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  • 1. Arct, Aneta
    et al.
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Podmokla, Edyta
    Gustafson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Benefits of extra-pair mating may depend on environmental conditions-an experimental study in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus)2013In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 67, no 11, p. 1809-1815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extra-pair mating constitutes a relatively common reproductive strategy in many socially monogamous bird species. This strategy may considerably improve reproductive success of males, but female benefits from extra-pair matings still remain unclear and empirical evidence is scarce. This may be because genetic benefits of extra-pair mating are not always revealed. It is possible that they are shown only in unfavourable environmental conditions and hence problems arise with detecting differences between within- and extra-pair offspring whose performance is measured under favourable conditions. In order to test this prediction, we manipulated environmental conditions by altering brood sizes of blue tits and compared phenotypic characteristics of within- and extra-pair offspring in mixed-paternity broods. We found that extra-pair young exhibited a higher response to phytohemagglutinin in comparison to within-pair young, but this was only observed among nestlings from experimentally enlarged broods. These results indicate that genetic benefits may interact with the environment, and thus benefits of extra-pair mating are likely to become visible only when conditions are relatively unfavourable.

  • 2.
    Arct, Aneta
    et al.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Sudyka, Joanna
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Podmoka, Edyta
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Heterozygosity-fitness correlations in blue tit nestlings (Cyanistis caeruleus) under contrasting rearing conditions2017In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 803-814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the relation between genetic variation and fitness remains a key question in evolutionary biology. Although heterozygosity has been reported to correlate with many fitness-related traits, the strength of the heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) is usually weak and it is still difficult to assess the generality of these associations in natural populations. It has been suggested that HFCs may become meaningful only under particular environmental conditions. Moreover, existing evidence suggests that HFCs may also differ between sexes. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between heterozygosity in neutral markers (microsatellites) and fitness-related traits in a natural population of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). Additionally, we tested whether sex and environmental conditions may influence the magnitude and direction of HFCs. We found a positive relationship between heterozygosity and body mass of 14 days post-hatching nestlings, but only among females. Our results suggest that the correlation between heterozygosity and nestling body mass observed among female offspring could be attributed to within-brood effects. We failed to find any evidence that environmental conditions as simulated by brood size manipulation affect HFCs.

  • 3.
    Backström, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Brandström, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Cheng, Hans
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Genetic mapping in a natural population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis): Conserved synteny but gene order rearrangements on the avian Z chromosome2006In: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, Vol. 174, no 1, p. 377-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from completely sequenced genomes are likely to open the way for novel studies of the genetics of nonmodel organisms, in particular when it comes to the identification and analysis of genes responsible for traits that are under selection in natural populations. Here we use the draft sequence of the chicken genome as a starting point for linkage mapping in a wild bird species, the collared flycatcher-one of the most well-studied avian species in ecological and evolutionary research. A pedigree of 365 flycatchers was established and genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms in 23 genes selected from (and spread over most of) the chicken Z chromosome. All genes were also found to be located on the Z chromosome in the collared flycatcher, confirming conserved synteny at the level of gene content across distantly related avian lineages. This high degree of conservation mimics the situation seen for the mammalian X chromosome and may thus be a general feature in sex chromosome evolution, irrespective of whether there is male or female heterogamety. Alternatively, such unprecedented chromosomal conservation may be characteristic of most chromosomes in avian genome evolution. However, several internal rearrangements were observed, meaning that the transfer of map information from chicken to nonmodel bird species cannot always assume conserved gene orders. Interestingly, the rate of recombination on the Z chromosome of collared flycatchers was only similar to 50% that of chicken, challenging the widely held view that birds generally have high recombination rates.

  • 4.
    Backström, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Karaiskou, Nikoletta
    Leder, Erica H.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Primmer, Craig R.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    A Gene-Based Genetic Linkage Map of the Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) Reveals Extensive Synteny and Gene-Order Conservation During 100 Million Years of Avian Evolution2008In: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, Vol. 179, p. 1479-1495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By taking advantage of a recently developed reference markerset for avian genome analysis we have constructed a gene-basedgenetic map of the collared flycatcher, an important "ecologicalmodel" for studies of life-history evolution, sexual selection,speciation, and quantitative genetics. A pedigree of 322 birdsfrom a natural population was genotyped for 384 single nucleotidepolymorphisms (SNPs) from 170 protein-coding genes and 71 microsatellites.Altogether, 147 gene markers and 64 microsatellites form 33linkage groups with a total genetic distance of 1787 cM. Malerecombination rates are, on average, 22% higher than femalerates (total distance 1982 vs. 1627 cM). The ability to anchorthe collared flycatcher map with the chicken genome via thegene-based SNPs revealed an extraordinary degree of both syntenyand gene-order conservation during avian evolution. The greatmajority of chicken chromosomes correspond to a single linkagegroup in collared flycatchers, with only a few cases of inter-and intrachromosomal rearrangements. The rate of chromosomaldiversification, fissions/fusions, and inversions combined isthus considerably lower in birds (0.05/MY) than in mammals (0.6–2.0/MY).A dearth of repeat elements, known to promote chromosomal breakage,in avian genomes may contribute to their stability. The degreeof genome stability is likely to have important consequencesfor general evolutionary patterns and may explain, for example,the comparatively slow rate by which genetic incompatibilityamong lineages of birds evolves.

  • 5.
    Backström, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Levels of linkage disequilibrium in a wild bird population2006In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 435-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Population-based mapping approaches are attractive for tracing the genetic background to phenotypic traits in wild species, given that it is often difficult to gather extensive and well-defined pedigrees needed for quantitative trait locus analysis. However, the feasibility of association or hitch-hiking mapping is dependent on the degree of linkage disequilibrium. (LD) in the population, on which there is yet limited information for wild species. Here we use single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from 23 genes in a recently established linkage map of the Z chromosome of the collared flycatcher, to study the extent of LD in a natural bird population. In most but not all cases we find SNPs within the same intron (less than 500 bp) to be in perfect LD. However, LD then decays to background level at a distance 1 cM or 400-500 kb. Although LD seems more extensive than in other species, if the observed pattern is representative for other regions of the genome and turns out to be a general feature of natural bird populations, dense marker maps might be needed for genome scans aimed at identifying association between marker and trait loci.

  • 6.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Subtle but ubiquitous selection on body size in a natural population of collared flycatchers over 33years2017In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 1386-1399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the magnitude and long-term patterns of selection in natural populations is of importance, for example, when analysing the evolutionary impact of climate change. We estimated univariate and multivariate directional, quadratic and correlational selection on four morphological traits (adult wing, tarsus and tail length, body mass) over a time period of 33years (approximate to 19000 observations) in a nest-box breeding population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis). In general, selection was weak in both males and females over the years regardless of fitness measure (fledged young, recruits and survival) with only few cases with statistically significant selection. When data were analysed in a multivariate context and as time series, a number of patterns emerged; there was a consistent, but weak, selection for longer wings in both sexes, selection was stronger on females when the number of fledged young was used as a fitness measure, there were no indications of sexually antagonistic selection, and we found a negative correlation between selection on tarsus and wing length in both sexes but using different fitness measures. Uni- and multivariate selection gradients were correlated only for wing length and mass. Multivariate selection gradient vectors were longer than corresponding vector of univariate gradients and had more constrained direction. Correlational selection had little importance. Overall, the fitness surface was more or less flat with few cases of significant curvature, indicating that the adaptive peak with regard to body size in this species is broader than the phenotypic distribution, which has resulted in weak estimates of selection.

  • 7.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The importance of selection at the level of the pair over 25 years in a natural population of birds2013In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 3, no 13, p. 4610-4619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the pattern of selection in natural populations is fundamental for our understanding of the evolutionary process. Selection at higher levels has gained considerable theoretical support in recent years, and one possible level of selection is the breeding pair where fitness is a function of the pair and cannot be reduced to single individuals. We analyzed the importance of pair-level selection over 25years in a natural population of the collared flycatcher. Pair-level selection was significant in five and probably in another 9years. The relative importance of pair-level selection varied over years and can have stronger or the same strength as directional selection. This means that selection can act on the combination of the breeding pair in addition to selection on each individual separately. Overall, the conservative estimates obtained here show that this is a potentially important form of selection.

  • 8.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The stability of the G-matrix: The role of spatial heterogeneity2015In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 1953-1958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal stability of the genetic variance-covariance matrix (G) has been discussed for a long time in the evolutionary literature. A common assumption in all studies, including empirical ones, is that spatial heterogeneity is minor such that the population can be represented by a single mean and variance. We use the well-established allocation-acquisition model to analyze the effect of relaxing of this assumption, simulating a case where the population is divided into patches with a variance in quality between patches. This variance can in turn differ between years. We found that changes in spatial variance in patch quality over years can make the G-matrix vary substantially over years and that the estimated genetic correlations, evolvability, and response to selection are different dependent on whether spatial heterogeneity is taken into account or not. This will have profound implications for our ability to predict evolutionary change and understanding of the evolutionary process.

  • 9.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Husby, Arild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rapid and unpredictable changes of the G-matrix in a natural bird population over 25 years2013In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the genetic variances and covariances of traits (the G-matrix) is fundamental for the understanding of evolutionary dynamics of populations. Despite its essential importance in evolutionary studies, empirical tests of the temporal stability of the G-matrix in natural populations are few. We used a 25-year-long individual-based field study on almost 7000 breeding attempts of the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) to estimate the stability of the G-matrix over time. Using animal models to estimate G for several time periods, we show that the structure of the time-specific G-matrices changed significantly over time. The temporal changes in the G-matrix were unpredictable, and the structure at one time period was not indicative of the structure at the next time period. Moreover, we show that the changes in the time-specific G-matrices were not related to changes in mean trait values or due to genetic drift. Selection, differences in acquisition/allocation patterns or environment-dependent allelic effects are therefore likely explanations for the patterns observed, probably in combination. Our result cautions against assuming constancy of the G-matrix and indicates that even short-term evolutionary predictions in natural populations can be very challenging.

