer, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Ruiz-Dern, L.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Sadowski, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Sagrista Selles, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sahlmann, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA.
    Salgado, J.
    ESA ESAC, QUASAR Sci Resources, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Salguero, E.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Sanna, N.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Santana-Ros, T.
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland.
    Sarasso, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Savietto, H.
    Fork Res, Rua Cruzado Osberno,Lt 1,9 Esq, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Schultheis, M.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Sciacca, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Segol, M.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Segovia, J. C.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Segransan, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Shih, I-C
    Siltala, L.
    Nord Optic Telescope, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Brena Baja 38711, Spain;Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    Silva, A. F.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Smart, R. L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Smith, K. W.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Solano, E.
    Spanish Virtual Observ, Santander, Spain;ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Ctr Astrobiol, CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N,Villanueva Canada, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Solitro, F.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Sordo, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Soria Nieto, S.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Souchay, J.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Spagna, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Spoto, F.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Stampa, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Steele, I. A.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Steidelmueller, H.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Stephenson, C. A.
    ESA ESAC, Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Stoev, H.
    INAF, Fdn Galileo Galilei, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Santa Cruz de Tenerife 38712, Spain.
    Suess, F. F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Surdej, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Szabados, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
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    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Tapiador, D.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Arquitectura Computadores & Automat, Fac Informat, C Prof Jose Garcia Santesmases S-N, E-28040 Madrid, Spain;ESA ESAC, INSA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
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    Univ PSL, CNRS, SYRTE, Observ Paris, LNE,61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Tauran, G.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Taylor, M. B.
    Univ Bristol, H H Wills Phys Lab, Tyndall Ave, Bristol BS8 1TL, Avon, England.
    Teixeira, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Terrett, D.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Harwell OX11 0QX, Didcot, England.
    Teyssandier, P.
    Thuillot, W.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL, 77 Ave Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Titarenko, A.
    Univ Cote dAzur, CNRS, Observ Cote dAzur, Lab Lagrange,Bd Observ, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Torra Clotet, F.
    IEEC, Gran Capita 2-4, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Turon, C.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Ulla, A.
    Univ Vigo, Appl Phys Dept, Vigo 36310, Spain.
    Utrilla, E.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Uzzi, S.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Vaillant, M.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Valentini, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    Valette, V.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    van Elteren, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Van Hemelryck, E.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    van Leeuwen, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Vaschetto, M.
    ALTEC, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Vecchiato, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Veljanoski, J.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Viala, Y.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Vicente, D.
    Ctr Nacl Super Comput, Barcelona Supercomputing Ctr, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus II, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Vogt, S.
    ESA ESTEC, HE Space Operat BV, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    von Essen, C.
    Aarhus Univ, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Dept Phys & Astron, 120 Ny Munkegade,Bldg 1520, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark.
    Voss, H.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Votruba, V.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic.
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    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Walmsley, G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Weiler, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Wertz, O.
    Univ Bonn, Argelander Inst Astron, Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.
    Wevers, T.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands;Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
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    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia;Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia.
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    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
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    Sorbonne Univ, CNRS, Inst Astrophys Paris, UPMC Univ Paris 6,UMR 7095, 98 Bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.
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    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
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    Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Geosci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Zurbach, C.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univ & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France.
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    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.
    Gaia Data Release 2 Summary of the contents and survey properties2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 616, article id A1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. We present the second Gaia data release, Gaia DR2, consisting of astrometry, photometry, radial velocities, and information on astrophysical parameters and variability, for sources brighter than magnitude 21. In addition epoch astrometry and photometry are provided for a modest sample of minor planets in the solar system. Aims. A summary of the contents of Gaia DR2 is presented, accompanied by a discussion on the differences with respect to Gaia DR1 and an overview of the main limitations which are still present in the survey. Recommendations are made on the responsible use of Gaia DR2 results. Methods. The raw data collected with the Gaia instruments during the first 22 months of the mission have been processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) and turned into this second data release, which represents a major advance with respect to Gaia DR1 in terms of completeness, performance, and richness of the data products. Results. Gaia DR2 contains celestial positions and the apparent brightness in G for approximately 1.7 billion sources. For 1.3 billion of those sources, parallaxes and proper motions are in addition available. The sample of sources for which variability information is provided is expanded to 0 : 5 million stars. This data release contains four new elements: broad-band colour information in the form of the apparent brightness in the G(BP) (330-680 nm) and G(RP) (630-1050 nm) bands is available for 1.4 billion sources; median radial velocities for some 7 million sources are presented; for between 77 and 161 million sources estimates are provided of the stellar effective temperature, extinction, reddening, and radius and luminosity; and for a pre-selected list of 14 000 minor planets in the solar system epoch astrometry and photometry are presented. Finally, Gaia DR2 also represents a new materialisation of the celestial reference frame in the optical, the Gaia-CRF2, which is the first optical reference frame based solely on extragalactic sources. There are notable changes in the photometric system and the catalogue source list with respect to Gaia DR1, and we stress the need to consider the two data releases as independent. Conclusions. Gaia DR2 represents a major achievement for the Gaia mission, delivering on the long standing promise to provide parallaxes and proper motions for over 1 billion stars, and representing a first step in the availability of complementary radial velocity and source astrophysical information for a sample of stars in the Gaia survey which covers a very substantial fraction of the volume of our galaxy.

