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  • 1. Adamik, Peter
    et al.
    Emmenegger, Tamara
    Briedis, Martins
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Henshaw, Ian
    Krist, Milos
    Laaksonen, Toni
    Liechti, Felix
    Prochazka, Petr
    Salewski, Volker
    Hahn, Steffen
    Barrier crossing in small avian migrants: individual tracking reveals prolonged nocturnal flights into the day as a common migratory strategy2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 21560Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Eriksson, D.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Larsson, K.
    EXPLOITATION COMPETITION INFLUENCES THE USE OF FORAGING SITES BY TITS - EXPERIMENTAL-EVIDENCE1987In: Ecology, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 284-290Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Eriksson, D.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Larsson, K.
    Exploitation competition influences the use of foraging sites by tits: experimental evidence.1987In: Ecology, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 284-290Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Eriksson, D.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lundberg, A.
    HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN PIED AND COLLARED FLYCATCHERS - SEXUAL SELECTION AND SPECIATION THEORY1990In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 3, no 5-6, p. 375-389Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    GENETIC COMPONENT OF MORPHOLOGICAL-DIFFERENTIATION IN COAL TITS UNDER COMPETITIVE RELEASE1988In: Evolution, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 200-203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Linden, M.
    Lundberg, A.
    INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION AND NICHE SHIFTS IN TITS AND THE GOLDCREST - AN EXPERIMENT1985In: Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 977-984Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Linden, M.
    Lundberg, A.
    Interspecific competition and niche shifts in tits and the goldcrest: an experiment.1985In: Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 977-984Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lundberg, A.
    Breeding success and hybridization of collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis, and pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca on Oland 19811982In: Calidris, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 103-108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lundberg, A.
    ( Breeding success and hybridization of collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis, and pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, on Oland 1981). | Hackningsframgang och forekomst av halsbandsflugsnappare Ficedula albicollis, svartvit flugsnappare Ficedula hypoleuca samt blandpar pa Oland 1981.1982In: Calidris, Vol. 2, no 82, p. 103-108Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lundberg, A.
    DO FEMALES PREFER OLDER MALES IN POLYGYNOUS BIRD SPECIES1986In: American Naturalist, Vol. 127, no 2, p. 241-245Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lundberg, A.
    EXTRA-PAIR PATERNITY AND HERITABILITY ESTIMATES OF TARSUS LENGTH IN PIED AND COLLARED FLYCATCHERS1989In: Oikos, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 54-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lundberg, A.
    Extra-pair paternity and heritability estimates of tarsus length in pied and collared flycatchers1989In: Oikos, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 54-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lundberg, A.
    High frequency of cuckoldry in pied and collared flycatchers.1984In: Oikos, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 41-47Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lundberg, A.
    Hybridization and breeding success of collared and pied flycatchers on the island of Gotland.1982In: Auk, Vol. 99, no 2, p. 285-291Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lundberg, A.
    HYBRIDIZATION AND BREEDING SUCCESS OF COLLARED AND PIED FLYCATCHERS ON THE ISLAND OF GOTLAND1982In: Auk, Vol. 99, no 2, p. 285-291Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lundberg, A.
    Interspecific competition and niche changes in tits ( Parus spp.): evaluation of nonexperimental data.1986In: American Naturalist, Vol. 127, no 6, p. 819-834Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lundberg, A.
    INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION AND NICHE CHANGES IN TITS (PARUS SPP) - EVALUATION OF NONEXPERIMENTAL DATA1986In: American Naturalist, Vol. 127, no 6, p. 819-834Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lundberg, A.
    MALE COLORATION AND SPECIES RECOGNITION IN SYMPATRIC FLYCATCHERS1994In: Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, Vol. 256, no 1346, p. 113-118Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lundberg, A.
    PHENOTYPIC SELECTION ON HERITABLE SIZE TRAITS - ENVIRONMENTAL VARIANCE AND GENETIC RESPONSE1990In: American Naturalist, Vol. 135, no 3, p. 464-471Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lundberg, A.
    WHY DO YOUNG PASSERINE BIRDS HAVE SHORTER WINGS THAN OLDER BIRDS1984In: Ibis, Vol. 126, no 3, p. 410-415Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lundberg, A.
    Ulfstrand, S.
    HABITAT SHIFT OF THE WILLOW TIT PARUS MONTANUS IN THE ABSENCE OF THE MARSH TIT PARUS PALUSTRIS1985In: Ornis Scandinavica, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 121-128Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Alatalo, R. V.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Lundberg, A.
    Ulfstrand, S.
    Habitat shift of the willow tit Parus montanus in the absence of the marsh tit Parus palustris.1985In: Ornis Scandinavica, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 121-128Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Andersson, M. S.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    GLYCOSYLATED HEMOGLOBIN - A NEW MEASURE OF CONDITION IN BIRDS1995In: Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, Vol. 260, no 1359, p. 299-303Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24. Arct, Aneta
    et al.
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Podmokla, Edyta
    Gustafson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Benefits of extra-pair mating may depend on environmental conditions-an experimental study in the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus)2013In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 67, no 11, p. 1809-1815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extra-pair mating constitutes a relatively common reproductive strategy in many socially monogamous bird species. This strategy may considerably improve reproductive success of males, but female benefits from extra-pair matings still remain unclear and empirical evidence is scarce. This may be because genetic benefits of extra-pair mating are not always revealed. It is possible that they are shown only in unfavourable environmental conditions and hence problems arise with detecting differences between within- and extra-pair offspring whose performance is measured under favourable conditions. In order to test this prediction, we manipulated environmental conditions by altering brood sizes of blue tits and compared phenotypic characteristics of within- and extra-pair offspring in mixed-paternity broods. We found that extra-pair young exhibited a higher response to phytohemagglutinin in comparison to within-pair young, but this was only observed among nestlings from experimentally enlarged broods. These results indicate that genetic benefits may interact with the environment, and thus benefits of extra-pair mating are likely to become visible only when conditions are relatively unfavourable.