  • 10.
    Briedis, Martins
    et al.
    Swiss Ornithol Inst, Dept Bird Migrat, Sempach, Switzerland.
    Bauer, Silke
    Swiss Ornithol Inst, Dept Bird Migrat, Sempach, Switzerland.
    Adamik, Peter
    Palacky Univ, Dept Zool, Olomouc, Czech Republic;Museum Nat Hist, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Alves, Jose A.
    Univ Aveiro, Dept Biol, Aveiro, Portugal;Univ Aveiro, Ctr Environm & Marine Studies CESAM, Aveiro, Portugal;Univ Iceland, South Iceland Res Ctr, Laugarvatn, Iceland.
    Costa, Joana S.
    Univ Aveiro, Dept Biol, Aveiro, Portugal;Univ Aveiro, Ctr Environm & Marine Studies CESAM, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Emmenegger, Tamara
    Swiss Ornithol Inst, Dept Bird Migrat, Sempach, Switzerland.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Kolecek, Jaroslav
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Vertebrate Biol, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Liechti, Felix
    Swiss Ornithol Inst, Dept Bird Migrat, Sempach, Switzerland.
    Meier, Christoph M.
    Swiss Ornithol Inst, Dept Bird Migrat, Sempach, Switzerland.
    Prochazka, Petr
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Vertebrate Biol, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Hahn, Steffen
    Swiss Ornithol Inst, Dept Bird Migrat, Sempach, Switzerland.
    A full annual perspective on sex-biased migration timing in long-distance migratory birds2019In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 286, no 1897, article id 20182821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many taxa, the most common form of sex-biased migration timing is protandry – the earlier arrival of males at breeding areas. Here we test this concept across the annual cycle of long-distance migratory birds. Using more than 350 migration tracks of small-bodied trans-Saharan migrants, we quantify differences in male and female migration schedules and test for proximate determinants of sex-specific timing. In autumn, males started migration about 2 days earlier, but this difference did not carry over to arrival at the non-breeding sites. In spring, males on average departed from the African non-breeding sites about 3 days earlier and reached breeding sites ca 4 days ahead of females. A cross-species comparison revealed large variation in the level of protandry and protogyny across the annual cycle. While we found tight links between individual timing of departure and arrival within each migration season, only for males the timing of spring migration was linked to the timing of previous autumn migration. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that protandry is not exclusively a reproductive strategy but rather occurs year-round and the two main proximate determinants for the magnitude of sex-biased arrival times in autumn and spring are sex-specific differences in departure timing and migration duration.

  • 11.
    Briedis, Martins
    et al.
    Palacky Univ, Dept Zool, Olomouc, Czech Republic..
    Hahn, Steffen
    Swiss Ornithol Inst, Dept Bird Migrat, Sempach, Switzerland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Henshaw, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Traff, Johan
    Kral, Miroslav
    Palacky Univ, Dept Zool, Olomouc, Czech Republic..
    Adamik, Peter
    Palacky Univ, Dept Zool, Olomouc, Czech Republic..
    Breeding latitude leads to different temporal but not spatial organization of the annual cycle in a long-distance migrant2016In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 743-748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal and spatial organization of the annual cycle according to local conditions is of crucial importance for individuals' fitness. Moreover, which sites and when particular sites are used can have profound consequences especially for migratory animals, because the two factors shape interactions within and between populations, as well as between animal and the environment. Here, we compare spatial and temporal patterns of two latitudinally separated breeding populations of a trans-Equatorial passerine migrant, the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis, throughout the annual cycle. We found that migration routes and non-breeding residency areas of the two populations largely overlapped. Due to climatic constraints, however, the onset of breeding in the northern population was approximately two weeks later than that of the southern population. We demonstrate that this temporal offset between the populations carries-over from breeding to the entire annual cycle. The northern population was consistently later in timing of all subsequent annual events - autumn migration, non-breeding residence period, spring migration and the following breeding. Such year-round spatiotemporal patterns suggest that annual schedules are endogenously controlled with breeding latitude as the decisive element pre-determining the timing of annual events in our study populations.

  • 12. Brommer, J
    et al.
    Merilä, Juha
    Sheldon, BC
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. Zooekologi.
    Natural selection and genetic variation for reproductive reaction norms in a wild bird population2005In: Evolution, Vol. 59, p. 1362-1371Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Brommer, JE
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. Zooekologi.
    Pietiainen, H
    Merilä, J
    Single-generation estimates of individual fitness as proxies for long-term genetic contribution2004In: American naturalist, Vol. 163, p. 505-517Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Brommer, J.E.
    et al.
    Wilson, A.J.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Exploring the genetics of aging in a wild passerine bird2007In: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 170, no 4, p. 643-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Senescence is the decline in survival and reproduction as an organism ages and is known to occur in collared flycatchers Ficedula albicollis. We consider annual fitness (the estimated genetic contribution that an individual makes to next year’s gene pool) as a measure of age‐specific fitness. We apply a restricted maximum likelihood linear mixed‐model approach on 25 years of data on 3,844 male and 4,992 female collared flycatchers. Annual fitness had a significant additive genetic component (h2 of about 4%). Annual fitness declined at later ages in both sexes. Using a random regression animal model, we show that the observed age‐related phenotypic changes in annual fitness were not present on the additive genetic level, contrary to predictions of genetic hypotheses of senescence. Our study suggests that patterns of aging in the wild need to be interpreted with caution in terms of underlying genetics because they may be largely determined by environmental processes.

  • 15. Brommer, Jon E.
    et al.
    Kirkpatrick, M.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    The intersexual genetic correlation for lifetime fitness in the wild and its implications for sexual selection2007In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 2, no 8, p. e744-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The genetic benefits of mate choice are limited by the degree to which male and female fitness are genetically correlated. If the intersexual correlation for fitness is small or negative, choosing a highly fit mate does not necessarily result in high fitness offspring.

    Methodology/Principal Finding

    Using an animal-model approach on data from a pedigreed population of over 7,000 collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis), we estimate the intersexual genetic correlation in Lifetime Reproductive Success (LRS) in a natural population to be negative in sign (−0.85±0.6). Simulations show this estimate to be robust in sign to the effects of extra-pair parentage. The genetic benefits in this population are further limited by a low level of genetic variation for fitness in males.

    Conclusions/Significance

    The potential for indirect sexual selection is nullified by sexual antagonistic fitness effects in this natural population. Our findings and the scarce evidence from other studies suggest that the intersexual genetic correlation for lifetime fitness may be very low in nature. We argue that this form of conflict can, in general, both constrain and maintain sexual selection, depending on the sex-specific additive genetic variances in lifetime fitness.

  • 16. Brommer, Jon E.
    et al.
    Pitala, Natalia
    Siitari, Heli
    Kluen, Edward
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Body size and immune defense of nestling blue tits (Cyanistes Caeruleus) in response to manipulation of ectoparasites and food supply2011In: The AUK: A Quarterly Journal of Ornithology, ISSN 0004-8038, E-ISSN 1938-4254, Vol. 128, no 3, p. 556-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A developing organism faces a dilemma: whether to allocate available resources to building its body structures (growth) or to the development of its immune system. The outcome of this tradeoff is likely to be modified by parasites. We manipulated the abundance of ectoparasitic Hen Fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) on nestling Blue Tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) by microwaving nests and subsequently adding 200 Hen Fleas (15 infested nests) or not (16 reduced-infestation nests). In addition, we manipulated the host nestlings' food resources by supplementary feeding 10-15% of daily energy needs to half the nestlings in a nest during the key developmental period (days 2-12). Feather growth (tail and wing length) and hematocrit were reduced by the presence of Hen Fleas, indicating negative effects on nestling development. In comparison to the control nestlings, food-supplemented nestlings aged 16 days were larger (tarsus, residual body mass), but only in reduced-infestation nests (interaction between both treatments). Body size of fed male offspring increased in relation to that of females, but only in the absence of ectoparasites. We hypothesized that supplemented resources are allocated to immune defense when ectoparasites are present, but humoral immune function (total immunoglobulin concentration) and cell-mediated immune defense (phytohemagglutinin response) were not affected by either treatment. Either the nestlings allocated additional resources away from growth (into an unknown developmental component) when parasites were abundant, or the ectoparasites preferentially fed on supplementary-fed host nestlings and thereby equalized the development of soma and immune defense of nestlings despite provision of additional resources.

  • 17. Choquet, Remi
    et al.
    Sanz-Aguilar, Ana
    Doligez, Blandine
    Nogue, Erika
    Pradel, Roger
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Gimenez, Olivier
    Estimating demographic parameters from capturerecapture data with dependence among individuals within clusters2013In: Methods in Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2041-210X, E-ISSN 2041-210X, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 474-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-level data, in which level-1 units or individuals are nested within level-2 units or clusters, are very common in natural populations. However, very few multilevel analyses are conducted for data with imperfect detection of individuals. Multilevel analyses are important to quantify the variability at each level of the data. In this study, we present two-level analyses for estimating demographic parameters from data with imperfect detection of individuals and with a source of individual variability that is nested within a source of cluster variability. This method allows separating and quantifying the phenotypic plasticity or facultative behavioural responses from the evolutionary responses. We illustrate our approach using data from studies of a long-lived perennially monogamous seabird, the Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) and a patchy population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis). We demonstrate the existence of dependence in recapture probability between paired individuals in the Cory's shearwater. In addition, we show that family structure has no influence on parentoffspring resemblance in collared flycatchers dispersal. The new method is implemented in program e-surge which is freely available from the internet.