  • 9.
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    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
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    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
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    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
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    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
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    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
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    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.;FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
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    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
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    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, Dept Astrophys, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England..
    Hog, E.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark..
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    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Open Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Ctr Elect Imaging, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England..
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    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
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    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Perryman, M.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
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    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
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    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
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    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
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    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
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    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
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    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
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    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo dell Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
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    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
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    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
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    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England..
    Riello, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England..
    Tanga, P.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Thevenin, F.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
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    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Els, S. G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.;ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Gracia-Abril, G.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.;ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Comoretto, G.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, Madrid 28692, Spain..
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    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo dell Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.;UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
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    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
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    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
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    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France.;Univ Paris XI, CNRS, Inst Astrophys Spatiale, UMR 8617, Batiment 121, F-91405 Orsay, France..
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    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
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    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
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    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
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    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
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    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
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    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
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    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
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    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
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    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Cambridge, Kavli Inst Cosmol, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
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    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England..
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    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
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    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
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    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
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    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Sez Astrofis, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.;Osserv Astrofis Catania, INAF, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Manteiga, M.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Muinonen, K.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland..
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    ESA ESAC, Isdefe, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Pancino, E.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.;ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Petit, J. -M
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    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
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    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, F-25000 Besancon, France..
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    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan del Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
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    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Smith, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England..
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    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
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    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
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    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
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    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
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    ESA ESAC, Elecnor Deimos Space, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
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    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
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    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England..
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    EURIX Srl, Via Carcano 26, I-10153 Turin, Italy..
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    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
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    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
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    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria..
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, 3400 N Charles St, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
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    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.;ON MCTI BR, Rua Gal Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.;OV UFRJ BR, Ladeira Pedro Antonio 43, BR-20080090 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..
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    Antiche, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Antoja, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Anton, S.
    Univ Porto, Fac Ciencias, Dept Matemat, Rua Campo Alegre 687, P-4169007 Oporto, Portugal.;Univ Lisbon, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, Fac Ciencias, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Arcay, B.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Bach, N.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Baker, S. G.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England..
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    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Barache, C.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Barata, C.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Barbier, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Barblan, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Barrado y Navascues, D.
    ESA ESAC, Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Barros, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Barstow, M. A.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Becciani, U.
    Osserv Astrofis Catania, INAF, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Bellazzini, M.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Garcia, A. Bello
    Univ Oviedo, Campus Univ, Gijon 33203, Spain..
    Belokurov, V.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Bendjoya, P.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Berihuete, A.
    Univ Cadiz, Avd Univ, Cadiz 11002, Spain..
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX Srl, Via Carcano 26, I-10153 Turin, Italy..
    Bienayme, O.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Billebaud, F.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Blagorodnova, N.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Boch, T.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Bombrun, A.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Borrachero, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Bouquillon, S.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Bourda, G.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Bouy, H.
    ESA ESAC, Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Bragaglia, A.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Breddels, M. A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Brouillet, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Bruesemeister, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bucciarelli, B.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Burgess, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Burgon, R.
    Open Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Ctr Elect Imaging, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England..
    Burlacu, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Busonero, D.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Buzzi, R.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Caffau, E.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Cambras, J.
    Univ Catalunya, Consorci Serv, C Gran Capita 2-4 3rd Floor, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Campbell, H.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Cancelliere, R.
    Univ Turin, Dept Comp Sci, Corso Svizzera 185, I-10149 Turin, Italy..
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Carlucci, T.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Carrasco, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Castellani, M.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Charlot, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Charnas, J.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Chiavassa, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Clotet, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Cocozza, G.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Collins, R. S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Costigan, G.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Crifo, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Cross, N. J. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Crosta, M.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Crowley, C.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Dafonte, C.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Damerdji, Y.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.;CRAAG, Route Observ,BP 63 Bouzareah, Algiers 16340, Algeria..
    Dapergolas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    David, P.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    David, M.
    Univ Antwerp, Onderzoeksgrp Toegepaste Wiskunde, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium..
    De Cat, P.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    de Felice, F.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    de laverny, P.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    De Luise, F.
    Osservatorio Astron Teramo, INAF, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    De March, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    de Martino, D.
    Osserv Astron Capodimonte, INAF, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    de Souza, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao,1226 Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Debosscher, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    del Pozo, E.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Delbo, M.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Delgado, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Delgado, H. E.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan del Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Di Matteo, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Diakite, S.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Distefano, E.
    Osserv Astrofis Catania, INAF, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Dolding, C.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England..
    Dos Anjos, S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao,1226 Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Drazinos, P.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Duran, J.
    ESA ESAC, Isdefe, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Dzigan, Y.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Geosci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.;Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, POB 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Edvardsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Enke, H.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Evans, N. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Bontemps, G. Eynard
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Fabre, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, ATOS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Fabrizio, M.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;Osservatorio Astron Teramo, INAF, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    Faigler, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Falcao, A. J.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal..
    Casas, M. Farras
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Federici, L.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Fedorets, G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Fernandez-Hernandez, J.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Fernique, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Fienga, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Geoazur, UMR 7329, CNRS,Observ Cote dAzur, 250 Rue A Einstein, F-06560 Valbonne, France..
    Figueras, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Filippi, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Findeisen, K.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Fonti, A.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Fraile, E.
    ESA ESAC, RHEA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Fraser, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Fuchs, J.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic..
    Gai, M.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Galleti, S.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Galluccio, L.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Garabato, D.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Garcia-Sedano, F.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan del Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Garofalo, A.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Garralda, N.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Gavras, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Gerssen, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Geyer, R.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Girona, S.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, Centro Nacl Supercomp, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Giuffrida, G.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Gomes, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Gonzalez-Marcos, A.
    Univ La Rioja, Dept Mech Engn, C San Jose de Calasanz 31, Logrono 26004, La Rioja, Spain..
    Gonzalez-Nunez, J.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Univ Vigo, ETSE Telecomunicac, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo 36310, Galicia, Spain..
    Gonzalez-Vidal, J. J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Granvik, M.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Guerrier, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Guillout, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Guiraud, J.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Gurpide, A.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Guy, L. P.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Haigron, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Hatzidimitriou, D.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Haywood, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Helmi, A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Hobbs, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Hofmann, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Holl, B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Holland, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Hunt, J. A. S.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England..
    Hypki, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Icardi, V.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Irwin, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    de Fombelle, G. Jevardat
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Jofre, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Jonker, P. G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, Dept Astrophys, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.;SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Jorissen, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Julbe, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Karampelas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Kochoska, A.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Kohley, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo dell Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Kolenberg, K.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Univ Antwerp, Dept Phys, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium.;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Kontizas, E.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    Koposov, S. E.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Kordopatis, G.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France.;Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Koubsky, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic..
    Krone-Martins, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Kudryashova, M.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Kull, I.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Bachchan, R. K.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Lacoste-Seris, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Lanza, A. F.
    Osserv Astrofis Catania, INAF, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Lavigne, J. -B
    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Lebreton, Y.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Univ Rennes 1, Inst Phys Rennes, F-35042 Rennes, France..
    Lebzelter, T.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria..
    Leccia, S.
    Osserv Astron Capodimonte, INAF, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Leclerc, N.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lecoeur-Taibi, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Lemaitre, V.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Lenhardt, H.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Leroux, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Liao, S.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.;Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China..
    Licata, E.
    EURIX Srl, Via Carcano 26, I-10153 Turin, Italy..
    Lindstrom, H. E. P.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark.;CSC Danmark AS, Retortvej 8, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark..
    Lister, T. A.
    Las Cumbres Observ Global Telescope Network Inc, 6740 Cortona Dr,Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 USA..
    Livanou, E.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Lobel, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Loeffler, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lopez, M.
    ESA ESAC, Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Lorenz, D.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria..
    MacDonald, I.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Fernandes, T. Magalhacs
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal..
    Managau, S.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Mann, R. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Mantelet, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marchal, O.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Marchant, J. M.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Marconi, M.
    Osserv Astron Capodimonte, INAF, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Marinoni, S.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Marrese, P. M.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Marschalko, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.;Univ Szeged, Baja Observ, Szegedi Ut 3-70, H-6500 Baja, Hungary..
    Marshall, D. J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CEA Saclay, CEA DSM CNRS, IRFU,Serv Astrophys,Lab AIM, Bat 709, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Martin-Fleitas, J. M.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Martino, M.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Mary, N.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Matijevic, G.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Mazeh, T.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    McMillan, P. J.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Messina, S.
    Osserv Astrofis Catania, INAF, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Michalik, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Millar, N. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Miranda, B. M. H.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Molina, D.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Molinaro, R.
    Osserv Astron Capodimonte, INAF, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Molinaro, M.
    Osserv Astron Trieste, INAF, Via GB Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Molnar, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Moniez, M.
    Univ Paris Saclay, CNRS IN2P3, Univ Paris Sud, Lab Accelerateur Lineaire, F-91898 Orsay, France..
    Montegriffo, P.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Mor, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Mora, A.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Morbidelli, R.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Morgenthaler, S.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, SB MATHAA STAP, MA B1 473,Batiment MA,Stn 8, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Morris, D.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Mulone, A. F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Muraveva, T.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Musella, I.
    Osserv Astron Capodimonte, INAF, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Narbonne, J.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Nelemans, G.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, Dept Astrophys, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Nicastro, L.
    INAF IASF Bologna, Via P Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Noval, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Ordenovic, C.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Ordieres-Mere, J.
    Tech Univ Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006, Spain..
    Osborne, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Pagani, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Pagano, I.
    Osserv Astrofis Catania, INAF, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Pailler, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Palacin, H.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Palaversa, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Parsons, P.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Pecoraro, M.
    EURIX Srl, Via Carcano 26, I-10153 Turin, Italy..
    Pedrosa, R.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, EQUERT Int, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Pentikainen, H.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Pichon, B.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Piersimoni, A. M.
    Osservatorio Astron Teramo, INAF, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    Pincau, F. -X
    Plachy, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Plum, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Poujoulet, E.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, AKKA, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Prsa, A.
    Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA..
    Pulone, L.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Ragaini, S.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Rago, S.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Rambaux, N.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Ramos-Lerate, M.
    ESA ESAC, Vitrociset Belgium, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Ranalli, P.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Rauw, G.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Read, A.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Regibo, S.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Reyle, C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Ribeiro, R. A.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal..
    Rimoldini, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Ripepi, V.
    Osserv Astron Capodimonte, INAF, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Riva, A.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Rixon, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Roelens, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Romero-Gomez, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Rowell, N.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Royer, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ruiz-Dern, L.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Sadowski, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Selles, T. Sagrista
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahlmann, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo dell Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Salgado, J.
    ESA ESAC, Isdefe, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Salguero, E.
    ESA ESAC, Isdefe, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Sarasso, M.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Savietto, H.
    Fork Res, Rua Cruzado Osberno,Lt 1,9 Esq, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Schultheis, M.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Sciacca, E.
    Osserv Astrofis Catania, INAF, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Segol, M.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Segovia, J. C.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Segransan, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Shih, I. -C
    Smareglia, R.
    Osserv Astron Trieste, INAF, Via GB Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Smart, R. L.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Solano, E.
    ESA ESAC, Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Spanish Virtual Observ, Granada, Spain..
    Solitro, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Sordo, R.
    Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Nieto, S. Soria
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Souchay, J.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Spagna, A.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Spoto, F.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Stampa, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Steele, I. A.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Steidelmueller, H.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Stephenson, C. A.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Stoev, H.
    INAF, Fdn Galileo Galilei, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Brena Baja 38712, Santa Cruz De T, Spain..
    Suess, F. F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Suveges, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Surdej, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Szabados, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Szegedi-Elek, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Tapiador, D.
    ESA ESAC, INSA, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Arquitectura Comp & Automat, Fac Informat, C Prof Jose Garcia Santesmases S-N, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Taris, F.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Tauran, G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Taylor, M. B.
    Univ Bristol, HH Wills Phys Lab, Tyndall Ave, Bristol BS8 1TL, Avon, England..
    Teixeira, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao,1226 Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Terrett, D.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England..
    Tingley, B.
    Aarhus Univ, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Dept Phys & Astron, 120 Ny Munkegade,Bldg 1520, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Trager, S. C.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Turon, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ulla, A.
    Univ Vigo, Dept Appl Phys, Vigo 36310, Spain..
    Utrilla, E.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Valentini, G.
    Osservatorio Astron Teramo, INAF, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    van Elteren, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Van Hemelryck, E.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    van Leeuwen, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Varadi, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Vecchiato, A.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Veljanoski, J.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Via, T.
    Univ Catalunya, Consorci Serv, C Gran Capita 2-4 3rd Floor, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Vicente, D.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, Centro Nacl Supercomp, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Vogt, S.
    ESA ESTEC, HE Space Operat BV, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Voss, H.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Votruba, V.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic..
    Voutsinas, S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Walmsley, G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Weiler, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Weingrill, K.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Wevers, T.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, Dept Astrophys, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Yoldas, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Zerjal, M.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Zucker, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Geosci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Zurbach, C.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Zwitter, T.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Alecu, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Allen, M.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Prieto, C. Allende
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England.;Inst Astrofis Canarias, Tenerife 38205, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, Tenerife 38206, Spain..
    Amorim, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Anglada-Escude, G.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Arsenijevic, V.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Azaz, S.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Balm, P.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Beck, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Bernstein, H. -H
    Bigot, L.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Bijaoui, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Blasco, C.
    ESA ESTEC, RHEA, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Bonfigli, M.
    Osservatorio Astron Teramo, INAF, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    Bono, G.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Boudreault, S.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England.;Max Planck Inst Solar Syst Res, Justus von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy..
    Brown, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Brunet, P. -M
    Bunclark, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Buonanno, R.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Butkevich, A. G.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Carret, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, EQUERT Int, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Carrion, C.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan del Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Chemin, L.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy St Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.;Minist Ciencia Tecnol, Inst Nacl Pesquisas Espaciais, Ave Astronautas 1758, BR-12227010 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Chereau, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Corcione, L.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Darmigny, E.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    de Boer, K. S.
    Univ Bonn, Argelander Inst Astron, Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany..
    de Teodoro, P.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    de Zeeuw, P. T.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.;European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Delle Luche, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Domingues, C. D.
    Univ Lisbon, Lab Opt Lasers & Syst, Fac Sci, Campus Lumiar,Estr Paco Lumiar 22, P-1649038 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Dubath, P.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Fodor, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Frezouls, B.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Fries, A.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Fustes, D.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Fyfe, D.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Gallardo, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Gallegos, J.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Gardiol, D.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Gebran, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.;Notre Dame Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, POB 72, Zouk Mikael, Lebanon..
    Gomboc, A.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.;Univ Nova Gorica, Vipavska 13, Nova Gorica 5000, Slovenia..
    Gomez, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Grux, E.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Gueguen, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;OPINAS, Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbachstr, D-85741 Garching, Germany..
    Heyrovsky, A.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Hoar, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo dell Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Iannicola, G.
    Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Parache, Y. Isasi
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Janotto, A. -M
    Joliet, E.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;CALTECH, NASA IPAC Infrared Sci Arch, Mail Code 100-22,770 South Wilson Ave, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    Jonckheere, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Keil, R.
    Univ Bremen, Ctr Appl Space Technol & Micrograv ZARM, Fallturm 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;ESA ESOC, RHEA Syst, Robert Bosch Str 5, D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany..
    Kim, D. -W
    Klagyivik, P.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Klar, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Knude, J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark..
    Kochukhov, Oleg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Kolka, I.
    Tartu Observ, EE-61602 Toravere, Estonia..
    Kos, J.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.;Univ Sydney, Sch Phys A28, Sydney Inst Astron, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Kutka, A.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic.;Slovak Org Space Activ, Zamocka 18, Bratislava 85101, Slovakia..
    Lainey, V.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    LeBouquin, D.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Liu, C.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ, Beijing 100012, Peoples R China..
    Loreggia, D.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Makarov, V. V.
    US Naval Observ, Astrometry Dept, 3450 Massachusetts Ave NW, Washington, DC 20392 USA..
    Marseille, M. G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Martayan, C.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.;European Southern Observ, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago De Chi, Chile..
    Martinez-Rubi, O.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Massart, B.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France.;CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.;Airbus Def & Space SAS, 31 Rue Cosmonautes, F-31402 Toulouse 4, France..
    Meynadier, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, SYRTE,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Mignot, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Munari, U.
    Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Nguyen, A. -T
    Nordlander, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Ocvirk, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.;Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    O'Flaherty, K. S.
    ESA ESTEC, EJR Quartz BV, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Sanz, A. Olias
    ESA ESAC, Server Labs, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Ortiz, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Osorio, J.
    Univ Porto, Fac Ciencias, Dept Matemat, Rua Campo Alegre 687, P-4169007 Oporto, Portugal..
    Oszkiewicz, D.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Fac Phys, Astron Observ Inst, Ul Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland..
    Ouzounis, A.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Palmer, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Park, P.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Pasquato, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Peltzer, C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Peralta, J.
    Peturaud, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, PSL Res Univ, CNRS, GEPI,Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Pieniluoma, T.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Pigozzi, E.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Poels, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Prat, G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CS Syst Informat, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Prod'homme, T.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.;European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Raison, F.
    OPINAS, Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, Giessenbachstr, D-85741 Garching, Germany.;ESA ESAC, Praesepe BV, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Rebordao, J. M.
    Univ Lisbon, Lab Opt Lasers & Syst, Fac Sci, Campus Lumiar,Estr Paco Lumiar 22, P-1649038 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Risquez, D.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Rocca-Volmerange, B.
    UPMC, Sorbonne Univ, F-75014 Paris, France.;Inst Astrophys Paris, CNRS, UMR7095, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Rosen, S.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Surrey RH5 6NT, England.;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Russo, F.
    Osserv Astron Torino, INAF, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy..
    Sembay, S.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Vizcaino, I. Serraller
    ESA ESAC, GMV, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Short, A.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Sci Support Off, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Siebert, A.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.;Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Silva, H.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal..
    Sinachopoulos, D.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    Slezak, E.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote dAzur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Soffel, M.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Sosnowska, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Straizys, V.
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, Sauletekio Al 3, LT-10222 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    ter Linden, M.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo del Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;S&T Corp, POB 608, NL-2600 AP Delft, Netherlands..
    Terrell, D.
    Southwest Res Inst SwRI, Dept Space Studies, 1050 Walnut St,Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 USA..
    Theil, S.
    Inst Space Syst, Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt, Fallturm 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany..
    Tiede, C.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Appl Sci Munich, Karlstr 6, D-80333 Munich, Germany..
    Troisi, L.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento Fis, Via Ric Sci 1, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Tsalmantza, P.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Tur, D.
    Univ Catalunya, Consorci Serv, C Gran Capita 2-4 3rd Floor, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Vaccari, M.
    Univ Western Cape, Dept Phys & Astron, Robert Sobukwe Rd, ZA-7535 Cape Town, South Africa.;INAF Ist Radioastron, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Vachier, F.
    UPMC Univ Paris 06, PSL Res Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Valles, P.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain..
    Van Hamme, W.
    Florida Int Univ, Dept Phys, 11200 SW 8th St, Miami, FL 33199 USA..
    Veltz, L.
    Univ Paris XI, CNRS, Inst Astrophys Spatiale, UMR 8617, Batiment 121, F-91405 Orsay, France.;Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Virtanen, J.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland..
    Wallut, J. -M
    Wichmann, R.
    Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg, Germany..
    Wilkinson, M. I.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Ziaeepour, H.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Zschocke, S.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Gaia Data Release 1 Summary of the astrometric, photometric, and survey properties2016In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 595, article id A2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. At about 1000 days after the launch of Gaia we present the first Gaia data release, Gaia DR1, consisting of astrometry and photometry for over 1 billion sources brighter than magnitude 20.7. Aims. A summary of Gaia DR1 is presented along with illustrations of the scientific quality of the data, followed by a discussion of the limitations due to the preliminary nature of this release. Methods. The raw data collected by Gaia during the first 14 months of the mission have been processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) and turned into an astrometric and photometric catalogue. Results. Gaia DR1 consists of three components: a primary astrometric data set which contains the positions, parallaxes, and mean proper motions for about 2 million of the brightest stars in common with the HIPPARCOS and Tycho-2 catalogues - a realisation of the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) - and a secondary astrometric data set containing the positions for an additional 1.1 billion sources. The second component is the photometric data set, consisting of mean G-band magnitudes for all sources. The G-band light curves and the characteristics of similar to 3000 Cepheid and RR Lyrae stars, observed at high cadence around the south ecliptic pole, form the third component. For the primary astrometric data set the typical uncertainty is about 0.3 mas for the positions and parallaxes, and about 1 mas yr(-1) for the proper motions. A systematic component of similar to 0.3 mas should be added to the parallax uncertainties. For the subset of similar to 94 000 HIPPARCOS stars in the primary data set, the proper motions are much more precise at about 0.06 mas yr(-1). For the secondary astrometric data set, the typical uncertainty of the positions is similar to 10 mas. The median uncertainties on the mean G-band magnitudes range from the mmag level to similar to 0.03 mag over the magnitude range 5 to 20.7. Conclusions. Gaia DR1 is an important milestone ahead of the next Gaia data release, which will feature five-parameter astrometry for all sources. Extensive validation shows that Gaia DR1 represents a major advance in the mapping of the heavens and the availability of basic stellar data that underpin observational astrophysics. Nevertheless, the very preliminary nature of this first Gaia data release does lead to a number of important limitations to the data quality which should be carefully considered before drawing conclusions from the data.