  • 25.
    Arct, Aneta
    et al.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Sudyka, Joanna
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Podmoka, Edyta
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Drobniak, Szymon M.
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Cichon, Mariusz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Inst Environm Sci, Gronostajowa 7, PL-30387 Krakow, Poland..
    Heterozygosity-fitness correlations in blue tit nestlings (Cyanistis caeruleus) under contrasting rearing conditions2017In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 803-814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the relation between genetic variation and fitness remains a key question in evolutionary biology. Although heterozygosity has been reported to correlate with many fitness-related traits, the strength of the heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs) is usually weak and it is still difficult to assess the generality of these associations in natural populations. It has been suggested that HFCs may become meaningful only under particular environmental conditions. Moreover, existing evidence suggests that HFCs may also differ between sexes. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between heterozygosity in neutral markers (microsatellites) and fitness-related traits in a natural population of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). Additionally, we tested whether sex and environmental conditions may influence the magnitude and direction of HFCs. We found a positive relationship between heterozygosity and body mass of 14 days post-hatching nestlings, but only among females. Our results suggest that the correlation between heterozygosity and nestling body mass observed among female offspring could be attributed to within-brood effects. We failed to find any evidence that environmental conditions as simulated by brood size manipulation affect HFCs.

  • 26.
    Backström, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Brandström, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Cheng, Hans
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Genetic mapping in a natural population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis): Conserved synteny but gene order rearrangements on the avian Z chromosome2006In: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, Vol. 174, no 1, p. 377-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from completely sequenced genomes are likely to open the way for novel studies of the genetics of nonmodel organisms, in particular when it comes to the identification and analysis of genes responsible for traits that are under selection in natural populations. Here we use the draft sequence of the chicken genome as a starting point for linkage mapping in a wild bird species, the collared flycatcher-one of the most well-studied avian species in ecological and evolutionary research. A pedigree of 365 flycatchers was established and genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms in 23 genes selected from (and spread over most of) the chicken Z chromosome. All genes were also found to be located on the Z chromosome in the collared flycatcher, confirming conserved synteny at the level of gene content across distantly related avian lineages. This high degree of conservation mimics the situation seen for the mammalian X chromosome and may thus be a general feature in sex chromosome evolution, irrespective of whether there is male or female heterogamety. Alternatively, such unprecedented chromosomal conservation may be characteristic of most chromosomes in avian genome evolution. However, several internal rearrangements were observed, meaning that the transfer of map information from chicken to nonmodel bird species cannot always assume conserved gene orders. Interestingly, the rate of recombination on the Z chromosome of collared flycatchers was only similar to 50% that of chicken, challenging the widely held view that birds generally have high recombination rates.