  • 18. Cichon, M
    et al.
    Sendecka, Joanna
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. Zooekologi.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. Zooekologi.
    Age-related decline in humoral immune function in Collared Flycatchers2003In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 16, p. 1205-1210Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Cichon, M.
    et al.
    Sendecka, Joanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Genetic and environmental variation in immune response of collared flycatcher nestlings2006In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1701-1706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at partitioning genetic and environmental contribution to the phenotypic variance in nestling immune function measured with the hypersensitivity test after inoculation with phytohaemagglutinin. A cross-fostering experiment with artificial enlargement of some broods was conducted. Variation in nestling immune response was related to their common origin, which suggests heritable component of cell-mediated immunity. A common rearing environment also explained a significant part of variation. However, deterioration of rearing conditions as simulated by enlargement of brood size did not affect nestling immunocompetence, although it affected nestling body mass. Variation in body mass explained some of the variation in immune response related to rearing environment, which means that growth is more sensitive to the shifts in rearing conditions than the development of immune function. Heritable variation in immune response suggests that there should be potential for selection to operate and the micro evolutionary changes in immunity of flycatcher nestlings are possible.

  • 20. Cichon, M
    et al.
    Sendecka, Joanna
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Male-biased sex ratio among unhatched eggs in the great tit Parus major, blue tit P. caeruleus and collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis2005In: Journal of Avian Biology, Vol. 36, p. 386-390Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. de Heij, Maaike E.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Brommer, Jon E.
    Experimental manipulation shows that the white wing patch in collared flycatchers is a male sexual ornament2011In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 1, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Descriptive analysis suggests that a conspicuous white wing patch in dichromatic (black and white) pied and collared flycatchers is under sexual selection. Here, we use an experimental approach to test whether this trait is indeed the target of selection. We caught 100 collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis males soon after their arrival on the breeding site. We reduced (blackened) part of the white wing patch in half of these males and recorded their mating success and within and extra-pair offspring production. Reduction of the size of the white wing patch lowered a male's probability to attract a secondary social female, but not a primary female. However, primary females paired to males with a reduced wing patch were smaller (in tarsus), suggesting that male choice of partner or female-female competition over mates occurs in this species. The probability of pairing with a primary female (but not other components of male reproductive success) declined with arrival time (proxied by the date of capture). Males with a reduced wing patch size tended to sire less extra-pair offspring, although this relationship was reversed in one of the three study plots, suggesting that mating dynamics are context dependent. While our findings show that wing patch size is the target of sexual selection, the pathways and the strength of selection on this ornament differed markedly from a previous descriptive study. Nonexperimental studies of sexual selection in the wild may overestimate its importance because male fitness and ornamentation both depend positively on environmental conditions.

  • 22. Doligez, Blandine
    et al.
    Daniel, Gregory
    Warin, Patrick
    Part, Tomas
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Reale, Denis
    Estimation and comparison of heritability and parent-offspring resemblance in dispersal probability from capture-recapture data using different methods: the Collared Flycatcher as a case study2012In: Journal of Ornithology = Journal fur Ornithologie, ISSN 0021-8375, E-ISSN 1439-0361, Vol. 152, p. S539-S554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the evolution of a trait requires analysing its genetic basis. Many studies have therefore estimated heritability values of different traits in wild populations using quantitative genetic approaches on capture-recapture data of individuals with known parentage. However, these models assume perfect individual detection probability, a hidden hypothesis that is rarely met in natural populations. To what extent ignoring imperfect detection may bias heritability estimates in wild populations needs specific investigation. We give a first insight into this question using dispersal probability in a patchy population of Collared Flycatchers Ficedula albicollis as an example. We estimate and compare heritability and parent-offspring resemblance in dispersal obtained from (1) quantitative genetic approaches ("classical'' parent-offspring regressions and more recent animal models) and (2) multi-state capture-recapture models accounting for individual detection probability. Unfortunately, current capture-recapture models do not provide heritability estimates, preventing a full comparison of results between models at this stage. However, in the study population, detection probability may be expected to be lower for dispersing compared to philopatric individuals because of lower mating/breeding success and/or higher temporary emigration, making the use of capture-recapture models particularly relevant. We show significant parent-offspring resemblance and heritable component of between-patch dispersal probability in this population. Accounting for imperfect detection does however not seem to influence the observed pattern of parent-offspring resemblance in dispersal probability, although detection probability is both sensibly lower than 1 and heterogeneous among individuals according to dispersal status. We discuss the problems encountered, the information that can be derived from, and the constraints linked to, each method. To obtain unbiased heritability estimates, combining quantitative genetic and capture-recapture models is needed, which should be one of the main developments of capture-recapture models in the near future.

  • 23. Doligez, Blandine
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Pärt, Tomas
    'Heritability' of dispersal propensity in a patchy population2009In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 276, no 1668, p. 2829-2836Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although dispersal is often considered to be a plastic, condition-dependent trait with low heritability, growing evidence supports medium to high levels of dispersal heritability. Obtaining unbiased estimates of dispersal heritability in natural populations nevertheless remains crucial to understand the evolution of dispersal strategies and their population consequences. Here we show that dispersal propensity (i.e. the probability of dispersal between habitat patches) displays a significant heritability in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis, as estimated by within-family resemblance when accounting for environmental factors. Offspring of dispersing mothers or fathers had a higher propensity to disperse to a new habitat patch themselves. The effect of parental dispersal status was additional to that of local habitat quality, as measured by local breeding population size and success, confirming previous results about condition-dependent dispersal in this population. The estimated levels of heritability varied between 0.30+/-0.07 and 0.47+/-0.10, depending on parent-offspring comparisons made and correcting for a significant assortative mating with respect to dispersal status. Siblings also displayed a significant resemblance in dispersal propensity. These results suggest that variation in between-patch natal dispersal in the collared flycatcher is partly genetically determined, and we discuss ways to quantify this genetic basis and its implications.

  • 24. Drobniak, S. M.
    et al.
    Wiejaczka, D.
    Arct, A.
    Dubiec, A.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Cichon, M.
    Sex-specific heritability of cell-mediated immune response in the blue tit nestlings (Cyanistes caeruleus)2010In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1286-1292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we aimed at estimating sex-specific heritabilities of cell-mediated immune response (CMI) in the blue tit nestlings (Cyanistes caeruleus). To separate genetic and environmental components of the phenotypic variance in CMI (measured using phytohaemagglutinin assay), we performed a cross-fostering experiment. Additionally, controlled environmental variation was introduced by enlarging some broods. Our analyses revealed a significant genetic component (as approximated by the nest-of-origin term) of the phenotypic variance in immune response. More importantly, these genetic effects differed between sexes and experimentally manipulated brood sizes, as indicated by significant genotype-by-sex and genotype-by-environment interactions. We discuss possible causes of such sexual dimorphism in gene expression and suggest that sex- and environment-specific genetic interactions may contribute to the maintenance of genetic variability in traits related to immune functions.

  • 25. Drobniak, Szymon M.
    et al.
    Dubiec, Anna
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Maternal Age-Related Depletion of Offspring Genetic Variance in Immune Response to Phytohaemagglutinin in the Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus)2015In: Evolutionary biology, ISSN 0071-3260, E-ISSN 1934-2845, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 88-98Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies examining age-specific patterns in genetic variance have focussed primarily on changes in the genetic variance within cohorts. It remains unclear whether parental age may affect the genetic variance among offspring. To date, such an effect has been reported only in a single study performed in a wild bird population. Here, we provide experimental evidence that the additive genetic variance (V-A) observed among offspring may be related to parental age in a wild passerine-the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). To separate genetic and environmental components of phenotypic variance in nestling body size and immune function we cross-fostered nestlings between pairs of broods born to young and old mothers and used an animal model to estimate V-A. We show that the genetic variance in immune response to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and body weight among offspring depends on maternal age. V-A in response to PHA appeared to be lower among nestlings of older mothers. Such a tendency was not observed for tarsus length. We argue that the lower V-A may result either from depletion of additive genetic variation due to selection acting on parents across age classes or from environmental effects confounded with parental age. Thus, our study suggests that parental age may significantly affect estimates of quantitative genetic parameters in the offspring.

  • 26. Drobniak, Szymon M.
    et al.
    Wiejaczka, Dariusz
    Arct, Aneta
    Dubiec, Anna
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Low Cross-Sex Genetic Correlation in Carotenoid-Based Plumage Traits in the Blue Tit Nestlings (Cyanistes caeruleus)2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 7, p. e69786-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In some bird species, both adult and juvenile individuals are often brightly coloured. It has been commonly assumed that identical plumage colouration present in both sexes results from strong intersexual genetic correlations in colour-related traits. Here, we aimed at testing this hypothesis in juvenile individuals and looked at genetic parameters describing carotenoid-based colouration of blue tit nestlings in a wild population. To separate genetic and environmental sources of phenotypic variation we performed a cross-fostering experiment. Our analyses confirmed the existence of sexual dichromatism in blue tit nestlings and revealed a significant, although low, genetic component of carotenoid-based colouration. However, genetic effects are expressed differently across sexes as indicated by low cross-sex genetic correlations (r(mf)). Thus our results do not support the prediction of generally high rmf and suggest that intersexual constraints on the evolution of colouration traits may be weaker than expected. We hypothesise that observed patterns of genetic correlations result from sex-specific selective pressures acting on nestling plumage colouration.