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    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
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    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Ripepi, V.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Marconi, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Muraveva, T.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Garofalo, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.;Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Piero Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Sarro, L. M.
    UNED, Dpto Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Palmer, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Luri, X.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Molinaro, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Rimoldini, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Szabados, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklosut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Musella, I.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Anderson, R. I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, 3400 N Charles St, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Prusti, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    de Bruijne, J. H. J.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Brown, A. G. A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Vallenari, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Babusiaux, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bastian, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Biermann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Evans, D. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Jansen, F.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Mission Operat Div, Operat Dept, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Jordi, C.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Klioner, S. A.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Lammers, U.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Lindegren, L.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Mignard, F.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Panem, C.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Pourbaix, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.;FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium..
    Randich, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Sartoretti, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Siddiqui, H. I.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Soubiran, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Valette, V.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    van Leeuwen, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Walton, N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Aerts, C.
    Arenou, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Cropper, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Drimmel, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Hog, E.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Manes Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Katz, D.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lattanzi, M. G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    O'Mullane, W.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Grebel, E. K.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Holland, A. D.
    Open Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Ctr Elect Imaging, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England..
    Huc, C.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Passot, X.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Perryman, M.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Bramante, L.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Cacciari, C.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Castaneda, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Chaoul, L.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Cheek, N.
    Serco Gestion Negocios, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    De Angeli, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Fabricius, C.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Guerra, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Hernandez, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Masana, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Mowlavi, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Ordonez-Blanco, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Panuzzo, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Portell, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Richards, P. J.
    STFC, Rutherford Appleton Lab, Didcot, Oxon, England..
    Riello, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Tanga, P.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Thevenin, F.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Torra, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Els, S. G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.;ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Gracia-Abril, G.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.;ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Comoretto, G.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Garcia-Reinaldos, M.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Lock, T.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Mercier, E.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.;ESAC, Gaia DPAC Project Off, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Altmann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.;UPMC, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, SYRTE,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Univ, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Andrae, R.
    Astraatmadja, T. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    Benson, K.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Berthier, J.
    UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, IMCCE,PSL Res Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Blomme, R.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Busso, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Carry, B.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France.;UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, IMCCE,PSL Res Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Cellino, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Cowell, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Creevey, O.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France.;Univ Paris XI, CNRS, Inst Astrophys Spatiale, UMR 8617, Batiment 121, F-91405 Orsay, France..
    Cuypers, J.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Davidson, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    De Ridder, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    de Torres, A.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Delchambre, L.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Dell'Oro, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Ducourant, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Fremat, Y.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Garcia-Torres, M.
    Univ Pablo Olavide, Area Lenguajes & Sistemas Informat, Ctra Utrera,Km 1, Seville 141013, Spain..
    Gosset, E.
    FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Halbwachs, J. -L
    Hambly, N. C.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Harrison, D. L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England.;Univ Cambridge, Kavli Inst Cosmol, Madingley Rd, Cambride CB3 OHA, England..
    Hauser, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Hestroffer, D.
    UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, IMCCE,PSL Res Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Hodgkin, S. T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Huckle, H. E.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Hutton, A.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Jasniewicz, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Jordan, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Kontizas, M.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Korn, Anders J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Sezione Astrofis, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.;INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Manteiga, M.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Muinonen, K.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.;Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland..
    Osinde, J.
    Isdefe, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Pancino, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.;ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Petit, J. -M
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Robin, A. C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Siopis, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Smith, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Smith, K. W.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sozzetti, A.
    Thuillot, W.
    UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, IMCCE,PSL Res Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    van Reeven, W.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Viala, Y.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Abbas, U.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Abreu Aramburu, A.
    Elecnor Deimos Space, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Accart, S.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Aguado, J. J.
    UNED, Dpto Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Allan, P. M.
    STFC, Rutherford Appleton Lab, Didcot, Oxon, England..
    Allasia, W.
    EURIX Srl, Via Carcano 26, I-10153 Turin, Italy..
    Altavilla, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Alvarez, M. A.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Alves, J.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria..
    Andrei, A. H.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;UPMC, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, SYRTE,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Univ, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.;ON MCTI BR, Rua Gal Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.;OV UFRJ BR, Ladeira Pedro Antonio 43, BR-20080090 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil..
    Anglada Varela, E.
    Serco Gestion Negocios, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Isdefe, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Antiche, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Antojal, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Anton, S.
    Univ Porto, Dept Matemat Aplicada, Fac Ciencias, Rua Campo Alegre 687, P-4169007 Oporto, Portugal.;Univ Nova, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, Fac Ciencias, P-PT1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Arcay, B.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Bach, N.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Baker, S. G.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Balaguer-Nunez, L.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Barache, C.
    UPMC, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, SYRTE,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Univ, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Barata, C.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Barbier, A.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Barblan, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Barrado y Navascues, D.
    Ctr Astrobiol, Dept Astrofis, CSIC INTA, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Barros, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Barstow, M. A.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Becciani, U.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Bellazzini, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Bello Garcia, A.
    Univ Oviedo, Campus Univ, Gijon 33203, Spain..
    Belokurov, V.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Bendjoya, P.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Berihuete, A.
    Univ Cadiz, Avd Univ, Cadiz 11002, Spain..
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX Srl, Via Carcano 26, I-10153 Turin, Italy..
    Bienayme, O.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astronom Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Billebaud, F.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Blagorodnova, N.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Boch, T.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astronom Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Bombrun, A.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Borrachero, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Bouquillon, S.
    UPMC, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, SYRTE,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Univ, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Bourda, G.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Breddels, M. A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Brouillet, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Bruesemeister, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Bucciarelli, B.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Burgess, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Burgon, R.
    Open Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Ctr Elect Imaging, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, Bucks, England..
    Burlacu, A.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Busonero, D.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Buzzi, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Caffau, E.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Cambras, J.
    Univ Catalunya, Consorci Serv, C Gran Capita,2-4 3rd floor, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Campbell, H.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Cancelliere, R.
    Univ Turin, Dept Comp Sci, Corso Svizzera 185, I-10149 Turin, Italy..
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Carlucci, T.
    UPMC, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, SYRTE,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Univ, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Carrasco, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Castellani, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Charlot, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Charnas, J.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Chiavassa, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Clotet, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Cocozza, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Collins, R. S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Costigan, G.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Crifo, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Cross, N. J. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Crosta, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Crowley, C.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Dafonte, C.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Damerdji, Y.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.;CRAAG, Route Observ BP 63 Bouzareah, Algiers 16340, Algeria..
    Dapergolas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    David, P.
    UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, IMCCE,PSL Res Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    David, M.
    Univ Antwerp, Onderzoeksgroep Toegepaste Wiskunde, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium..
    De Cat, P.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    de Felice, F.
    Univ Padua, Dept Phys & Astron, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua, Italy..
    de Laverny, P.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    De Luise, F.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    De March, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    de Souza, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron, Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Debosscher, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    del Pozo, E.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Delbo, M.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Delgado, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Delgado, H. E.
    UNED, Dpto Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Di Matteo, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Diakite, S.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Distefano, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Dolding, C.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Dos Anjos, S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron, Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Drazinos, P.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Duran, J.
    Isdefe, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Dzigan, Y.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Geosci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.;Univ Amsterdam, Astron Inst Anton Pannekoek, POB 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Edvardsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Enke, H.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Der Stern warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Evans, N. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Bontemps, G. Eynard
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Fabre, C.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, ATOS, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Fabrizio, M.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;INAF, Osservatorio Astron Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    Falcao, A. J.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal..
    Farras Casas, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Federici, L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Fedorets, G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland..
    Fernandez-Hernandez, J.
    Serco Gestion Negocios, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal..
    Fernique, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astronom Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Fienga, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Lab Geoazur, UMR 7329,Observ Cote Azur, 250 Rue A Einstein, F-06560 Valbonne, France..
    Figueras, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Filippi, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Findeisen, K.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Fonti, A.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Fraile, E.
    ESA ESAC, RHEA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Fraser, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Fuchs, J.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondiejov 25165, Czech Republic..
    Gai, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Galleti, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Galluccio, L.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Garabato, D.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Garcia-Sedano, F.
    UNED, Dpto Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Garralda, N.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Gavras, P.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Gerssen, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Der Stern warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Geyer, R.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Girona, S.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, Ctr Nacl Super Computac, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Giuffrida, G.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Gomes, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Gonzalez-Marcos, A.
    Univ La Rioja, Dept Mech Engn, C San Jose Calasanz 31, La Rioja 26004, Spain..
    Gonzalez-Nunez, J.
    Serco Gestion Negocios, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Univ Vigo, ETSE Telecomunicac, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo 36310, Spain..
    Gonzalez-Vidal, J. J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Granvik, M.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland..
    Guerrier, A.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Guillout, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astronom Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France..
    Guiraud, J.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Gurpide, A.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Guy, L. P.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Haigron, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Hatzidimitriou, D.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Haywood, M.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Helmi, A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Hobbs, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Hofmann, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Holl, B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Holland, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Hunt, J. A. S.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England..
    Hypki, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Icardi, V.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Irwin, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    de Fombelle, G. Jevardat
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Jofre, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England.;Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N, F-33615 Pessac, France..
    Jonker, P. G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.;SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Jorissen, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Julbe, F.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Karampelas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Kochoska, A.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Kohley, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Kolenberg, K.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Univ Antwerp, Phys Dept, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium.;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Kontizas, E.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    Koposov, S. E.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Kordopatis, G.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France.;Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Der Stern warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Koubsky, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondiejov 25165, Czech Republic..
    Krone-Martins, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Kudryashova, M.
    UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, IMCCE,PSL Res Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Bachchan, R. K.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Lacoste-Seris, F.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Lanza, A. F.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Lavigne, J. -B
    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.
    UPMC, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, SYRTE,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Univ, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Lebreton, Y.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Univ Rennes 1, Inst Phys Rennes, F-35042 Rennes, France..
    Lebzelter, T.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria..
    Leccia, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy..
    Leclerc, N.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Lecoeur-Taibi, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Lemaitre, V.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Lenhardt, H.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Leroux, F.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Liao, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.;Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China..
    Licata, E.
    EURIX Srl, Via Carcano 26, I-10153 Turin, Italy..
    Lindstrom, H. E. P.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Manes Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.;CSC Danmark A S, Retortvej 8, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark..
    Lister, T. A.
    Las Cumbres Observ, Global Telescope Network Inc, 6740 Cortona Dr,Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 USA..
    Livanou, E.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece..
    Lobel, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Loeffler, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Lopez, M.
    Ctr Astrobiol, Dept Astrofis, CSIC INTA, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Lorenz, D.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria..
    MacDonald, I.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Magalhaes Fernandes, T.
    Managau, S.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Mann, R. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Mantelet, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Marchal, O.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Marchant, J. M.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Marinoni, S.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Marrese, P. M.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Marschalko, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklosut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.;Univ Szeged, Baja Observ, Szegedi 3-70, H-6500 Baja, Hungary..
    Marsha, D. J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CEA Saclay, Serv Astrophys, Lab AIM,IRFU,CEA DSM,CNRS,Bat 709, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Martin-Fleitas, J. M.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Martino, M.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Mary, N.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Matijevic, G.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Der Stern warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    McMillan, P. J.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Messina, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Michalik, D.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Millar, N. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Miranda, B. M. H.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Molina, D.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Molinaro, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Trieste, Via GB Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Molnar, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklosut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Monicz, M.
    Univ Paris 11, Univ Paris Saclay, Lab Accelerateur Lineaire, CNRS IN2P3, F-91898 Orsay, France..
    Montegriffo, P.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Mor, R.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Mora, A.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Morbidelli, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Morgenthaler, S.
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, SB MATHAA STAP, MA B1 473 Batiment MA,Stn 8, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Morris, D.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Mulone, A. F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Narbonne, J.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Nelemans, G.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Nicastro, L.
    INAF, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Noval, L.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Ordenovic, C.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Ordieres-Mere, J.
    Tech Univ Madrid, Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, Madrid 28006, Spain..
    Osborne, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Pagani, C.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Pagano, I.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Pailler, F.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Palacin, H.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Palaversa, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Parsons, P.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Pecoraro, M.
    EURIX Srl, Via Carcano 26, I-10153 Turin, Italy..
    Pedrosa, R.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, EQUERT Int, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Pentikainen, H.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland..
    Pichon, B.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Piersimoni, A. M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    Pineau, F. -X
    Plachy, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklosut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Plum, G.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Poujoulet, E.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, AKKA, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Prsa, A.
    Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA..
    Pulone, L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Ragaini, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Rago, S.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Rambaux, N.
    UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, IMCCE,PSL Res Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Ramos-Lerate, M.
    Vitrociset Belgium, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Ranalli, P.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Rauw, G.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Read, A.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Regibo, S.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium..
    Reyle, C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Ribeiro, R. A.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal..
    Riva, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Rixon, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Roelens, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Romero-Gomez, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Rowell, N.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Royer, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ruiz-Dern, L.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Sadowski, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Selles, T. Sagrista
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Sahlmann, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Salgado, J.
    Isdefe, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Salguero, E.
    Isdefe, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Sarasso, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Savietto, H.
    Fork Res, Rua Cruzado Osberno,Lt 1,9 Esq, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Schultheis, M.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Sciacca, E.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Segol, M.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS, Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Segovia, J. C.
    Serco Gestion Negocios, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Segransan, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Shih, I-C
    Smareglia, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Trieste, Via GB Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Smart, R. L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Solano, E.
    Ctr Astrobiol, Dept Astrofis, CSIC INTA, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Spanish Virtual Observ, San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain..
    Solitro, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Sordo, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Soria Nieto, S.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Souchay, J.
    UPMC, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, SYRTE,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Univ, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Spagna, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Spoto, F.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Stampa, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rech Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Steele, I. A.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    Steidelmueller, H.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Stephenson, C. A.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Stoev, H.
    INAF, Fdn Galileo Galilei, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Brefia Baja 38712, Santa Cruz Tene, Spain..
    Suess, F. F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Suveges, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Surdej, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Szegedi-Elek, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklosut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Tapiador, D.
    ESA ESAC, INSA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;Univ Complutense Madrid, Dpto Arquitectura Comp & Automat, Fac Informat, C-Prof Jose Garcia Santesmases S-N, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Taris, F.
    Tauran, G.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Taylor, M. B.
    Univ Bristol, HH Wills Phys Lab, Tyndall Ave, Bristol BS8 1TL, Avon, England..
    Teixeira, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron, Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil..
    Terrett, D.
    STFC, Rutherford Appleton Lab, Didcot, Oxon, England..
    Tingley, B.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, 120 Ny Munkegade,Bldg 1520, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
    Trager, S. C.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Turon, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Ulla, A.
    Univ Vigo, Appl Phys Dept, Vigo 36310, Spain..
    Utrilla, E.
    ESA ESAC, Aurora Technol, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Valentini, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    van Elteren, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Van Hemelryck, E.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    van Leeuwen, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Varadi, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklosut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Vecchiato, A.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Veljanoski, J.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands..
    Via, T.
    Univ Catalunya, Consorci Serv, C Gran Capita,2-4 3rd floor, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Vicente, D.
    Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, Ctr Nacl Super Computac, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Vogt, S.
    HE Space Operat BV, ESA ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Voss, H.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Votruba, V.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondiejov 25165, Czech Republic..
    Voutsinas, S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Walmsley, G.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Weiler, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Weingrill, K.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Der Stern warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Wevers, T.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys, IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England.;Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland..
    Yoldas, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Zerjal, M.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Zucker, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Geosci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Zurbach, C.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France..
    Zwitter, T.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Alecu, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Allen, M.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Allende Prieto, C.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.;Inst Astrofis Canarias, San Cristobal la Laguna 38205, Tenerife, Spain.;Univ La Laguna, Dept Astrofis, San Cristobal la Laguna 38206, Tenerife, Spain..
    Amorim, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Anglada-Escude, G.
    Arsenijevic, V.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Azaz, S.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Balm, P.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Beck, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Bernsteint, H. -H
    Bigot, L.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Bijaoui, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Blasco, C.
    ESA, ESTEC, RHEA, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Bonfigli, M.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy..
    Bono, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Boudreault, S.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.;Max Planck Inst Solar Syst Res, Justus Von Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Gottingen, Germany..
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy..
    Brown, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Brunet, P. -M
    Bunclark, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Buonanno, R.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Butkevich, A. G.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Carret, C.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, EQUERT Int, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Carrion, C.
    UNED, Dpto Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain..
    Chemin, L.
    Univ Bordeaux, CNRS, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, B18N, F-33615 Pessac, France.;Inst Nacl Pesquisas Espaciais, Minist Ciencia Tecnol, Ave Astronautas 1758, BR-12227010 Sao Jose Dos Campos, SP, Brazil..
    Chereau, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Corcione, L.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Darmigny, E.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    de Boer, K. S.
    Univ Bonn, Argelander Inst Astron, Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany..
    de Teodoro, P.
    Serco Gestion Negocios, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    de Zeeuw, P. T.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.;ESO, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Delle Luche, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Domingues, C. D.
    Univ Lisbon, Fac Sci, Lab Opt Lasers & Syst, Estr Paco Lumiar 22, P-1649038 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Dubath, P.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Fodor, F.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Frezouls, B.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Fries, A.
    Fustes, D.
    Univ A Coruna, Fac Informat, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain..
    Fyfe, D.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Gallardo, E.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Gallegos, J.
    Serco Gestion Negocios, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Gardiol, D.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Gebran, M.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.;Notre Dame Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, POB 72, Zouk Mikael, Lebanon..
    Gomboc, A.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.;Univ Nova Gorica, Vipayska 13, Nova Gorica 5000, Slovenia..
    Gomez, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Grux, E.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Gueguen, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, OPINAS, Giessenbachstr, D-85741 Garching, Germany..
    Heyrovsky, A.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Hoar, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Iannicola, G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy..
    Parache, Y. Isasi
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Janotto, A. -M
    Joliet, E.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;CALTECH, NASA IPAC Infrared Sci Arch, Mail Code 100-22,770 South Wilson Ave, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    Jonckheere, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium..
    Keil, R.
    Univ Bremen, Ctr Appl Space Technol & Micrograv ZARM, Am Fallturm 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;ESA, ESOC, RHEA Syst, Robert Bosch Str 5, D-64293 Darmstadt, Germany..
    Kim, D. -W
    Klagyivik, P.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Observ, Konkoly Thege Miklosut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary..
    Klar, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Der Stern warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Knude, J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Manes Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kochukhov, Oleg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Kolka, I.
    Tartu Observ, EE-61602 Toravere, Estonia..
    Kos, J.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.;Univ Sydney, Sch Phys A28, Sydney Inst Astron, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Kutka, A.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondiejov 25165, Czech Republic.;Slovak Org Space Activ, Zamocka 18, Bratislava 85101, Slovakia..
    Lainey, V.
    UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, IMCCE,PSL Res Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    LeBouquin, D.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Liu, C.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ, Beijing 100012, Peoples R China..
    Loreggia, D.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Makarov, V. V.
    US Naval Observ, Astrometry Dept, 3450 Massachusetts Ave, Washington, DC 20392 USA..
    Marseille, M. G.
    Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Martayan, C.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.;ESO, Alonso Cordova 3107,Casilla 19001, Santiago, Chile..
    Martinez-Rubi, O.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Massart, B.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France.;Ctr Spatial Toulouse, Thales Serv, CNES, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.;Airbus Def & Space SAS, 31 Rue Cosmonautes, F-31402 Toulouse 4, France..
    Meynadier, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.;UPMC, CNRS, Univ Paris 06, SYRTE,Observ Paris,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Univ, 61 Ave Observ, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Mignot, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Munari, U.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Nguyen, A. -T
    Nordlander, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    O'Flaherty, K. S.
    ESA ESTEC, EJR Quartz BV, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Ocvirk, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astronom Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.;Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Der Stern warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Olias Sanz, A.
    ESA ESAC, Server Labs, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid, Spain..
    Ortiz, P.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Osorio, J.
    Univ Porto, Dept Matemat Aplicada, Fac Ciencias, Rua Campo Alegre 687, P-4169007 Oporto, Portugal..
    Oszkiewicz, D.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.;Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Fac Phys, Astron Observ Inst, Ul Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland..
    Ouzounis, A.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Park, P.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Pasquato, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Peltzer, C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England..
    Peralta, J.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Peturaud, F.
    Univ Paris Diderot, Observ Paris, CNRS, GEPI,PSL Res Univ,Sorbonne Paris Cite, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Pieniluoma, T.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland..
    Pigozzi, E.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy..
    Poels, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c,Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium..
    Prat, G.
    CS Syst Informat CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France..
    Prod'homme, T.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.;European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands..
    Raison, F.
    Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, OPINAS, Giessenbachstr, D-85741 Garching, Germany.;ESA ESAC, Praesepe BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Rebordao, J. M.
    Univ Lisbon, Fac Sci, Lab Opt Lasers & Syst, Estr Paco Lumiar 22, P-1649038 Lisbon, Portugal..
    Risquez, D.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Rocca-Volmerange, B.
    Sorbonne Univ UPMC, CNRS, UMR7095, Inst Astrophys Paris, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Rosen, S.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Russo, F.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy..
    Serraller Vizcaino, I.
    ESA ESAC, GMV, Camino bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain..
    Short, A.
    Siebert, A.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, Observ Astronom Strasbourg, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.;Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Der Stern warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Silva, H.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal..
    Sinachopoulos, D.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece..
    Slezak, E.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Lab Lagrange, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice, France..
    Soffel, M.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Sosnowska, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Straizys, V.
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, Sauletekio 3, LT-10222 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    ter Linden, M.
    ESA ESAC, HE Space Operat BV, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.;S&T Corp, POB 608, NL-2600 AP Delft, Netherlands..
    Terrell, D.
    Southwest Res Inst SwRI, Dept Space Studies, 1050 Walnut St,Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 USA..
    Theil, S.
    Deutsch Zentrum Luft & Raumfahrt, Inst Space Syst, Fallturm 1, D-28359 Bremen, Germany..
    Tiede, C.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Appl Sci Munich, Karlstr 6, D-80333 Munich, Germany..
    Troisi, L.
    ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.;Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento Fis, Via Ric Sci 1, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Tsalmantza, P.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Tur, D.
    Univ Catalunya, Consorci Serv, C Gran Capita,2-4 3rd floor, Barcelona 08034, Spain..
    Vaccari, M.
    Univ Western Cape, Dept Phys & Astron, Robert Sobukwe Rd, ZA-7535 Cape Town, South Africa.;INAF, Ist Radioastron, Via Piero Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Vachier, F.
    UPMC, Univ Paris 06, Observ Paris, IMCCE,PSL Res Univ,CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,Univ Lille, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France..
    Valles, P.
    Univ Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, IEEC UB, Marti Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain..
    Van Hamme, W.
    Florida Int Univ, Dept Phys, 11200 SW 8th St, Miami, FL 33199 USA..
    Veltz, L.
    Univ Paris XI, CNRS, Inst Astrophys Spatiale, UMR 8617, Batiment 121, F-91405 Orsay, France.;Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, An Der Stern warte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Virtanen, J.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.;Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland..
    Wallut, J. -M
    Wichmann, R.
    Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg, Germany..
    Wilkinson, M. I.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 OHA, England.;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Ziaeepour, H.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France..
    Zschocke, S.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany..
    Testing parallaxes with local Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars2017In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 605, article id A79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Parallaxes for 331 classical Cepheids, 31 Type II Cepheids, and 364 RR Lyrae stars in common between Gaia and the HIPPARCOS and Tycho-2 catalogues are published in Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) as part of the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS). Aims. In order to test these first parallax measurements of the primary standard candles of the cosmological distance ladder, which involve astrometry collected by Gaia during the initial 14 months of science operation, we compared them with literature estimates and derived new period-luminosity (PL), period-Wesenheit (PW) relations for classical and Type II Cepheids and infrared PL, PL-metallicity (PLZ), and optical luminosity-metallicity (MV-[Fe/H]) relations for the RR Lyrae stars, with zero points based on TGAS.