  • 27.
    Backström, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Karaiskou, Nikoletta
    Leder, Erica H.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Primmer, Craig R.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    A Gene-Based Genetic Linkage Map of the Collared Flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) Reveals Extensive Synteny and Gene-Order Conservation During 100 Million Years of Avian Evolution2008In: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, Vol. 179, p. 1479-1495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By taking advantage of a recently developed reference markerset for avian genome analysis we have constructed a gene-basedgenetic map of the collared flycatcher, an important "ecologicalmodel" for studies of life-history evolution, sexual selection,speciation, and quantitative genetics. A pedigree of 322 birdsfrom a natural population was genotyped for 384 single nucleotidepolymorphisms (SNPs) from 170 protein-coding genes and 71 microsatellites.Altogether, 147 gene markers and 64 microsatellites form 33linkage groups with a total genetic distance of 1787 cM. Malerecombination rates are, on average, 22% higher than femalerates (total distance 1982 vs. 1627 cM). The ability to anchorthe collared flycatcher map with the chicken genome via thegene-based SNPs revealed an extraordinary degree of both syntenyand gene-order conservation during avian evolution. The greatmajority of chicken chromosomes correspond to a single linkagegroup in collared flycatchers, with only a few cases of inter-and intrachromosomal rearrangements. The rate of chromosomaldiversification, fissions/fusions, and inversions combined isthus considerably lower in birds (0.05/MY) than in mammals (0.6–2.0/MY).A dearth of repeat elements, known to promote chromosomal breakage,in avian genomes may contribute to their stability. The degreeof genome stability is likely to have important consequencesfor general evolutionary patterns and may explain, for example,the comparatively slow rate by which genetic incompatibilityamong lineages of birds evolves.

  • 28.
    Backström, Niclas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Ellegren, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolution, Genomics and Systematics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Levels of linkage disequilibrium in a wild bird population2006In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 435-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Population-based mapping approaches are attractive for tracing the genetic background to phenotypic traits in wild species, given that it is often difficult to gather extensive and well-defined pedigrees needed for quantitative trait locus analysis. However, the feasibility of association or hitch-hiking mapping is dependent on the degree of linkage disequilibrium. (LD) in the population, on which there is yet limited information for wild species. Here we use single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from 23 genes in a recently established linkage map of the Z chromosome of the collared flycatcher, to study the extent of LD in a natural bird population. In most but not all cases we find SNPs within the same intron (less than 500 bp) to be in perfect LD. However, LD then decays to background level at a distance 1 cM or 400-500 kb. Although LD seems more extensive than in other species, if the observed pattern is representative for other regions of the genome and turns out to be a general feature of natural bird populations, dense marker maps might be needed for genome scans aimed at identifying association between marker and trait loci.

  • 29. Bennett, G. F.
    et al.
    Siikamaki, P.
    Ratti, O.
    Allander, K.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Squiresparsons, D.
    TRYPANOSOMES OF SOME FENNOSCANDIAN BIRDS1994In: Memorias Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Vol. 89, no 4, p. 531-537Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Subtle but ubiquitous selection on body size in a natural population of collared flycatchers over 33years2017In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 1386-1399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the magnitude and long-term patterns of selection in natural populations is of importance, for example, when analysing the evolutionary impact of climate change. We estimated univariate and multivariate directional, quadratic and correlational selection on four morphological traits (adult wing, tarsus and tail length, body mass) over a time period of 33years (approximate to 19000 observations) in a nest-box breeding population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis). In general, selection was weak in both males and females over the years regardless of fitness measure (fledged young, recruits and survival) with only few cases with statistically significant selection. When data were analysed in a multivariate context and as time series, a number of patterns emerged; there was a consistent, but weak, selection for longer wings in both sexes, selection was stronger on females when the number of fledged young was used as a fitness measure, there were no indications of sexually antagonistic selection, and we found a negative correlation between selection on tarsus and wing length in both sexes but using different fitness measures. Uni- and multivariate selection gradients were correlated only for wing length and mass. Multivariate selection gradient vectors were longer than corresponding vector of univariate gradients and had more constrained direction. Correlational selection had little importance. Overall, the fitness surface was more or less flat with few cases of significant curvature, indicating that the adaptive peak with regard to body size in this species is broader than the phenotypic distribution, which has resulted in weak estimates of selection.