  • 27.
    Dubiec, Anna
    et al.
    Polish Acad Sci, Museum & Inst Zool, Warsaw, Poland..
    Podmokla, Edyta
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Krakow, Poland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Intra-individual changes in haemosporidian infections over the nesting period in great tit females2017In: Parasitology Research, ISSN 0932-0113, E-ISSN 1432-1955, Vol. 116, no 9, p. 2385-2392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prevalence of haemosporidian parasites in bird populations varies temporally both between years and within a year. In contrast to variation at the population level, relatively little is known about variation in infection attributes at the individual level, especially in non-migratory species. We examined intra-individual changes in the presence and identity of haemosporidian parasites (genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus) over the course of the nesting period in females of great tits (Parus major)-a species considered to be resident over much of its distribution range. Birds were sampled during two stages of the nesting period: nest building and nestling rearing. The mean time interval between sampling occasions was 43 days. Between the first and second samplings, 30.6% of females gained at least one parasite lineage and 18.5% lost the lineage. Haemoproteus gains were over three times more common than Plasmodium gains. The probability of the lineage gain decreased with the date of the first sampling, was higher in individuals in better body condition and differed between years, but was not associated with the host age. The probability of the lineage loss was not explained by any of the considered parameters except for year. These results indicate that in a large proportion of a population, infection attributes (presence/absence and/or parasite identity) may change over the nesting period and the occurrence of such changes may be associated with the individual quality. Consequently, this phenomenon should be taken into account to correctly interpret parasite-mediated effects.

  • 28.
    Dutoit, Ludovic
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Mugal, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Bolivar, Paulina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Wang, Mi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Nadachowska-Brzyska, Krystyna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Smeds, Linnea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Sex-biased gene expression, sexual antagonism and levels of genetic diversity in the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) genome2018In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 27, no 18, p. 3572-3581Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical work suggests that sexual conflict should promote the maintenance of genetic diversity by the opposing directions of selection on sexually antagonistic mutations in males and females. This prediction, so far not been empirically tested on a genome-wide scale, could potentially contribute towards genomic heterogeneity in levels of genetic diversity. We used large-scale population genomic and transcriptomic data from the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) to analyse how sex-biased gene expression – one outcome of sexual conflict – relates to genetic variability. Here, we demonstrate that the extent of sex-biased gene expression of both male-biased and female-biased genes is significantly correlated with levels of nucleotide diversity in gene sequences and that this correlation extends to the overall levels of genomic diversity. We find evidence for balancing selection in sex-biased genes, suggesting that sex-biased gene expression could be seen as a component counteracting the diversity-reducing effects of linked positive and purifying selection. The observation of significant genetic differentiation between males and females for male-biased genes indicates ongoing sexual conflict and sex-specific viability selection, potentially driven by sexual selection. Our results thus provide a new perspective on the long-standing question in evolutionary biology of how genomes can remain so genetically variable in face of strong natural and sexual selection.

  • 29.
    Evans, Simon R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Univ Zurich, Dept Evolutionary Biol & Environm Studies, Winterthurerstr 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Climate change upends selection on ornamentation in a wild bird2017In: NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, ISSN 2397-334X, Vol. 1, no 2, article id UNSP 0039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary sexual traits have high heritabilities and are exposed to strong, environmentally sensitive selection, and so are expected to evolve rapidly in response to sustained environmental change. We examine the eco-evolutionary dynamics of ornament expression in a long-term study population of collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, in which forehead patch size, which positively influences male reproductive success, declined markedly over 34 years. Annual fitness selection on forehead patch size switched from positive to negative during the study, a reversal that is accounted for by rising spring temperatures at the breeding site: highly ornamented males were selectively favoured following cold breeding seasons but selected against following warm breeding seasons. An 'individual animal model' describes a decline in the genetic values of breeding males during the study, which simulations showed was unlikely to result from drift alone. These results are thus consistent with adaptive evolution of a sexually selected trait in response to climate change.

  • 30. Evans, Simon R.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Sheldon, Ben C.
    Divergent Patterns of Age-dependence in Ornamental and Reproductive Traits in the Collared Flycatcher2011In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 65, no 6, p. 1623-1636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual ornaments are predicted to honestly signal individual condition. We might therefore expect ornament expression to show a senescent decline, in parallel with late-life deterioration of other characters. Conversely, life-history theory predicts the reduced residual reproductive value of older individuals will favor increased investment in sexually attractive traits. Using a 25-year dataset of more than 5000 records of breeding collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) of known age, we quantify cross-sectional patterns of age-dependence in ornamental plumage traits and report long-term declines in expression that mask highly significant positive age-dependency. We partition this population-level age-dependency into its between- and within-individual components and show expression of ornamental white plumage patches exhibits within-individual increases with age in both sexes, consistent with life-history theory. For males, ornament expression also covaries with life span, such that, within a cohort, ornamentation indicates survival. Finally, we compared longitudinal age-dependency of reproductive traits and ornamental traits in both sexes, to assess whether these two trait types exhibit similar age-dependency. These analyses revealed contrasting patterns: reproductive traits showed within-individual declines in late-life females consistent with senescence; ornamental traits showed the opposite pattern in both males and females. Hence, our results for both sexes suggest that age-dependent ornament expression is consistent with life-history models of optimal signaling and, unlike reproductive traits, proof against senescence.

  • 31.
    Fletcher, Kevin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Xiong, Ye
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Fletcher, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Glucocorticoid response to both predictable and unpredictable challenges detected as corticosterone metabolites in collared flycatcher droppings2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 12, article id e0209289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most vertebrate animals, glucocorticoid hormones are the chief mediators of homeostasis in response to ecological conditions and as they progress through their lifecycle. In addition, glucocorticoids are a major part of the stress response and stress induced elevations of the hormone can make it difficult to assess glucocorticoid secretion in response to changes in life-stage and current environmental conditions in wild animals. Particularly when quantifying circulating levels of glucocorticoids in the blood which fluctuate rapidly in response to stress. An alternative method of quantifying glucocorticoids is as hormone metabolites in faeces or urine giving a historical sample related to the gut passage time and urinary tract that is less sensitive to stressful events which cause spikes in the circulating hormone level. Although the concentration of glucocorticoid metabolites are influenced by faecal mass thereby potentially affecting any differences in hormone metabolites detected amongst samples. In the present study, we aimed to detect changes in levels of corticosterone, the primary bird glucocorticoid, in relation to the phase of reproduction, in a breeding population of collared flycatchers by sampling corticosterone metabolites in droppings. We also tested how corticosterone metabolite concentrations were affected by ambient temperature and related to body condition in adult birds. Our results indicate that the upregulation of corticosterone between incubation and nestling feeding in female birds is crucial for successful reproduction in this species. Also, females appear to downregulate corticosterone during incubation in response to lower ambient temperature and poorer body condition. Our results did not indicate a relationship between dropping mass and corticosterone metabolite concentrations, which suggests that our findings were linked to the regulation of corticosterone in response to predictable and unpredictable challenges.

  • 32.
    Forsman, Jukka T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Hjernquist, Marten B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Taipale, Jenni
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Competitor density cues for habitat quality facilitating habitat selection and investment decisions2008In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 539-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The theory of species coexistence predicts avoidance between species that compete for similar resources. Recent studies, however, have suggested that facilitation is also possible if competitor density provides information about resources. Optimal solution to trade-off between competition and facilitation is predicted to occur at intermediate competitor densities. We tested this hypothesis by experimentally creating a density range of resident tit species (Parus spp.), and measured the response of a competitively subordinate migratory bird, the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) in terms of habitat preference (settlement order and density), offspring investment (clutch size and primary sex ratio of offspring), and reproductive success (number and condition of nestlings). We show that most habitat choice and investment decisions of flycatchers were unimodally related to tit density, whereas reproductive success decreased linearly with increasing density. Flycatchers thus made mismatched investment decisions at the artificial tit densities because manipulation disassociated the natural correlation between habitat quality and population density. Apparently low and high tit densities were perceived as indication of poor quality habitat in terms of low amount or quality of resources/high mortality risk and high costs of competition, respectively. This demonstrates that competitor density can be used in assessing overall habitat quality in habitat selection and offspring investment decisions, integrating information on resources and competition.

  • 33.
    Forsman, Jukka T.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Hjernquist, Mårten B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Experimental evidence for the use of density based interspecific social information in forest birds2009In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 539-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproductive success and habitat preference are generally assumed to be negatively associated with densities of con- and heterospecific competitors. However, recent theoretical studies have suggested that in some cases habitat preference may have a nonlinear unimodal function in relation to con- or heterospecific competitor densities - intermediate densities being preferred. Such a pattern is expected if con- or heterospecific densities are used as a proximate cue in habitat selection, which may produce benefits by reducing searching costs and providing information about current habitat quality and costs of competition. At low density the use of such cues, and hence habitat selection, are hampered, whereas at high density costs of competition exceed the benefits of using cues, leading to avoidance. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining whether arboreal migratory birds use the density of resident titmice (Parus spp.) in habitat selection decisions. Many migrants and titmice species share similar resource needs making titmice density a reliable source of information for migrants. At the scale of habitat patches, we experimentally created a range of titmice densities from low to very high and subsequently measured the density response of migrants. In contrast to the unimodal habitat preference hypothesis, the average species number and total density of migratory birds were positively and linearly correlated with manipulated titmice density. Thus, migrants probably use titmice density as a relative indicator of habitat quality (abundance or quality of food) because foliage gleaners that share similar food resource with titmice, but not ground foragers, showed a positive association with manipulated titmice density. These results emphasize the positive effect of interspecific social information on habitat choice decisions and diversity of migratory bird community.