    Methods. Classical Cepheids were carefully selected in order to discard known or suspected binary systems. The final sample comprises 102 fundamental mode pulsators with periods ranging from 1.68 to 51.66 days (of which 33 with sigma(omega)/omega < 0 : 5). The Type II Cepheids include a total of 26 W Virginis and BL Herculis stars spanning the period range from 1.16 to 30.00 days (of which only 7 with sigma(omega)/omega 0 : 5). The RR Lyrae stars include 200 sources with pulsation period ranging from 0.27 to 0.80 days (of which 112 with sigma(omega)/omega < 0 : 5). The new relations were computed using multi- band (V; I; J; K-s) photometry and spectroscopic metal abundances available in the literature, and by applying three alternative approaches: (i) linear least-squares fitting of the absolute magnitudes inferred from direct transformation of the TGAS parallaxes; (ii) adopting astrometry-based luminosities; and (iii) using a Bayesian fitting approach. The last two methods work in parallax space where parallaxes are used directly, thus maintaining symmetrical errors and allowing negative parallaxes to be used. The TGAS-based PL; PW; PLZ, and MV [Fe/H] relations are discussed by comparing the distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud provided by different types of pulsating stars and alternative fitting methods.

    Results. Good agreement is found from direct comparison of the parallaxes of RR Lyrae stars for which both TGAS and HST measurements are available. Similarly, very good agreement is found between the TGAS values and the parallaxes inferred from the absolute magnitudes of Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars analysed with the Baade-Wesselink method. TGAS values also compare favourably with the parallaxes inferred by theoretical model fitting of the multi-band light curves for two of the three classical Cepheids and one RR Lyrae star, which were analysed with this technique in our samples. The K-band PL relations show the significant improvement of the TGAS parallaxes for Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars with respect to the HIPPARCOS measurements. This is particularly true for the RR Lyrae stars for which improvement in quality and statistics is impressive.

    Conclusions. TGAS parallaxes bring a significant added value to the previous HIPPARCOS estimates. The relations presented in this paper represent the first Gaia-calibrated relations and form a work-in-progress milestone report in the wait for Gaia-only parallaxes of which a first solution will become available with Gaia Data Release 2 (DR2) in 2018.

  • 11. De Jong, R. S.
    et al.
    Bellido-Tirado, O.
    Chiappini, C.
    Depagne, É.
    Haynes, R.
    Johl, D.
    Schnurr, O.
    Schwope, A.
    Walcher, J.
    Dionies, F.
    Haynes, D.
    Kelz, A.
    Kitaura, F. S.
    Lamer, G.
    Minchev, I.
    Müller, V.
    Nuza, S. E.
    Olaya, J. -C
    Piffl, T.
    Popow, E.
    Steinmetz, M.
    Ural, U.
    Williams, M.
    Winkler, R.
    Wisotzki, L.
    Ansorge, W. R.
    Banerji, M.
    Solares, E. G.
    Irwin, M.
    Kennicutt Jr., R. C.
    King, D.
    McMahon, R.
    Koposov, S.
    Parry, I. R.
    Sun, D.
    Walton, N. A.
    Finger, G.
    Iwert, O.
    Krumpe, M.
    Lizon, J. -L
    Vincenzo, M.
    Amans, J. -P
    Bonifacio, P.
    Cohen, M.
    Francois, P.
    Jagourel, P.
    Mignot, S. B.
    Royer, F.
    Sartoretti, P.
    Bender, R.
    Grupp, F.
    Hess, H. -J
    Lang-Bardl, F.
    Muschielok, B.
    Böhringer, H.
    Boller, T.
    Bongiorno, A.
    Brusa, M.
    Dwelly, T.
    Merloni, A.
    Nandra, K.
    Salvato, M.
    Pragt, J. H.
    Navarro, R.
    Gerlofsma, G.
    Roelfsema, R.
    Dalton, G. B.
    Middleton, K. F.
    Tosh, I. A.
    Boeche, C.
    Caffau, E.
    Christlieb, N.
    Grebel, E. K.
    Hansen, C.
    Koch, A.
    Ludwig, H. -G
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Sbordone, L.
    Seifert, W.
    Thimm, G.
    Trifonov, T.
    Helmi, A.
    Trager, S. C.
    Feltzing, S.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Boland, W.
    4MOST - 4-metre multi-object spectroscopic telescope2012In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 2012, p. 84460T-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 4MOST consortium is currently halfway through a Conceptual Design study for ESO with the aim to develop a wide-field (>3 square degree, goal >5 square degree), high-multiplex (>1500 fibres, goal 3000 fibres) spectroscopic survey facility for an ESO 4m-class telescope (VISTA). 4MOST will run permanently on the telescope to perform a 5 year public survey yielding more than 20 million spectra at resolution R∼5000 (λ=390-1000 nm) and more than 2 million spectra at R∼20,000 (395-456.5 nm & 587-673 nm). The 4MOST design is especially intended to complement three key all-sky, space-based observatories of prime European interest: Gaia, eROSITA and Euclid. Initial design and performance estimates for the wide-field corrector concepts are presented. Two fibre positioner concepts are being considered for 4MOST. The first one is a Phi-Theta system similar to ones used on existing and planned facilities. The second one is a new R-Theta concept with large patrol area. Both positioner concepts effectively address the issues of fibre focus and pupil pointing. The 4MOST spectrographs are fixed configuration two-arm spectrographs, with dedicated spectrographs for the high- and low-resolution fibres. A full facility simulator is being developed to guide trade-off decisions regarding the optimal field-of-view, number of fibres needed, and the relative fraction of high-to-low resolution fibres. The simulator takes mock catalogues with template spectra from Design Reference Surveys as starting point, calculates the output spectra based on a throughput simulator, assigns targets to fibres based on the capabilities of the fibre positioner designs, and calculates the required survey time by tiling the fields on the sky. The 4MOST consortium aims to deliver the full 4MOST facility by the end of 2018 and start delivering high-level data products for both consortium and ESO community targets a year later with yearly increments.

  • 12. de Jong, Roelof S.
    et al.
    Barden, Sam
    Bellido-Tirado, Olga
    Brynnel, Joar
    Chiappini, Cristina
    Depagne, Eric
    Haynes, Roger
    Johl, Diane
    Phillips, Daniel P.
    Schnurr, Olivier
    Schwope, Axel
    Walcher, Jakob
    Bauer, Svend-Marian
    Cescutti, Gabriele
    Cioni, Maria-Rosa
    Dionies, Frank
    Enke, Harry
    Haynes, Dionne
    Kelz, Andreas
    Kitaura, Francisco S.
    Lamer, Georg
    Minchev, Ivan
    Mueler, Volker
    Nuza, Sebastian E.
    Olaya, Jean-Christophe
    Piffl, Tilman
    Popow, Emil
    Saviauk, Allar
    Steinmetz, Matthias
    Ural, Ugur
    Valentini, Monica
    Winkler, Roland
    Wisotzki, Lutz
    Ansorge, Wolfgang R.
    Banerji, Manda
    Solares, Eduardo Gonzalez
    Irwin, Mike
    Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.
    King, David
    McMahon, Richard
    Koposov, Sergey
    Parry, Ian R.
    Sun, Xiaowei
    Walton, Nicholas A.
    Finger, Gert
    Iwert, Olaf
    Krumpe, Mirko
    Lizon, Jean-Louis
    Mainieri, Vincenzo
    Amans, Jean-Philippe
    Bonifacio, Piercarlo
    Cohen, Mathieu
    Francois, Patrick
    Jagourel, Pascal
    Mignot, Shan B.
    Royer, Frederic
    Sartoretti, Paola
    Bender, Ralf
    Hess, Hans-Joachim
    Lang-Bardl, Florian
    Muschielok, Bernard
    Schlichter, Jorg
    Bohringer, Hans
    Boller, Thomas
    Bongiorno, Angela
    Brusa, Marcella
    Dwelly, Tom
    Merloni, Andrea
    Nandra, Kirpal
    Salvato, Mara
    Pragt, Johannes H.
    Navarro, Ramon
    Gerlofsma, Gerrit
    Roelfsema, Ronald
    Dalton, Gavin B.
    Middleton, Kevin F.
    Tosh, Ian A.
    Boeche, Corrado
    Caffau, Elisabetta
    Chistlieb, Norbert
    Grebel, Eva K.
    Hansen, Camilla J.
    Koch, Andreas
    Ludwig, Hans-G.
    Mandel, Holger
    Quirrenbach, Andreas
    Sbordone, Luca
    Seifert, Walter
    Thimm, Guido
    Helmi, Amina
    Trager, Scott C.
    Bensby, Thomas
    Feltzing, Sofia
    Ruchti, Gregory
    Edvardsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Lind, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Boland, Wilfried
    Colless, Matthew
    Frost, Gabriella
    Gilbert, James
    Gillingham, Peter
    Lawrence, Jon
    Legg, Neville
    Saunders, Will
    Sheinis, Andrew
    Driver, Simon
    Robotham, Aaron
    Bacon, Roland
    Caillier, Patrick
    Kosmalski, Johan
    Laurent, Florence
    Richard, Johan
    4MOST-4-metre Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope2014In: GROUND-BASED AND AIRBORNE INSTRUMENTATION FOR ASTRONOMY V, 2014, Vol. 9147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    4MOST is a wide-field, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility under development for the VISTA telescope of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Its main science drivers are in the fields of galactic archeology, high-energy physics, galaxy evolution and cosmology. 4MOST will in particular provide the spectroscopic complements to the large area surveys coming from space missions like Gaia, eROSITA, Euclid, and PLATO and from ground-based facilities like VISTA, VST, DES, LSST and SKA. The 4MOST baseline concept features a 2.5 degree diameter field-of-view with similar to 2400 fibres in the focal surface that are configured by a fibre positioner based on the tilting spine principle. The fibres feed two types of spectrographs; similar to 1600 fibres go to two spectrographs with resolution R> 5000 (lambda similar to 390-930 nm) and similar to 800 fibres to a spectrograph with R> 18,000 (lambda similar to 392-437 nm & 515-572 nm & 605-675 nm). Both types of spectrographs are fixed-configuration, three-channel spectrographs. 4MOST will have an unique operations concept in which 5 year public surveys from both the consortium and the ESO community will be combined and observed in parallel during each exposure, resulting in more than 25 million spectra of targets spread over a large fraction of the southern sky. The 4MOST Facility Simulator (4FS) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of this observing concept. 4MOST has been accepted for implementation by ESO with operations expected to start by the end of 2020. This paper provides a top-level overview of the 4MOST facility, while other papers in these proceedings provide more detailed descriptions of the instrument concept[1], the instrument requirements development[2], the systems engineering implementation[3], the instrument model[4], the fibre positioner concepts[5], the fibre feed[6], and the spectrographs[7].

  • 13. De Ridder, J.
    et al.
    Telting, J. H.
    Balona, L. A.
    Handler, G.
    Briquet, M.
    Daszyńska-Daszkiewicz, J.
    Lefever, K.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Astronomy and Space Physics.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Astronomy and Space Physics.
    Aerts, C.
    Asteroseismology of the β Cephei star ν Eridani: III. Extended frequency analysis and mode identification2004In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 351, p. 324-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Distefano, E.
    et al.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    Lanza, A. F.
    Messina, S.
    Korn, Andreas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Cuypers, J.
    Determination of rotation periods in solar-like stars with irregular sampling: the Gaia case2012In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 421, no 4, p. 2774-2785Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study on the determination of rotation periods (P) of solar-like stars from the photometric irregular time sampling of the European Space Agency Gaia mission, currently scheduled for launch in 2013, taking into account its dependence on ecliptic coordinates. We examine the case of solar twins as well as thousands of synthetic time series of solar-like stars rotating faster than the Sun. In the case of solar twins, we assume that the Gaia unfiltered photometric passband G will mimic the variability of the total solar irradiance as measured by the Variability of solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations (VIRGO) experiment. For stars rotating faster than the Sun, light curves are simulated using synthetic spectra for the quiet atmosphere, the spots and the faculae combined by applying semi-empirical relationships relating the level of photospheric magnetic activity to the stellar rotation and the Gaia instrumental response. The capabilities of the Deeming, LombScargle and phase dispersion minimization methods in recovering the correct rotation periods are tested and compared. The false alarm probability is computed using Monte Carlo simulations and compared with analytical formulae. The Gaia scanning law makes the rate of correct detection of rotation periods strongly dependent on the ecliptic latitude (beta). We find that for P? 1 d, the rate of correct detection increases with beta from 2030 per cent at beta? 0 to a peak of 70 per cent at beta= 45 degrees; then it abruptly falls below 10 per cent at beta > 45 degrees. For P > 5 d, the rate of correct detection is quite low and for solar twins is only 5 per cent on average.