  • 31.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The importance of selection at the level of the pair over 25 years in a natural population of birds2013In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 3, no 13, p. 4610-4619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the pattern of selection in natural populations is fundamental for our understanding of the evolutionary process. Selection at higher levels has gained considerable theoretical support in recent years, and one possible level of selection is the breeding pair where fitness is a function of the pair and cannot be reduced to single individuals. We analyzed the importance of pair-level selection over 25years in a natural population of the collared flycatcher. Pair-level selection was significant in five and probably in another 9years. The relative importance of pair-level selection varied over years and can have stronger or the same strength as directional selection. This means that selection can act on the combination of the breeding pair in addition to selection on each individual separately. Overall, the conservative estimates obtained here show that this is a potentially important form of selection.

  • 32.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The stability of the G-matrix: The role of spatial heterogeneity2015In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 69, no 7, p. 1953-1958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal stability of the genetic variance-covariance matrix (G) has been discussed for a long time in the evolutionary literature. A common assumption in all studies, including empirical ones, is that spatial heterogeneity is minor such that the population can be represented by a single mean and variance. We use the well-established allocation-acquisition model to analyze the effect of relaxing of this assumption, simulating a case where the population is divided into patches with a variance in quality between patches. This variance can in turn differ between years. We found that changes in spatial variance in patch quality over years can make the G-matrix vary substantially over years and that the estimated genetic correlations, evolvability, and response to selection are different dependent on whether spatial heterogeneity is taken into account or not. This will have profound implications for our ability to predict evolutionary change and understanding of the evolutionary process.

  • 33.
    Björklund, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Husby, Arild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Rapid and unpredictable changes of the G-matrix in a natural bird population over 25 years2013In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the genetic variances and covariances of traits (the G-matrix) is fundamental for the understanding of evolutionary dynamics of populations. Despite its essential importance in evolutionary studies, empirical tests of the temporal stability of the G-matrix in natural populations are few. We used a 25-year-long individual-based field study on almost 7000 breeding attempts of the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) to estimate the stability of the G-matrix over time. Using animal models to estimate G for several time periods, we show that the structure of the time-specific G-matrices changed significantly over time. The temporal changes in the G-matrix were unpredictable, and the structure at one time period was not indicative of the structure at the next time period. Moreover, we show that the changes in the time-specific G-matrices were not related to changes in mean trait values or due to genetic drift. Selection, differences in acquisition/allocation patterns or environment-dependent allelic effects are therefore likely explanations for the patterns observed, probably in combination. Our result cautions against assuming constancy of the G-matrix and indicates that even short-term evolutionary predictions in natural populations can be very challenging.