  • 34. Forsman, Jukka T.
    et al.
    Kivela, Sami M.
    Jaakkonen, Tuomo
    Seppanen, Janne-Tuomas
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Doligez, Blandine
    Avoiding perceived past resource use of potential competitors affects niche dynamics in a bird community2014In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 14, p. 175-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social information use is usually considered to lead to ecological convergence among involved con-or heterospecific individuals. However, recent results demonstrate that observers can also actively avoid behaving as those individuals being observed, leading to ecological divergence. This phenomenon has been little explored so far, yet it can have significant impact on resource use, realized niches and species co-existence. In particular, the time-scale and the ecological context over which such shifts can occur are unknown. We examined with a long-term (four years) field experiment whether experimentally manipulated, species-specific, nest-site feature preferences (symbols on nest boxes) are transmitted across breeding seasons and affect future nest-site preferences in a guild of three cavity-nesting birds. Results: Of the examined species, resident great tits (Parus major) preferred the symbol that had been associated with unoccupied nest boxes in the previous year, i.e., their preference shifted towards niche space previously unused by putative competitors and conspecifics. Conclusions: Our results show that animals can remember the earlier resource use of conspecifics and other guild members and adjust own decisions accordingly one year after. Our experiment cannot reveal the ultimate mechanism(s) behind the observed behaviour but avoiding costs of intra-or interspecific competition or ectoparasite load in old nests are plausible reasons. Our findings imply that interspecific social information use can affect resource sharing and realized niches in ecological time-scale through active avoidance of observed decisions and behavior of potentially competing species.

  • 35. Garant, D
    et al.
    Sheldon, BC
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. Zooekologi.
    Climatic and temporal effects on the expression of secondary sexual characters: genetic and environmental components2004In: Evolution, Vol. 58, p. 634-644Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Germain, Marion
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Univ Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5558, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut, F-69000 Lyon, France.;Univ Lyon 1, 18 Blvd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France.;Univ Lyon 2, Univ Lyon, F-69000 Lyon, France..
    Part, Tomas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Box 7044, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Doligez, Blandine
    Univ Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5558, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut, F-69000 Lyon, France.;Univ Lyon 1, 18 Blvd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Natal dispersers pay a lifetime cost to increased reproductive effort in a wild bird population2017In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 284, no 1851, article id 20162445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natal dispersal is assumed to be costly. Such costs can be difficult to detect, and fitness consequences of dispersal are therefore poorly known. Because of lower phenotypic quality and/or familiarity with the environment, natal dispersers may be less buffered against a sudden increase in reproductive effort. Consequently, reproductive costs associated with natal dispersal may mostly be detected in harsh breeding conditions. We tested this prediction by comparing lifetime reproductive success between natal dispersers and non- dispersers in a patchy population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) when they reared either a non- manipulated brood or an experimentally increased or decreased brood. Natal dispersers achieved lower lifetime reproductive success than non- dispersers only under more stressful breeding conditions (i. e. when brood size was experimentally increased). This was mostly due to a lower number of recruits produced in the year of the increase. Our results suggest a cost associated with natal dispersal paid immediately after an increase in reproductive effort and not subsequently compensated for through increased survival or future offspring recruitment. Natal dispersers adjusted their breeding investment when reproductive effort is as predicted but seemed unable to efficiently face a sudden increase in effort, which could affect the influence of environmental predictability on dispersal evolution.

  • 37.
    Gustafsson, L
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Qvarnström, A
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    A test of the "sexy son" hypothesis: sons of polygynous collared flycatchers do not inherit their fathers' mating status2006In: American Naturalist, Vol. 167, p. 297-302Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Hjernquist, Marten B.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Hjernquist, Katherine A. Thuman
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Forsman, Jukka T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Sex allocation in response to local resource competition over breeding territories2009In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 335-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex allocation according to local resource competition suggests that investment and offspring sex ratio should be biased toward the dispersing sex to limit the competition among the natal philopatric sex. Conversely, when competition over resources is low, parents should allocate more resources toward the philopatric sex. In this study, this reciprocal scenario of sex allocation is tested. More specifically, the effect of breeding territory availability on primary sex ratio is studied in the collared flycatcher, a migratory passerine bird, where males are the natal philopatric sex. As predicted, primary sex ratios were biased toward males in areas where available territories were abundant (estimated from population growth). No relationship between sex ratio adjustment and adult phenotypes as well as date of first egg was found. We discuss potential explanation for the male-biased broods in areas with many vacant territories and low levels of competition. We suggest that sex ratio adjustment in relation to breeding territory quality and availability could be relatively common in birds.

  • 39.
    Hsu, Bin-Yan
    et al.
    Dept of Biology, Univ. of Turku, Finland.
    Doligez, Blandine
    Dept of Biometry and Evolutionary Biology, CNRS, Univ. de Lyon, France.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Ruuskanen, Suvi
    Dept of Biology, Univ. of Turku, Finland.
    Transient growth-enhancing effects of elevated maternal thyroid hormones at no apparent oxidative cost during early postnatal period2019In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 50, no 1, article id e01919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maternal thyroid hormones (THs) have been proven crucial for embryonic development in humans, but their influence within the natural variation on wild animals remains unknown. So far the only two studies that experimentally investigated the potential fitness consequences of maternal THs in birds found inconsistent results. More studies are thus required to assess the general effects of maternal THs and their influences on more behavioral and physiological parameters. In this study, we experimentally elevated yolk TH content in a wild migratory passerine species, the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis, to investigate the effects on hatching success, nestling growth and oxidative stress. We found that TH‐injected eggs had a higher hatching success, and the nestlings hatched from TH‐injected eggs were heavier and larger than control nestlings, but only during the early postnatal period. These differences vanished by fledging. Nestlings from TH‐injected eggs exhibited lower activity of the glutathione‐s‐transferase, a major antioxidant enzyme, than control nestlings at day 12, a few days before fledging, but they did not differ in oxidative damage and overall intracellular oxidative state. These results suggest that the early growth‐enhancing effects incurred no observable oxidative stress. We hypothesize that such a transient growth‐enhancing effect might be adaptive in advancing the development and maturation of the offspring so they are well‐prepared in time for the upcoming migration. Further studies investigating whether such advancing effects can influence long‐term fitness, will be more than valuable.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-11-15 00:00
  • 40.
    Husby, Arild
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Low Genetic Variance in the Duration of the Incubation Period in a Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) Population2012In: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 179, no 1, p. 132-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The avian incubation period is associated with high energetic costs and mortality risks suggesting that there should be strong selection to reduce the duration to the minimum required for normal offspring development. Although there is much variation in the duration of the incubation period across species, there is also variation within species. It is necessary to estimate to what extent this variation is genetically determined if we want to predict the evolutionary potential of this trait. Here we use a long-term study of collared flycatchers to examine the genetic basis of variation in incubation duration. We demonstrate limited genetic variance as reflected in the low and nonsignificant additive genetic variance, with a corresponding heritability of 0.04 and coefficient of additive genetic variance of 2.16. Any selection acting on incubation duration will therefore be inefficient. To our knowledge, this is the first time heritability of incubation duration has been estimated in a natural bird population.

  • 41.
    Husby, Arild
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Schielzeth, Holger
    Forstmeier, Wolfgang
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Sex chromosome linked genetic variance and the evolution of sexual dimorphism of quantitative traits2013In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 609-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theory predicts that sex chromsome linkage should reduce intersexual genetic correlations thereby allowing the evolution of sexual dimorphism. Empirical evidence for sex linkage has come largely from crosses and few studies have examined how sexual dimorphism and sex linkage are related within outbred populations. Here, we use data on an array of different traits measured on over 10,000 individuals from two pedigreed populations of birds (collared flycatcher and zebra finch) to estimate the amount of sex-linked genetic variance (h2z). Of 17 traits examined, eight showed a nonzero h2Z estimate but only four were significantly different from zero (wing patch size and tarsus length in collared flycatchers, wing length and beak color in zebra finches). We further tested how sexual dimorphism and the mode of selection operating on the trait relate to the proportion of sex-linked genetic variance. Sexually selected traits did not show higher h2Z than morphological traits and there was only a weak positive relationship between h2Z and sexual dimorphism. However, given the relative scarcity of empirical studies, it is premature to make conclusions about the role of sex chromosome linkage in the evolution of sexual dimorphism.

  • 42.
    Janas, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Krakow, Poland.
    Podmokla, Edyta
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Krakow, Poland;Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Zool & Biomed Res, Dept Comparat Anat, Krakow, Poland.
    Lutyk, Dorota
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Krakow, Poland.
    Dubiec, Anna
    Polish Acad Sci, Museum & Inst Zool, Warsaw, Poland.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Krakow, Poland.
    Drobniak, Szymon
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Krakow, Poland.
    Influence of haemosporidian infection status on structural and carotenoid-based colouration in the blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus2018In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 49, no 10, article id UNSP e01840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypotheses postulating parasite-mediated mate choice intrinsically assume that parasitic infections deteriorate the quality of male ornamentation. Although this assumption has often been studied in the context of carotenoid-based colouration, only few studies investigated this with reference to structural feather colouration, which in many species plays a vital role in sexual selection. Here, using a three-years dataset from a wild blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus population, we examined the relationship between the haemosporidian infection status and the structural as well as the carotenoid-based colouration of adult birds. Furthermore, we investigated potential differences in the impact on feather colouration between two examined parasite genera: Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. For analysis of the feathers spectral reflectance we used both the tristimulus model and the avian tetrahedral colour space model, incorporating visual phenotype of the blue tit. Contrary to expectations we found that infected birds showed higher brightness, in both the structural and the carotenoid-based colours. We also found no differences in the feather colouration between birds infected with Plasmodium and Haemoproteus. Observed pattern might be best explained by the parasite-mediated selection hypothesis, as only individuals of superior quality should be able to survive the acute stage of infection and therefore they could produce more elaborate ornamental colouration.