  • 15. Donati, P.
    et al.
    Gaudin, T. Cantat
    Bragaglia, A.
    Friel, E.
    Magrini, L.
    Smiljanic, R.
    Vallenari, A.
    Tosi, M.
    Sordo, R.
    Tautvaisiene, G.
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Costado, M. T.
    Geisler, D.
    Klutsch, A.
    Mowlavi, N.
    Munoz, C.
    San Roman, I.
    Zaggia, S.
    Gilmore, G.
    Randich, S.
    Bensby, T.
    Flaccomio, E.
    Koposov, S. E.
    Korn, Andreas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Pancino, E.
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Franciosini, E.
    de Laverny, P.
    Lewis, J.
    Morbidelli, L.
    Prisinzano, L.
    Sacco, G.
    Worley, C. C.
    Hourihane, A.
    Jofre, P.
    Lardo, C.
    Maiorca, E.
    The Gaia-ESO Survey: Reevaluation of the parameters of the open cluster Trumpler 20 using photometry and spectroscopy2014In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 561, p. A94-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trumpler 20 is an old open cluster (OC) located toward the Galactic centre, at about 3 kpc from the Sun and similar to 7 kpc from the Galactic centre. Its position makes this cluster particularly interesting in the framework of the chemical properties of the Galactic disc because very few old OCs reside in the inner part of the disc. For this reason it has been selected as a cluster target of the Gaia-ESO Survey, and spectra of many stars in the main-sequence and red-clump phases are now available. Moreover, although it has been studied by several authors in the past, no consensus on the evolutionary status of Tr 20 has been reached. The heavy contamination of field stars (the line of sight of Tr 20 crosses the Carina spiral arm) complicates a correct interpretation. Another interesting aspect of the cluster is that it shows a broadened main-sequence turn-off and a prominent and extended red-clump, characteristics that are not easily explained by classical evolutionary models. Exploiting both spectroscopic information from the Gaia-ESO Survey (and the ESO archive) and literature photometry, we obtain a detailed and accurate analysis of the properties of the cluster. We make use of the first accurate metallicity measurement ever obtained from several spectra of red clump stars, and of cluster membership determination using radial velocities. According to the evolutionary models adopted, we find that Tr 20 has an age in the range 1.35-1.66 Gyr, an average reddening E(B - V) in the range 0.31-0.35 mag, and a distance modulus (m - M)(0) between 12.64 and 12.72 mag. The spectroscopic metallicity is [Fe/H] = +0.17 dex. We discuss the structural properties of the object and constrain possible hypotheses for its broadened upper main sequence by estimating the effect of differential reddening and its extended red clump.

  • 16.
    Franchini, Mariagrazia
    et al.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Trieste, Via GB Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Morossi, Carlo
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Trieste, Via GB Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Di Marcantonio, Paolo
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Trieste, Via GB Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy..
    Chavez, Miguel
    Inst Nacl Astrofis Opt & Electr, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Puebla 72840, Mexico..
    Gilmore, Gerry
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Randich, Sofia
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Flaccomio, Ettore
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Palermo, Piazza Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo, Italy..
    Koposov, Sergey E.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Carnegie Mellon Univ, Dept Phys, McWilliams Ctr Cosmol, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA..
    Korn, Andreas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Bayo, Amelia
    Univ Valparaiso, Fac Ciencias, Inst Fis & Astron, Gran Bretana 1111, Playa Ancha, Chile..
    Carraro, Giovanni
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Vicolo Osserv 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Casey, Andy
    Monash Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, Monash Ctr Astrophys, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Franciosini, Elena
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Hourihane, Anna
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Jofre, Paula
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Diego Port, Fac Ingn, Nucl Astron, Av Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile..
    Lardo, Carmela
    EPFL, Lab Astrophys, Observ Sauverny, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Lewis, James
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Magrini, Laura
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Morbidelli, Lorenzo
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Sacco, G. G.
    INAF, Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Worley, Clare
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Zwitter, Tomaz
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia..
    Gaia-ESO Survey: INTRIGOSS-A New Library of High-resolution Synthetic Spectra2018In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 862, no 2, article id 146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a high-resolution synthetic spectral library, INTRIGOSS, designed for studying FGK stars. The library is based on atmosphere models computed with specified individual element abundances via ATLAS12 code. Normalized SPectra (NSPs) and surface Flux SPectra (FSP) in the wavelength range 4830-5400 angstrom were computed with the SPECTRUM code. INTRIGOSS uses the solar composition of Grevesse et al. and four [alpha/Fe] abundance ratios, and consists of 15,232 spectra. The synthetic spectra are computed with astrophysical gf-values derived by comparing synthetic predictions with a solar spectrum of very high signal-to-noise ratio and the UVES-U580 spectra of five cool giants. The validity of the NSPs is assessed by using the UVES-U580 spectra of 2212 stars observed in the framework of the Gaia-ESO (European Southern Observatory) survey and characterized by homogeneous and accurate atmospheric parameter values and by detailed chemical compositions. The greater accuracy of NSPs with respect to spectra from the synthetic spectral libraries AMBRE, GES_Grid, PHOENIX, C14, and B17 is demonstrated by evaluating the consistency of the predictions of the different libraries for stars in the UVES-U580 sample. The validity of the FSPs is checked by comparing their prediction with both the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) and spectral indices. The comparison of FSPs with SEDs derived from the libraries ELODIE, INDO-U.S., and MILES indicates that the former reproduce the observed flux distributions within a few per cent and without any systematic trend. The good agreement between observational and synthetic Lick/SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) indices shows that the predicted blanketing of FSPs well reproduces the observed one, thus confirming the reliability of INTRIGOSS FSPs.

  • 17. Friel, E. D.
    et al.
    Donati, P.
    Bragaglia, A.
    Jacobson, H. R.
    Magrini, L.
    Prisinzano, L.
    Randich, S.
    Tosi, M.
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    Vallenari, A.
    Smiljanic, R.
    Carraro, G.
    Sordo, R.
    Maiorca, E.
    Tautvaisiene, G.
    Sestito, P.
    Zaggia, S.
    Jimenez-Estebae, F. M.
    Gilmore, G.
    Jeffries, R. D.
    Alfaro, E.
    Bensby, T.
    Koposov, S. E.
    Korn, Andreas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Pancino, E.
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Franciosini, E.
    Hill, V.
    Jackson, R. J.
    de laverny, P.
    Morbidelli, L.
    Sacco, G. G.
    Worley, C. C.
    Hourihane, A.
    Costado, M. T.
    Jofre, P.
    Lind, K.
    Gaia-ESO Survey: Properties of the intermediate age open cluster NGC 48152014In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 563, p. A117-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. NGC 4815 is a populous similar to 500 Myr open cluster at R-gc similar to 7 kpc observed in the first six months of the Gaia-ESO Survey. Located in the inner Galactic disk, NGC 4815 is an important potential tracer of the abundance gradient, where relatively few intermediate age open clusters are found. Aims. The Gaia-ESO Survey data can provide an improved characterization of the cluster properties, such as age, distance, reddening, and abundance profile. Methods. We use the survey derived radial velocities, stellar atmospheric parameters, metallicity, and elemental abundances for stars targeted as potential members of this cluster to carry out an analysis of cluster properties. The radial velocity distribution of stars in the cluster field is used to define the cluster systemic velocity and derive likely cluster membership for stars observed by the Gaia-ESO Survey. We investigate the distributions of Fe and Fe-peak elements, alpha-elements, and the light elements Na and Al and characterize the cluster's internal chemical homogeneity comparing it to the properties of radial velocity non-member stars. Utilizing these cluster properties, the cluster color-magnitude diagram is analyzed and theoretical isochrones are fit to derive cluster reddening, distance, and age. Results. NGC 4815 is found to have a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.03 +/- 0.05 dex (s.d.). Elemental abundances of cluster members show typically very small internal variation, with internal dispersions of similar to 0.05 dex. The alpha-elements [Ca/Fe] and [Si/Fe] show solar ratios, but [Mg/Fe] is moderately enhanced, while [Ti/Fe] appears slightly deficient. As with many open clusters, the light elements [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] are enhanced, [Na/Fe] significantly so, although the role of internal mixing and the assumption of local thermodynamical equilibrium in the analysis remain to be investigated. From isochrone fits to color-magnitude diagrams, we find a cluster age of 0.5 to 0.63 Gyr, a reddening of E(B-V) = 0.59 to 0.65, and a distance modulus (m -M)(0) = 11.95 to 12.20, depending on the choice of theoretical models, leading to a Galactocentric distance of 6.9 kpc.

  • 18.
    Fu, X.
    et al.
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.;INAF Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Romano, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Mucciarelli, A.
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.;INAF Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Lind, K.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Delgado Mena, E.
    Univ Porto, Inst Astrofis & Cencias Espaco, CAUP, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Porto, Portugal..
    Sousa, S. G.
    Univ Porto, Inst Astrofis & Cencias Espaco, CAUP, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Porto, Portugal..
    Randich, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA Int Sch Adv Studies, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy..
    Sbordone, L.
    European Southern Observ, Alonso de Cordova 3107 Vitacura, Santiago, Chile..
    Martell, S.
    Univ New South Wales Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Abia, C.
    Univ Granada, Dept Fis Teor & Cosmos, E-18071 Granada, Spain..
    Smiljanic, R.
    Polish Acad Sci, Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Ul Bartycka 18, PL-00716 Warsaw, Poland..
    Jofre, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Univ Diego Portales, Nucleo Astron, Ejercito 441, Santiago, Chile..
    Pancino, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Tautvaisiene, G.
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, Sauletekio Ave 3, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Tang, B.
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Concepcion 3349001, Chile..
    Magrini, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Sez Astrofis, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Carraro, G.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Bensby, T.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Damiani, F.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Palermo, Piazza Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo, Italy..
    Alfaro, E. J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Apdo 3004, E-18080 Granada, Spain..
    Flaccomio, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Palermo, Piazza Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo, Italy..
    Morbidelli, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Zaggia, S.
    INAF Padova Observ, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Lardo, C.
    EPFL, Observ Sauverny, Astrophys Lab, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland..
    Monaco, L.
    Univ Andres Bello, Dept Ciencias Fis, Fernandez Concha 700, Santiago, Chile..
    Frasca, A.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Sez Astrofis, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Donati, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Bologna, Via Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy..
    Drazdauskas, A.
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, Sauletekio Ave 3, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Chorniy, Y.
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, Sauletekio Ave 3, LT-10257 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Bayo, A.
    Univ Valparaiso, Inst Fis & Astron, Valparaiso, Chile..
    Kordopatis, G.
    CNRS, Observ Cote Azur, Lab Lagrange, UMR 7293, Nice 04, France..
    The Gaia-ESO Survey: Lithium enrichment histories of the Galactic thick and thin disc2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 610, article id A38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium abundance in most of the warm metal-poor main sequence stars shows a constarnt plateau (A(Li) similar to 2.2 dex) and then the upper envelope of the lithium vs. metallicity distribution increases as we approach solar metallicity. Meteorites, which carry information about the chemical composition of the interstellar medium (ISM) at the solar system formation time, show a lithium abundance A(Li) similar to 3.26 dex. This pattern reflects the Li enrichment history of the ISM during the Galaxy lifetime. After the initial Li production in big bang nucleosynthesis, the sources of the enrichment include asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, low-mass red giants, novae, type II supernovae, and Galactic cosmic rays. The total amount of enriched Li is sensitive to the relative contribution of these sources. Thus different Li enrichment histories are expected in the Galactic thick and thin disc. We investigate the main sequence stars observed with UVES in Gaia-ESO Survey iDR4 catalogue and find a Li[alpha/Fe] anticorrelation independent of [Fe/H], T-eff, and log(g). Since in stellar evolution different alpha enhancements at the same metallicity do not lead to a measurable Li abundance change, the anticorrelation indicates that more Li is produced during the Galactic thin disc phase than during the Galactic thick disc phase. We also find a correlation between the abundance of Li and s-process elements Ba and Y, and they both decrease above the solar metallicity, which can be explained in the framework of the adopted Galactic chemical evolution models.

  • 19. Gilmore, G.
    et al.
    Randich, S.
    Asplund, M.
    Binney, J.
    Bonifacio, P.
    Drew, J.
    Feltzing, S.
    Ferguson, A.
    Jeffries, R.
    Micela, G.
    Negueruela, I.
    Prusti, T.
    Rix, H. -W
    Vallenari, A.
    Alfaro, E.
    Allende-Prieto, C.
    Babusiaux, C.
    Bensby, T.
    Blomme, R.
    Bragaglia, A.
    Flaccomio, E.
    Fran\c cois, P.
    Irwin, M.
    Koposov, S.
    Korn, A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Lanzafame, A.
    Pancino, E.
    Paunzen, E.
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Sacco, G.
    Smiljanic, R.
    Van Eck, S.
    Walton, N.
    The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey2012In: The Messenger, ISSN 0254-4423, Vol. 147, p. 25-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey has begun and will obtain high quality spectroscopy of some 100000 Milky Way stars, in the field and in open clusters, down to magnitude 19, systematically covering all the major components of the Milky Way. This survey will provide the first homogeneous overview of the distributions of kinematics and chemical element abundances in the Galaxy. The motivation, organisation and implementation of the Gaia-ESO Survey are described, emphasising the complementarity with the ESA Gaia mission. Spectra from the very first observing run of the survey are presented.

  • 20.
    Gruyters, Pieter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Korn, Andreas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Richard, O.
    Grundahl, F.
    Collet, R.
    Mashonkina, L. I.
    Osorio, Yeisson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Barklem, P. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Atomic diffusion and mixing in old stars IV. Weak abundance trends in the globular cluster NGC67522013In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 555, p. A31-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Atomic diffusion in stars can create systematic trends of surface abundances with evolutionary stage. Globular clusters off er useful laboratories to put observational constraints on this theory as one needs to compare abundances in unevolved and evolved stars, all drawn from the same stellar population. Aims. Atomic diffusion and additional mixing has been shown to be at work in the globular cluster NGC6397 at a metallicity of [Fe/H] similar to -2.1. We investigate possible abundance trends in Li, Mg, Ca, Ti, Sc, and Fe with evolutionary stage in another globular cluster NGC6752 at a metallicity of [Fe/H] similar to -1.6. This in order to better constrain stellar structure models including atomic diffusion and additional mixing. Methods. We performed a differential abundance analysis on VLT/FLAMES-UVES data of 16 stars in four groups between the turnoff point and the red giant branch. Continuum normalisation of the stellar spectra was performed in an automated way using DAOSPEC. Differential abundances relative to the sun were derived by fitting synthetic spectra to individual lines in the stellar spectrum. Results. We find weak systematic abundance trends with evolutionary phase for Fe, Sc, Ti, and Ca. The individual trends are weaker than the trends in NGC6397 and only significant at the 1-sigma level. However, the combined trend shows a significance on the 2-sigma level. The trends are best explained by stellar-structure models including atomic diffusion with more efficient additional mixing than needed in NGC6397. The model allows to correct for sub-primordial stellar lithium abundances of the stars on the Spite plateau. Conclusions. Abundance trends for groups of elements, differently affected by atomic diffusion and additional mixing, are identified. Although the significance of the trends is weak, they all seem to indicate that atomic diffusion is operational along the evolutionary sequence of NGC6752. The trends are weaker than those observed in NGC6397, which is perhaps due to more efficient mixing. Using models of atomic diffusion including efficient additional mixing, we find a diffusion-corrected primordial lithium abundance of log epsilon(Li) = 2.58 +/- 0.10, in agreement with WMAP-calibrated Big-Bang nucleosynthesis predictions within the mutual 1-sigma uncertainties.