  • 34. Both, C
    et al.
    Artemyev, A V
    Blaauw, B
    Cowie, R J
    Dekhuijzen, A J
    Eeva, T
    Enemar, A
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Ivankina, E V
    Jarvinen, A
    Metcalfe, N B
    Nyholm, N E I
    Potti, J
    Ravussin, P A
    Sanz, J J
    Silverin, B
    Slater, F M
    Sokolov, L V
    Torok, J
    Winkel, W
    Wright, J
    Zang, H
    Visser, M E
    Large-scale geographical variation confirms that climate change causes birds to lay earlier2004In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 271, no 1549, p. 1657-1662Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Briedis, Martins
    et al.
    Swiss Ornithol Inst, Dept Bird Migrat, Sempach, Switzerland.
    Bauer, Silke
    Swiss Ornithol Inst, Dept Bird Migrat, Sempach, Switzerland.
    Adamik, Peter
    Palacky Univ, Dept Zool, Olomouc, Czech Republic;Museum Nat Hist, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Alves, Jose A.
    Univ Aveiro, Dept Biol, Aveiro, Portugal;Univ Aveiro, Ctr Environm & Marine Studies CESAM, Aveiro, Portugal;Univ Iceland, South Iceland Res Ctr, Laugarvatn, Iceland.
    Costa, Joana S.
    Univ Aveiro, Dept Biol, Aveiro, Portugal;Univ Aveiro, Ctr Environm & Marine Studies CESAM, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Emmenegger, Tamara
    Swiss Ornithol Inst, Dept Bird Migrat, Sempach, Switzerland.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Kolecek, Jaroslav
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Vertebrate Biol, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Liechti, Felix
    Swiss Ornithol Inst, Dept Bird Migrat, Sempach, Switzerland.
    Meier, Christoph M.
    Swiss Ornithol Inst, Dept Bird Migrat, Sempach, Switzerland.
    Prochazka, Petr
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Vertebrate Biol, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Hahn, Steffen
    Swiss Ornithol Inst, Dept Bird Migrat, Sempach, Switzerland.
    A full annual perspective on sex-biased migration timing in long-distance migratory birds2019In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 286, no 1897, article id 20182821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many taxa, the most common form of sex-biased migration timing is protandry – the earlier arrival of males at breeding areas. Here we test this concept across the annual cycle of long-distance migratory birds. Using more than 350 migration tracks of small-bodied trans-Saharan migrants, we quantify differences in male and female migration schedules and test for proximate determinants of sex-specific timing. In autumn, males started migration about 2 days earlier, but this difference did not carry over to arrival at the non-breeding sites. In spring, males on average departed from the African non-breeding sites about 3 days earlier and reached breeding sites ca 4 days ahead of females. A cross-species comparison revealed large variation in the level of protandry and protogyny across the annual cycle. While we found tight links between individual timing of departure and arrival within each migration season, only for males the timing of spring migration was linked to the timing of previous autumn migration. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that protandry is not exclusively a reproductive strategy but rather occurs year-round and the two main proximate determinants for the magnitude of sex-biased arrival times in autumn and spring are sex-specific differences in departure timing and migration duration.

  • 36.
    Briedis, Martins
    et al.
    Palacky Univ, Dept Zool, Olomouc, Czech Republic..
    Hahn, Steffen
    Swiss Ornithol Inst, Dept Bird Migrat, Sempach, Switzerland..
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Henshaw, Ian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Traff, Johan
    Kral, Miroslav
    Palacky Univ, Dept Zool, Olomouc, Czech Republic..
    Adamik, Peter
    Palacky Univ, Dept Zool, Olomouc, Czech Republic..
    Breeding latitude leads to different temporal but not spatial organization of the annual cycle in a long-distance migrant2016In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 743-748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal and spatial organization of the annual cycle according to local conditions is of crucial importance for individuals' fitness. Moreover, which sites and when particular sites are used can have profound consequences especially for migratory animals, because the two factors shape interactions within and between populations, as well as between animal and the environment. Here, we compare spatial and temporal patterns of two latitudinally separated breeding populations of a trans-Equatorial passerine migrant, the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis, throughout the annual cycle. We found that migration routes and non-breeding residency areas of the two populations largely overlapped. Due to climatic constraints, however, the onset of breeding in the northern population was approximately two weeks later than that of the southern population. We demonstrate that this temporal offset between the populations carries-over from breeding to the entire annual cycle. The northern population was consistently later in timing of all subsequent annual events - autumn migration, non-breeding residence period, spring migration and the following breeding. Such year-round spatiotemporal patterns suggest that annual schedules are endogenously controlled with breeding latitude as the decisive element pre-determining the timing of annual events in our study populations.

  • 37. Brommer, J. E.
    et al.
    Merila, J.
    Sheldon, B. C.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Natural selection and genetic variation for reproductive reaction norms in a wild bird population2005In: Evolution, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 1362-1371Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38. Brommer, J
    et al.
    Merilä, Juha
    Sheldon, BC
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. Zooekologi.
    Natural selection and genetic variation for reproductive reaction norms in a wild bird population2005In: Evolution, Vol. 59, p. 1362-1371Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39. Brommer, JE
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. Zooekologi.
    Pietiainen, H
    Merilä, J
    Single-generation estimates of individual fitness as proxies for long-term genetic contribution2004In: American naturalist, Vol. 163, p. 505-517Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Brommer, J.E.
    et al.
    Wilson, A.J.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Exploring the genetics of aging in a wild passerine bird2007In: American Naturalist, ISSN 0003-0147, E-ISSN 1537-5323, Vol. 170, no 4, p. 643-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Senescence is the decline in survival and reproduction as an organism ages and is known to occur in collared flycatchers Ficedula albicollis. We consider annual fitness (the estimated genetic contribution that an individual makes to next year’s gene pool) as a measure of age‐specific fitness. We apply a restricted maximum likelihood linear mixed‐model approach on 25 years of data on 3,844 male and 4,992 female collared flycatchers. Annual fitness had a significant additive genetic component (h2 of about 4%). Annual fitness declined at later ages in both sexes. Using a random regression animal model, we show that the observed age‐related phenotypic changes in annual fitness were not present on the additive genetic level, contrary to predictions of genetic hypotheses of senescence. Our study suggests that patterns of aging in the wild need to be interpreted with caution in terms of underlying genetics because they may be largely determined by environmental processes.