  • 43. Jones, Owen R.
    et al.
    Gaillard, Jean-Michel
    Tuljapurkar, Shripad
    Alho, Jussi S.
    Armitage, Kenneth B.
    Becker, Peter H.
    Bize, Pierre
    Brommer, Jon
    Charmantier, Anne
    Charpentier, Marie
    Clutton-Brock, Tim
    Dobson, F. Stephen
    Festa-Bianchet, Marco
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Jensen, Henrik
    Jones, Carl G.
    Lillandt, Bo-Goeran
    McCleery, Robin
    Merila, Juha
    Neuhaus, Peter
    Nicoll, Malcolm A. C.
    Norris, Ken
    Oli, Madan K.
    Pemberton, Josephine
    Pietiainen, Hannu
    Ringsby, Thor Harald
    Roulin, Alexandre
    Saether, Bernt-Erik
    Setchell, Joanna M.
    Sheldon, Ben C.
    Thompson, Paul M.
    Weimerskirch, Henri
    Wickings, E. Jean
    Coulson, Tim
    Senescence rates are determined by ranking on the fast-slow life-history continuum2008In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 664-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative analyses of survival senescence by using life tables have identified generalizations including the observation that mammals senesce faster than similar-sized birds. These generalizations have been challenged because of limitations of life-table approaches and the growing appreciation that senescence is more than an increasing probability of death. Without using life tables, we examine senescence rates in annual individual fitness using 20 individual-based data sets of terrestrial vertebrates with contrasting life histories and body size. We find that senescence is widespread in the wild and equally likely to occur in survival and reproduction. Additionally, mammals senesce faster than birds because they have a faster life history for a given body size. By allowing us to disentangle the effects of two major fitness components our methods allow an assessment of the robustness of the prevalent life-table approach. Focusing on one aspect of life history - survival or recruitment - can provide reliable information on overall senescence.

  • 44.
    Järhult, Josef D
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Stedt, Johan
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Zero prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in 300 breeding Collared Flycatchers in Sweden2013In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wild birds are important indicators and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. The order Passerines is scarcely studied apart from Corvus sp. but extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) has been found in Blackbirds. We tested 300 fecal samples from a well-studied population of Collared Flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) at the Island of Gotland in Sweden and found no ESBL-producing bacteria. These results support the idea of 'ecological guild' as Blackbirds are ground-foraging invertebrate feeders, whereas Collared Flycatchers are aerial insectivores not regularly coming into contact with fecal contaminations and therefore less prone to acquire pathogens spread by the fecal-oral route.

  • 45. Kivela, Sami M.
    et al.
    Seppanen, Janne-Tuomas
    Ovaskainen, Otso
    Doligez, Blandine
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Monkkonen, Mikko
    Forsman, Jukka T.
    The past and the present in decision-making: the use of conspecific and heterospecific cues in nest site selection2014In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 95, no 12, p. 3428-3439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nest site selection significantly affects fitness, so adaptations for assessment of the qualities of available sites are expected. The assessment may be based on personal or social information, the latter referring to the observed location and performance of both conspecific and heterospecific individuals. Contrary to large-scale breeding habitat selection, small-scale nest site selection within habitat patches is insufficiently understood. We analyzed nest site selection in the migratory Collared Flycatcher Ficedula albicollis in relation to present and past cues provided by conspecifics and by resident tits within habitat patches by using long-term data. Collared Flycatchers preferred nest boxes that were occupied by conspecifics in the previous year. This preference was strongest in breeding pairs where both individuals bred in the same forest patch in the previous year. The results also suggest preference for nest boxes close to boxes where conspecifics had a high breeding success in the previous year, and for nest boxes which are presently surrounded by a high number of breeding Great Tits Parus major. The results indicate social information use in nest site selection at a small spatial scale, where Collared Flycatchers use conspecific cues with a time lag of one year and heterospecific cues instantly.

  • 46. Lambrechts, Marcel M.
    et al.
    Adriaensen, Frank
    Ardia, Daniel R.
    Artemyev, Alexandr V.
    Atienzar, Francisco
    Banbura, Jerzy
    Barba, Emilio
    Bouvier, Jean-Charles
    Camprodon, Jordi
    Cooper, Caren B.
    Dawson, Russell D.
    Eens, Marcel
    Eeva, Tapio
    Faivre, Bruno
    Garamszegi, Laszlo Z.
    Goodenough, Anne E.
    Gosler, Andrew G.
    Gregoire, Arnaud
    Griffith, Simon C.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Johnson, L. Scott
    Kania, Wojciech
    Keiss, Oskars
    Llambias, Paulo E.
    Mainwaring, Mark C.
    Mand, Raivo
    Massa, Bruno
    Mazgajski, Tomasz D.
    Möller, Anders Pape
    Moreno, Juan
    Naef-Daenzer, Beat
    Nilsson, Jan-Åke
    Norte, Ana C.
    Orell, Markku
    Otter, Ken A.
    Park, Chan Ryul
    Perrins, Christopher M.
    Pinowski, Jan
    Porkert, Jiri
    Potti, Jaime
    Remes, Vladimir
    Richner, Heinz
    Rytkonen, Seppo
    Shiao, Ming-Tang
    Silverin, Bengt
    Slagsvold, Tore
    Smith, Henrik G.
    Sorace, Alberto
    Stenning, Martyn J.
    Stewart, Ian
    Thompson, Charles F.
    Tryjanowski, Piotr
    Torok, Janos
    van Noordwijk, Arie J.
    Winkler, David W.
    Ziane, Nadia
    The design of artificial nestboxes for the study of secondary hole-nesting birds: a review of methodological inconsistencies and potential biases2010In: Acta Ornithologica, ISSN 0001-6454, E-ISSN 1734-8471, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread use of artificial nestboxes has led to significant advances in our knowledge of the ecology, behaviour and physiology of cavity nesting birds, especially small passerines Nestboxes have made it easier to perform routine monitoring and experimental manipulation of eggs or nestlings, and also repeatedly to capture, identify and manipulate the parents However, when comparing results across study sites the use of nestboxes may also Introduce a potentially significant confounding variable in the form of differences in nestbox design amongst studies, such as their physical dimensions, placement height, and the way in which they are constructed and maintained However, the use of nestboxes may also introduce an unconsidered and potentially significant confounding variable clue to differences in nestbox design amongst studies, such as their physical dimensions, placement height, and the way in which they are constructed and maintained Here we review to what extent the characteristics of artificial nestboxes (e g size, shape, construction material, colour) are documented in the 'methods' sections of publications involving hole-nesting passerine birds using natural or excavated cavities or artificial nestboxes for reproduction and roosting Despite explicit previous recommendations that authors describe in detail the characteristics of the nestboxes used, we found that the description of nestbox characteristics in most recent publications remains poor and insufficient We therefore list the types of descriptive data that should be included in the methods sections of relevant manuscripts and justify this by discussing how variation in nestbox characteristics can affect or confound conclusions from nestbox studies We also propose several recommendations to improve the reliability and usefulness of research based on long-term studies of any secondary hole-nesting species using artificial nestboxes for breeding or roosting.