  • 21.
    Gruyters, Pieter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Lind, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Richard, Olivier
    Univ Montpellier, CNRS, LUPM, CC072,Pl E Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Grundahl, Frank
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Asplund, Martin
    Australian Natl Univ, Mt Stromlo Observ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Weston, ACT 2611, Australia..
    Casagrande, Luca
    Australian Natl Univ, Mt Stromlo Observ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Weston, ACT 2611, Australia..
    Charbonnel, Corinne
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.;Univ Toulouse, CNRS UMR 5277, IRAP, 14 Ave E Belin, F-31400 Toulouse, France..
    Milone, Antonino
    Australian Natl Univ, Mt Stromlo Observ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Weston, ACT 2611, Australia..
    Primas, Francesca
    European So Observ, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Korn, Andreas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Atomic diffusion and mixing in old stars VI. The lithium content of M302016In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 589, article id A61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The prediction of the Planck-constrained primordial lithium abundance in the Universe is in discordance with the observed Li abundances in warm Population II dwarf and subgiant stars. Among the physically best motivated ideas, it has been suggested that this discrepancy can be alleviated if the stars observed today had undergone photospheric depletion of lithium.

    Aims. The cause of this depletion is investigated by accurately tracing the behaviour of the lithium abundances as a function of effective temperature. Globular clusters are ideal laboratories for such an abundance analysis as the relative stellar parameters of their stars can be precisely determined.

    Methods. We performed a homogeneous chemical abundance analysis of 144 stars in the metal-poor globular cluster M30, ranging from the cluster turnoff point to the tip of the red giant branch. Non-local thermal equilibrium (NLTE) abundances for Li, Ca, and Fe were derived where possible by fitting spectra obtained with VLT/FLAMES-GIRAFFE using the quantitative-spectroscopy package SME. Stellar parameters were derived by matching isochrones to the observed V vs. V I colour-magnitude diagram. Independent effective temperatures were obtained from automated profile fitting of the Balmer lines and by applying colour-T-eff calibrations to the broadband photometry.

    Results. Li abundances of the turno ff and early subgiant stars form a thin plateau that is broken off abruptly in the middle of the SGB as a result of the onset of Li dilution caused by the first dredge-up. Abundance trends with effective temperature for Fe and Ca are observed and compared to predictions from stellar structure models including atomic diffusion and ad hoc additional mixing below the surface convection zone. The comparison shows that the stars in M30 are affected by atomic diffusion and additional mixing, but we were unable to determine the efficiency of the additional mixing precisely. This is the fourth globular cluster (after NGC6397, NGC6752, and M4) in which atomic diffusion signatures are detected. After applying a conservative correction (T6.0 model) for atomic diffusion, we find an initial Li abundance of A(Li) = 2.48 +/- 0.10 for the globular cluster M30. We also detected a Li-rich SGB star with a Li abundance of A(Li) = 2.39. The finding makes Li-rich mass transfer a likely scenario for this star and rules out models in which its Li enhancement is created during the RGB bump phase.

  • 22.
    Gruyters, Pieter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Nordlander, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Atomic diffusion and mixing in old stars V: A deeper look into the globular cluster NGC67522014In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 567, p. A72-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Abundance trends in heavier elements with evolutionary phase have been shown to exist in the globular cluster NGC6752 ([Fe/H] = −1.6). These trends are a result of atomic diffusion and additional (non-convective) mixing. Studying such trends can provide us with important constraints on the extent to which diffusion modifies the internal structure and surface abundances of solartype, metal-poor stars.

    Aims. Taking advantage of a larger data sample, we investigate the reality and the size of these abundance trends and address questions and potential biases associated with the various stellar populations that make up NGC6752.

    Methods. We perform an abundance analysis by combining photometric and spectroscopic data of 194 stars located between the turnoff point and the base of the red giant branch. Stellar parameters are derived from ubvy Strömgren photometry. Using the quantitative-spectroscopy package SME, stellar surface abundances for light elements such as Li, Na, Mg, Al, and Si as well as heavier elements such as Ca, Ti, and Fe are derived in an automated way by fitting synthetic spectra to individual lines in the stellar spectra, obtained with the VLT/FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectrograph.

    Results. Based on ubvy Strömgren photometry, we are able to separate three stellar populations in NGC 6752 along the evolutionary sequence from the base of the red giant branch down to the turnoff point. We find weak systematic abundance trends with evolutionary phase for Ca, Ti, and Fe which are best explained by stellar-structure models including atomic diffusion with efficient additional mixing. We derive a new value for the initial lithium abundance of NGC6752 after correcting for the effect of atomic diffusion and additional mixing which falls slightly below the predicted standard BBN value.

    Conclusions. We find three stellar populations by combining photometric and spectroscopic data of 194 stars in the globular cluster NGC6752. Abundance trends for groups of elements, differently affected by atomic diffusion and additional mixing, are identified. Although the statistical significance of the individual trends is weak, they all support the notion that atomic diffusion is operational along the evolutionary sequence of NGC6752.

  • 23.
    Gruyters, Pieter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Nordlander, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Richard, Olivier
    LUPM, Université Montpellier II, CNRS, CC072, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex, France.
    Atomic diffusion and mixing in old stars VI: Chemical abundance variations in M4In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. Abundance trends in heavier elements with evolutionary phase have been shown to exist in the globular cluster NGC 6121 (M4) ([Fe/H] = −1.1). These trends are a result of atomic diffusion and additional (non-convective) mixing. Studying such trends can provide us with important constraints on the extent to which diffusion modifies the internal structure and surface abundances of solar-type, metal-poor stars.

    Aims. Taking advantage of a larger data sample, we investigate the reality and the size of these abundance trends and address questions and potential biases associated with the various stellar populations that make up M4. Methods. We perform an abundance analysis by combining photometric and spectroscopic data of 194 stars located between the turnoff point and the base of the red giant branch. Stellar parameters are derived from uvby Strömgren photometry. Using the quantitative-spectroscopy package SME, stellar surface abundances for light elements such as Li, Na, Mg, Al, and Si as well as heavier elements such as Ca, Ti, and Fe are derived in an automated way by fitting synthetic spectra to individual lines in the stellar spectra, obtained with the VLT/FLAMES-GIRAFFE spectrograph.

    Results. Based on uvby Strömgren photometry, we are able to separate three stellar populations in M4 along the evolutionary sequence from the base of the red giant branch down to the turnoff point. We find weak systematic abundance trends with evolutionary phase for Ca, Ti, and Fe which are best explained by stellar-structure models including atomic diffusion with efficient additional mixing. We derive a new value for the initial lithium abundance of M4 after correcting for the effect of atomic diffusion and additional mixing which falls slightly below the predicted standard BBN value.

    Conclusions. We find three stellar populations by combining photometric and spectroscopic data of 86 stars in the globular cluster M4. Abundance trends for groups of elements, differently affected by atomic diffusion and additional mixing, are identified. Although the statistical significance of the individual trends is weak, they all support the notion that atomic diffusion is operational along the evolutionary sequence of M4.

  • 24.
    Hansen, C. J.
    et al.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.;Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Dark Cosmol Ctr, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Ludwig, H. -G
    Seifert, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Koch, A.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Xu, W.
    Opt Syst Engn, D-74937 Spechbach, Germany..
    Caffau, E.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, F-92190 Meudon, France..
    Christlieb, N.
    Heidelberg Univ, Zentrum Astron, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany..
    Korn, Andreas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Lind, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Sbordone, L.
    Millennium Inst Astrophys, Santiago, Chile.;Pontificia Univ Catolica Chilem, Santiago, Chile..
    Ruchti, G.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Feltzing, S.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    de Jong, R. S.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Barden, S.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Schnurr, O.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany..
    Stellar science from a blue wavelength range2015In: Astronomical Notes - Astronomische Nachrichten, ISSN 0004-6337, E-ISSN 1521-3994, Vol. 336, no 7, p. 665-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From stellar spectra, a variety of physical properties of stars can be derived. In particular, the chemical composition of stellar atmospheres can be inferred from absorption line analyses. These provide key information on large scales, such as the formation of our Galaxy, down to the small-scale nucleosynthesis processes that take place in stars and supernovae. By extending the observed wavelength range toward bluer wavelengths, we optimize such studies to also include critical absorption lines in metal-poor stars, and allow for studies of heavy elements (Z = 38) whose formation processes remain poorly constrained. In this context, spectrographs optimized for observing blue wavelength ranges are essential, since many absorption lines at redder wavelengths are too weak to be detected in metal-poor stars. This means that some elements cannot be studied in the visual-redder regions, and important scientific tracers and science cases are lost. The present era of large public surveys will target millions of stars. It is therefore important that the next generation of spectrographs are designed such that they cover a wide wavelength range and can observe a large number of stars simultaneously. Only then, we can gain the full information from stellar spectra, from both metal-poor to metal-rich ones, that will allow us to understand the aforementioned formation scenarios in greater detail. Here we describe the requirements driving the design of the forthcoming survey instrument 4MOST, a multi-object spectrograph commissioned for the ESO VISTA 4 m-telescope. While 4MOST is also intended for studies of active galactic nuclei, baryonic acoustic oscillations, weak lensing, cosmological constants, supernovae and other transients, we focus here on high-density, wide-area survey of stars and the science that can be achieved with high-resolution stellar spectroscopy. Scientific and technical requirements that governed the design are described along with a thorough line blending analysis. For the high-resolution spectrograph, we find that a sampling of >= 2.5 (pixels per resolving element), spectral resolution of 18 000 or higher, and a wavelength range covering 393-436 nm, is the most well-balanced solution for the instrument. A spectrograph with these characteristics will enable accurate abundance analysis (+/- 0.1 dex) in the blue and allow us to confront the outlined scientific questions.

  • 25.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Jofre, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Gustafsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Thevenin, F.
    Observ Cote Azur, F-06003 Nice, France..
    Korn, Anderas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy. Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Soubiran, C.
    Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France..
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France..
    Benchmark Stars For Cross-Calibration Of Galactic Stellar Surveys2015In: Milky Way Unravelled By Gaia: Great Science From The Gaia Data Releases, 2015, p. 375-375Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Jofré, P.
    Gustafsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Korn, Andreas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy.
    Soubiran, C.
    Thévenin, F.
    Gaia FGK benchmark stars: Effective temperatures and surface gravities2015In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 582, article id A49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. In the era of large Galactic stellar surveys, carefully calibrating and validating the data sets has become an important and integral part of the data analysis. Moreover, new generations of stellar atmosphere models and spectral line formation computations need to be subjected to benchmark tests to assess any progress in predicting stellar properties. Aims. We focus on cool stars and aim at establishing a sample of 34 Gaia FGK benchmark stars with a range of different metallicities. The goal was to determine the effective temperature and the surface gravity independently of spectroscopy and atmospheric models as far as possible. Most of the selected stars have been subjected to frequent spectroscopic investigations in the past, and almost all of them have previously been used as reference, calibration, or test objects. Methods. Fundamental determinations of T-eff and log g were obtained in a systematic way from a compilation of angular diameter measurements and bolometric fluxes and from a homogeneous mass determination based on stellar evolution models. The derived parameters were compared to recent spectroscopic and photometric determinations and to gravity estimates based on seismic data. Results. Most of the adopted diameter measurements have formal uncertainties around 1%, which translate into uncertainties in effective temperature of 0.5%. The measurements of bolometric flux seem to be accurate to 5% or better, which contributes about 1% or less to the uncertainties in effective temperature. The comparisons of parameter determinations with the literature in general show good agreements with a few exceptions, most notably for the coolest stars and for metal-poor stars. Conclusions. The sample consists of 29 FGK-type stars and 5 M giants. Among the FGK stars, 21 have reliable parameters suitable for testing, validation, or calibration purposes. For four stars, future adjustments of the fundamental T-eff are required, and for five stars the log g determination needs to be improved. Future extensions of the sample of Gaia FGK benchmark stars are required to fill gaps in parameter space, and we include a list of suggested candidates.