  • 41. Brommer, Jon E.
    et al.
    Kirkpatrick, M.
    Qvarnström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    The intersexual genetic correlation for lifetime fitness in the wild and its implications for sexual selection2007In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 2, no 8, p. e744-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The genetic benefits of mate choice are limited by the degree to which male and female fitness are genetically correlated. If the intersexual correlation for fitness is small or negative, choosing a highly fit mate does not necessarily result in high fitness offspring.

    Methodology/Principal Finding

    Using an animal-model approach on data from a pedigreed population of over 7,000 collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis), we estimate the intersexual genetic correlation in Lifetime Reproductive Success (LRS) in a natural population to be negative in sign (−0.85±0.6). Simulations show this estimate to be robust in sign to the effects of extra-pair parentage. The genetic benefits in this population are further limited by a low level of genetic variation for fitness in males.

    Conclusions/Significance

    The potential for indirect sexual selection is nullified by sexual antagonistic fitness effects in this natural population. Our findings and the scarce evidence from other studies suggest that the intersexual genetic correlation for lifetime fitness may be very low in nature. We argue that this form of conflict can, in general, both constrain and maintain sexual selection, depending on the sex-specific additive genetic variances in lifetime fitness.

  • 42. Brommer, Jon E.
    et al.
    Pitala, Natalia
    Siitari, Heli
    Kluen, Edward
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal Ecology.
    Body size and immune defense of nestling blue tits (Cyanistes Caeruleus) in response to manipulation of ectoparasites and food supply2011In: The AUK: A Quarterly Journal of Ornithology, ISSN 0004-8038, E-ISSN 1938-4254, Vol. 128, no 3, p. 556-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A developing organism faces a dilemma: whether to allocate available resources to building its body structures (growth) or to the development of its immune system. The outcome of this tradeoff is likely to be modified by parasites. We manipulated the abundance of ectoparasitic Hen Fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae) on nestling Blue Tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) by microwaving nests and subsequently adding 200 Hen Fleas (15 infested nests) or not (16 reduced-infestation nests). In addition, we manipulated the host nestlings' food resources by supplementary feeding 10-15% of daily energy needs to half the nestlings in a nest during the key developmental period (days 2-12). Feather growth (tail and wing length) and hematocrit were reduced by the presence of Hen Fleas, indicating negative effects on nestling development. In comparison to the control nestlings, food-supplemented nestlings aged 16 days were larger (tarsus, residual body mass), but only in reduced-infestation nests (interaction between both treatments). Body size of fed male offspring increased in relation to that of females, but only in the absence of ectoparasites. We hypothesized that supplemented resources are allocated to immune defense when ectoparasites are present, but humoral immune function (total immunoglobulin concentration) and cell-mediated immune defense (phytohemagglutinin response) were not affected by either treatment. Either the nestlings allocated additional resources away from growth (into an unknown developmental component) when parasites were abundant, or the ectoparasites preferentially fed on supplementary-fed host nestlings and thereby equalized the development of soma and immune defense of nestlings despite provision of additional resources.