  • 47.
    Mills, James A.
    et al.
    10527A Skyline Dr, Coming, NY 14830 USA..
    Teplitsky, Celine
    Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris 04, CESCO, MNHN,CNRS,UMR7204, CP51,55 Rue Buffon, F-75005 Paris, France.;Ctr Ecol Fonct & Evolut, UMR 5175, Campus CNRS,1919 Route Mende, F-34293 Montpellier 5, France..
    Arroyo, Beatriz
    UCLM, JCCM, CSIC, Inst Invest Recursos Cineget IREC, Ronda Toledo S-N, Real, Spain..
    Charmantier, Anne
    Ctr Ecol Fonct & Evolut, UMR 5175, Campus CNRS,1919 Route Mende, F-34293 Montpellier 5, France..
    Becker, Peter H.
    Inst Avian Res, Vogelwarte 21, D-26386 Wilhelmshaven, Germany..
    Birkhead, Tim R.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England..
    Bize, Pierre
    Univ Aberdeen, Inst Biol & Environm Sci, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Blumstein, Daniel T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, 621 Young Dr South, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Bonenfant, Christophe
    Univ Lyon 1, CNRS, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut, UMR 5558, 43 Blvd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Boutin, Stan
    Univ Alberta, Dept Biol Sci, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9, Canada..
    Bushuev, Andrey
    Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Fac Biol, Dept Vertebrate Zool, Leninskie Gory 1-12, Moscow 119234, Russia..
    Cam, Emmanuelle
    Univ Toulouse 3, ENFA, CNRS, EDB Lab Evolut & Div Biol,UMR 5174, F-31062 Toulouse 9, France..
    Cockburn, Andrew
    Australian Natl Univ, Res Sch Biol, Dept Evolut Ecol & Genet, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Cote, Steeve D.
    Univ Laval, Dept Biol, 1045 Ave Med, Quebec City, PQ G1V 0A6, Canada.;Univ Laval, Ctr Etud Nord, 1045 Ave Med, Quebec City, PQ G1V 0A6, Canada..
    Coulson, John C.
    29St Marys Close, Durham DH1 2ND, England..
    Daunt, Francis
    Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Dingemanse, Niels J.
    Univ Munich, Dept Biol, Behav Ecol, Planegg Martinsried, Germany..
    Doligez, Blandine
    Univ Lyon 1, CNRS, Lab Biometrie & Biol Evolut, UMR 5558, 43 Blvd 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Drummond, Hugh
    Max Planck Inst Ornithol, Evolutionary Ecol Variat Res Grp, Seewiesen, Germany.;Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Dept Ecol Evolut, Inst Ecol, AP 70-275, Mexico City 04510, DF, Mexico..
    Espie, Richard H. M.
    Saskatchewan Minist Environm, Tech Resource Branch, 3211 Albert St, Regina, SK S4S 5W6, Canada..
    Festa-Bianchet, Marco
    Univ Sherbrooke, Dept Biol, 2500 Blvd Univ, Sherbrooke, PQ J1K 2R1, Canada..
    Frentiu, Francesca D.
    Queensland Univ Technol, Sch Biomed Sci, Kelvin Grove, Qld 4059, Australia.;Queensland Univ Technol, Inst Hlth & Biomed Innovat, Kelvin Grove, Qld 4059, Australia..
    Fitzpatrick, John W.
    Cornell Lab Omithol, 159 Sapsucker Woods Rd, Ithaca, NY 14850 USA..
    Furness, Robert W.
    Univ Glasgow, Graham Kerr Bldg, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Gauthier, Gilles
    Univ Laval, Dept Biol, 1045 Ave Med, Quebec City, PQ G1V 0A6, Canada.;Univ Laval, Ctr Etud Nord, 1045 Ave Med, Quebec City, PQ G1V 0A6, Canada..
    Grant, Peter R.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolut Biol, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA..
    Griesser, Michael
    Univ Zurich, Anthropol Inst & Museum, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, Ecol Bldg, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Harris, Michael P.
    Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Jiguet, Frederic
    Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris 04, CESCO, MNHN,CNRS,UMR7204, CP51,55 Rue Buffon, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Grimso Wildlife Res Stn, Dept Ecol, SE-73091 Riddarhyttansn, Sweden..
    Korpimaki, Erkki
    Univ Turku, Dept Biol, Sect Ecol, FI-20014 Turku, Finland..
    Krebs, Charles J.
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Zool, 6270 Univ Blvd, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada..
    Lens, Luc
    Univ Ghent, Dept Biol, Terr Ecol Unit, Ledeganckstr 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Linnell, John D. C.
    Norwegian Inst Nat Res, POB 5685 Sluppen, N-7485 Trondheim, Norway..
    Low, Matthew
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    McAdam, Andrew
    Univ Guelph, Dept Integrat Biol, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada..
    Margalida, Antoni
    Univ Lleida, Fac Life Sci & Engn, E-25198 Lleida, Spain..
    Merila, Juha
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Biosci, Ecol Genet Res Unit, Bioctr 3, Viikinkaari 1, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Moller, Anders P.
    Equipe Div Ecol & Evolut Microbiennes, Lab Ecol Systemat & Evolut, Batiment 362, F-91405 Orsay, France..
    Nakagawa, Shinichi
    Univ New S Wales, Evolut & Ecol Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ New S Wales, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Nilsson, Jan-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Nisbet, Ian C. T.
    ICT Nisbet & Co, 150 Alder Lane, Falmouth, MA 02556 USA..
    van Noordwijk, Arie J.
    Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Dept Anim Ecol, NL-6700 AB Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Oro, Daniel
    Inst Mediterrani Estudis Avangats IMEDEA CSIC UIB, Esporles Mallorca 07190, Spain..
    Part, Tomas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Pelletier, Fanie
    Univ Sherbrooke, Dept Biol, 2500 Blvd Univ, Sherbrooke, PQ J1K 2R1, Canada..
    Potti, Jaime
    CSIC, Estn Biol Doliana, Dept Ecol Evolut, Ave Amer Vespuclo S-N, Seville, Spain..
    Pujol, Benoit
    Univ Toulouse 3, ENFA, CNRS, EDB Lab Evolut & Div Biol,UMR 5174, F-31062 Toulouse 9, France..
    Reale, Denis
    Univ Quebec, Dept Sci Biol, CP 8888 Succursale Ctr Ville, Montreal, PQ H3C 3P8, Canada..
    Rockwell, Robert F.
    Amer Museum Nat Hist, Vertebrate Zool, New York, NY 10024 USA..
    Ropert-Coudert, Yan
    Inst Pluridisciplinalre Hubert Curien, CNRS, UMR7178, 23 Rue Becquerel, F-67087 Strasbourg, France..
    Roulin, Alexandre
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Thebaud, Christophe
    Univ Toulouse 3, ENFA, CNRS, EDB Lab Evolut & Div Biol,UMR 5174, F-31062 Toulouse 9, France..
    Sedinger, James S.
    Univ Nevada, Dept Nat Resources & Environm Sci, Reno, NV 89512 USA..
    Swenson, Jon E.
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Ecol & Nat Resource Management, POB 5003, NO-1432 As, Norway.;Norwegian Inst Nat Res, POB 5685 Sluppen, N-7485 Trondheim, Norway..
    Visser, Marcel E.
    Netherlands Inst Ecol NIOO KNAW, Dept Anim Ecol, NL-6700 AB Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Wanless, Sarah
    Westneat, David F.
    Univ Kentucky, Dept Biol, Ctr Ecol Evolut & Behav, Lexington, KY USA..
    Wilson, Alastair J.
    Univ Exeter, Coll Life & Environm Sci, Ctr Ecol & Conservat, Cornwall Campus, Penryn TR10 9EZ, England..
    Zedrosser, Andreas
    Telemark Univ, Dept Environm & Hlth Studies, Fac Arts & Sci, N-3800 Bo I Telemark, Norway..
    Solutions for Archiving Data in Long-Term Studies: A Reply to Whitlock et al.2016In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 85-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48. Mills, James A.
    et al.
    Teplitsky, Celine
    Museum Natl Hist Nat, Dept Ecol & Gest Biodiversite, CNRS, MNHN,UPMC,UMR 7204, F-75231 Paris, France..
    Arroyo, Beatriz
    Inst Invest Recursos Cinegeticos IREC, CSIC, JCCM, UCLM, Cludad 13005, Real, Spain..
    Charmantier, Anne
    Ctr Ecol Fonctionnelle & Evolut, UMR 5175, F-34293 Montpellier 5, France..
    Becker, Peter. H.
    Inst Avian Res, D-26386 Wilhelmshaven, Germany..
    Birkhead, Tim R.
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England..
    Bize, Pierre
    Univ Aberdeen, Inst Biol & Environm Sci, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Blumstein, Daniel T.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Bonenfant, Christophe
    Univ Lyon 1, CNRS, Lab Biomet & Biol Evolut, UMR 5558, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Boutin, Stan
    Univ Alberta, Dept Biol Sci, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E9, Canada..
    Bushuev, Andrey
    Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Dept Vertebrate Zool, Fac Biol, Moscow 119234, Russia..
    Cam, Emmanuelle
    Univ Toulouse 3, EDB Lab Evolut & Diversite Biol, CNRS, ENFA,UMR 5174, F-31062 Toulouse 9, France..
    Cockburn, Andrew
    Australian Natl Univ, Dept Evolut Ecol & Genet, Res Sch Biol, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Cote, Steeve D.
    Univ Laval, Dept Biol, Quebec City, PQ G1V 0A6, Canada.;Univ Laval, Ctr Etudes Nord, Quebec City, PQ G1V 0A6, Canada..
    Coulson, John C.
    Daunt, Francis
    Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Penicuik EH26 0QB, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Dingemanse, Niels J.
    Univ Munich, Behav Ecol, Dept Biol, Martinsried, Germany.;Max Planck Inst Ornithol, Evolut Ecol Variat Res Grp, Seewiesen, Germany..
    Doligez, Blandine
    Univ Lyon 1, CNRS, Lab Biomet & Biol Evolut, UMR 5558, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Drummond, Hugh
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Dept Ecol Evolut, Inst Ecol, Mexico City 04510, DF, Mexico..
    Espie, Richard H. M.
    Saskatchewan Minist Environm, Tech Resource Branch, Regina, SK S4S 5W6, Canada..
    Festa-Bianchet, Marco
    Univ Sherbrooke, Dept Biol, Sherbrooke, PQ J1K 2R1, Canada..
    Frentiu, Francesca
    Queensland Univ Technol, Sch Biomed Sci, Kelvin Grove, Qld 4059, Australia.;Queensland Univ Technol, Inst Hlth & Biomed Innovat, Kelvin Grove, Qld 4059, Australia..
    Fitzpatrick, John W.
    Cornell Lab Ornithol, Ithaca, NY 14850 USA..
    Furness, Robert W.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Garant, Dany
    Univ Sherbrooke, Dept Biol, Sherbrooke, PQ J1K 2R1, Canada..
    Gauthier, Gilles
    Univ Laval, Dept Biol, Quebec City, PQ G1V 0A6, Canada.;Univ Laval, Ctr Etudes Nord, Quebec City, PQ G1V 0A6, Canada..
    Grant, Peter R.
    Princeton Univ, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA..
    Griesser, Michael
    Univ Zurich, Anthropol Inst Museum, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Hansson, Bengt
    Lund Univ, Dept Biol, S-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Harris, Michael P.
    Jiguet, Frederic
    Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris 04, CESCO, MNHN,CNRS,UMR7204, F-75005 Paris, France..
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Grimso Wildlife Res Stn, Dept Ecol, S-73091 Riddarhyttan, Sweden..
    Korpimaki, Erkki
    Univ Turku, Dept Biol, Sect Ecol, Turku 20014, Finland..
    Krebs, Charles J.
    Univ British Columbia, Dept Zool, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada..
    Lens, Luc
    Univ Ghent, Terr Ecol Unit, Dept Biol, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Linne, John D. C.
    Norwegian Inst Nat Res, N-7485 Trondheim, Norway..
    Low, Matthew
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    McAdam, Andrew
    Univ Guelph, Dept Integrat Biol, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada..
    Margalida, Antoni
    Univ Lleida, Fac Life Sci & Engn, Lleida 25198, Spain..
    Merila, Juha
    Univ Helsinki, Ecol Genet Res Unit, Dept Biosci, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Moller, Anders P.
    Lab Ecol Systernat & Evolut, Equipe Diversite Ecol & Evolut Microbiennes, F-91405 Orsay, France..
    Nakagawa, Shinichi
    Univ New S Wales, Evolut & Ecol Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ New S Wales, Sch Biol Earth & Environm Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Nilsson, Jan-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Nisbet, Ian C. T.
    ITC Nisbet & Co, N Falmouth, MA 02556 USA..
    van Noordwijk, Arie J.
    Netherlands Inst Ecol N1OO KNAW, Dept Anim Ecol, NL-6700 AB Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Oro, Daniel
    Inst Mediterrani Estudis Avangats IMEDEA CSIC UIB, Esporles 07190, Mallorca, Spain..
    Part, Tomas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Pelletier, Fanie
    Univ Sherbrooke, Dept Biol, Sherbrooke, PQ J1K 2R1, Canada..
    Potti, Jaime
    Estac Biol Donana CSIC, Dept Ecol Evolutiva, Seville 41092, Spain..
    Pujol, Benoit
    Reale, Denis
    Univ Quebec, Dept Sci Biol, Montreal, PQ H3C 3P8, Canada..
    Rockwel, Robert F.
    Amer Museum Nat Hist, Vertebrate Zool, New York, NY 10024 USA..
    Ropert-Coudert, Yan
    CNRS, Inst Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, UMR7178, F-67087 Strasbourg, France..
    Roulin, Alexandre
    Univ Lausanne, Dept Ecol & Evolut, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Sedinger, James S.
    Univ Nevada Reno, Dept Nat Resources & Environm Sci, Reno, NV 89512 USA..
    Swenson, Jon E.
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Ecol & Nat Resource Management, N-1432 As, Norway.;Norwegian Inst Nat Res, N-7485 Trondheim, Norway..
    Thebaud, Christophe
    Univ Toulouse 3, EDB Lab Evolut & Diversite Biol, CNRS, ENFA,UMR 5174, F-31062 Toulouse 9, France..
    Visser, Marcel E.
    Wanless, Sarah
    Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Penicuik EH26 0QB, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Westneat, David F.
    Univ Kentucky, Dept Biol, Ctr Ecol Evolut & Behav, Lexington, KY USA..
    Wilson, Alastair J.
    Univ Exeter, Ctr Ecol & Conservat, Coll Life & Environm Sci, Penryn TR1O 9EZ, Cornwall, England..
    Zedrosser, Andreas
    Telemark Univ Coll, Fac Arts & Sci, Dept Environm & Hlth Studies, N-3800 Telemark, Norway..
    Archiving Primary Data: Solutions for Long-Term Studies2015In: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 581-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (PIs) with long-term studies revealed positive attitudes towards sharing data with the agreement or involvement of the PI, and 93% of PIs have historically shared data. Only 8% were in favor of uncontrolled, open access to primary data while 63% expressed serious concern. We present here their viewpoint on an issue that can have non-trivial scientific consequences. We discuss potential costs of public data archiving and provide possible solutions to meet the needs of journals and researchers.