  • 27.
    Helmi, A.
    et al.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    van Leeuwen, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    McMillan, P. J.
    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Massari, D.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Antoja, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands;Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Robin, A. C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Lindegren, L.
    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Bastian, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Arenou, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Babusiaux, C.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France;Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Biermann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Breddels, M. A.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Hobbs, D.
    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Jordi, C.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Pancino, E.
    Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Reyle, C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Veljanoski, J.
    Univ Groningen, Kapteyn Astron Inst, Landleven 12, NL-9747 AD Groningen, Netherlands.
    Brown, A. G. A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Vallenari, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Prusti, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    de Bruijne, J. H. J.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Evans, D. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Eyer, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jansen, F.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Mission Operat Div, Operat Dept, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Klioner, S. A.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstra 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Lammers, U.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Luri, X.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Mignard, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Panem, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Pourbaix, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium;FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.
    Randich, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Sartoretti, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Siddiqui, H. I.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Soubiran, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab dstrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Walton, N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Cropper, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Drimmel, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Katz, D.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Lattanzi, M. G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Bakker, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Cacciari, C.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Castaneda, J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Chaoul, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Cheek, N.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    De Angeli, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Fabricius, C.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Guerra, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Holl, B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Masana, E.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Mowlavi, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Panuzzo, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Portell, J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Riello, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Tanga, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Thevenin, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Gracia-Abril, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany;Gaia DPAC Project Off, ESAC, Camino bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Comoretto, G.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Garcia-Reinaldos, M.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Teyssier, D.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Altmann, M.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France;Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Andrae, R.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Audard, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Benson, K.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Berthier, J.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,CNRS, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Blomme, R.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Burgess, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Busso, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Carry, B.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,CNRS, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cellino, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Clementini, G.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Clotet, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Creevey, O.
    Univ Paris XI, UMR 8617, Inst Astrophys Spatiale, CNRS, Batiment 121, F-91405 Orsay, France;Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Davidson, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    De Ridder, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Delchambre, L.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Dell'Oro, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Ducourant, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab dstrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Fernandez-Hernandez, J.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid, Spain.
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Fremat, Y.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Galluccio, L.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Garcia-Torres, M.
    Univ Pablo Olavide, Area Lenguajes & Sistemas Informat, Ctra Utrera 1, Seville 41013, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Nunez, J.
    Univ Vigo, ETSE Telecomun, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo 36310, Galicia, Spain;Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Vidal, J. J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Gosset, E.
    FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Guy, L. P.
    Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Halbwachs, J. -L
    Hambly, N. C.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Harrison, D. L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Cambridge, Kavli Inst Cosmol, Madingley Rd, Cambride CB3 0HA, England.
    Hernandez, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hestroffer, D.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,CNRS, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Hodgkin, S. T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Hutton, A.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Jasniewicz, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier, France.
    Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Jordan, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Krone-Martins, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    INAF, Osserv Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy;Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Sez Astrofis, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lebzelter, T.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzs Str 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Loeffler, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Manteiga, M.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Astron & Astrophys, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain;Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Marrese, P. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Martin-Fleitas, J. M.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Mora, A.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Muinonen, K.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland;Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland.
    Osinde, J.
    Isdefe ESA ESAC, Camino bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Petit, J. -M
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Richards, P. J.
    STFC, Rutherford Appleton Lab, Harwell OX11 0QX, Berks, England.
    Rimoldini, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Sarro, L. M.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Siopis, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Smith, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Sozzetti, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Sueveges, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Torra, J.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    van Reeven, W.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Abbas, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Abreu Aramburu, A.
    Elecnor Deimos Space ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Accart, S.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Aerts, C.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Altavilla, G.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Alvarez, M. A.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Alvarez, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Alves, J.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzs Str 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Anderson, R. I.
    European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Andrei, A. H.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France;OV UFRJ BR, Ladeira Pedro Antonio 43, BR-20080090 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil;ON MCTI BR, Rua Gen Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.
    Anglada Varela, E.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid, Spain.
    Antiche, E.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Arcay, B.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Astraatmadja, T. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany;Carnegie Inst Sci, Dept Terr Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Rd NW, Washington, DC 20015 USA.
    Bach, N.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Baker, S. G.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Balaguer-Nunez, L.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Balm, P.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Barache, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Barata, C.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Barbato, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Barblan, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Barklem, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Barrado, D.
    ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Centro Astrobiologia, CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Barros, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Barstow, M. A.
    Univ Leicester, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Bartholome Munoz, S.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Bassilana, J. -L
    Becciani, U.
    INAF, Osserv Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bellazzini, M.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Berihuete, A.
    Univ Cadiz, Dept Estadist, Calle Republ Arabe Saharawi S-N, Puerto Real 11510, Cadiz, Spain.
    Bertone, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Bern, Astron Inst, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX Srl, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy.
    Bienayme, O.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, Observ Astron Strasbourg, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab dstrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Boch, T.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, Observ Astron Strasbourg, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Boeche, C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Bombrun, A.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Borrachero, R.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Bossini, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Bouquillon, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Bourda, G.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab dstrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Bragaglia, A.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Bramante, L.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Bressan, A.
    SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste, Italy.
    Brouillet, N.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab dstrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Bruesemeister, T.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Brugaletta, E.
    INAF, Osserv Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bucciarelli, B.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Burlacu, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Busonero, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Butkevich, A. G.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstra 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Buzzi, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Caffau, E.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Cancelliere, R.
    Univ Turin, Dept Comp Sci, Corso Svizzera 185, I-10149 Turin, Italy.
    Cannizzaro, G.
    SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy;Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Carballo, R.
    Univ Cantabria, Dept Matemat Aplicada & Ciencias Computac, Avda Castros S-N, Santander 39005, Spain.
    Carlucci, T.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Carrasco, J. M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Casamiquela, L.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Castellani, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Castro-Ginard, A.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Charlot, P.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab dstrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Chemin, L.
    Univ Antofagasta, Unidad Astron, Ave Angamos 601, Antofagasta 1270300, Chile.
    Chiavassa, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cocozza, G.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Costigan, G.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Cowell, S.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Crifo, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Crosta, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Crowley, C.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Cuypers, J.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Dafonte, C.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Damerdji, Y.
    CRAAG, Route Observ BP 63, Bouzareah 16340, Alger, Algeria;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Dapergolas, A.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.
    David, P.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,CNRS, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    David, M.
    Univ Antwerp, Onderzoeksgrp Toegepaste Wiskunde, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium.
    de Laverny, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    De Luise, F.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    De March, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    de Martino, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    de Souza, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    de Torres, A.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Debosscher, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    del Pozo, E.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Delbo, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Delgado, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Delgado, H. E.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Di Matteo, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Diakite, S.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Diener, C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Distefano, E.
    INAF, Osserv Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Dolding, C.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Drazinos, P.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Duran, J.
    Isdefe ESA ESAC, Camino bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Edvardsson, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Enke, H.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Esquej, P.
    RHEA ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Bontemps, G. Eynard
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fabre, C.
    ATOS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Fabrizio, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Faigler, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Falcao, A. J.
    UNINOVA CTS, Campus FCT UNL, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Farras Casas, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Federici, L.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Fedorets, G.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.
    Fernique, P.
    Univ Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, Observ Astron Strasbourg, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Figueras, F.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Filippi, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Findeisen, K.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Fonti, A.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Fraile, E.
    RHEA ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fraser, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, OBrien Ctr Sci North, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Frezouls, B.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Gai, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Galleti, S.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Garabato, D.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC, Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Garcia-Sedano, F.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Garofalo, A.
    Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Piero Gobetti 93-2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy;INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Garralda, N.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Gavel, Alvin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Gavras, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece;Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Gerssen, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Geyer, R.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstra 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Giacobbe, P.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Girona, S.
    Ctr Nacl Super Computac, Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Giuffrida, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Glass, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Gomes, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Granvik, M.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland;Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Comp Sci Elect & Space Engn, Box 848, S-98128 Kiruna, Sweden.
    Gueguen, A.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France;Max Planck Inst Extrater Phys, High Energy Grp, Giessenbachstr, D-85741 Garching, Germany.
    Guerrier, A.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Guiraud, J.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hofmann, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Holland, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Huckle, H. E.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Hypki, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands;Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland.
    Icardi, V.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Janssen, K.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    de Fombelle, G. Jevardat
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jonker, P. G.
    SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Juhasz, A. L.
    Eotvos Lorand Univ, Egyet Ter 1-3, H-1053 H- Budapest, Hungary;Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Julbe, F.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Karampelas, A.
    Amer Community Sch Athens, 129 Aghias Paraskevis Ave & Kazantzaki St, Athens 15234, Greece;Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Kewley, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Klar, J.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Kochoska, A.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia;Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA.
    Kohley, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Kolenberg, K.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium;Univ Antwerp, Phys Dept, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp, Belgium;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Kontizas, M.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Kontizas, E.
    Natl Observ Athens, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Koposov, S. E.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Carnegie Mellon Univ, Dept Phys, McWilliams Ctr Cosmol, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA.
    Kordopatis, G.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.
    SRON Netherlands Inst Space Res, SRON, Sorbonnelaan 2, NL-3584 CA Utrecht, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Koubsky, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic.
    Lambert, S.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Lanza, A. F.
    INAF, Osserv Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lasne, Y.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Lavigne, J. -B
    Le Fustec, Y.
    Telespazio CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Lebreton, Y.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France;Univ Rennes 1, Inst Phys Rennes, F-35042 Rennes, France.
    Leccia, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Leclerc, N.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Lecoeur-Taibi, I.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Lenhardt, H.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Leroux, F.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Liao, S.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Astron Observ, 80 Nandan Rd, Shanghai 109, Peoples R China;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Sch Astron & Space Sci, Beijing 100049, PR, Peoples R China;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Licata, E.
    EURIX Srl, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy.
    Lindstrom, H. E. P.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark;DXC Technol, Retortvej 8, DK-2500 Valby, Denmark.
    Lister, T. A.
    Las Cumbres Observ, 6740 Cortona Dr Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 USA.
    Livanou, E.
    Univ Athens, Dept Astrophys Astron & Mech, Athens 15783, Greece.
    Lobel, A.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Lopez, M.
    ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Centro Astrobiologia, CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Managau, S.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Mann, R. G.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Mantelet, G.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Marchal, O.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Marchant, J. M.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Marconi, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Marinoni, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Marschalko, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary;Univ Szeged, Baja Observ, Szegedi Ut III-70, H-6500 Baja, Hungary.
    Marshall, D. J.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CEA DSM CNRS, Lab AIM, IRFU Serv Astrophys, Bat 709, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Martino, M.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Marton, G.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Mary, N.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Matijevic, G.
    Leibniz Inst Astrophys Potsdam AIP, Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam, Germany.
    Mazeh, T.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Messina, S.
    INAF, Osserv Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Michalik, D.
    Lund Univ, Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Millar, N. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Molina, D.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Molinaro, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Molnar, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Montegriffo, P.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Mor, R.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Morbidelli, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Morel, T.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Morris, D.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Mulone, A. F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Muraveva, T.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Musella, I.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Nelemans, G.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Nicastro, L.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Noval, L.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    O'Mullane, W.
    Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA;European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Ordenovic, C.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Ordonez-Blanco, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Osborne, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Pagani, C.
    Univ Leicester, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Pagano, I.
    INAF, Osserv Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Pailler, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Palacin, H.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Palaversa, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Panahi, A.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Sch Phys & Astron, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Pawlak, M.
    Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland;Charles Univ Prague, Inst Theoret Phys, Fac Math & Phys, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Piersimoni, A. M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    Pineau, F. -X
    Plachy, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Plum, G.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Poggio, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Poujoulet, E.
    AKKA CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Prsa, A.
    Villanova Univ, Dept Astrophys & Planetary Sci, 800 E Lancaster Ave, Villanova, PA 19085 USA.
    Pulone, L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00078 Rome, Italy.
    Racero, E.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Ragaini, S.
    INAF Osserv Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Rambaux, N.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,CNRS, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Ramos-Lerate, M.
    Vitrociset Belgium ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Regibo, S.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Riclet, F.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Ripepi, V.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples, Italy.
    Riva, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Rivard, A.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Rixon, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Roegiers, T.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Roelens, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Romero-Gomez, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Rowell, N.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Royer, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Ruiz-Dern, L.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Sadowski, G.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & Astrophys, CP 226,Blvd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Selles, T. Sagrista
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sahlmann, J.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA;European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Salgado, J.
    QUASAR Sci Resources ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Salguero, E.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid, Spain.
    Sanna, N.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Santana-Ros, T.
    Adam Mickiewicz Univ, Astron Observ Inst, Fac Phys, Sloneczna 36, PL-60286 Poznan, Poland.
    Sarasso, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Savietto, H.
    Fork Res, Rua Cruzado Osberno,Osberno Lt 1,9 Esq, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Schultheis, M.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Sciacca, E.
    INAF, Osserv Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Segol, M.
    APAVE SUDEUROPE SAS CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Segovia, J. C.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Segransan, D.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Shih, I-C
    Siltala, L.
    Nord Opt Telescope, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Brena Baja 38711, Spain;Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland.
    Silva, A. F.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Smart, R. L.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Smith, K. W.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Solano, E.
    Spanish Virtual Observ, Madrid, Spain;ESA ESAC, Dept Astrofis, Centro Astrobiologia, CSIC INTA, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Solitro, F.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Sordo, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Soria Nieto, S.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Souchay, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Spagna, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Spoto, F.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,CNRS, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Stampa, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Steele, I. A.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England.
    Steidelmueller, H.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstra 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Stephenson, C. A.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Stoev, H.
    Fdn Galileo Galilei INAF, Rambla Jose Ana Fernandez Perez 7, Santa Cruz de La Palma 38712, CA, Spain.
    Suess, F. F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Surdej, J.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Szabados, L.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Szegedi-Elek, E.
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Konkoly Observ, Res Ctr Astron & Earth Sci, Konkoly Thege Miklos Ut 15-17, H-1121 Budapest, Hungary.
    Tapiador, D.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, Dept Arquitectura Computadores & Automat, Fac Informat, C Prof Jose Garcia Santesmases S-N, Madrid 28040, Spain;INSA ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Taris, F.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Tauran, G.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Taylor, M. B.
    Univ Bristol, HH Wills Phys Lab, Tyndall Ave, Bristol BS8 1TL, Avon, England.
    Teixeira, R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Astron Geofis & Ciencias Atmosfer, Rua Matao 1226,Cidade Univ, BR-05508900 Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Terrett, D.
    STFC, Rutherford Appleton Lab, Harwell OX11 0QX, Berks, England.
    Teyssandier, P.
    Sorbonne Univ, Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris,SYRTE,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Thuillot, W.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, IMCCE, Observ Paris,Univ PSL,CNRS, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Titarenko, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 43229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Torra Clotet, F.
    IEEC, Gran Capita 2-4, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Turon, C.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Ulla, A.
    Univ Vigo, Appl Phys Dept, Vigo 36310, Spain.
    Utrilla, E.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Uzzi, S.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Vaillant, M.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Valentini, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astron Abruzzo, Via Mentore Maggini, I-64100 Teramo, Italy.
    Valette, V.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    van Elteren, A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Van Hemelryck, E.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    van Leeuwen, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Vaschetto, M.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Vecchiato, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy.
    Viala, Y.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, GEPI, Observ Paris, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Vicente, D.
    Ctr Nacl Super Computac, Barcelona Supercomp Ctr, C Jordi Girona 29,Ed Nexus 2, Barcelona 08034, Spain.
    Vogt, S.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    von Essen, C.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Stellar Astrophys Ctr, 120 Ny Munkegade,Bldg 1520, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Voss, H.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Votruba, V.
    Acad Sci Czech Republ, Astron Inst, Fricova 298, Ondrejov 25165, Czech Republic.
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    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Observ, Inst Astron, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Walmsley, G.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Ave Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Weiler, M.
    Univ Barcelona IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, Barcelona 08028, Spain.
    Wertz, O.
    Univ Bonn, Argelander Inst Astron, Hugel 71, D-53121 Bonn, Germany.
    Wevems, T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophys IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Wyrzykowski, L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Warsaw Observ, Al Ujazdowskie 4, PL-00478 Warsaw, Poland.
    Yoldas, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Zerjal, M.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia;Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Astron & Astrophys, Canberra, ACT 2611, Australia.
    Ziaeepour, H.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, CNRS, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Zorec, J.
    Sorbonne Univ, UPMC, Univ Paris 06, 98 Bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France;CNRS, UMR 7095, Inst Astrophys Paris, 98 Bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Zschocke, S.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstra 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Zucker, S.
    Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Geosci, IL-6997801 Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Zurbach, C.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier, France.
    Zwitter, T.
    Univ Ljubljana, Fac Math & Phys, Jadranska Ulica 19, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia.
    Gaia Data Release 2 Kinematics of globular clusters and dwarf galaxies around the Milky Way2018In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 616, article id A12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the outstanding quality of the second data release of the Gaia mission and its power for constraining many different aspects of the dynamics of the satellites of the Milky Way. We focus here on determining the proper motions of 75 Galactic globular clusters, nine dwarf spheroidal galaxies, one ultra-faint system, and the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. Methods. Using data extracted from the Gaia archive, we derived the proper motions and parallaxes for these systems, as well as their uncertainties. We demonstrate that the errors, statistical and systematic, are relatively well understood. We integrated the orbits of these objects in three different Galactic potentials, and characterised their properties. We present the derived proper motions, space velocities, and characteristic orbital parameters in various tables to facilitate their use by the astronomical community. Results. Our limited and straightforward analyses have allowed us for example to (i) determine absolute and very precise proper motions for globular clusters; (ii) detect clear rotation signatures in the proper motions of at least five globular clusters; (iii) show that the satellites of the Milky Way are all on high-inclination orbits, but that they do not share a single plane of motion; (i v) derive a lower limit for the mass of the Milky Way of 9.1(-2.6)(+6.2) x 10(11) M-circle dot based on the assumption that the Leo I dwarf spheroidal is bound; (v) derive a rotation curve for the Large Magellanic Cloud based solely on proper motions that is competitive with line-of-sight velocity curves, now using many orders of magnitude more sources; and (v i) unveil the dynamical effect of the bar on the motions of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Conclusions. All these results highlight the incredible power of the Gaia astrometric mission, and in particular of its second data release.

  • 28. Howes, L. M.
    et al.
    Asplund, M.
    Casey, A. R.
    Keller, S. C.
    Yong, D.
    Gilmore, G.
    Lind, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Worley, C.
    Bessell, M. S.
    Casagrande, L.
    Marino, A. F.
    Nataf, D. M.
    Owen, C. I.
    Da Costa, G. S.
    Schmidt, B. P.
    Tisserand, P.
    Randich, S.
    Feltzing, S.
    Vallenari, A.
    Allende Prieto, C.
    Bensby, T.
    Flaccomio, E.
    Korn, Andreas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Pancino, E.
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Smiljanic, R.
    Bergemann, M.
    Costado, M. T.
    Damiani, F.
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Hill, V.
    Hourihane, A.
    Jofre, P.
    Lardo, C.
    de laverny, P.
    Magrini, L.
    Maiorca, E.
    Masseron, T.
    Morbidelli, L.
    Sacco, G. G.
    Minniti, D.
    Zoccali, M.
    The Gaia-ESO Survey: the most metal-poor stars in the Galactic bulge2014In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 445, no 4, p. 4241-4246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first results of the EMBLA survey (Extremely Metal-poor BuLge stars with AAOmega), aimed at finding metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, where the oldest stars should now preferentially reside. EMBLA utilizes SkyMapper photometry to pre-select metal-poor candidates, which are subsequently confirmed using AAOmega spectroscopy. We describe the discovery and analysis of four bulge giants with -2.72 <= [Fe/H] <= -2.48, the lowest metallicity bulge stars studied with high-resolution spectroscopy to date. Using FLAMES/UVES spectra through the Gaia-ESO Survey we have derived abundances of twelve elements. Given the uncertainties, we find a chemical similarity between these bulge stars and halo stars of the same metallicity, although the abundance scatter may be larger, with some of the stars showing unusual [alpha/Fe] ratios.