  • 43. Choquet, Remi
    et al.
    Sanz-Aguilar, Ana
    Doligez, Blandine
    Nogue, Erika
    Pradel, Roger
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Gimenez, Olivier
    Estimating demographic parameters from capturerecapture data with dependence among individuals within clusters2013In: Methods in Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2041-210X, E-ISSN 2041-210X, Vol. 4, no 5, p. 474-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-level data, in which level-1 units or individuals are nested within level-2 units or clusters, are very common in natural populations. However, very few multilevel analyses are conducted for data with imperfect detection of individuals. Multilevel analyses are important to quantify the variability at each level of the data. In this study, we present two-level analyses for estimating demographic parameters from data with imperfect detection of individuals and with a source of individual variability that is nested within a source of cluster variability. This method allows separating and quantifying the phenotypic plasticity or facultative behavioural responses from the evolutionary responses. We illustrate our approach using data from studies of a long-lived perennially monogamous seabird, the Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) and a patchy population of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis). We demonstrate the existence of dependence in recapture probability between paired individuals in the Cory's shearwater. In addition, we show that family structure has no influence on parentoffspring resemblance in collared flycatchers dispersal. The new method is implemented in program e-surge which is freely available from the internet.

  • 44. Cichon, M.
    et al.
    Olejniczak, P.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The effect of body condition on the cost of reproduction in female collared flycatchers Ficedula albicollis1998In: Ibis, Vol. 140, no 1, p. 128-130Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45. Cichon, M
    et al.
    Sendecka, Joanna
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. Zooekologi.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Evolutionary Biology. Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology. Zooekologi.
    Age-related decline in humoral immune function in Collared Flycatchers2003In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 16, p. 1205-1210Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46. Cichon, M.
    et al.
    Sendecka, Joanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Genetic and environmental variation in immune response of collared flycatcher nestlings2006In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1701-1706Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at partitioning genetic and environmental contribution to the phenotypic variance in nestling immune function measured with the hypersensitivity test after inoculation with phytohaemagglutinin. A cross-fostering experiment with artificial enlargement of some broods was conducted. Variation in nestling immune response was related to their common origin, which suggests heritable component of cell-mediated immunity. A common rearing environment also explained a significant part of variation. However, deterioration of rearing conditions as simulated by enlargement of brood size did not affect nestling immunocompetence, although it affected nestling body mass. Variation in body mass explained some of the variation in immune response related to rearing environment, which means that growth is more sensitive to the shifts in rearing conditions than the development of immune function. Heritable variation in immune response suggests that there should be potential for selection to operate and the micro evolutionary changes in immunity of flycatcher nestlings are possible.

  • 47. Cichon, M
    et al.
    Sendecka, Joanna
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Animal Ecology.
    Male-biased sex ratio among unhatched eggs in the great tit Parus major, blue tit P. caeruleus and collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis2005In: Journal of Avian Biology, Vol. 36, p. 386-390Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48. Cichoń, M.
    et al.
    Olejniczak, P.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    The effect of body condition on the cost of reproduction in female Collared Flycatchers Ficedula Albicollis1998In: Ibis, Vol. 140, no 1, p. 128-130Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49. Cichoń, M.
    et al.
    Sendecka, J.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Age-related decline in humoral immune function in Collared Flycatchers2003In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 1205-1210Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. de Heij, Maaike E.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Brommer, Jon E.
    Experimental manipulation shows that the white wing patch in collared flycatchers is a male sexual ornament2011In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 1, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Descriptive analysis suggests that a conspicuous white wing patch in dichromatic (black and white) pied and collared flycatchers is under sexual selection. Here, we use an experimental approach to test whether this trait is indeed the target of selection. We caught 100 collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis males soon after their arrival on the breeding site. We reduced (blackened) part of the white wing patch in half of these males and recorded their mating success and within and extra-pair offspring production. Reduction of the size of the white wing patch lowered a male's probability to attract a secondary social female, but not a primary female. However, primary females paired to males with a reduced wing patch were smaller (in tarsus), suggesting that male choice of partner or female-female competition over mates occurs in this species. The probability of pairing with a primary female (but not other components of male reproductive success) declined with arrival time (proxied by the date of capture). Males with a reduced wing patch size tended to sire less extra-pair offspring, although this relationship was reversed in one of the three study plots, suggesting that mating dynamics are context dependent. While our findings show that wing patch size is the target of sexual selection, the pathways and the strength of selection on this ornament differed markedly from a previous descriptive study. Nonexperimental studies of sexual selection in the wild may overestimate its importance because male fitness and ornamentation both depend positively on environmental conditions.

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