  • 49. Moller, Anders P.
    et al.
    Adriaensen, Frank
    Artemyev, Alexandr
    Banbura, Jerzy
    Barba, Emilio
    Biard, Clotilde
    Blondel, Jacques
    Bouslama, Zihad
    Bouvier, Jean-Charles
    Camprodon, Jordi
    Cecere, Francesco
    Charmantier, Anne
    Charter, Motti
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Cusimano, Camillo
    Czeszczewik, Dorota
    Demeyrier, Virginie
    Doligez, Blandine
    Doutrelant, Claire
    Dubiec, Anna
    Eens, Marcel
    Eeva, Tapio
    Faivre, Bruno
    Ferns, Peter N.
    Forsman, Jukka T.
    Garcia-Del-Rey, Eduardo
    Goldshtein, Aya
    Goodenough, Anne E.
    Gosler, Andrew G.
    Gozdz, Iga
    Gregoire, Arnaud
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Hartley, Ian R.
    Heeb, Philipp
    Hinsley, Shelley A.
    Isenmann, Paul
    Jacob, Staffan
    Jaervinen, Antero
    Juskaitis, Rimvydas
    Korpimaeki, Erkki
    Krams, Indrikis
    Laaksonen, Toni
    Leclercq, Bernard
    Lehikoinen, Esa
    Loukola, Olli
    Lundberg, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Mainwaring, Mark C.
    Maend, Raivo
    Massa, Bruno
    Mazgajski, Tomasz D.
    Merino, Santiago
    Mitrus, Cezary
    Moenkkoenen, Mikko
    Morales-Fernaz, Judith
    Morin, Xavier
    Nager, Ruedi G.
    Nilsson, Jan-Ake
    Nilsson, Sven G.
    Norte, Ana C.
    Orell, Markku
    Perret, Philippe
    Pimentel, Carla S.
    Pinxten, Rianne
    Priedniece, Ilze
    Quidoz, Marie-Claude
    Remes, Vladimir
    Richner, Heinz
    Robles, Hugo
    Rytkoenen, Seppo
    Carlos Senar, Juan
    Seppaenen, Janne T.
    da Silva, Luis P.
    Slagsvold, Tore
    Solonen, Tapio
    Sorace, Alberto
    Stenning, Martyn J.
    Toeroek, Janos
    Tryjanowski, Piotr
    van Noordwijk, Arie J.
    von Numers, Mikael
    Walankiewicz, Wieslaw
    Lambrechts, Marcel M.
    Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds2014In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, no 18, p. 3583-3595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg-laying. Parent birds should be selected to choose nest sites and to build optimally sized nests, yet our current understanding of clutch size-nest size relationships is limited to small-scale studies performed over short time periods. Here, we quantified the relationship between clutch size and nest size, using an exhaustive database of 116 slope estimates based on 17,472 nests of 21 species of hole and non-hole-nesting birds. There was a significant, positive relationship between clutch size and the base area of the nest box or the nest, and this relationship did not differ significantly between open nesting and hole-nesting species. The slope of the relationship showed significant intraspecific and interspecific heterogeneity among four species of secondary hole-nesting species, but also among all 116 slope estimates. The estimated relationship between clutch size and nest box base area in study sites with more than a single size of nest box was not significantly different from the relationship using studies with only a single size of nest box. The slope of the relationship between clutch size and nest base area in different species of birds was significantly negatively related to minimum base area, and less so to maximum base area in a given study. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that bird species have a general reaction norm reflecting the relationship between nest size and clutch size. Further, they suggest that scientists may influence the clutch size decisions of hole-nesting birds through the provisioning of nest boxes of varying sizes.

  • 50. Moller, Anders Pape
    et al.
    Adriaensen, Frank
    Artemyev, Alexandr
    Banbura, Jerzy
    Barba, Emilio
    Biard, Clotilde
    Blondel, Jacques
    Bouslama, Zihad
    Bouvier, Jean-Charles
    Camprodon, Jordi
    Cecere, Francesco
    Chaine, Alexis
    Charmantier, Anne
    Charter, Motti
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Cusimano, Camillo
    Czeszczewik, Dorota
    Doligez, Blandine
    Doutrelant, Claire
    Dubiec, Anna
    Eens, Marcel
    Eeva, Tapio
    Faivre, Bruno
    Ferns, Peter N.
    Forsman, Jukka T.
    Garcia-del-Rey, Eduardo
    Goldshtein, Aya
    Goodenough, Anne E.
    Gosler, Andrew G.
    Gozdz, Iga
    Gregoire, Arnaud
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Hartley, Ian R.
    Heeb, Philipp
    Hinsley, Shelley A.
    Isenmann, Paul
    Jacob, Staffan
    Jarvinen, Antero
    Juskaitis, Rimvydas
    Kania, Wojciech
    Korpimaki, Erkki
    Krams, Indrikis
    Laaksonen, Toni
    Leclercq, Bernard
    Lehikoinen, Esa
    Loukola, Olli
    Lundberg, Arne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Mainwaring, Mark C.
    Mand, Raivo
    Massa, Bruno
    Mazgajski, Tomasz D.
    Merino, Santiago
    Mitrus, Cezary
    Monkkonen, Mikko
    Morales-Fernaz, Judith
    Moreno, Juan
    Morin, Xavier
    Nager, Ruedi G.
    Nilsson, Jan-Ake
    Nilsson, Sven G.
    Norte, Ana C.
    Orell, Markku
    Perret, Philippe
    Perrins, Christopher M.
    Pimentel, Carla S.
    Pinxten, Rianne
    Priedniece, Ilze
    Quidoz, Marie-Claude
    Remes, Vladimir
    Richner, Heinz
    Robles, Hugo
    Russell, Andy
    Rytkonen, Seppo
    Carlos Senar, Juan
    Seppanen, Janne T.
    da Silva, Luis Pascoal
    Slagsvold, Tore
    Solonen, Tapio
    Sorace, Alberto
    Stenning, Martyn J.
    Toeroek, Janos
    Tryjanowski, Piotr
    van Noordwijk, Arie J.
    von Numers, Mikael
    Walankiewicz, Wiesaw
    Lambrechts, Marcel M.
    Clutch-size variation in Western Palaearctic secondary hole-nesting passerine birds in relation to nest box design2014In: Methods in Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2041-210X, E-ISSN 2041-210X, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 353-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary hole-nesting birds that do not construct nest holes themselves and hence regularly breed in nest boxes constitute important model systems for field studies in many biological disciplines with hundreds of scientists and amateurs involved. Those research groups are spread over wide geographic areas that experience considerable variation in environmental conditions, and researchers provide nest boxes of varying designs that may inadvertently introduce spatial and temporal variation in reproductive parameters. We quantified the relationship between mean clutch size and nest box size and material after controlling for a range of environmental variables in four of the most widely used model species in the Western Palaearctic: great tit Parus major, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca and collared flycatcher F.albicollis from 365 populations and 79610 clutches. Nest floor area and nest box material varied non-randomly across latitudes and longitudes, showing that scientists did not adopt a random box design. Clutch size increased with nest floor area in great tits, but not in blue tits and flycatchers. Clutch size of blue tits was larger in wooden than in concrete nest boxes. These findings demonstrate that the size of nest boxes and material used to construct nest boxes can differentially affect clutch size in different species. The findings also suggest that the nest box design may affect not only focal species, but also indirectly other species through the effects of nest box design on productivity and therefore potentially population density and hence interspecific competition.

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