  • 29. Jackson-Jones, R.
    et al.
    Jofre, P.
    Hawkins, K.
    Hourihane, A.
    Gilmore, G.
    Kordopatis, G.
    Worley, C.
    Randich, S.
    Vallenari, A.
    Bensby, T.
    Bragaglia, A.
    Flaccomio, E.
    Korn, Andreas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Smiljanic, R.
    Costado, M. T.
    Heiter, U.
    Hill, V.
    Lardo, C.
    de Laverny, P.
    Guiglion, G.
    Mikolaitis, S.
    Zaggia, S.
    Tautvaisiene, G.
    The Gaia-ESO Survey: alpha-abundances of metal-poor stars2014In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 571, p. L5-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed a detailed study of the ratio of low-alpha to high-alpha stars in the Galactic halo as observed by the Gaia-ESO Survey. Using a sample of 381 metal-poor stars from the second internal data release, we found that the value of this ratio did not show evidence of systematic trends as a function of metallicity, surface gravity, Galactic latitude, Galactic longitude, height above the Galactic plane, and Galactocentric radius. We conclude that the alpha(poor)/alpha(rich) value of 0.28 +/- 0.08 suggests that in the inner halo, the larger portion of stars were formed in a high star formation rate environment, and about 15% of the metal-poor stars originated from much lower star formation rate environments.

  • 30.
    Jacobson, H. R.
    et al.
    MIT, Kavli Inst Astrophys & Space Res, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Friel, E. D.
    Indiana Univ, Dept Astron, Bloomington, IN 47405 USA..
    Jilkova, L.
    Leiden Observ, POB 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Magrini, L.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Bragaglia, A.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Vallenari, A.
    Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Tosi, M.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Randich, S.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Donati, P.
    Osservatorio Astron Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy.;Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Cantat-Gaudin, T.
    Univ Padua, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Vicolo Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Sordo, R.
    Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    Smiljanic, R.
    Nicolaus Copernicus Astron Ctr, Dept Astrophys, Ul Rabianska 8, PL-87100 Torun, Poland..
    Overbeek, J. C.
    Indiana Univ, Dept Astron, Bloomington, IN 47405 USA..
    Carraro, G.
    European So Observ, Alonso Cordova 3107 Vitacura, Santiago, Chile..
    Tautvaisiene, G.
    Vilnius Univ, Inst Theoret Phys & Astron, A Gostauto 12, LT-01108 Vilnius, Lithuania..
    Roman, I. San
    Ctr Estudios Fis Cosmos Aragon, Plaza San Juan 1, Teruel 44001, Spain..
    Villanova, S.
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile..
    Geisler, D.
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile..
    Munoz, C.
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile..
    Jimenez-Esteban, F.
    Ctr Astrobiol INTA CSIC, Dpto Astrofis, POB 78, Madrid 28691, Spain.;Suffolk Univ, Madrid Campus,C Valle Vina 3, Madrid 28003, Spain..
    Tang, B.
    Univ Concepcion, Dept Astron, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile..
    Gilmore, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Alfaro, E. J.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Apdo 3004, E-18080 Granada, Spain..
    Bensby, T.
    Lund Observ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Flaccomio, E.
    Osservatorio Astronom Palermo, INAF, Piazza Parlamento 1, I-90134 Palermo, Italy..
    Koposov, S. E.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.;Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Sternberg Astron Inst, Moscow 119992, Russia..
    Korn, Andreas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics.
    Pancino, E.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.;ASI Sci Data Ctr, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy..
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observ Cote Azur, Lab Lagrange UMR7293, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Casey, A. R.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Costado, M. T.
    CSIC, Inst Astrofis Andalucia, Apdo 3004, E-18080 Granada, Spain..
    Franciosini, E.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Heiter, Ulrike
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Hill, V.
    Hourihane, A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Lardo, C.
    Liverpool John Moores Univ, Astrophys Res Inst, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF, Merseyside, England..
    de laverny, P.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observ Cote Azur, Lab Lagrange UMR7293, CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France..
    Lewis, J.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Monaco, L.
    Univ Andres Bello Republ 220, Dept Ciencias Fis, Santiago, Chile..
    Morbidelli, L.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Sacco, G. G.
    Osserv Astrofis Arcetri, INAF, Largo E Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy..
    Sousa, S. G.
    Univ Porto, Inst Astrofis & Ciencias Espaco, CAUP, Rua Estrelas, P-4150762 Oporto, Portugal..
    Worley, C. C.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England..
    Zaggia, S.
    Osserv Astron Padova, INAF, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy..
    The Gaia-ESO Survey: Probes of the inner disk abundance gradient2016In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 591, article id A37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The nature of the metallicity gradient inside the solar circle (R-GC < 8 kpc) is poorly understood, but studies of Cepheids and a small sample of open clusters suggest that it steepens in the inner disk. Aims. We investigate the metallicity gradient of the inner disk using a sample of inner disk open clusters that is three times larger than has previously been studied in the literature to better characterize the gradient in this part of the disk. Methods. We used the Gaia-ESO Survey (GES) [Fe/H] values and stellar parameters for stars in 12 open clusters in the inner disk from GES-UVES data. Cluster mean [Fe/H] values were determined based on a membership analysis for each cluster. Where necessary, distances and ages to clusters were determined via comparison to theoretical isochrones. Results. The GES open clusters exhibit a radial metallicity gradient of -0.10 +/- 0.02 dex kpc(-1), consistent with the gradient measured by other literature studies of field red giant stars and open clusters in the range R-GC similar to 6-12 kpc. We also measure a trend of increasing [Fe/H] with increasing cluster age, as has also been found in the literature. Conclusions. We find no evidence for a steepening of the inner disk metallicity gradient inside the solar circle as earlier studies indicated. The age-metallicity relation shown by the clusters is consistent with that predicted by chemical evolution models that include the effects of radial migration, but a more detailed comparison between cluster observations and models would be premature.

  • 31.
    Katz, D.
    et al.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Antoja, T.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain;European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Romero-Gomez, M.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Drimmel, R.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Reyle, C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Seabroke, G. M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Soubiran, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Babusiaux, C.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France;Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Di Matteo, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Figueras, F.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Poggio, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Robin, A. C.
    Univ Bourgogne Franche Comte, OSU THETA Franche Comte Bourgogne, Inst UTINAM UMR6213, F-25000 Besancon, France.
    Evans, D. W.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Brown, A. G. A.
    Leiden Univ, Leiden Observ, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden, Netherlands.
    Vallenari, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronom Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Prusti, T.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    de Bruijne, J. H. J.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Sci Support Off, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Biermann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Eyer, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Jansen, F.
    European Space Res & Technol Ctr ESA ESTEC, Mision Operat Div, Directorate Sci, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk, Netherlands.
    Jordi, C.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Klioner, S. A.
    Tech Univ Dresden, Lohrmann Observ, Mommsenstr 13, D-01062 Dresden, Germany.
    Lammers, U.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Lindegren, L.
    Lund Univ, Dept Astron & Theoret Phys, Lund Observ, Box 43, S-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Luri, X.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Mignard, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Panem, C.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Pourbaix, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & dAstrophys, CP 226,Bd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium;FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium.
    Randich, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofi Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Sartoretti, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Siddiqui, H. I.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    van Leeuwen, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Walton, N. A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Arenou, F.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Bastian, U.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Cropper, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Lattanzi, M. G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Bakker, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Cacciari, C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Castaneda, J.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Chaoul, L.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Cheek, N.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    De Angeli, F.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Fabricius, C.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Guerra, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Holl, B.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Masana, E.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Messineo, R.
    ALTEC Spa, Corso Marche 79, I-10146 Turin, Italy.
    Mowlavi, N.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Nienartowicz, K.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Panuzzo, P.
    Univ PSL, CNRS, Observ Paris, GEPI, 5 Pl Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon, France.
    Portell, J.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Riello, M.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Tanga, P.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Thevenin, F.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Gracia-Abril, G.
    Gaia DPAC Project Off, ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Comoretto, G.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Garcia-Reinaldos, M.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Teyssier, D.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Altmann, M.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany;Univ PSL, SYRTE, Observ Paris, CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Andrae, R.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Audard, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Bellas-Velidis, I.
    Natl Observ Athens, I Metaxa & Vas Pavlou, Athens 15236, Greece.
    Benson, K.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Berthier, J.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Blomme, R.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Burgess, P.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Busso, G.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Carry, B.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France;Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Cellino, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Clementini, G.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Clotet, M.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Creevey, O.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Davidson, M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    De Ridder, J.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium.
    Delchambre, L.
    Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Dell'Oro, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofi Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy.
    Ducourant, C.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France.
    Fernandez-Hernandez, J.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Fouesneau, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Fremat, Y.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Galluccio, L.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Garcia-Torres, M.
    Univ Pablo Olavide, Area Lenguajes & Sistemas Informat, Ctra Utrera Km 1, Seville 41013, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Nunez, J.
    Serco Gest Negocios ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain;Univ Vigo, ETSE Telecomun, Campus Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo 36310, Spain.
    Gonzalez-Vidal, J. J.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Gosset, E.
    FRS FNRS, Rue Egmont 5, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium;Univ Liege, Inst Astrophys & Geophys, 19c Allee 6 Aout, B-4000 Liege, Belgium.
    Guy, L. P.
    Large Synopt Survey Telescope, 950 N Cherry Av, Tucson, AZ 85719 USA;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Halbwachs, J. -L
    Hambly, N. C.
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Astron, Royal Observ, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Harrison, D. L.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England;Univ Cambridge, Kavli Inst Cosmol, Madingley Rd, Cambride CB3 0HA, England.
    Hernandez, J.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Hestroffer, D.
    Univ Lille, Sorbonne Univ, Observ Paris, Univ PSL,IMCCE, 77 Av Denfert Rochereau, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Hodgkin, S. T.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Astron, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0HA, England.
    Hutton, A.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Jasniewicz, G.
    Univ Montpellier, Lab Univers & Particules Montpellier, Pl Eugene Bataillon,CC72, F-34095 Montpellier 05, France.
    Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.
    CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 9, France.
    Jordan, S.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Korn, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Krone-Martins, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Lanzafame, A. C.
    Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Sez Astrofis, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Lebzelter, T.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Loeffler, W.
    Heidelberg Univ, Astron Rechen Inst, Zentrum Astron, Monchhofstr 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Manteiga, M.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Astron & Astrophys, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain;Univ A Coruna, CITIC Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Marrese, P. M.
    Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33,00078 Monte Porzio Catone, I-00040 Rome, Italy.
    Martin-Fleitas, J. M.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Moitinho, A.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Mora, A.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Muinonen, K.
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Phys, POB 64, Helsinki 00014, Finland;Finnish Geospatial Res Inst FGI, Geodeetinrinne 2, Masala 02430, Finland.
    Osinde, J.
    Isdefe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Pancino, E.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofi Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Florence, Italy;Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy.
    Pauwels, T.
    Royal Observ Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.
    Petit, J. -M
    Recio-Blanco, A.
    Univ Cote Azur, Observ Cote Azur, CNRS, Lab Lagrange, Bd Observ,CS 34229, F-06304 Nice 4, France.
    Richards, P. J.
    Rutherford Appleton Lab, STFC, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxon, England.
    Rimoldini, L.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Ecogia 16, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Sarro, L. M.
    UNED, Dept Inteligencia Artificial, C Juan Rosal 16, Madrid 28040, Spain.
    Siopis, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Inst Astron & dAstrophys, CP 226,Bd Triomphe, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.
    Smith, M.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Sozzetti, A.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Sueveges, M.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Torra, J.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    van Reeven, W.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Abbas, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy.
    Abreu Aramburu, A.
    Elecnor Deimos Space ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Accart, S.
    Thales Serv CNES Ctr Spatial Toulouse, 18 Av Edouard Belin, F-31401 Toulouse 09, France.
    Aerts, C.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Inst Sterrenkunde, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Astrophysics IMAPP, POB 9010, NL-6500 GL Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Altavilla, G.
    Space Sci Data Ctr ASI, Via Politecn SNC, I-00133 Rome, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astron Roma, Via Frascati 33,00078 Monte Porzio Catone, I-00040 Rome, Italy;INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Alvarez, M. A.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Alvarez, R.
    European Space Astron Ctr ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Alves, J.
    Univ Vienna, Dept Astrophys, Turkenschanzstr 17, A-1180 Vienna, Austria.
    Anderson, R. I.
    European Southern Observ, Karl Schwarzschild Str 2, D-85748 Garching, Germany;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Andrei, A. H.
    OV UFRJ BR, Ladeira Pedro Antonio 43, BR-20080090 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil;Univ PSL, SYRTE, Observ Paris, CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France;ON MCTI BR, Rua Gal Jose Cristino 77, BR-20921400 Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Anglada Varela, E.
    ATG Europe ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Antiche, E.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Arcay, B.
    Univ A Coruna, CITIC Dept Comp Sci, Campus Elvina S-N, La Coruna 15071, Spain.
    Astraatmadja, T. L.
    Max Planck Inst Astron, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany;Carnegie Inst Sci, Dept Terr Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Rd NW, Washington, DC 20015 USA.
    Bach, N.
    Aurora Technol ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Baker, S. G.
    Univ Coll London, Mullard Space Sci Lab, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT, Surrey, England.
    Balaguer-Nunez, L.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Balm, P.
    Telespazio Vega UK Ltd ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Barache, C.
    Univ PSL, SYRTE, Observ Paris, CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Barata, C.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Barbato, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, Via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125 Turin, Italy.
    Barblan, F.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Barklem, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Theoretical Astrophysics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Barrado, D.
    Ctr Astrobiol CSIC INTA, Dept Astrofis, ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Barros, M.
    Univ Lisbon, CENTRA, FCUL, Edif C8, P-1749016 Lisbon, Portugal.
    Barstow, M. A.
    Univ Leicester, Leicester Inst Space & Earth Observat, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England;Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Univ Rd, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England.
    Bartholome Munoz, S.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Bassilana, J. -L
    Becciani, U.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Catania, Via S Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania, Italy.
    Bellazzini, M.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis & Sci Spazio Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti 93-3, I-40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Berihuete, A.
    Univ Cadiz, Dept Estadist, Calle Republ Arabe Saharawi S-N, Cadiz 11510, Spain.
    Bertone, S.
    INAF Osservatorio Astrofis Torino, Via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, TO, Italy;Univ Bern, Astron Inst, Sidlerstr 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland;Univ PSL, SYRTE, Observ Paris, CNRS,Sorbonne Univ,LNE, 61 Av Observ, F-75014 Paris, France.
    Bianchi, L.
    EURIX Srl, Corso Vittorio Emanuele II 61, I-10128 Turin, Italy.
    Bienayme, O.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.
    Univ Bordeaux, Lab Astrophys Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N,Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France;Harvard Smithsonian Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA;Univ Geneva, Dept Astron, Chemin Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, Switzerland.
    Boch, T.
    Univ Strasbourg, Observ Astron Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 Rue Univ, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Boeche, C.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronom Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.
    Bombrun, A.
    HE Space Operat BV ESA ESAC, Camino Bajo Castillo S-N, Madrid 28692, Spain.
    Borrachero, R.
    Univ Barcelona, IEEC UB, Inst Ciencies Cosmos, Marti & Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    Bossini, D.
    INAF Osservatorio Astronom Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padua, Italy.